Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Chitraka – Plumbago zeylanica Linn.

    Chitraka – Plumbago zeylanica Linn.

    Chitraka: The Doctor Bush (A potential rejuvenator)

    Introduction

    Chitraka is botanically known as Plumbago zeylanica Linn. is the most popular herb belonging to the Plumbaginaceae family i.e leadwort family. Plumbago means this plant can cure lead palsy or Chitraka to create a lead color stain on the skin. As per Ayurvedic classical literature, Chitrak is one of the herbs that is present in Panchkola and Shadushana Churna, which are the most popular formulations. Chitraka is Katu (pungent) in taste with hot potency. Chitraka is a widely accepted plant in various countries. Recent research revealed that Chitraka consists of various active principles like plumbagin (A naphthoquinone derivative), isozeylinone, chitranone, zeylinone, elliptinone, droserone, B-sitosterol, vanillic acid, plumbagic acid, a steroidal glycoside, catechol, tannin, plumbazeylanone, and naphthalene, etc due to which it exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anti- obese, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity, etc.

    Basonym of Chitraka

    चित्रक: चित्र व्याघ्र: तद्वद भेदक: चित्र व्याघ्र निभो भिनति बहुशो गुल्मानतश्च चित्रक: इति |

    Chitraka is so potent that it tears off unwanted growth. It is sharp like a spotted Leopard.

    Synonyms of Chitraka

    • According to properties and action

    अग्निक – अग्नि तुल्य: उष्ण: स्पर्शे वीर्ये च | दाह कृत स्फोट कृच्च |

    Chitraka has Ushana Virya and it is hot in potency. If comes in contact causes a burning sensation and induces swelling.

    ऊष्ण: – कटु: रस पाके च |

    Chitraka has Katu rasa (pungent taste), and it undergoes Katu Vipaka.

    जरण- जरयति अन्नमिति |

    Chitraka digests Anna (food).

    दीपक: – अग्नि दीपन: |

    Chitraka increases appetite.

    अनलनामा – अग्नि संज्ञक: तत तुल्यो दीपन सतीक्ष्णश्च |

    Chitraka has burning qualities like that of Agni (fire) hence different synonyms of Agni are also synonyms with Chitraka.

    व्याल: – हिंस्त्र जंतु: तद्वद भेदक: |

    Chitraka can tear apart unwanted tissue growth.

    Regional names of Chitraka

    • Ceylon leadwort (English)
    • Chita (Hindi)
    • Chita (Bengali)
    • Chitramulla (Kannada)
    • Vellakotuveri (Malayalam)
    • Chitramoola (Marathi)
    • Chittir (Tamil)
    • Telchitra (Telugu)
    • Chitro (Gujarati)
    • Shitar (Persian)
    • Shitaraj (Arabic)
    • Mosikomabe (Tswana)
    • Chitu (Nepal)
    • Zahnkrut (German)

    Scientific classification of the Chitraka

    KingdomPlantae
    ClassDicotyledons
    SubclassGamopetalae
    Series Heteromerae
    OrderPlumbulales
    Family Plumbaginaceae
    GenusPlumbago
    Species zeylanica

    Botanical Name

    Plumbago zeylanica Linn.

    Plumbum means lead therefore Plumbago means which cures lead palsy.

    Zeylanica of Ceylon.

    Family – Plumbaginaceae (Chitraka Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.)

    Classification of Brihati as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Deepaniya Mahakshaya, Triptighana Mahakshaya, Shula Prashmana Mahakshaya, Bhedniya Mahakshaya, Arshoghana Mahakshaya, Lekhniya Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Pipplyadi Gana, Mustadi Gana, Amalkyadi Gana, Varunadi Gana, Mushkakadi gana, Aargvadhadi Gana.

    Chitraka's description in Brihtrayi

    Chitraka, one of the most important drugs in Indigenous medicine, is recognized based on the flower color to be of three kinds i.e., Pita, Sita, and Asita. In conformity with the statement of Vagbhata, the Asita variety is the best. The Vaidyas of Bengal takes particular care to use only the red-flowered species, which may be the Asita variety of Vagbhata. The Pita, the variety of Vagbhata may be some hybrid form and the Krishna variety may be the blue-flowered Plumbago species i.e., P. capensis Thunb. Found cultivated in gardens only. The red variety is comparatively more delicate and less hardy and cultivated in gardens or the valleys of Sikkim and Khasia.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 17, 28S. S. Su. 11/ 11, 13A. H. Su. 6/ 166
    C. S. Su. 4/ 3, 4, 6, 11, 12, 45S. S. Su. 14/ 35A. H. Su. 9/ 26
    C. S. Su. 23/ 19S. S. Su. 36/ 10, 13A. H. Su. 14/ 25
    C. S. Su. 24/ 56S. S. Su. 38/ 5, 7, 19, 21, 53, 59A. H. Su. 30/ 21
    C. S. Su. 25/ 39, 49S. S. Su. 39/ 4A. H. Sa. 1/ 88
    C. S. Su. 26/ 69, 90S. S. Su. 44/ 51A. H. Chi. 3/ 20, 61, 127, 134, 159
    C. S. Su. 27/ 104S. S. Su. 46/ 221, 239A. H. Chi. 4/ 22, 23, 29, 53
    C. S. Vi. 7/ 19, 21, 26S. S. Chi. 2/ 89, 94A. H. Chi. 5/ 28
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, 149S. S. Chi. 4/ 4, 30A. H. Chi. 8/ 36, 48, 61, 72, 90, 131, 140, 145, 153, 155, 157, 158
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 59, 65, 70, 77S. S. Chi. 5/ 28A. H. Chi. 9/ 51, 105, 108
    C. S. Chi. 1. 3/ 2S. S. Chi. 6/ 12, 13, 14A. H. Chi. 10/ 10, 13, 38, 47, 57, 59, 64
    C. S. Chi. 1. 4/ 14S. S. Chi. 7/ 14A. H. Chi. 11/ 25
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 266S. S. Chi. 8/ 50A. H. Chi. 12/ 6, 42
    C. S. Chi. 5/ 66, 70, 71, 80, 86, 145, 147, 155, 166S. S. Chi. 9/ 7, 10, , 35, 37, 39, 45, 54, 59A. H. Chi. 13/ 44
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 29, 42S. S. Chi. 10/ 4, 6, 15A. H. Chi. 14/ 9, 21, 48, 93, 113
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 65, 81, 85, 88, 103, 105, 108, 112, 124, 170S. S. Chi. 11/ 8, 10A. H. Chi. 15/ 7, 15, 26, 42, 43, 89
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 101, 168S. S. Chi. 12/ 5, 9, 11A. H. Chi. 16/ 2, 21
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 20S. S. Chi. 14/ 10, 12, 13A. H. Chi. 17/ 9, 13, 36
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 24, 29, 30, 34, 39, 40, 43, 54, 56, 57, 59, 72S. S. Chi. 17/ 25, 41A. H. Chi. 18/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 79, 80, 114, 124, 136, 145, 146, 161S. S. Chi. 19/ 57, 58A. H. Chi. 19/ 11, 50, 61, 64, 79, 86
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 41, 55, 63, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 77, 90, 105, 106, 109, 111, 115, 123, 132, 145, 149, 154, 160, 232, 237S. S. Chi. 23/ 15A. H. Chi. 20/ 7
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 82, 96, 100, 103, 106, 113, 143, 147, 153, 166, 172, 174, 183, 184, 187, 190S. S. Chi. 27/ 11A. H. Chi. 22/ 16
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 44, 70, 73, 78, 81, 93, 102S. S. Chi. 28/ 3A. H. Ka. 2/ 17, 26, 59
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 94, 96, 101, 110, 142S. S. Chi. 37/ 15, 33, 39A. H. Ka. 4/ 63
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 39, 53, 57, 77, 119, 125, 158, 161, 173, 178, 183S. S. Ka. 5/ 64A. H. U. 3/ 51
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 30, 47, 48, 111, 119, 135S. S. Chi. 25/ 30, 33A. H. U. 24/ 24
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 125S. S. Sa. 2/ 11A. H. U. 30/ 1
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 21, 24, 65, 194, 269, 283S. S. Sa. 10/ 16, 45A. H. U. 34/ 30
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 31, 35, 36, 44S. S. U. 39/ 186, 215, 237, 242A. H. U. 35/ 57
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 121, 129, 166, 169S. S. U. 40/ 37, 50, 56, 78A. H. U. 37/ 8, 3
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 152S. S. U. 41/ 50A. H. U. 39/ 62, 104
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 55, 60, 280S. S. U. 42/ 25, 27, 47, 60, 64, 72, 95, 111
    C. S. Ka.  1/ 25S. S. U. 44/ 26
    C. S. Ka. 7/ 15, 39, 52, 56, 68S. S. U. 46/ 24
    C. S. Ka. 9/ 6, 8S. S. U. 51/ 18, 25
    C. S. Ka. 10/ 12, 27S. S. U. 53/ 11
    C. S. Ka. 12/ 23, 35S. S. U. 58/ 44, 62
    C. S. Si. 4/ 13S. S. U. 61/ 35
    C. S. Si. 7/ 18
    C. S. Si. 10/ 23
    C. S. Si. 11/ 23, 31, 33

     

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi as synonym Hitabhuk

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 42/ 29, S. S. U. 52/ 29

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi as synonym Shikhi

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 8/ 157, A. H. U. 39/ 107, 169

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi as synonym Vahni

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 9/ 47, S. S. U. 52/ 34

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 8/ 30, 152, 160, 161, A. H. Chi. 14/ 38, A. H. Chi. 19/ 40, 42, 53

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi as synonym Nirdahana

    Nirdahana, Nirdahani, and Vinirdahani may all be synonyms, but they have been interpreted differently as Agnimantha, Morata, Citraka, Murva, or Ajamoda at different places by the same or different commentators.  It may further be noted that only Sushruta has made use of these three names.

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 4/ 32, S. S. U. 40/ 38, S. S. U. 44/ 28, S. S. U. 55/ 48, S. S. U. 57/ 10

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi as synonym Dvipi

    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 32, A. H. Chi. 14/ 82, A. H. Chi. 19/ 41, 45, A. H. Chi. 20/ 16, A. H. Chi. 21/ 57, A. H. U. 22/ 56, 81, A. H. U. 30/ 27

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi as synonym Dahana

    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 1, 21, A. H. Chi. 8/ 154

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi as synonym Jyoti

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 8/ 34

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi Krishana Chiktraka

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 26/ 269

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi as synonym Anala

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 11/ 8

    Chitraka’s description in Brihtrayi as synonym Agnika

    Agni has been used as a synonym of Chitraka, but Agnika has also been interpreted by Dalhana to be a name for Bhallataka, Langali, Ajamoda, Morata, and even Agnimantha. In S. S. Su. 37. 10 Agnika and Citraka have both been mentioned together as different from each other.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Chi. 26/ 19S. S. Su. 36/ 10A. H. Su. 15/ 17, 40
    C. S. Si. 4/ 20S. S. Chi. 20/ 26A. H. Su. 30/ 10
    S. S. Chi. 37/ 12A. H. Chi. 1/ 93, 140
    S. S. Ka. 2/ 45A. H. Chi. 3/ 64
    S. S. U. 9/ 19A. H. Chi. 4/ 22
    S. S. U. 23/ 10A. H. Chi. 5/ 44
    S. S. U. 24/ 36A. H. Chi. 7/ 103
    S. S. U. 42/ 49A. H. Chi. 8/ 15, 33, 46, 68, 70, 80, 149, 159
    S. S. U. 51/ 27A. H. Chi. 9/ 43, 105, 111
    S. S. U. 52/ 38, 42A. H. Chi. 12/ 25
    S. S. U. 53/ 12A. H. Chi. 13/ 6
    S. S. U. 55/ 45, 49, 50, 52A. H. Chi. 14/ 17, 31, 110
    A. H. Chi. 15/ 87
    A. H. Chi. 16/ 14, 39
    A. H. Chi. 17/ 20
    A. H. Chi. 19/ 19, 37, 44
    A. H. Chi. 21/ 39, 50, 59
    A. H. Ka. 2/ 48
    A. H. Ka. 4/ 69
    A. H. U. 2/ 10
    A. H. U. 5/ 20
    A. H. U. 7/ 22
    A. H. U. 20/ 6, 24
    A. H. U. 22/ 99
    A. H. U. 25/ 49
    A. H. U. 28/ 34, 39
    A. H. U. 35/ 21

    Historical background of Chitraka

    It is a forbidden leafy vegetable (Shaka) according to the Vaikhanasa Dharma Sutra (3/ 5/ 8). Charaka described it as the best drug to cure Guda Shotha, Arsas, and Shula (C. S. Su. 25). In the context of Rasayana, Sushruta advocated the utility of Chitraka Rasayana similar to that of Bakuchi Rasayana. Vagbhata delineated three varieties of Chitraka and quoted them for Rasayana’s purpose. In Lolambarariyam (Sadvidya Jivanam) Chitraka is indicated as the best vehicle (Anupana) in the case of Arshas. Charaka used the terms Chitra- Chitraka together under Bhedaniya Dashemani. Some scholars think that Charaka erroneously enumerated Chitraka under the Bhedaniya group since it is also mentioned as an example for Prabhava while comparing it with Danti. Chitra- Chitraka in this context may be Danti- Dravanti according to the author. Otherwise, Chitraka described here may be a variety of Eranda (remember Charaka mentioned two types of Eranda (Urubuka and Panchangula) under Shaka Varga.

     

    Present research reveals that plumbagin obtained from P. Zeylanica is a potent cytotoxic/ anti-cancer agent. Raja Narahari described Rakta Chitraka for Parada Niyamana and Loha Vedhana (making superior metals/ gold from inferior metals). This variety of Chitraka is claimed to be useful to gain weight and strength in the human body. Chitraka is one of the main ingredients in Trimada, Panchakola and Sadusana.

    External morphology of Plumbago zeylanica Linn.

    • Habit: A perennial herb, sometimes in shady places. sub scandent; stems 0.6- 1.5 meter long, somewhat woody, spreading, terete, striate, glabrous.
    • Leaves: Leaves of Shweta Chitraka are thin, 3.8- 7.5 by 2.3- 3.8 mm., ovate, subacute, entire, glabrous, somewhat glaucous beneath, reticulate veined, shortly and abruptly attenuated into a short petiole. The petiole of Eranda leaves is narrow; amplexicaul at the base.
    • Flowers: Flowers of Shweta Chitraka are in elongate spikes; rachis glandular, striate; bracteoles ovate, acuminate, shorter than the calyx, glandular or not. The calyx of the flower of Shweta Chitraka is 1- 1.3 cm. long. Calyx of the Chitraka flower is narrowly tubular, persistent, densely covered with stalked glands,  and its teeth are small with membranous margins. Corolla of Shweta Chitraka is white, slender; tube 2- 2.5 cm. long; lobes 9 mm. long; obovate-oblong, acute, apiculate. 
    • Flowering and fruiting time: Winter season and onwards.

    External morphology of Plumbago rosea Linn.

    • Habit: Rakta Chitraka, stems are herbaceous, erect, terete, slightly striate, simple, and upwards branching.
    • Leaves: Reaves of Rakta Chitraka are large, oblong, attenuate, and slightly obtuse upwards, short-cuneate at the base, passing into a very short, amplexicaul, auriculate petiole.
    • Flowers: Flowers of Rakta Chitraka are 3.5 cm, long, forming very long terminal and axillary, lax spikes, which after flowering reach 30- 60 cm., rachis quite glabrous. Bracteoles ovate-cuspidate, subequal, four (4) times shorter than the calyx, almost pellucid, Calyx red, short- cylindric, shortly and acutely 5- dentate, along the ribs covered with stipitate, biparous and subsessile glands. Corolla- tube slender, 4 times as long as the calyx, limb wide, segments ovate, round, cuspidate.

    Distribution of Chitraka

    Chitraka grows very commonly in South Indian states like Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and in West Bengal, Uttara Pradesh. Attractive plants are hence commonly cultivated in gardens.

    Rakta Chitraka plant is cultivated in gardens throughout the country Sikkim and Khasia hills in India.

    Varieties of Chitraka

    There are four classical varieties (in Nighantu) viz. Shweta, Pita, Rakta, and Krishna, are based mainly on the color of the flowers. Practically, two kinds are prevalent i.e., white (Shweta Chitraka) and red (Rakta Chitraka) varieties of this plant drug. The occurrence of red variety is scarce Red Variety (Rakta Chitraka) plant is identified as Plumbago rosea Linn. Neela Chitraka is known as Plumbago capensis. P. V. Sharma Ji described the red and blue varieties as P. indica and P. auriculata Linn. In Raja Nighantu, the red variety of Chitraka is denoted as Kalah.

     

    Therefore,

    • Shweta Chitraka- Plumbago zeylanica
    • Rakta Chitraka- Plumbago rosea
    • Neel Chitraka- Plumbago capensis

    The useful part of Chitraka

    Root and root bark. 

     

    Root material consists of cylindrical pieces of various lengths 2- 12 mm in diameter. The external surface is longitudinally striated or shriveled, reddish brown, having warty projections in some places. The bark gets easily separated, exposing an inner woody portion of pinkish white color. A transverse portion of the root shows a smooth surface of pinkish white color with up to 2mm thick bark, followed by a narrow cortex and a radiating woody center. The bark occurs as small curved or quilled, easily friable pieces of various lengths, up to 2 mm in thickness. The internal surface of the bark is rough or slightly fibrous and rusty brown. On breaking it becomes short pieces. If it comes in contact with the tongue it causes a burning sensation.

    Important phytoconstituent of Chitraka

    Chitraka yielded plumbagin (A naphthoquinone derivative), isozeylinone, chitranone, zeylinone, elliptinone, droserone, B-sitosterol, vanillic acid, plumbagic acid, a steroidal glycoside, catechol, tannin, plumbazeylanone, and naphthalenone.

    Recent research on Chitraka

    • To assess the effect of plumbagin-free alcohol extract (PFAE) or Plumbago zeylanica Linn. (Plumbaginaceae), P. zeylanica root, on the female reproductive system and fertility of adult female Wistar rats. All findings suggest that the antifertility activity of extract could be through the changes in the implantation site, altered hormonal levels, prolonged estrous cycle, and antiestrogenic activity. Hence, the extract possesses reversible anti- fertility activity without adverse toxicity in female rats. Sandeep G, Dheeraj A, Sharma NK, Jade D, Bharti A. Effect of plumbagin free alcohol extract of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root on the reproductive system of female Wistar rats. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Dec: 4 (12): 978- 84.
    • The study was aimed at isolating, separating, and evaluating the antimicrobial properties of compounds such as neioishinanolone and 1-epineo- isoshinaolone) from the roots of Plumbago zeylanica. The root extract of Plumbago zeylanica possesses good antimicrobial activity, which suggests its therapeutic use in the Ayurvedic system of medicine to cure skin diseases Jetty A, Subhakar C, Rajagopal D. Jetty M, Subryamanyam M, Marthanda Murthy M. Antimicrobial activities of neo- and 1-epineo-isoshinaolones from Plumbago zeylanica roots, Pharm Biol. 2010 Sep; 48 (9): 1007. 11.
    • Three Plumbago spp have been tested for mosquito larvicidal activity. The crude extracts exhibiting the highest larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae were hexane (LC 50= 64 microgram/ mL) and chloroform (LC50= 6.7 microgram/ mL) extracts from Plumbago zeylanica Linn, chloroform (LC50=6.7 ug/ mL) extract from Plumbago stenophylla Bull and ethyl acetate (LC50= 41 microgram/ mL) extract from Plumbago Dawei Rolfe. Maniafu BM, Wilber L, Ndiege IO, Wanjala CC, Akenga TA. Larvicidal activity of extracts from three Plumbago spp against Anopheles gambiae. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009. Sep; 104 (6): 813- 7.
    • Plumbago zeylanica was tested for its possible in vivo protective effect against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice, Study showed Plumbago zeylanica was effective in exerting a protective effect against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress. Sivakumar Y Niranjali Devaraj S. Protective effect of Plumbago zeylancia against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Drug Chem Toxicology. 2006; 29 (3):279- 88.
    • Plumbagin (5- hydroxy – 2- methy1-1, 4 naphthoquinone) isolated from Plumbago zeylanica Linn when administered orally. A dosage of 4 mg/ kg body weight induces tumor recession in 3-methyl-4-dimethyl aminoaxzobernzene (3MeDAB) induced hepatoma in Wistar male rats. Plumbagin administration increased the gluconeogenic enzyme levels in the treated animals. Parimala R, Sachadanadam P. Effect of Plumbagin on some glucose metabolizing enzymes studied in rats in experimental hepatoma. Mol Cell Biochem. 1993 Aug 11: 125 (1): 59- 63.
    • Plant extract (100 mg/kg) prevented 100% ovulation and implantation in female rats (J.Res.Ind.Med.1971,6,172).
    • Plumbagin exhibited specific antimicrobial activity against yeasts and potent insect anti- feeding activity against larva of African armyworms (Planta Med. 1980, 185).
    • Plumbagin administered intratumorally and orally at 2mg/ kg decreased tumor growth by 70% and 60% respectively in rats with methylcholanthrene-induced tumors. Its ED50 was 0.75 mg/ kg. Plumbagin was active against P388 lymphocytic leukemia at 4mg/ kg and showed antibacterial and antifungal activity against a wide variety of bacteria and fungi. (Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 1980, 18, 876).
    • Plumbagin administered to hyperlipidemic rabbits reduced serum cholesterol by 53-86% and LDL-cholesterol by 61- 91%. It lowered the cholesterol/ phospholipid ratio by 45.8% and elevated HDL- cholesterol significantly. It prevented the accumulation of cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver and aorta and regressed atheromatous plaques of the thoracic and abdominal aorta. Plumbagin-treated hyperlipidemic subjects excreted more fecal cholesterol and phospholipids (Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacology 1991, 35, 10).
    • The topical application of plumbagin is useful in patients with common wort (Pillai et al., 1981).
    • Plumbagin significantly increased the prothrombin time, total proteins, GPT, and alkaline phosphatase levels in the liver tissue and decreased GPT levels in the serum. An anti- vit. K. activity on the part of plumbagin has been suggested (Santhakumari et al. 1978).
    • The LD of the 50% alcoholic extract of seeds was 1000mg/ kg i.p. in albino rats (Sharma et al., 1978).
    • 50% ethanolic extract of roots showed hypothermia and antagonism to amphetamine hyperactivity in mice. The LD50 of the extract in albino mice was 500 mg/ kg i.p. (Bhakuni et al., 1969)

    Rasa Panchaka of Chitraka

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (pungent), (Tikata (bitter) acc. to Kaiydeva Nighantu)
    Guna (Virtue)Theekshana (sharp)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Chitraka

    Vatakapha Shamaka, Vatahara because of Ushna Virya, Kaphahara because of Ushna Virya, Katu Rasa and Katu Vipaka.

     

    According to Kaideva Nighantu: Tridosa Shamaka

     

    Kaphara because of Katu rasa & Katu vipaka, Pittahara because of Tikta rasa, Vatahara because of Usna virya.

    Karma (Actions) of Chitraka

    Shweta Chitraka- Dipana, Pachana, Kusthaghna, Arsoghna, Sothahara, Krmighna, Kasahara, Grahi, Rochaka, Kandughna.

     

    Rakta Chitraka- Ruchya, Kusthaghna & Rasayana.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Chitraka

    • Agnimandya
    • Ajirna
    • Udara Roga
    • Shula
    • Gulma
    • Yakrdvikara
    • Arsa
    • Krimi Roga
    • Grahani
    • Sothahara
    • Yakrit Pliha Guda Shotha
    • Jirna
    • Pratishyaya
    • Shotha
    • Rajorodha
    • Prasutivikara
    • Makka Lasula
    • Dhvaja Bhanga
    • Kustha
    • Shvitra
    • Charma Roga
    • Jvara
    • Jirna- Visama
    • Nadidourbalya
    • Jvarottara- Dourbalya

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Chitraka

    Grahani Roga (IBS)

     

    • Citrakadya Gudika. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15. 96- 97)
    • Citraka- Ghrita. (Chakra Dutta. 4/ 43)

     

    Arsha (Piles)

     

    • Paste of Chitraka mixed with Shunthi, and sour gruel is applied to hemorrhoids. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14- 68)
    • The bark of Chitraka is pasted within a jar. Curd or buttermilk prepared in the same, on intake, destroys piles. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 76, Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 13. Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 30, 61, Vrinda Madhava. 5/ 18)
    • One who takes the root of Chitraka or Musali or Krisna Chirabilva pounded with cow’s urine, does not suffer from piles. (Raja Amrittanda. 19/ 7)

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea): After taking Pippali with honey, Chitraka with buttermilk, or only tender fruits of Bilva one is freed from diarrhea. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 113)

     

    Udara Roga (Abdominal disorder): Citrakaghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 13/ 116, Vrinda Madhava. 37/ 28)

     

    Shotha (Oedema)

     

    • Chitraka Ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 58- 59)
    • Regular local application of the warm paste of Chitraka and Devadaru or Sarsapa and Shigru pounded with urine is useful. (Vrinda Madhava. 42/ 5)

     

    Kasa (cough): Chitrakadi Leha. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 56- 57)

     

    Swara Bheda (Hoarseness of voice):  Goat’s ghee processed with Yavaksara and Ajamoda or Chitraka and Amalaka or Devadaru and Chitraka and mixed with honey is beneficial. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 53/ 11)

     

    Prameha (diabetes): Decoction of Chitraka is useful in Sukrameha. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 9)

     

    Aadhmana (Wind in the stomach): Saddharana yoga. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 2)

     

    As Rasayana (rejuvenator): Chitraka- Rasayana. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 39. 62- 65)

     

    Kustha (skin disorder): Kustha is alleviated by taking Haridra 40 gm with urine for a month. Similarly, Chitraka finely powdered or Pippali should be taken with urine. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 45)

     

    Shwitra (Vitiligo): Cow’s urine mixed with Chitraka, Trikatu and honey should be kept in a jar of ghee for a fortnight. The patient should thereafter take it. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 39)

     

    Peenas (Coryza):  Citraka-haritaki. (Vrinda Madhava. 60/ 26- 28)

     

    Pandu (Anemia): One suffering from anemia, should take roots of Bala and Chitraka 10 gm with warm water or seeds of Shigru mixed with equal salt keeping on a milk diet. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 44/26)

     

    Shleepada (Filaria): The application of Chitraka or Devadaru as the paste is useful. (Chakradutta. 42/ 5)

     

    Vidriddhi (Abscess): Chirabilva, Bhallataka, Danti, Chitraka, Karavira, and excreta of pigeons, deer, and vultures act as tearing agents for abscess. (Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 37/ 10)

     

    Medo Roga (Obesity): Intake of Chitraka root with honey while keeping on a wholesome diet is useful. (Vanga Sena, Medoroga. 22)

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Chitraka

    • Mula Twaka Churna (root bark powder): 0.5 to 1 gram

    Benefits of Chitraka

    • The roots and root bark are bitter, dry, stomachic, carminative, astringent to the bowels, and anthelmintic alternative, they cure, intestinal troubles, dysentery, leukoderma, inflammation, piles, bronchitis, vitiation of Vata and Kapha, itching, liver disorders, consumption, ascites, Tridosa, and anemia.
    • The leaves are caustic, vesicant, aphrodisiac, and useful in scabies. 
    • The root has a sharp bitter taste, laxative, expectorant, stomachic, tonic, abortifacient, and alexipharmic: it is a good appetizer; and the roots are useful in dyspepsia, loss of appetite, flatulence, laryngitis, rheumatism, disorders of the spleen, leukoderma, ringworm, scabies.
    • The roots of the plant form a prominent and effective herbal drug; for increasing digestive power and promoting appetite. It is frequently used in the treatment of several diseases especially the digestive system and also other ailments and the drug is employed for preparing several formulations.
    • A tincture of the root- bark has been employed as an antiperiodic, and it also acts as a powerful sudorific. 
    • The milky juice is used as an application to unhealthy ulcers and in cases of scabies. The plant is used as a vulnerability. The Mula of Chitraka (Chitraka roots) is used as a Basti (enema) to cure piles. The roots of Chitraka are considered useful in Kustha (leprosy).
    • The external administration of the roots is recommended in various skin affections, inflammation, elephantiasis or filariasis, gout, and allied ailments, (including skin diseases of an obstinate character); but the roots-paste causes blister, rushes or reddishness, etc. So, the paste is allowed to remain on the skin (lesion) until a blister has formed. 
    • The milky juice of the herb is also used as an application to unhealthy ulcers and in cases of scabies milky juice is suggested to be applied in ophthalmia.
    • The active principle of plumbagin and the pharmacological actions of the plant drug is due to the presence of this neutral principle. Externally it is a strong irritant and has a powerful germicidal action on bacteria and unicellular organisms. The main active ingredient i.e plumbagin has action on muscular tissue which stimulates in Hasva Matra (smaller doses) and paralysis in Ati Matra (larger ones). It stimulates the secretion of sweat, urine, and bile. It has a stimulant action on the nervous system. Thus, the use of the drug as a rubefacient, vesicant, local ecbolic, and sudorific is based on pharmacological activity on account of its chemical constituents.
    • The roots of the plant are used with honey in obesity, The roots are also given in filariasis. The infusion of roots is given in urinary ailments (Sikta Meha, one of the ailments of Prameha groups). The Mula Kwatha (roots decoction) is orally useful in anemia. 
    • Roots are regarded as one of the restorative medicines (Rasayana). The oil prepared with the roots and other ingredients is used in fistula-in-ano. The roots are useful in liver and splenic disorders.
    • The roots of another variety, Rakta chitraka has almost similar medicinal properties as that of Shweta chitraka; it is especially fattening, alternative and cures leprosy; and this kind of drug is considered very effective and suitable for certain diseases being its particular efficiency and in some pharmaceutical (alchemic) processes.
    • The vegetable of the plant, especially leaves (Chitraka Shakam) is also mentioned in the texts. 
    • Excess use of the roots of the drug causes toxic signs and symptoms on account of the plant its poisonous (Vanaspatika Visa) effects and the administration of ant bilious, cold, and oleos medicines and measures are suggested to counter the toxicity stage.

    Benefits of Chitraka on different systems of bodies

    • External uses: Being irritant and hot, it develops blisters and has scraping action. Its paste causes blisters resulting in discoloration. So, it is called Chitraka (Chitra= two colors). In skin disorders like filariasis, edema, vitiligo, etc., paste causes blisters thus relieving vitiated doshas. The paste is applied to arthritis.
    • Central nervous system: Stimulant in low dose but sedative in a higher dose. Useful in nerve weakness and Vata disorders.
    • Digestive system: Due to its pungent, hot properties, it acts as an appetizer, digestive, but astringent, and anthelmintic. Therefore, it is useful in anorexia, indigestion, abdominal pain, liver disorders, sprue, hemorrhoids, and worms. Mainly effective in non-bleeding piles. Chitraka enhances the circulation of the gastric mucus membrane, thus helping in digestion and absorption. Non-bleeding piles are caused by Vata and Kapha.
    • Circulatory system: Chitraka vitiates pitta and reduces edema, so it is useful in edema, liver and spleen disorders, and proctitis.
    • Respiratory system: It is effective in chronic rhinitis and cough.
    • Reproductive system: It causes uterine contraction, and cures menstrual disorders and post-partum disorders. It is also Aantrik and Bahya (internally and externally) used in impotency (Bandhyatva)
    • Skin: Diaphoretic, useful in skin disorders (vitiligo, etc.) 15 to 45 drops of alcoholic extract of Chitraka acts as a potent diaphoretic. Application of a small quantity of chitraka is used in the abscess.
    • Temperature: Febrifuge. It is used in chronic fever (Kapha) and malaria. It improves liver function, digestion and helps in splenomegaly. Chitraka is the best medicine for diseases like hemorrhoids, which are caused by the abnormality of Agni.
    • Satmikaran: Acts as a bitter tonic in low doses. It is helpful in post pyrexial debility (Kapha).

    Classical reference of Chitraka

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Hritakyadi Varga- 70

    Synonyms

    चित्रको अनलनामा च पाठी व्यालस्थोषण: |

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Hritakyadi Varga- 70

    Properties and action

    चित्रक: कटुक:  पाके वन्हिकृत्पाचनो लघु: |

    रुक्षोष्णो ग्रहणी कुष्ठशोथार्श: कृमिकासनुत्‌ |

    वातश्लेष्महरो ग्राहीर्वातघ्न: श्लेष्म पित्तहत |

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi Varga- 94

    Properties and action

    चित्रको अग्नि सम: पाके कटुकः: कफशोफजित्‌ |

    वात उदर अर्श ग्रहणी क्षयपाण्डु विनाशन: ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1179- 1181

    चित्रको दीपनस्तिक्त: कटु: पाके रसे लघु: |

    अग्निवत पाचनो रुक्षो वीर्योष्णो रोचनो जयेत्‌ ||

    ग्रहणी कफ वातामशोफकुष्ठोदरकृमीन्‌ |

    कटुकत्वात्‌ कफ हन्ति तिक्तवात पित्तनाशन: |

    औष्णत्वात्‌ वातम प्रशमयेत्‌ त्रिदोष अग्नौ अग्नि दीपन: |

    तच्छाकम लघु संग्राही कफ पित्तविनाशनम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga, 45

    चित्रको अग्नि सम: पाके कटु: शोफकफापह: |

    वातोदरा अर्शो ग्रहणी कृमि कण्डु विनाशन: ||

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga, 47

    रक्त चित्रक 

    स्थूल काय करो रूच्य: कुष्ठ्घ्नो रक्त चित्रक: |

    रसे नियमको लोहे वेधकश्च रसायन: |

    Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 12

    चित्रव्याधिनिभो भिनति बहुशो गुल्मानतश्च चित्रक: | 

    तेक्षण्यादुष्णतया प्रदीपयति देहा अग्निम ततो वन्हिक: |

    चित्रो दीपयति प्रकाममनलं दत्ते ग्रहण्यै बलम |

    किं चित्र यदि बन्हिकर्मकुशलो वैद्यै: सदा स्तूयते ||

    Charaka Samhita

    चित्रक मुलम दीपनीय गुद शोफ हराणाम |

    Chakra Dutta, Plihakara Chikitsa, 38 34- 37

    प्लीहयकृच्चिकित्सायां चित्रक घृतम्‌

    Vanga Sena

    मेदोरोगे

    मधुना चित्रकमूल॑ तथैव हितभोजनो भुड्कते |

    Chakradutta, Shleepada Chikitsa Adhikara

    श्लीपदे  

    हितश्वालेपनं नित्यं चित्रको देवदारु वा…. |

    Chakradutta,Grehni Chikitsa Adhikara

    ग्रहण्याम्‌

    चित्रकक्वाथकल्काभ्यां ग्रहणीघनम शृतं हविं: |

    गुल्मशोथोदरप्लीहशूला अर्शोघ्नं प्रदीपनम्‌ ||

    Chakradutta, Vrna Shotha Chikitsa Adhikara

    व्रणशोथदारणार्थम्‌

    चित्रको हयमारक ……दारुणम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 10/ 11

    अतिसारे

    तक्रम पीत्वा सचित्रकम्‌ |

    …मुच्यते जंठरामयात्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 9/ 76

    अर्शःसु

    त्वचं चित्रकमूलस्य पिष्ट्वा  कुम्भ प्रलेपयेत्‌ |

    तक्र वा दधि वां तक्रम जातमर्शहरो पिबेत्‌ ||

    Chakradutta, Kshudra Roga Chikitsa, 55/ 89

    दद्रु रोगे चित्रकाद्य तैलम

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 18/ 114, Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 12/ 58, 59

    श्वयथु 

    क्षीरं घटे चित्रकक़ल्क लिपते दध्यागतं साधु विमध्यते च |

    तज्ज घृतम चित्रकमूलगर्भ तक्रेण सिद्ध श्वयधुष्नमग्रयम्‌ |

    अर्शो अतिसारानिलगुल्ममेहाँ श्रेतान्निहन्त्यग्रिबलप्रद च |

    तक्रेणावा अद्यात्‌ सघृतेन तेन भोज्यानि सिद्धामथवा यवागून्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 11/ 8

    सिकता मेह 

    सिकतामेहिन चित्रककषायं पाययेत्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 44/ 26

    पाण्डु रोगे 

    मूल बलाचित्रकयो: पिबेद्‌ वा, 

    पाण्ड्वामयात्तो अक्षसमं हिताशी |

    सुखाम्बुना वा ||

    Bhava Parkasha Madhyam Khanda, 50/ 29- 30

    भगन्दरचिकित्सायां विष्यन्दनतैलम्‌ |

    Chakra Dutta Shool Chikitsa, 26/ 59

    शूलचिकित्सायां चित्रकादि क्वाथ: |

    Chakra Dutta Mutra Ghata Chikitsa, 33- 19- 25

    मूत्राघातचिकित्सायां चित्रकादि क्वाथ: |

    Chakra Dutta Udara Chikitsa, 31/ 60

    उदरोगे चित्रकघृतम्‌

    चतुर्गुणे जले मूत्रे द्विगुणे चित्रकात्‌ पले |

    कल्के सिद्ध घृतप्रस्थ सक्षारं जठरी पिबेत ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 39/ 62

    चित्रकजातय: (गुणवत्ता)

    यथास्य चित्रक: पुष्पै: ज्ञेय: पीतसिता असितै: |

    यथोत्तरं स गुणवान्‌ विधिना च रसायनम्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 39- 63/ 65

    रसायने

    छायाशुष्को ततो मूलं मासं चूणीकृत्य लिहत्‌ |

    सर्पिषा मधुसपिभ्यां पिबन्‌ वा पयसा यति: ||

    अम्भसा वा हितान्नाशी शतं जीवति नीरुज: |

    मेधावी बलवान्‌ कान्तो व्पुष्मान्‌ दीप्त पावकः ||

    तैलेन लीढो मासेन वातान्‌ हन्ति सुदुस्तरान्‌ |

    मूत्रेण श्वित्र कुष्ठानि पीतस्तक्रेण पायुजान्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 12/ 58, 59

    शोथार्श आदिविकारेषु चित्रकघृतम्‌

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 12/ 57

    शोथरोगे

    द्वितीयचित्रकादिघृतम्‌

    पिबेद्‌ घृतं वा अष्टगुणाम्बुसिद्धं सचित्रकक्षारमुदारवीर्यम्‌ |

    कल्याणकं वा अपि सपंच्च गवयम तिक्तम महद्वा अप्यथ तिक्तकं वा ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 13/ 116, 117

    उदररोगे चित्रकघृतम्‌

    चतुर्गुणे जले मूत्रे द्विगुणे चित्रकात्‌ पेले ||

    कल्के सिद्ध घृतप्रस्थ संक्षारं जठरी पिबेत्‌ |

    Bhava Parkasha, Grahani Roga Adhikara, 4/ 52, 53

    ग्रहण्यां चित्रकादिवटी

    चित्रकं पिप्पलीमूलं क्षारों लवण पंच्चक्म |  

    व्योष हिड्ग्वजमोदा च चव्यं चैकत्र चूर्णयेत्‌ ||

    वटिका मातुलुङ्गस्य रसैर्वा दाडिमस्य च |

    कृता विपाचयत्यामं दीपयत्याशु चानलम्‌ ||

    Bhava Parkasha, Vrana Shotha Roga Adhikara, 47/ 93- 97

    व्रण चिकित्सायाम विपरीतमल्लतैलम्‌

    Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 25

    चित्र मूलं दीपनीयपाचनीयगुद्शोथार्श: शूलहराणाम्‌ |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 39

    यथास्वं चित्रकः पुष्पै: ज्ञय: पीतसितासितै: । 

    यथोत्तरं स गुणवान्‌ विधिना च रसायनम्‌ ||

    छायाशुष्क ततो मूलं मांस चूर्णीकृत॑ लिहन्‌ । 

    सर्पिषा मधुसर्पिभ्यां पिबन्‌ वा पयसा यति: ||

    अम्भसा वां हितान्नाशी शतं जीवति नीरुज: |

    मेधावी बलवान्‌ कान्तो वपुष्मान्‌ दीप्तपावक: ||

    तैलेन लीढो मासेन वातान्‌ हन्ति सुदुस्तरानू । 

    मूत्रेण श्वित्र कुष्ठानि पीतस्तक्रेण पायुजान्‌ ||

    Dhanwantri Nighnatu

    चित्रको दहनो व्याल: पाठीनो दारुणो अग्निक:। 

    ज्योतिष्को वल्लरी वहिं: पाली पाठी कटुः शिखी ||

    कृष्णारुणो अनलो द्वीपी चित्रबानुश्च पावक: | 

    चित्रको अग्निसम: पाके कटुक: कफ शोफजित || 

    वातोदरा अर्शो ग्रहणीक्षयपाण्डुविनाशन: ||

    Shodhala Nighnatu

    चित्रके………दारुणो अग्निक: | 

    ज्योतिष्को…….शिखी ||

    Shodhala Nighnatu

    व्याल कोलो हितांगश्च मार्जारो दीपकस्तथा ||

    चित्रको अग्निसम: पाके. शोफार्श: कृमिकृष्ठहा ||

    व्यालो हुताशो हुतभुक्‌ पाली पाठी च पावक:| 

    ज्योतिज्वालो अनलो द्वीपी शिखाग्निज्वलन: शठः ||

    अग्निवत पाचनो रुक्षो वीर्यो उष्ण रोचनो जयेत्‌ । 

    ग्रहणी कफवातामशोफकुष्ठोदरकृमीन्‌ ||

    Specific Formulation of Chitraka

    • Chitrakadi Gutika for Agnimandya and Grahani,
    • Chitrakadi Kwatha for Vtaja Kaphaja Atisara.
    • Chitrakadi Churna for Aamvata.
    • Chitrakadi Ghrita for Sotha and Arsha.
    • Chitrak Haritaki for Kasa and Pinasa.
    • Agnitundi Vati
    • Pippalyadi Churna
    • Panchkol Churna
    • Mustadi Churna
    • Shaddharana Yoga
    • Chitraka Rasayana
    • Chitrakadi Leha

    Panch Kola

    Pippali, Pippali Mula, Chavya, Chitraka, and Nagara together are known by the name of Pancha Kola, if taken each in the proportion of Kola (around 5.5 grams). Pancha kola is pungent in taste and post-digestive effect and promotes taste perception. This group is penetrating, heat generating, digestive, best appetizer, and reduces Kapha and Vata. This group subsides intestinal growths, splenic disorders, abdominal diseases, upper abdominal distension, spasmodic pains, and increases Pitta.

    Shadushana

    The Panchkol group of drugs along with Maricha are known as Sadushana. The properties of Sadushana are similar to Panchakol but predominantly, heat generating, drying, and relieving poisonous effects.

    Contraindication and side effects of Chitraka

    Chitraka on Bahya Paryoga (external use) may result in skin redness and blister formation. So, one should use it under medical supervision.

    Chitraka consists of Plumbagin as an active ingredient which may result in irritation and abdominal colic pain if taken in larger amounts than the then prescribed dosage. Its overdosage may also result in other symptoms: myotonia, hypotonia, irregular pulse, itching of the skin, redness, respiratory failure, etc.

    Improper use of Chitrak causes toxicity. The higher dose of it creates irritant and intoxicant effects. It causes burning of the tongue, throat, stomach, and all over the body, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dysuria, and burning micturition. The pulse becomes feeble and skin becomes wrinkled and cold. If given during pregnancy, it causes irritation of pelvic organs which leads to abortion. There is a tradition of keeping Chitrak root in the vagina for abortion. This causes bleeding from the uterus. Uterus gets contracted and abortion occurs within 3-6 hrs. (Quacks use Chitrak roots for abortion but many times it causes the death of the mother as well as the fetus.) Avoid the use of Chitraka during pregnancy and lactation.

     

    Purification of Chitraka Mula:  Chitraka Mula (Root) which is the useful part, has to be purified with lime water.

     

    Treatment for excessive dose- Cold, unctuous, and non-irritant substances like cow’s ghee should be used. Chitrak is added to milk while boiling it and later on curds and buttermilk is prepared from that milk. Such buttermilk is an excellent remedy for non-bleeding piles produced by Vata and Kapha.

    Suggestive reading regarding Plumbago zeylanica

    • Manu, Pant & Lal, Ankita & Rana, Swati & Teotia, Anju. (2012). PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA L.: A MINI-REVIEW. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications. 3. 399- 405.
    • Choudhary, Shailja & Kaurav, Hemlata & Chaudhary, Gitika. (2021). Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica): A Potential Rejuvenator. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 8. 202- 212. 10. 31033/ ijrasb. 8. 2. 26.
    • Aleem, Mohd. (2020). Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Microbial Potential of Plumbago zeylanica L.: A Review. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 10. 229- 235. 10. 22270/jddt. v10i5-s. 4445.
    • Mandavkar, Yuvaraj & Jalalpure, Sunil. (2011). A comprehensive review on Plumbago zeylanica Linn. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 5. 10. 5897/AJPP11. 739.
    • Shukla, Babita & Usmani, Shazia & Kushwaha, Poonam. (2021). Phytochemistry and pharmacological studies of Plumbago zeylanica L.:a medicinal plant review. Clinical Phytoscience. 7. 10. 1186/ s40816- 021-00271- 7.
    • Sharma, Ankita & Singh, Nimali. (2015). A Multifarious Potent herb: Plumbago Zeylanica. International Journal of Scientific Research. 6. 4825/ 4829.
    • Roy, Arpita & Bharadvaja, Navneeta. (2017). A Review on Multi-Purpose Medicinal Plant Plumbago zeylanica and In-vitro Production of Plumbagin.
    • Bhinde SS, Ravi AK, Patgiri BJ, Harisha CR, Shukla VJ. Standard operating procedure of Purification of Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) along with pharmacognostical and analytical profiles of Plumbagin. Ayu. 2020 Apr-Jun; 41 (2): 117- 122. doi: 10. 4103 /ayu.AYU_299_20. Epub 2021 Oct 23. PMID: 34908796; PMCID: PMC 8614202.
    • Kumar D, Ganguly K, Hegde HV, Patil PA, Roy S, Kholkute SD. The activity of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. root and Holoptelea integrifolia Roxb. bark pastes in acute and chronic paw inflammation in Wistar rat. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2014 Jan; 5 (1): 33- 7. doi: 10. 4103/0975- 9476. 128853. PMID: 24812473; PMCID: PMC4012359.
    • Kapare, Harshad & Metkar, Sarika & Shirolkar, Satish. (2020). ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN. AND ITS ISOLATED CONSTITUENT PLUMBAGIN: A REVIEW’. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 11. 10. 10. 13040/ IJPSR. 0975- 8232. 11 (10). 4859- 65.
    • Singh, Sadhana & Apurva, Priyadarshi & Sharma, Poonam & Priyadarshi, Apurva. (2018). A Brief Review on Medicinal Property of Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn.) from Kosha and Nighantus.
    • Sharma, Prateek & Das, Dr & Das, Kunal & Mahant, Shewta & Mahmood, Zafar. (2020). POTENTIALS OF Plumbago zeylanica TO DEVELOP AS A DRUG AGAINST Helicobacter pylori. Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular Biology. 21. 38 -43.
    • Jain, Paras & Sharma, Hanuman Prasad & Basri, Fauziya & Baraik, Binit & Kumari, Soni. (2014). Pharmacological Profiles of Ethno-Medicinal Plant: Plumbago zeylanica L. – A Review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 24. 157- 163.
    • Subramaniyan, Vetriselvan & Paramasivam, Velmurugan. (2017). POTENTIAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 10. 372. 10.22159/ajpcr. 2017. v10i10. 20357.
    • Sanjana, D. & Babita, S. & Mishra, R. N. (2014). In Vitro antioxidant activities of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Plumbago rosea Linn.: A comparative study. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 6. 531- 535.
    • Sharma, Hanuman & Basri, Fauziya & Baraik, Binit & Pathak, Chanchala & Singh, Soni. (2014). Pharmacological Profiles of Ethno-Medicinal Plant: Plumbago zeylanica L. -A Review. 31- 43.
    • Roy, Arpita. (2017). A review on the pharmaceutically important medical plant: Plumbago zeylanica. 3.
    • Ganesan, Kumar & Banu, Gani. (2013). Ethnomedical and Pharmacological Potentials of Plumbago zeylanica L-A Review. 1. 313- 337.
    • Mishra, Ram. (2012). PLUMBAGO ZEYLINICA LINN. AND PLUMBAGO ROSEA – REVIEW OF MICROPROPAGATION RESEARCH. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry. 2. 208- 216.

    Suggestive reading regarding Plumbago rosea

    • Jose, Binoy & Dhanya, B. & P k, Silja & Krishnan, Peringattulli & Krishnan, Satheeshkumar. (2014). Plumbago rosea L. – A Review on Tissue Culture and Pharmacological Research. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 25. 246- 256.
    • A.R, Akhilraj & Prabhu, Suchitra & .B, Priyalatha & Suhbramanian, Vimala. (2019). Effect of Śodhana (An Ayurvedic purification technique) on Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Plumbago rosea Linn.) with special reference to Plumbagin content. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 8. 630-638. 10. 22271/8- 3- 122.
    • Dr. Akhilraj AR, Dr. Rukmini S. a Systematic Review on Synonyms and Properties of Citraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn. and Plumbago rosea Linn.) from Saṁhitās (Ayurvedic classics) and Nighaṇṭus (Ayurvedic drug lexicons). J Med Plants Stud 2021; 9(3): 33- 40. DOI: 10. 22271/plants. 2021.v9. i3a. 1291
    • C, *Padumadasa, A M, A., & S D K, M. (2016). A PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE SHODHANA (DETOXIFICATION) OF ROOTS OF PLUMBAGO INDICA L. IN AYURVEDA. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research, 3 (12).
    • Akhilraj AR, Bhat S, Priyalatha B, Vimala KS. Comparative hepatoprotective activity of detoxified roots of Plumbago zeylanica L. and Plumbago rosea L. in Wistar rats. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2021 Jul- Sep; 12 (3): 452- 457. doi: 10. 1016/ j.jaim. 2021. 04. 002. Epub 2021 Aug 6. PMID: 34366166; PMCID: PMC8377173.
    • Ariyanathan S, Saraswathy A, Rajamanickam GV. Quality control standards for the roots of three plumbago species. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010 Jan; 72 (1): 86- 91. doi: 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 62254. PMID: 20582195; PMCID: PMC2883232.
    • Pillai, Dhanya & Jose, Binoy & Krishnan, Satheeshkumar & Krishnan, Peringattulli. (2012). Plumbago rosea.
    • Tewtrakul, Supinya. (2002). Plumbagin production by root cultures of Plumbago rosea. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology. 5. 11- 12. 10. 4067/ S0717- 34582002000300006.
    • Priyanjani, Hetti Arachchige & Senarath, Rathnayaka Mudiyanselage & Senarath, WTPSK & Munasinghe, Mayuri. (2021). Propagation, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology of Plumbago indica -A Review. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 33. 188- 202. 10. 9734/ JPRI/2021/ v33i42B32439.
    • Pillai, Dhanya & Jose, Binoy & K, Saheeshkumar & Krishnan, Peringattulli. (2012). Plumbago-2.
    • Palle, Komaraiah & Kishor, P.B. & Ramakrishna, S.V. (2001). Production of plumbagin from cell cultures of Plumbago rosea L. Biotechnology Letters. 23. 1269- 1272. 10. 1023/ A: 1010545630018.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • P.V. Sharma, Priya Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Shodhala Nighantu
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sankrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

    Search

    Generic selectors
    Exact matches only
    Search in title
    Search in content
    Post Type Selectors

    Herbs A to Z

    Allergies A to Z

    Ayurpediatrics A to Z

    Superfoods A to Z

    Dravya (Herbs) Part A

    Dravya (Herbs) Part B

    Query Form

      Ask Our Ayurvedic Allergist

       

      +91 96121-80000

      [email protected]

       

      Book on Ayurvedic Aspects of Allergies and Fungal Infections.

      Book on Child Health and Ayurveda.

      Follow Us

      Follow us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Subscribe us on Youtube Contact us on WhatsApp

      Leave a Reply

      Your email address will not be published.

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Our Products

      No items found

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Follow Us

      Follow us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Subscribe us on Youtube Contact us on WhatsApp
      error: Content is protected !!
      Click Here to Consult Online with Our Health Experts
      +