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Ratna (The Precious Stones) – Gems of the Pharmacopoeia of Ayurveda


Ayurveda uses gemstones as internal medicine. The Gemstones are reduced to ashes or bhasmas to treat physical conditions. Gem tinctures can also be used in the healing process. While Astrology directly prescribes the uses of gems, Ayurveda converts gems into ashes and Bhasamas. Gem therapy is directly based on the influence of planets on human beings.

Rasa Shastra is one of the branches of Ayurveda that is based on a unique philosophical thought system and deals with learning Ayurveda pharmaceutics, especially dealing with minerals, metals, precious stones, semi-precious stones, certain poisonous herbs, etc. These materials are very potent in eliminating dreadful diseases, especially medical astrology is attaining global recognition hence complete knowledge about Ratna (precious stones) needs an hour.

Why is Ratna (Precious Stones) Needed?

Ayurvedic Point of View

In the universe, all creatures are related to Aadhivyadhi, which indicates mental agony or bodily pain. Since ancient times, all Acharaya of Ayurveda believed that when Vyadhi (diseases) does not get cured with conventional measures (Samanya Chikitsa i.e by Aushadha, Shalya Chikitsa, etc) then one has to think about the Dushkarma (sinful deeds) done by the Rogi (patient) i.e Karma Vipaka Siddhanta, diseases induced by maleficent effects of planets (Greha Roga). Ayurveda suggested Devavyapashraya Chikitsa in such kind of situation conventional measure of treatment with Shanti Vidhana is important to perform by the patient. In this Shanti Vidhana patient can do a donation of precious stone / gemstone (Ratna Dana), can wear precious stone / gemstone (Ratna Dharana), can worship God with gems (Ratna Devta Archna), can use Ratna as a rejuvenator (Rasayana) and a utilize Ratna (precious stone) as drug or Aushadha which is known as Rasakarya.

रसे रसायने दाने धारणे देवता अर्चने। सुलक्ष्यानी सुजातिनि रतनांया  युक्तानि सिद्धये।

(Rasa Ratna Sammuchya. 4/ 8)

Ayurvedic acharyas are of the view that when diseases do not get cured with conventional measures, one has to think about the sinful bad deeds done by the patient (Karma Vipak siddhantaor Graha rogas (diseases induced by Evil planets), then the patient has to perform the Shanti Vidhana in the form of Ratana dana (donation of gemstones) or Ratna dharana (wearing gemstones), Ratnena Devata Archana (worship of God with gems), etc as a part of Daiva Vyapashraya.

The Mystery Behind the Use of Ratna (Precious Stone)

In Bramhand (Universe) each thing is composed of Brahmandiya Kirne (Cosmic rays). These Brahmandiya Kirne (Cosmic rays) when seen through a prism will be visible to us as seven colors VIBGYOR. In Ratna therapy, these Brahmandiya Kirne (Cosmic rays) are used, and they represent different planet energies to get positive benefits. Ratna utilizes the radiation of the planet and transforms them in such a way that they are beneficial for the particular body that is using it. 

Tantra Shastra – Tantra Shastra is important Tantrik literature in which the human body (Sharira) is represented as the island of Nava Ratna (Nine precious stones) and the nine Dhatus from which the human body is composed correspond with these Nava Ratnas. This statement gives a clear relationship between Nav Ratnas and the human body. Wearing these Nava Ratnas will affect the nine Dhatus of the body which ultimately influences the psychophysical well-being of its wearer.

Zodiac Sign Relation with the Planet and Precious Stones

Zodiac signPlanetPrecious stone
Leo SunRuby 
Cancer MoonWhite Pearl
Aries, ScorpioMars Red coral
Gemini, VirgoMercuryEmerald
Sagittarius, Pisces Jupiter Yellow Sapphire 
Taurus, LibraVenus Diamond
Capricorn, AquariusSaturnBlue sapphire 

How Does Wearing a Ratna Affect the Planet Affect the body?

Relationship of the Wavelength of Ratna (Gemstone) and Planet

Each Ratna has particular potency and benefits that are due to the specific wavelength of that Ratna. The wavelength of that particular Ratna (precious stone) indicates the number of vibrations that the stone exhibits. This vibration ranges from 50, 000 to 70, 000 and ordinary glass does not contain these vibrations.  The wavelength of Ratna has a strong relationship with the wavelength of the planet. The vibration or we can say that malefic power that is released by the planet is always negative and the power (vibrations) of Ratna i.e precious stone is always positive. The precious stone that is used for particular Greha Dasha or for nullifying the effect of the particular planet has an approximately equal wavelength and when the vibrations are produced by both, the negative (by the planet) meets the positive (by Ratna: Precious stones) and they neutralize. In this way, Ratna neutralizes the negative effect of the planet on the body by wearing them. 

The Wavelength of Different Precious Stones (Ratna) and Planets (Greha)

Dr. Oscar Brunel Measured the Wavelengths of Different Ratna (Precious Stones) and Planets.
Precious stones (Ratna)Wavelength (-ve) * 10-7Planet (Greha)Wavelength (-ve) * 10-7
Yellow Sapphire50000Jupiter1, 30000
Diamond80000Venus1, 30000
Blue Sapphire70000Saturn65000
Cat’s eye70000Ketu35000
Ayurvedic Books on Allergies and Child Health

Diseases Induced by Maleficent Effects of Planets (Greha Roga) or Diseases Induced by Dushkarma (Sinfuldeeds) Done by the Rogi (Patient) i.e Karma Vipaka Siddhanta

Planet Diseases Caused
Sun Shoth (Inflammation in the body), Apsmar (Epilepsy), Paitikavikara, Jawara (Fever), Diseases of the eye, skin, and bone, rational fears, Bites from poisonous reptiles like snakes, weakening the digestive system, constipation causing.
Moon Sleep diseases such as Anidra (insomnia) or somnambulism (sleepwalking), Kaphaj Kasa, Atisara, Alshaya, Agnimandya (Loss of appetite), Aruchi (Disinterest in food), Kamala (Jaundice), Chitudvega, Grehani, Hydrophobia, Fear of animals with horns, Problems concerning women, Hallucinations
MarsTrishna (Excessive thirst), Bilious disorders, Flatulence, Excessive fear of fire, Gulma, appendicitis, Kustha (Leprosy), eye disorder, Apsmar (Epilepsy), Rakta Vikara, Majja Vikar (Bone marrow diseases), Kandu (Itching), Ruksha Twaka (Rough skin).
MercuryLack of self-confidence, Gala Rog (Throat problems like goiter, etc.), Nasagata Rog (Nose Diseases), Vata-Kaphaj Roga, Cold and Cough, Flatulence, Poisoning. Twaka Dosha (Skin diseases), Vicharchika. Jaundice.
Jupiter Gulma, Appendicitis, Karan Vedna (an ear disease), Sanyas.Frequent litigation, Problems with friends, parents, and relatives.
Venus Pandu (Anaemia), Netra Roga (Disorders of the eye), Flatulence, Cough, Mutrakrich (Urinary disease), Prameha (Diabetes), Syphilis, Shukra-Vyapati (Low sperm count), Impotence, Dryness of Mouth, Constipation, Irrational fears.
Saturn Flatulence, Cough, Pain in the legs, Excessive Fatigue, Illusion, Daha (Excessive heat in the body), Mental shocks, Personal calamities, and Accidents causing temporary or lasting wounds.
Rahu Heart diseases such as an attack, Shotha (Inflammation), Kushtha (Leprosy), illusions, hallucinations, disease due to poisoning, excessive hurt, and wounds.
Ketu Unknown mysterious diseases, cannot be easily found by doctors.

Ratna Indicated as per Astrological Science to Nullify the Maleficent Effect of Various Planets (Grahas) and to Treat the Roga (Disorders) Related to that Particular Planet

Planet Gem used
Sun (Surya)Manikya (Ruby)
Moon (Chandra)Mukta (Pearl)
Mars (Mangala)Vidruma (Coral)
Mercury (Buddha)Markat (Emerald)
Jupiter (Guru)Pushparagam (Topaz)
Venus (Shukra)Vajra (Diamond)
Saturn (Shani)Neelam (Blue sapphire)
Rahu Gomeda (Hessonite)
Ketu Vaidurya (Cat’s eye stone)

The General Rule for Wearing Ratna (Precious Stones)

  • Generally, when we wear any ring, the ring finger is considered best for wearing, but all Ratnas (Precious stones) have a strong relationship with the particular planet, so the ring with the precious stone (Ratna) in it should be worn in the finger connected with the planet.
  • One other point is that both hands are connected with solar and lunar i.e the left hand is lunar and the right hand is solar. There is a general rule that solar gems are worn in the lunar hand and lunar gems are worn in the solar hand eg: if the person wants balance in his personal life then he has to wear Ratna in his left hand related to the planet sun, Saturn, Mars, Rahu, Ketu. Hence wearing gems on hand as per the associated planet gives the desired result.

What is Ratna (Precious Stones)?


Throughout the ages, gemstones have been a symbol of wealth and power. Symbols of supremacy, from crown to Fichly decorated robes, ornaments, vessels, and even weapons. one has traditionally been adorned with jewels. The mysterious appeal of gemstones, their exquisite colors, and the play of light within them, would alone have made them precious to many, but their rarity, hardness, and durability have made them doubly valuable. There are over 3,000 different minerals, but only about 50 are commonly used as gemstones.

Ayurvedic Point of View

The Etymological Derivation of Ratna (Precious Stone)

Human beings have always desired to have these stones as a sign of richness and pride. The term Ratna lies in human aspirations.

As per Rasa Tarangani. 23/ 1

रमणीयतरं यस्माद्रमन्ते अस्मिन्नतीव वा । 

तस्माद्रत्नमिद॑ ख्यातं शब्दशास्रविशारदै:।। 

The precious stones used for medicinal purposes in the field of Ras Shastra are branded as ‘Ratna’. These special stones are highly attractive (Ramniya) and striking in comparison with other metals and minerals used in the field of Rasa Shastra.

Definition of Ratna (Precious Stone)

Ayurveda Parkasha 5/ 2, Raja Nighantu

धनार्थिनो जना: सर्वे रमन्ते अस्मिन्नतीव यत्‌।

अतो रत्नमितिप्रोक्त॑ शब्दशास्त्रविशारदै: ।। 

Precious stones are called Ratnas because they are liked very much by people who are fond of riches. Ratnas (precious stones) that are also styled as Mani are so attractive, striking, and expensive that people will be naturally lured towards them.

Rasa Ratna Samucchya. 4/ 1

मणयो अपि च विज्ञेया: सूतबन्धनकारका: ।

देहस्य धारका नृणां जराव्याधिविनाशका: ।। 

As per Rasa Ratna Samuchya, the definition of Ratna (precious stones) is described as stones that cure diseases.

Apart from their power of preventing the bad effects of the planetary positions, they are also to be known as having the power of binding mercury. They are worn to support the body and also to alleviate senility and diseases.

Rasa Ratna Samucchya. 4/ 78

सूर्यादिग्रह निग्रहापहरणं दीर्घायुरारोग्यदम्‌। 

सौभाग्योदय भाग्य वश्यविभवोत्साहप्रदं धैर्यकृत्‌।

दुश्छायाचल धूलिसंगति भवा अलक्ष्मीहरं सर्वदा। 

रत्नानां परिधारणं निगदित॑ भूतादि भीनाशनम्‌ ॥

In this definition of Ratna, the multifarious utility of precious stones (Ratna) is described.

The bad effects of the sun etc. nine planets are nullified (Nigreha Apaharnam), health and longevity are improved (Deergha Aarogyadam), prosperity is bestowed (Soubhagya Udaya), activity and courage are increased (Utsaha and Dhairya Pradam), the poverty caused by bad shades and pollution, etc. (Dush Chaya, Alakshmi Haram), is alleviated and the fear of evil forces (Bhutadi Bhaya Nashnama) is mitigated by wearing the Ratnas. 

Raghuvanshs Sarga, 16

जातौ जौ यदुत्कृष्ट तद्धि रत्नम प्रचक्षते । 

रत्न च वरपाषाणं रमन्ते यत्र मानव: ।। 

The substance which is best in quality amongst the class is said to be a Ratna (gemstone).

Synonyms of Ratna (Precious Stones)

रत्नम क्लीबे मणि: पुंसि स्त्रियामपि निगद्यते। 

ततु पाषाणभेदो अस्ति वज्रादि च तदुच्यते।।

Ratna (Napunshak Ling), Mani (Pu Ling Evam Stri Linga), Vara Pashana is the synonyms of Ratna eg. Vajra, Manikya, etc.

Mani, Varapasana, Ratna are the synonyms used in the classical texts for the precious stones.      

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Types of Ratna (Precious Stones)

Shrestha Pancha Ratna (Greater Five Precious Stones)

Rasa Ratna Samucchya. 4/ 4, Rasa Jala Nidhi. 3/ 4/ 1

पद्म रागेन्द्रनीलाख्यौ तथा मरकतोत्तम: ।

पुष्पराग: सवज्राख्या: पंञ्च रत्नवरा: स्मृत्ता: ।।

The Shreshtha Panch Ratna (Greater five precious stones) are Padmaraga (Ruby), Indra Nila (Sapphire), Marakata (Emerald), Pusyaraga (Topaz), and Vajra (Diamond).

Samanya Pancha Ratna (Common Five Gems)

Rasa Jala Niddhi. 3/ 4

नीलकं वज्रक॑ चेति पद्मरागश्च मौक्तिकम्‌।

विद्रुमं चेति विज्ञेय॑ पन्न्च रत्न॑ मनीषिभि: ।।

The gems that are grouped into the Samanya Panch Ratna category are Nila (Sapphire), Vajra (Diamond), Padmaraga (Ruby), Mauktika (Pearl), and Vidruma (Coral bead).

Padmaraga (Ruby), Vajra (Diamond), and Nila (Sapphire) are mentioned in both the groups i.e in Shrestha and Samanya Pancha Ratna. It may be understood that these three gems are of inferior variety to those in the Srestha Pancha Ratna group.

Ashta Ratna or Asht Manis (Eight Precious Stones / Gems)

Rasa Ratna Sammuchya. 4/ 2, Aayurveda Parkasha. 5/ 134

वैक्रान्त: सूर्यकान्तश्च हीरक॑ मौक्तिक॑ मणि: ।

चन्द्रकान्तस्तथा चैव राजावर्तश्च सप्तम: ||

गरुडोद्वारकश्चैव ज्ञातव्या मणयस्त्वमी ||

The eight gems or Ashta Manis are as follows – Vaikranta (Flour spar), Suryakanta (sun- stone), Vajra (Diamond), Rajavarta (Lapis lazuli), Mauktika (Pearl), Mani (Snake stone- The precious stone found within the skull of snakes, etc.), Chandrakanta (Moonstone) and Marakata (emerald).

Nava Ratna (Nine Precious Stones / Gems)

Nava Ratna (nice precious stones) represents the Nava Graha (nine planets). These Nine precious stones are used to nullify the maleficent effect of the nine planets and the diseases associated with them.

Rasa Ratna Samucchya. 4/ 5

माणिक्यमुक्ताफलविद्रुमाणि ताक्षर्यं  पुष्पंभिदुरश्च नीलम्‌ 

गोमेदकन्न्चाथ विदुरकञ्चक्रमेण रत्नानि नवग्रहाणाम्।।

Nava Ratna are as follows Manikya (Ruby), Mukta (Pearl), Vidruma (Coral bed), Tarkshya (Emarald), Pushpa (Topaz), Bhidura (Diamond), Nilam (Sapphire), Gomedika (Jacinth), Viduraka (Cat’s eye).

General Information about Ratna (Precious Stones)

Relevant Detail of Nine Ratnas (Nine Precious Stones)

Ratna (precious stones)English NameChemical identity Hard-nessDensityColor
Manikya RubyAl2O394Red
Mukta PearlCaCO33.52.65 to 2.89Silver white
VidrumaCoralCaCO33.52.6 to 2.7Red 
PushapragaTopazAl (FOH)2SiO483.6Golden Yellow
VajraDiamondC (carbon)103.6White
NeelamBlue SapphireAl2O394Deep blue
GomedaHessonite/ ZirconZrSiO47.54.65 to 4.71 Dark brown
VaiduryaCat’s eye stoneBeO Al2O38.53.5 to 3.8Yellow-green

Prapti Sthana (Sources) of Ratna (Precious stones)

Nava Ratna (Nne precious stones) are from mineral and animal sources i.e Parthiv and Jangam Dravya.

Nava Ratna as per Prapati Sthana (source) is categorized are as follows: 

Parvataja (Khanija) – Mineral origin

Manikya (Ruby), Tarkshya (Emerald), Pushpa Raga (Topaz), Vajra (Diamond), Nila (Sapphire), Gomeda (Zircon), and Vaidurya (Cat’s eye).

Pranija (Jalaja)- Animal origin/ Organic

Mukta (Pearl), and Pravala (Coral)

How Ratna / Precious stones or Gemstones are Formed?

We all have beautiful pieces of handmade jewelry containing different gemstones or we wish to have jewelry with precious stones. We refer to diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires as precious gemstones because of their rare appearance and high value. All other stones are called semi-precious (Upratna) stones. 

But had we ever thought about how these gemstones or Ratna are formed? The gemstones require a unique combination of chemical elements, pressure, and temperature to form. It’s amazing to think that the processes occurring deep beneath the Earth’s crust can produce such beautiful, colorful stones.

So, Let’s Find Out How Ratna / Precious Stones / Gems Stones are Formed:-
  • Approximately all Ratna / Precious stones are formed beneath the Earth’s surface, but the process involved in the creation of the different Ratna can vary. Many Ratna (gems) are formed when near the Earth’s surface minerals react with the water and then dissolve. When this solution evaporates or cools, minerals form that result in the formation of Ratna.
  • Silica-rich rocks such as sandstones when mixed with water will produce gemstones such as opals, amethysts, agates, etc. When water is mixed with copper-rich rock, copper-bearing minerals such as turquoise, azurite, and malachite are formed. For more than 4000 years, Turquoise has been mined.
  • Other gemstones such as emeralds and tourmalines are formed when rainwater or water from cooling bodies of 
  • When cooling bodies of magma mix with minerals and then crystallize in open cracks or cavities then tourmalines and emeralds are formed. They are formed by hydrothermal deposits.
  • Magma is a mixture of crystals, dissolved gas, and liquid rock beneath the Earth’s surface. By crystallization in the gas bubbles and Magma Topazes, Zircon, and Rubies. The Gems that are produced by this process of crystallization are known as magmatic gems.
  • Some Ratna (precious stones) are formed directly in the mantle i.e layer of the earth. This layer makes up almost 70% of the Earth’s mass and is made up of iron, magnesium, silicon, oxygen, aluminum, and silicate compounds. Olive-green mineral olivine is present in large volumes in the upper layer of the mantle. Olivine is the most common of all Earth’s minerals and transparent olivine is famous as the gemstone peridot.
  • The word ‘metamorphic’ is defined as a metamorphosis or change of form. Metamorphic gems such as jade, garnet, aquamarine, emerald, ruby, sapphire, lapis lazuli, onyx, and zircon are formed over time when rocks are altered by intense heat and pressure as well as interaction with solutions. Countries such as Myanmar which was formerly Burma, Thailand, and Sri Lanka contain large regions of metamorphic rock which contains a mineral called corundum. This mineral crystallizes under heat and pressure and becomes rubies and sapphires. Colombia in South America produces the majority of the world’s emeralds.
  • Although the process is rare, diamonds are sometimes formed in metamorphic rocks. Most diamonds come from volcanic rocks called kimberlite. These volcanic rocks are given the Kimberlite name because they were first discovered in the South African town of Kimberley. Lots of tons of rock are required just only to produce a few carats of Vajra (diamond). The Vajra (diamond) that is used in regular diamond rings needs the removal of 200 to 400 times its volume of rock.

Ratna Dosha (Blemishes in the Precious Stones)

Rasa Ratna Samucchya. 4/ 32

ग्रास स्त्रासश्च  बिन्दुश्च  रेखा च जलगभर्ता।

सर्व रत्नेष्वमी पन्न्च दोषा: साधारणा: मताः।। 

क्षेत्र तोय भवा दोषा रत्नेषु न लग्न्ति ते।।

The Dosha (blemishes) found in precious stones are Grasa, Trasa, Bindu, Rekha, and Jala Garbhta. Gemstones do not possess Kshetriya and Toya (Jaliya) Dosha.

Ratna DoshaDescription of Dosha
GrasaIf some portion of the gemstone is opaque or black, such a defect is called Grasa Dosha.
TrasaIf the gemstone has an admixture of colors other than its natural color such a defect is called Trasa Dosha.
BinduThe gemstone possesses a small point in its natural color, such a defect is termed Bindu Dosha.
RekhaIf the gemstone possesses single, parallel, or intersecting lines in its body, such a defect is termed Rekha Dosha.
JalagarbhataIf the gemstone possesses a water bubble in its body, such a defect is termed Jalagarbhata Dosha.
रत्नो के गुण (Virtue of Precious Stones)

दुर्लभता, कठोरता, सुंदरता, टिकाऊपन, आकर्षक रंग, मूल्यवान         

  • दुर्लभता – मानव सौन्दर्य की अपेक्षा दुर्लभता को ज्यादा महत्त्व है। यदि कोई वस्तु आसानी से उपलब्ध हो जाती हैं, तो अपना आकर्षक खो देती है। यथा- तामडा या रक्त मणि अति सुन्दर है, आकर्षक है, किन्तु सुलभ एवं सस्ता होने से सभी को प्राप्य है। अतः वह रत्नो बलों की श्रेणी में नहीं है। जबकि हीरा सर्वसुलभ सर्वत्र उपलब्ध नहीं होने से रत्नों में प्रमुख है। (Rarity – Rarity is more important than human beauty. If an item becomes easily available, it loses its attractiveness. For example, Tamda or Rakta gem is very beautiful, attractive, but being accessible and cheap, it is available to everyone. Therefore, he is not in the category of gems forces. While diamond is not available everywhere, it is prominent among gems.)
  • कठोरता – यदि रत्न कठोर नहीं होकर मृदु हो तो वह अधिक दिनों तक ट्रक नहीं सकता है। अतः वह साधारणतया रगड़ने पर सहने की शक्ति वाला होना चाहिए। (Hardness – If the stone is soft and not hard, then it cannot move for a long time. Therefore, it should be able to bear the force of rubbing ordinarily.)
  • सुन्दरता – रत्नपाषाण नेत्र रंजक होते है। यह गुण मोती को छोड़ सभी रत्नो में कृत्रिम होते है। सौन्दर्य गुण रत्न तराश के ऊपर निर्भर करता है, कि रत्नों को किस प्रकार से काटता है। इसके विपरीत रंगीन रत्नों में काट की अपेक्षा रंग अधिक नेत्राकर्षक है। (Beauty- Gemstones are eye pigments. These properties are artificial in all gems except pearls. The aesthetic quality depends on the gemstone, how one cuts the gems. In contrast, in colored gemstones, the color is more eye-catching than the cut.)
  • टिकाउपन – रत्न साधारण रगड़, प्रहार, धूप, जल,क्षार और अम्ल के सम्पर्क में आने पर भी अप्रभावित रहे। अत: कठौरता, तन्यतो एवं आपेक्षिक घनत्व- तीनों गुण रत्नों के टिकाउपन के लिए अत्यावश्यक है। (Durability – The gems remain unaffected even when they come in contact with simple rubbing, striking, sunlight, water, alkali and acid. Therefore, hardness, tensile and relative density – all three qualities are essential for the durability of gems.)
  • आकर्षक रंग – रत्नों में एक,विशेष रंग उसकी पहचान का निश्चित मापदण्ड है। अतः रत्नो  की पारदर्शकता एवं आकर्षक मध्यम रंग होना चाहिए। (Attractive color – A special color in the gems is a definite measure of its identity. Therefore, the gemstone should have transparency and attractive medium color.)
  • मूल्यवान – रत्न उपरोक्त गुणों के अलावा मूल्यवान्‌ भी होना चाहिए। जैसे- हीरा। क्योंकि तामडा पत्थर आकर्षक होते हुए भी उसकी कटाई के खर्चे से कुछ ही ज्यादा उसका मूल्य होता है, अतः वह रत्नों की श्रेणी में नहीं है। (Valuable – Gemstone should be valuable in addition to the above qualities. Like diamond. Because the Tamda stone is attractive, but its value is only a little more than the cost of its cutting, so it is not in the category of gems.)

Srava Ratna Suddhi (Purification of Precious Stones)

Rasendra Chintamani. 7/ 69

मुक्तादिष्वविशुद्धेषु  दोषस्याच्च वस्तुतः 

तथाहि गुणवृद्धिः स्याच्छोधनेन विशेषत।।

The purification (shodhana) process is a must for all gemstones of mineral origin. However, some relaxation is given to the stones of animal and plant origin like pearl, amber, coral, etc.

Rasa Ratna Samucchya. 4/ 62, 64, 65

शुद्धत्यम्लेन माणिक्यं जयन्त्या मौक्तिकं तथा। 

विद्रुममं क्षारवर्गेण ताक्षर्यं गोदुग्धकैस्तथा।। 

पुष्परागं च सन्धानै: कुलत्थ क्वाथ संयुतै: । 

तन्दुलीयजलैर्वज्रम नील॑ नीलीरसेन च।। 

रोचनाभिश्च गोमेदं वैदूर्य त्रिफला जलै:।।

The Ratna (precious stones) are purified by subjecting them to Swedana in Dola yantra for 1 Yama i.e 3 hours by keeping different liquid media i.e Manikya is purified with sour liquids (Amla Dravya), Mukta phala with Jayanti (Clerodendron phlomidis) juice, Vidrum with Kshara Dravya (alkalis), Marakat with cow’s milk, Pusparaga with fermented liquids and horse gram decoction, Vajra with Tanduliya Jala (juice of amaranthus), Nila with Nili Swarasa (Indigofera tinctoria juice), Gomeda with the gall content of the cow (Gorocana) and Vaidurya gets purified with Triphala decoction. 

Ratna (Precious stones)Liquid media for Swedana in Dolayantra
ManikyaAmla Dravya (any of the sour liquid like Changeri Swarasa, Nimbu Swarasa)
MuktaphalaJayanti Swarasa (Clerodendrum phlomidis juice)
Pravala (Vidruma)Kshara Dravya (Yavakshara Jala, Tankana Kshara Jala, Sarja Kshara Jala)
Markata (Tarkshya)Go Dugdha (Cow’s milk)
Pushpraga (Pushpa)Kulattha Kwatha and Kanji
Vajra (Bhidura)Tandulodaka (rice-washed water)
Nila (Indra Nila)Nili Swarasa (Indigofera tinctoria juice)
GomedaGorochana Jala
VaiduryaTriphala Kwatha

Sarva Ratna Bhasmikarana or Ratna Marana (General Incineration of Precious Stones)

Rasa Ratna Sammuchya 4/ 63

लकुचद्रावसम्पिष्टै: शिलागन्धकतालकै: ।

वज्रं विनान्यरत्नानि म्रियन्ते पुटै: खलु।।

All the gemstones / Ratna except Vajra are taken in one part, after purification, are ground along with purified Manashila (realgar- 1 part), Gandhaka (sulfur- 1 part), Taalaka/ Hartala (orpiment- 1 part). All these are taken in a clean Khalava Yantra and subjected to 3 Bhaana with Lakucha Swarasa.

Later Chakrikas are prepared, dried, and enclosed in Sarva Samputa. This Samputa is subjected to 1 Gaja Puta. This whole process is repeated 8 times to obtain a properly prepared Bhasma of six gemstones of mineral origin except Vajra.

Rasa Ratna Sammuchya. 4

रत्नानां शोधनं श्रेष्ठम मारणं दुर्गुणप्रदम्‌ ।

Ratnaanam Sodhanam Srestham Maranam Durgunapradam. The purified form of gems is useful while incinerating them gives bad effects (use in the form of Pisti).

This bad effect may be due to destruction or disturbance in the molecular form and color caused by Marana (incineration).

Sarva Ratna Druti (Liquification of Precious Stones)

Rasa Ratna Sammuchya. 4/ 64- 69

रामठ पंञ्च लवणं क्षाराणां त्रितयं तथा।

मांसद्रवो अम्लवेतसश्च चूल्लिकालवण तथा।।

स्थूल॑ कुम्भीफल॑ पक्वं तथा ज्वालामुखी शुभा।

द्रवन्ती च रुदन्ती च पयस्या चित्रमूलकम्‌।


Hingu (Asafoetida), Five Salts, Three Alkalis, Meat-Washed Water, Amlavetasa (Garcinia indica), Navasadara (Ammonium chloride), seeds of Jayapala (Croton tiglium)Bhallataki (marking nut), Dravanti (Jatropha curcas), Rudanti (Cressa critica), Payasya (Puraria tuberosa), Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica) latex of Snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia) and latex of Arka (Calatropis gigantia) are thoroughly ground and made into a bolus. The particular Ratna (gemstone) is kept amidst this bolus, tied with strong wide leaves, and then with a cloth into a poultice which is boiled in sour gruel or sour liquids in a dolà yantra for 3 days and nights with wild heat. On cooling down, the bolus is taken out and the liquid that is seen in the place of the gemstone is collected which is considered as Druti.

अनुकूल एवं प्रतिकूल रत्नों के धारण से लाभ हानि (Advantage and Disadvantage of Wearing Precious Stones)

Rasa Ratna Sammuchya. 4/ 83

सूर्यादि ग्रहा निग्रहापहरणं दीर्घायुरारोग्यदं सौभाग्योदयभागयवस्वविभवो उत्साह प्रदम धैर्य कृत। दुष्छाया चल धूलि संगती भवा अलक्ष्मी हरम सर्वदा रत्नानां परिधारणं निगदित भूतादिभिः नाशनम।।

नव रत्नो के धारण से सूर्य आदि नवग्रहों की पीडा दूर होकर दीर्घायु एवं आरोग्य की प्राप्ति होती है। सौभाग्य का उदय होकर भाग्य अनुकूल, वशीकरण सिद्धि, उत्साह और धैर्य उत्पन्न हो जाते है। अनिष्टकारी छाया और दृषित वायु, धूल आदि के संसर्ग से उत्पन्न हुए दुर्भाग्य आदि कष्ट तथा भूतप्रेत पिशाच आदि की पीडा दूर हो जाती है।

Wearing of the new gems removes the pain of the Navagrahas, Sun etc., one gets longevity and health. With the rise of good fortune, luck is favorable, captivating accomplishment, enthusiasm and patience arise. The misfortunes arising out of the contact of evil shadows and visible air, dust etc., and the pain of ghosts, demons, etc., goes away.

तेषु रक्षो विष व्याल व्याधि दोषहराणि च। प्रादुर्भवन्ति रत्नानि तथैव विगुणानि च।। 

दोषै स्तानयु पचीयन्ते हीयन्ते गुण सम्पदा। (आ. क. क्रि. वि. 8/ 2, 3)

अनुकूल रत्नों के धारण से विष, सर्प, भावी व्याधि बाधाओं से रक्षा हो जाती है। जबकि प्रतिकूल रत्नों का धारण हानिकर एवं दुर्गणप्रद है, जिससे दोष एवं दुर्गणों की वृद्धि और गुण एवं सम्पदाओं का हास होता है।

Wearing favorable gems protects one from venom, snake, future diseases and obstacles. Whereas the wearing of unfavorable gems is harmful and degrading, which leads to increase of defects and bad luck and loss of virtues and wealth.

Precaution Related to Use of Ratna (Precious Stones / Gemstones)

The author of Anand Kanda literature describes precautions regarding use of Ratna (precious stones).       

Anand Kanda, Kirya, 8/ 2- 3

तेषु रक्षो विषव्यालव्याधि दोषहराणि च।

प्रादुर्भवन्ति रत्नानि तथैव विगुणानि च।। 

प्रदुष्टेनोपजातानि जन्तुनोपहतानि च।

दौषैस्तान्युपचीयन्ते हीयन्ते गुणसंपदा: ।। 

Ratna (precious stones) is useful in driving the bad effects of demons, poisons, planets, wild animals, and diseases but if they are associated with any blemishes, they create the same problems and deplete prosperity. 

Classification of Gemstones

Classification of Gems is Based Upon:
  • Chemical composition: A gemstone may be a pure chemical element except diamond is essentially pure carbon, and a relatively simple chemical compound quartz is silicon dioxide. The great majority of Ratna are oxides and silicates. They are formed as crystals during the cooling of the earth’s crust over the past millennia.
  • Crystal structure: Gemstones may be formed in single or multiple discrete crystals (such as diamond), in massive collections of microscopic crystals (cryptocrystalline) (such as chalcedony), or amorphous (non-crystalline) masses (such as opal). Larger crystals and smaller crystals were formed in areas of slow cooling of molten rock, and more rapid cooling rock respectively. There are several classes of crystal structure based on symmetry and also non-crystalline (amorphous) minerals used as gem materials. In addition, there are some organic materials e.g. shell and bone that have been used as gem materials.
  • Crystal systems:
  1. Cubic: Common forms in the cubic system are the tetrahedron (4 faces), the cube (6 faces), the octahedron (8 faces), the dodecahedron (12 faces), the trapezohedron (24 faces), and the hexoctahedron (48 faces). Eg. Diamond (Vajra)
  2. Hexagonal: Crystals in the hexagonal system have four axes, three of which are of equal length and intersect at 60-degree angles within a plane, and the fourth of which is perpendicular to the plane of the other three. Gemstones occurring in hexagonal crystals include beryl, corundum, quartz, and tourmaline. Some crystallographers further identify two subdivisions of hexagonal crystals-trigonal (corundum) and rhombohedral (quartz). Eg. Ruby, Emerald, Blue Sapphire.
  3. Tetragonal: Tetragonal crystals have three axes intersecting at 90-degree angles, two of which are of equal length. Examples include zircon, rutile, and scapolite.
  4. Orthorhombic: Orthorhombic crystals have three axes at 90-degree angles, all of which have different lengths. A typical example is Cat’s Eye (Vaidurya).
  5. Monoclinic: Monoclinic crystals have 3 axes of unequal length, 2 of that cross at an associate degree angle aside from ninety degrees, and each perpendicular to the third. Moonstone, mineral amphibole square, and mineral measure are common examples.
  6. Triclinic: Triclinic crystals have 3 axes, all of unequal length and intersectant at angles aside from ninety degrees. Examples are Spinel ruby (Suryakant), embrace labradorite, and microcline spar.
  • Optical characteristics: Optical characteristics of Ratna (gemstones) square measure primarily derived from their structure and chemical composition.  The individual crystalline structure of a gemstone uniquely interacts with light and determines the optical properties of each gem species. Effects produced by light passing through a gem (transparency) and those produced by the reflection of light (opacity) are the unique characteristics of a gemstone. The gemstones like diamond, sapphire, and ruby are so structured that light entering them gets completely refracted internally and hence produce a beautiful play of light, whereas zircon, topaz, and cat’s eye are opaque and merely reflect the light from their polished surfaces.
  • Beauty and Scarcity of Gemstones: The beauty of a gemstone mainly depends upon its color. The color of a gem depends largely on the way it absorbs light. Each gem has a unique color “fingerprint” (known as its absorption spectrum). Hardness is one of the key qualities of a gemstone, which makes it more durable. The shape, weight, and scarcity add to the qualities and the gemstones become more valuable. The gemstones like diamonds and ruby are the most valuable ones than yellow sapphire, emerald, and pearl. Whereas hessonite, garnet, and coral fall in the ordinary category.
  1. Color: Color is the apparent result of selective absorption or transmission of various frequencies of light. Color is represented because of the combination of 3 characteristics- hue, tone, and intensity. Hue could be an operation of the frequency of sunshine and is represented by colors like orange, blue, indigo, violet, etc. The tone could be a variation from flare to terribly dark. Intensity could be a life of saturation, or purity, of a color. The standard human eye will determine a hundred and fifty pure hues, however around meg colors. The variations among the color of gems could also be so delicate that direct comparison below controlled conditions is needed to pick out them.
  2. Color acuity is additionally extremely laid low with fatigue, diet, and different factors, thus it’s unwise to aim to decide delicate color variations in gemstones like a diamond while not attention to the physical and emotional condition of the observer, likewise as properly stratified comparison stones and careful management of lighting conditions.
  3. Pleochroism is the apparent modification in the color of a doubly refractive stone once viewed through completely different directions of the crystal structure. In most cases, the color variations aren’t obvious to the unaided eye and should be viewed through a polarimeter or dichroscope, however in some cases, the optical phenomenon colors square measure strikingly obvious. 
  4. Alexandrite-like color modification, or photochromism, is the marked modification in the perceived color of a stone below completely different lighting conditions. because the name implies, the foremost far-famed example seems in chrysoberyl, a type of opaque gem that generally seems blue or inexperienced in daylight and red or purple in incandescent lightweight, however similar color changes could also be determined in sapphire, garnet, and mineral.
  5. Optic character: Gemstones could affect the passage of sunshine otherwise bringing completely different directions within the crystal structure. If the speed of sunshine is constant through all directions within the stone, the stone is claimed to be one-by-one refractive or isochoric and has one index of refraction. This is characteristic of isometric crystals. If the speed of sunshine varies with direction, the stone is doubly refractive, or anisotropic, and has 2 refractive indices. In anisotropic materials, light-weight is separated into 2 polarized elements, the normal ray and also the extraordinary ray. Anisotropic materials are characterized as uniaxial, line positive, and line negative.
  6. Amorphous (non-crystalline) materials, like an opaque gems, amber, and glass, could scatter lightweight in uncommon directions thanks to internal stress and show a development called abnormal birefringence.
  7. Index of refraction: Refractive index, or R.I., is the quantitative relation of the speed of sunshine in the air to the speed of sunshine through a clear material. If lightweight passes from air into a clear material at an associate degree angle of incidence aside from a 90-degree angle, it’s deflected at a distinct angle (the coincident angle) in keeping with the R.I. Gemstones with higher R.I. square measure are usually brighter than those with low R.I. As an example, diamond has an associate degree R.I. of about 2.4 quartz, about 1.54- 1.55. The R.I. of most gemstones is well measured by employing a straightforward instrument called a measuring instrument.
  8. Double refraction: Birefringence is the distinction in price between the best and lowest refractive indices in an exceedingly doubly refractive (anisotropic) material. counting on the orientation of a faceted stone, this will lead to a “fuzzy” look and apparent doubling of sides viewed through the stone.
  9. Dispersion: Dispersion is the ability of a stone to separate lightweight into its part colors that are, the standard of passing wavelengths of sunshine at different velocities. Dispersion is the quality of diamond that produces sparkles of colorizing an otherwise colorless stone. Quartz, which encompasses a dispersion of 0.013, shows abundant less of this impact than diamond, which encompasses a dispersion of 0.044. Diamond, in turn, shows abundant less color play than zinc blende, which encompasses a dispersion of 0.156.
  • Specific gravity: Gem materials vary greatly in density–amber may float in salt water (density near that of water), while hematite is more than five times the density of water. This is why two different gemstones may have the same size, but different weights and vice versa-a one-carat round brilliant diamond of typical proportions will be approximately 6.5 mm in diameter, while a round brilliant ruby of the same size (6.5 mm in diameter) and proportions will weigh approximately 1.55 carats. Generally, gemologists refer to specific gravity or relative density.

Recent Research on Gemstones (Ratna)

  • Murthy, S.R.N. (1991). Role of gems in Indian medicine. The ancient science of life. 10. 156- 64.
  • Parekh, Dipali & Makawana, Sarika & Patgiri, Biswajyoti. (2021). Comprehensive Appraisal on Shodhana Methods of Precious Gemstone: Vajra (Diamond). Global Journal of Health Science. 8. 8. 10. 21276/paths. 2021. 8. 4. 35.
  • Sharma, A.V. (1989). Gems and their medicinal values. The ancient science of life. 9. 26- 7.
  • Seraj, Snaa & monjur-e-khudha, Mohammad & Aporna, S.A. & Khan, Shamiul & Islam, Farukul & Jahan, Rownak & Mou, S.M. & Khatun, Z. & Rahmatullah, Mohammed. (2011). Use of gemstones for preventive and curative purposes: A survey among the traditional medicinal practitioners of the bede community of Bangladesh. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 5. 263- 269.
  • Khmara, Maryna. (2019). Global challenges to functioning of precious gemstones market. Socio-Economic Problems of the Modern Period of Ukraine. 15-19. 10. 36818/ 2071- 4653- 2019- 5 – 2.
  • Reich, Mike & Stegemann, Tanja. (2015). Collection of Precious Stones [Gottingen University, Germany].
  • Voudouris, Panagiotis & Melfos, Vasilios & Katerinopoulos, Athanasios. (2006). Precious stones in Greece: Mineralogy and geological environment of formation.
  • Kolarikova, Irena & Hanus, Radek. (2004). Origin and processing of precious stones in the interior of St. Wenceslas chapel, St. Vitus cathedral (Prague, Czech Republic).
  • Babayeva, Khavar. (2020). Precious stones-wealth hid behind the glitter.
  • Keller, Peter & Kampf, Anthony. (1985). Gemstones and Their Origins. Terra. 23. 3- 12. 10. 1007/ 978- 1- 4684- 6674- 4.
  • Kalam, Mohd & Baig, Wahid & Ahmad, Ansar & Ansari, Huzaifa & Rahman, Shafiqur & Haseeb, Abdul. (2021). Zumurrud (emerald): Medicinal Potential of a Gemstone from Jawaharat-i-tis ‘a (navratan), in the Perspective of Unani Medicine. JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN AYURVEDA, YOGA, UNANI, SIDHHA & HOMEOPATHY. 8. 5-9. 10. 24321/ 2394. 6547. 202102.
  • Saroch, Vikas & Verma, Sachin & Kundailia, Nitika. (2013). A REVIEW OF THE GEOLOGICAL ASPECT OF RASA DRAVYA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MINERALS. Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion. 1. 366-371. 10. 7897/ 2321- 6328. 01419.
  • Dongre, Swati & Ganvir, Rakesh. (2020). An Ayurveda Perspective on Khageshwar Rasa W. S. R. to Rasayogsagar. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 10. 42- 44. 10. 22270/ jddt. v10i2. 3899.


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Dr. Sahil Gupta completed his Bachelor of Ayurveda in Medicine and Surgery (B.A.M.S.) and Master’s Degree in Health Administration (MHA) India. He is Registered Ayurvedic Doctor & Vaidya in India having Registration No. 23780. He is the CEO and founder of IAFA. After completing BAMS, Dr. Sahil Gupta started practicing Ayruveda by giving prime importance to allergic disorders management. He became the first Ayurvedic doctor to cure Food Allergies through Ayurveda. Read More About Dr. Sahil Gupta.

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