Avartaki (Cassia auriculata)
Avartaki - Less Known Herb for Diabetes
Avartaki botanically known as Cassia auriculata, is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine. Avartaki belongs to the Fabaceae family and is commonly known as Tanner’s cassia. The word Avartaki means the one which improves the complexion or glow of the body. In Ayurvedic texts, Avartaki is used as a remedy and tonic for Parmeha (diabetes). In the Vedic period there is no mention of the Avartaki herb and Acharya Vagbhata first time in Ashtanga Hridya mentioned the herb Avartaki. Dhanwantri Nighantu mentioned it in Guduchyadi Varga, Madanpala in Abhyadi Varga, and Raja Nighantu in Guduchyadi Varga, etc. Recent research revealed that Avartaki has various active constituents like glycosides, rutin, sitosterol, Gallocatechin, Tannin, etc due to which it exhibits various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-cancerous, etc.
Basonym of Avartaki
आवर्त इव कायति प्रकाश्यते |
Avartaki has got many auricles.
Synonyms of Avartaki
According to Morphology
पीत पुष्प – Avartaki has yellow colored flower.
हेम पुष्प – Flowers of Avartaki are golden yellow.
According to Properties and Actions
विबन्धि – Avartaki has got Stambhana Karma.
Other synonyms of Avartaki are Aahulyam, Charmaranga, Pitakilika, Rakt Phali, Mahajaliniki, Bindukini.
Aahulyam – Aahulyam means which spreads over the ground.
Charmaranga, Ranagkara, Charmaranjankarini – The herb which is used to stain leather (Charm).
Mahadajalini, Marutali, Mahatali, Mahajalinlka – It spread like a net on the earth.
Pitkala, Pitkla, Pitpushpa, Pitkalikyukta – Flowers are yellow.
Regional Names of Avartaki
- Tanner’s Cassia (English)
- Caramranga, Taravara (Hindi)
- Avarike, Tangadi (Kannada)
- Avara (Malayalam)
- Tarwad (Marathi)
- Tarwar (Bengali)
- Avarai (Tamil)
- Tangedu (Telugu)
- Aval (Gujarati)
Scientific Classification of Avartaki
|Family||Caesalpinaceae / Fabaceae|
Botanical Name of Avartaki
Cassia auriculata Linn.
The Cassia word is derived from the name Kasian (GK) and Auriculata means small ear-shaped.
Caesalpinaceae/ Fabaceae (Putikaranjadi Kula)
Ayurveda Reference for Avartaki (Cassia auriculata Linn.)
Classification of Avartaki - As Per Charaka and Sushruta
Charaka: Not mentioned in Mahakshaya
Sushruta: Not mentioned in Gana
Avartaki's Description in Brihtrayi as Adari Shimbi
Aaadari has been described by Dalhana as Velantar Sdrish Pushpa Lohita Phal ach i.e., having flowers like Vellantara and fruit reddish in color and according to Kartikakunda, it is Aula which most probably is Cassia auriculata Linn.
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 44/ 19
Avartaki's Description in Brihtrayi as Vriscikali (Controversy)
The commentators differ regarding the identity of this drug. This is bitter (Tiktarasa), pacifies Vata (Vata shamsamana S. S. Su. 39. 7) and Tridosa nasaka, cleanses wounds (Vrana sodhaka), and is useful in worms (Krimi), skin diseases, poisoning, asthma ( Svasa), cough ( Kasa), Anaemias (Pandu), insanity ( Unmada) and epilepsy ( Apasmara) etc. Its roots are errhine (C. S. Vi. 8. 158). Three plant species are usually mentioned in connection with their identity. One of these has been described as a dextrose climber having leaves slightly hairy and like those of Patha in shape, spinous fruits looking like horns of sheep (Mesasringa), and clusters of white flowers. This is the description of Pergularia extensa popularly known as Utarana. Other alternative sources of Vrscikali appear to have been suggested by the popular names of Vrsciyaka and Viscikaparti. They may be Tragia involucrate or Girardenia heterophylla. The first one is a stout herb with a perennial stock, usually twining branches and scattered pungent hairs causing itching on contact. The second is a herbaceous plant covered with stinging hairs and found along the footpaths in the hills of the Himalayan region. Its young leaves are used as a pot herb by the local inhabitants and it is said to be used in Vata diseases. While continuing the use of Pergularia roots, the other two, especially Tragia, may be examined if they can be used as Vrscikali. It may be noted that Pergularia was previously suggested to be the source of Ajasringi as well. Ajasrigi is a climber and resembles more or less both Mesasrigi and Vrscikali in use. But unlike Mesasringi its roots have been used especially as a purgative (Virecaka) substance. Then again Pergularia, being a twiner with horn-like fruits, could also be named a variant and visinika. Cassia auriculata Linn., called Ahula and mentioned in the texts as Adarisimbi may be another possible source of Avartani and Visanika like Adarisimbi. All of these drug names can be placed under the Ajasringi group of drug names mentioned earlier under Mesasringi.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Vi. 8/ 158, C. S. Chi. 9/ 53, C. S. Chi. 10/ 32, 43, C. S Chi. 13/ 108, C. S. Chi. 16/ 119
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 38/ 4, 16, S. S. Su. 39/ 7, S. S. Su. 42/ 18
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 9, 28, A. H. Chi. 15/ 49, A. H. Chi. 16/ 37, A. H. U. 2/ 10, 76, A. H. 6/ 36, A. H. U. 22/ 34
Historical Background of Avartaki
The plant is a perennial shrub, and its flowers are yellow-colored. It is found in many parts of India. It is not mentioned in Charaka Samhita but in Sushruta in Uttara Tantra 44/ 19 and Vagbhata in Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 22 have quoted it as Adarisimbi and Avartaki respectively. Adari has been described by Dalhaan as a plant having flowers like Vellantara and a fruit reddish in color.
Controversial Studies of Avartaki
Bhavamira has given the word Markandika and now this word Markandi is being used for Sanaya, Cassia angustifolia (Senna officinalis Roxb.). Otherwise, there was confusion about Sanskrit names. Some named it Avartaki which is Cassia auriculata (Guj.). Rajanighantu has given Aahulyam as Aaval and Bhumi Aahulyam as Markandi. This Bhumi Aahulyam is changed to Bhumivalli by Bhavamira. But now, Markandi is considered by most of the Vaidyas as senna.
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External Morphology of Cassia auriculata Linn.
- Habit: Avartaki is a tall, much-branched shrub.
- Bark: The bark of Avartaki is smooth, reddish brown, and branchlets are finely pubescent.
- Leaves: Leaves of Avartaki are 7.5-10 cm. long; rachis densely fulvous pubescent with an erect linear gland between each pair of leaflets, stipules foliaceous, reflexed, very large, reniform, produced at the base on the side next to the petiole into a long subulate point, persistent. Leaflets of the Avartaki are 8- 12 pairs 2- 2.5 cm., slightly overlapping, oblong-obovate, obtuse or marginate, mucronate, glabrous or finely downy, dull green above, paler beneath, base usually rounded, petiolules 1.25 mm. long.
- Inflorescence: Flowers of Avartaki are large, reaching 5 cm. across, in terminal and axillary corymbose racemes. Pedicels 2- 2.5 cm. long; bracts ovate, acuminate, caducous. Calyx glabrous segments are leathery, and concave; the outer much smaller than the other. Petals with long claws, crisped on the margins, bright yellow, veined with orange. Stamens 10, of which the 3 uppers are reduced to staminodes, the remaining 7 perfect, of which the 3 lower are larger than the 4 lateral ones.
- Fruit: The fruit of Avartaki is Pods. Pods are 7.5-12.5 by 1.3-1.6 cm., flat, thin, papery, oblong, obtuse, mucronate; pale brown, deeply depressed between the seeds, having a crumpled appearance transversely veined, pubescent.
- Seeds: Seeds in the pods of Avartaki are 10- 20 in number.
Flowering and fruiting time
Rainy to autumn season, i.e., July- September.
Distribution of Cassia auriculata
It is found in dry regions of the Central Provinces and the Western Peninsula, Rajputana desert, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, and other areas in India, Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
The Useful Part of Avartaki
Panchanga (Pushpa, Phala, Patra, Twak, and Beeja)
Adulteration by Avartaki
Avartaki is used as an adulterant for Markandika (Cassia angustifolia).
Important Phytoconstituent of Avartaki
Roots contain Flavone glycoside, beta-sitosterol, rutin, and Galacto pyranoside.
The stem bark contains catechin, dimeric procyanidins, epicatechin, and gallocatechin. The plant also contains nonacosiane, tannin, auriculacidine.
Recent Research on Cassia auriculata
- Pari, L. & Latha, M. (2008). Antidiabetic Activity of Cassia auriculata Flowers: Effect on Lipid Peroxidation in Streptozotocin Diabetes Rats. Pharmaceutical Biology. 40. 512- 517. 10. 1076/ phbi. 40. 7. 512. 14683. Cassia auriculata, commonly known as “Tanner’s cassia,” is widely used in Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Oral administration of 0.45 g/ kg body weight of the aqueous extract of the flower for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in plasma insulin, but in the case of 0.15 and 0.30 g/kg, was not significant. The aqueous extract also resulted in decreased free radical formation in the tissues studied. Thus, this study shows that Cassia auriculata flower extract (CFEt) has hypoglycemic action. The decrease in lipid peroxides and increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S -transferase (GST) clearly show the antioxidant properties of CFEt. The effect of CFEt was most prominently seen in the case of animals given 0.45 g/ kg body weight. CFEt was more effective than glibenclamide.
- Jalalpure, Sunil & Patil, MB & Pai, Aruna & Shah, BN & Salahuddin, Mohammed. (2005). Antidiabetic Activity of Cassia auriculata Seeds In Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine. 8. 10. 4314/ njnpm. v8i1. 11807. The petroleum ether (40- 60 ºC), chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata seeds, obtained by soxhlet extraction method were evaluated for antidiabetic activity using alloxan (60 mg/kg through the tail vein) induced hypoglycemic rats on acute and prolonged treatment. The potency of extracts was compared with that of standard tolbutamide (250 mg/ kg body weight, p.o.). Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed highly significant (p< 0.001) antidiabetic activity in both acute and prolonged treatment studies. The results were comparable to the standard drug tolbutamide. Nig. J. Nat. Prod. and Med. Vol. 8 2004: 22- 23
- Bandawane, D.D. & Beautikumari, S. & Gate, S.S. & Patel, A. N. (2014). Evaluation of the anti-arthritic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia auriculata Linn. leaves. Biomedicine & Aging Pathology. 4. 10. 1016/ j. biomass. 2013. 10. 009. Aim of the study Cassia auriculata L. (Caesalpiniaceae) is a herb, used as a traditional Indian medicine for inflammation and rheumatism and it is reported to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Because of its potent anti-inflammatory activity, the present study was designed to evaluate its anti-arthritic activity and to identify the phytoconstituents responsible for the proposed activity. Material and methods: Anti-arthritic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia auriculata leaves (EACA) was evaluated using Freund’s complete adjuvants (FCA) induced arthritic models in Wistar rats. The arthritic assessment was carried out based on parameters including paw edema, motor incoordination, and nociceptive threshold. At the end of the study period, animals were sacrificed and various biochemical, oxidative stress, hematological, radiological, and histological parameters were evaluated. The ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia auriculata leaves (EACA) was subjected to qualitative and quantitative phytochemical investigation along with HPTLC analysis using standard biomarker quercetin and gallic acid. Results: Administration of EACA significantly attenuated the behavioral, biochemical, hematological, and radiological alterations induced by the FCA in a dose-dependent manner. The tibiotarsal joint was extracted for histopathology. The overall results indicate that EACA exerts a potent protective effect against FCA-induced arthritic rats which is due to its major phytoconstituents quercetin and gallic acid. Conclusion: From our study, we can conclude that the quercetin and gallic acid present in EACA possesses promising anti-arthritic activity by modulating bone erosion which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity.
- Ganesh, Soorya & Lakshminarayanan, Arivarasu & Shanmugam, Rajeshkumar & Thangavelu, Lakshmi. (2021). Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cassia auriculata Flower Extract. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 396- 403. 10. 9734/ jpri/ 2021/ v33i62A35614. Introduction: Medicinal plants have provided recent medicines with numerous plant-derived therapeutic agents. Avaram is extremely valued in Indian medicines for the management of painful inflammation and diabetes. The target of this study was to measure the anti-inflammatory potential of Cassia auriculata flower extract. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay, proteinase inhibitory activity, and membrane stabilization at different concentrations. Aspirin and Voltaren were used as standard drugs. The share of inhibition was compared with those of normal drugs Materials and Methods: BSA and EAA assays were used to test the anti-inflammatory activity of plant extract. Cassia auriculata was purchased commercially from an herbal health center in Chennai. The obtained powder Cassia auriculata is stored in an airtight container. 5 grams of powder is mixed with 50 ml of ethanol and kept in the orbital shaker for 72 hours after it has boiled in a heating mantle at 62- 70-degree c for 5- 10 min. The extract is filtered using Whatman filter paper 1. The filtered extract again contracted using a heating mantle. Results: The extract shows very good anti-inflammatory activity for the Cassia auriculata extract by using BSA and EAA Assay. Conclusion: The anti-inflammatory activity of Cassia auriculata ethanolic extract preparation was effective.
- Murugan, Thiru & Wins, J & Manavalan, Murugan. (2013). Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata. Indian Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 75. 122- 5. 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 113546. Plants produce a wide variety of phytochemical constituents, which are secondary metabolites and are used either directly or indirectly in the pharmaceutical industry. ‘For centuries, man has effectively used various components of plants or their extracts for the treatment of many diseases, including bacterial infections. In the present study methanol, chloroform, and aqueous extracts of Cassia auriculata leaf were subjected to antimicrobial activity by well-diffusion method against six bacterial strains namely Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis. The results revealed that the methanol and chloroform extracts exhibited strong inhibitory activity against all the tested organisms (zone of inhibition of 12- 20 mm), except Pseudomonas aeruginosa (zone of inhibition 10 mm or nil). The aqueous extracts showed moderate activity by Zone of inhibition ≤ 12 or nil). The extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents by standard protocols and were shown to contain carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, and tannins. The antibacterial activity of these extracts is possibly linked to the presence of flavonoids, steroids, saponins, and/ or tannins. Further studies are needed to determine the precise active principles of Cassia auriculata.
- Prasanna, Rajagopalan & Chinna Konda Chandramoorthy, Harish & Pichai, R & Sakthisekaran, D & Gunasekaran, P. (2008). Anti-cancer effect of Cassia auriculata leaf extract in vitro through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in human breast and larynx cancer cell lines. Cell biology international. 33. 127- 34. 10. 1016/ j. cell. 2008. 10. 006. The in vitro anti-cancer effect of Cassia auriculata leaf extract (CALE) was evaluated in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF- 7 and human larynx carcinoma Hep- 2 cell lines. CALE preferentially inhibited the growth of both the cell lines in a dose-dependent manner with IC (50) values of 400 and 500 microg for MCF- 7 and Hep- 2 cells, respectively. The results showed the anti-cancer action is due to nuclear fragmentation and condensation, associated with the appearance of an A (0) peak in cell cycle analysis that is indicative of apoptosis. In addition, CALE-treated MCF- 7 and Hep-2 cells had decreased expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein and increased expression of pro-apoptotic Bax protein, eventually leading to a decrease in the Bcl- 2/ Bax ratio. These results demonstrated that CALE inhibits the proliferation of MCF-7 and Hep- 2 cells through induction of apoptosis, making CALE a candidate as a new anti-cancer drug.
- Nawaz, Madiha & Banu, Afroos & Mohamed, S. & Palanivelu, M. & Mariam, Ayesha. (2020). Anticancer Activity of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Cassia auriculata Extract. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 1-9. 10. 9734/ ejmp/ 2020/ v31i230210. In this study, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has been done using traditional herbs namely Cassia auriculata extract by the simple Green synthesis method. The synthesized Ag nanoparticles were studied by the characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD) crystallography for the nature of crystalline with relevant parameters, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for particle size as well as the SAED patterns for amorphous, crystalline, or Poly nanocrystalline and Photoluminescence analysis were carried out for the prepared NPs. Ag NPs were fabricated utilizing a Phyto-aquatic extract of Cassia auriculata which acts as a reducing agent, and it was converted into a precursor solution to coat on cotton fabrics for antibacterial applications. To further, its performance on the anticancer application was studied for Michigan Cancer Foundation- 7 (MCF- 7) line breast cancer.
- Vijaya Vara Prasad, Medapati. (2011). EVALUATION OF CASSIA AURICULATA LEAVES FOR ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY IN EXPERIMENTAL RATS. Cassia auriculata Linn. Known locally as ‘avaram’ (Caesalpiniaceae) has been used for the treatment of ulcers, leprosy, and skin and liver diseases in traditional medicine, but no systematic study to report yet supports the antiulcer activity. Hence, the present study evaluates the ulcer protective effect of Cassia auriculata leaves against ethanol-induced mucosal damage (EIMD) in rats. The experimental animals were treated with 250 mg/ Kg of petroleum ether extract (PECA), chloroform extract (CECA), methanolic extract (MECA), and ethyl acetate extract (EECA) of leaves of Cassia auriculata orally. Ranitidine (20mg/ Kg) was used as standard. A significant decrease in mean ulcer number (MUN), mean ulcer score (MUS), mean ulcer percentage (MUP), and ulcer index (UI) was observed with petroleum ether extract whereas chloroform and methanolic extracts has shown a decrease only in MUN and MUS. No significant effect was observed with ethyl acetate extract. The phytochemical screening of Cassia auriculata leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac-glycosides, and phenols which might be present in petroleum ether extract contributing to ulcer protective effect. Further studies are necessary for the isolation and characterization of active principle that helps to identify suitable lead molecules for anti-ulcer activity.
- Ahmad, Dr & Thayyil, Hameed & Shaik, Rasheed & Ibrahim, Mohammed. (2010). Anti-ulcer activity of cassia auriculata leaf extract. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2. 53– 57. 10. 1016/ S0975- 3575 (10) 80050- 1. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-ulcer activity of cassia auriculata leaf extract against pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcers. The methanolic leaf extract of cassia auriculata at a dose of 300 mg/ kg p.o. markedly decrease the incidence of ulcers in pyloric ligated rats. In pyloric-ligated rats, there was an increase in the gastric volume, free and total acidity, and ulcerative index as compared to the control group. The methanolic leaf extract of cassia auriculata at a dose of, 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in the above parameters which was comparable to the standard drug famotidine (10 mg/ kg). Cassia auriculata extract showed a protection index of 79.4 %, whereas standard drug famotidine showed a protection index of 90.7 %.
- Vijayaraj, Panneerselvam & Kannan, Muthukumar & Jayaraja, Sabarirajan & Nachiappan, Vasanthi. (2011). Evaluation of the antihyperlipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia auriculata flowers. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 48. 54- 8. Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease. Cassia auriculata is traditionally used in India for medicinal purposes. In this study, the effect of ethanolic extract of Cassia auriculata flowers (Et-CAF) was investigated in Triton WR1339- induced hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with the Et-CAF (450 mg/ kg b.wt) significantly reduced the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) levels and significantly increased the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level associated with the reduction of the atherogenic index in hyperlipidemic rats. However, there was no change in the serum lipid profile of normal rats treated with Et- CAF alone. The results suggest that Et-CAF has a beneficial effect in treating hyperlipidemia and may serve as a potential drug for the prevention of hyperlipidemia atherosclerosis.
- Subhadradevi, V & Asokkumar, K & Umamaheswari, M & Thirumalaisamy, Sivashanmugam & Ushanandhini, J & Jagannath, P. (2012). Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves and Flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 46. 10. 3329/ bjsir. v46i4. 9600. Since ancient times plants as sources of medicinal compounds have continued to play a dominant role in the maintenance of human health. To treat chronic and infectious diseases plants used in traditional medicine contain a wide range of ingredients. In this regard, Cassia auriculata L. (Caesalpiniaceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic medicine as a tonic, astringent, and as a remedy for diabetes, conjunctivitis, ulcers, leprosy, skin and liver diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia auricula-ta leaves and flowers (CALE & CAFE). CALE and CAFE exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis and exhibited no antifungal activity against standard strains of Candida albi-cans and Aspergillus niger. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were carried out for CALE and CAFE. The results obtained in the present study indicate that CALE and CAFE can be potential sources of natural antimicrobial agents.
- Sahoo, Jyotirmayee & Thummakomma, Kamalaja & Suchiritha, S & Pettugani, Sreedevi. (2020). Nutritional composition of cassia auriculata flower powder. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 9. 867-870. The Various parts of Cassia auriculata L. provide health and nutrition-promoting compounds in the human diet. The present review aims to compile the nutritional composition of Cassia Auriculata flower powder. The nutritional composition was determined in the extract of Cassia auriculata flower using standard methods. The result showed the total antioxidant content of cassia flower was found to be high i.e., 546.3 µg/ 100g and the total phenols and flavonoids content of cassia flower powder was 249.13 mg of GAE/ 100gm and 304 mg of QE/ 100gm and the high amount of antinutrient such as tannin (1.82 mg/ 100g), oxalates (54.55 mg/ 100g) and phytates (23.90 mg/ 100g) also present. It is also rich in Physico-chemical properties such as moisture (11.73%), protein (9.54%), ash (5.51%), fat (2.98%) fiber (1.89%), iron (189.95 mg/ kg), and zinc (17.53 mg/ kg). Due to its nutritional quality, it is used for the treatment of pain, urinary tract disorders, conjunctivitis, liver diseases, etc.
- Haripriya, Vijayakumari & Dhamotharan, Karuppusamy & Shukla, Santosh & Suvekbala, Vemparthan & Ragupathy, Lakshminarayanan & Kumaran, Alaganandam. (2018). Aphrodisiac properties of hydro‐alcoholic extract of Cassia auriculata flower in male rats. Andrologia. 51. 10. 1111 and 13180. Cassia auriculata is a commonly found plant in Asia, widely used in Ayurveda and Siddha medicines as a tonic, astringent, and in general for diabetes. Herbal tea made from this plant has been marketed as a product for restoring sexual vitality, increasing sperm count, and counteracting ejaculatory disorders. However, scientific evidence is scarce to prove this concept. Here, we examined the effect of hydro‐alcoholic extract obtained from C. auriculata flower upon the expression of male Wistar albino rats’ sexual behavior. Sildenafil was used as a positive control. Penile erection index (PEI), mount latency (ML), intromission latency (IL), ejaculation latency (EL), mounting frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), ejaculation frequency (EF), and post‐ejaculatory interval (PEjI) were recorded for days 0, 7, 14 and 28 and also after the withdrawal of the treatment on days 7 and 15. Significant reduction in ML, IL, and PEjI, and increment in EL, PEI, MF, IF, and EF were observed (p < 0.05, <0.01). However, neither extract nor sildenafil sustains the effect after withdrawal from the treatment. The present finding demonstrates the aphrodisiac potential of the hydro‐alcoholic extract of C. auriculata flower in vivo and lends support to the traditional utilization as a sexually stimulating agent.
- Jyothi, S.G. & Chavan, S.C. & Somashekaraiah, B. V. (2012). In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antidiabetic efficacy of Cassia auriculata L. Flowers. Global Journal of Pharmacology. 6. 33- 40. The present study was designed to assess in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antidiabetic efficiency of Cassia auriculata L. flowers and their phytochemical analysis. In vitro, antioxidant competence was screened for scavenging DPPH, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydroxyl, hydrogen peroxide, and lipid peroxides in addition to reducing power and metal ion chelating capabilities. The inhibitory effect on carbohydrate digestive enzymes -amylase and -glucosidase was studied concerning acarbose. In vivo, parameters such as fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma insulin, reduced glutathione, and activities of antioxidant enzymes were studied concerning glibenclamide. The methanolic extract showed higher anti-lipid peroxide and DPPHradical scavenging ability. The potent inhibitory effect was observed on the activities of -amylase and -glucosidase. The marked decrease in the glucose level in the extract-treated streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was due to elevated levels of insulin. The increased activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione accounts for the antiradical activity of the extract. RP- HPLC analysis indicated the presence of mixed catechins, caffeine, and quercetin. These bioactive constituents validate antioxidative ability and provide a scientific basis for the usage of Cassia auriculata L. flowers in ayurvedic formulations in the treatment of diabetes and other related inflammatory diseases.
- Doshi, Gaurav & Shidhaye, Supriya & Aggarwal, Gayatri & Pillai, Preeja & Bhalerao, Abhijeet & Desai, Sandhya. (2011). Antibacterial potential of Cassia auriculata flowers. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research. 1. Medicinal herbs as potential sources of therapeutic aids have attained a significant role in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals not only in the diseased condition but also as potential material for maintaining proper health. Cassia auriculata has a wide range of pharmacological actions hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate its efficacy against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. The antibacterial potential of methanolic extract of dry flowers of Cassia auriculata was conducted using the agar disc diffusion method. The microorganisms used include Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi, and Escherichia coli. The maximum activity was observed against all microorganisms and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined depending on the microorganisms. Cassia auriculata was observed to have antibacterial activity and can be used to combat against vast flora of microorganisms.
- Jaydeokar, Ashish & Bandawane, Deepti & Bibave, Kiran & Patil, Tushar. (2014). Hepatoprotective potential of Cassia auriculata roots on ethanol and antitubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models. Pharmaceutical biology. 52. 344- 55. 10. 3109/ 13880209. 2013. 837075. Context: Tarvada [Cassia auriculata Linn. (Caesalpiniaceae)] is used against liver ailments in Indian folk medicine, but there is a lack of scientific evidence for this traditional claim. Objective: The present study investigated the protective effect of methanol extract of tarvada (MECA) roots on ethanol and antitubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and methods: In the therapeutic model, ethanol (40%, 4 g/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered to rats for 21 days and the intoxicated rats were treated with MECA (300 and 600 mg/kg, b.w.) and silymarin (100 mg/kg, b.w.) for next 7 days. In the prophylactic model, MECA and silymarin were administered simultaneously along with a combination of isoniazid (27 mg/ kg, b.w.), rifampicin (54 mg/ kg, b.w.) and pyrazinamide (135 mg/ kg, b.w.) for 30 days. After the study duration, serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, total protein, and albumin were estimated along with hepatic catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver histopathology in each group. Results: Administration of tarvada root extract significantly (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05) lowered the elevated levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, and total protein and restored the abnormal levels of enzymatic antioxidants and MDA in liver due to toxicant administration in a dose-dependent manner. These results were confirmed by histopathological analysis. Discussion and conclusion: Results suggest that tarvada root extract possesses potent hepatoprotective activity against ethanol and antitubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity in rats, which could be due to an inhibition of hepatic metabolizing enzymes and antioxidant activity.
Rasa Panchaka of Avartaki
|Rasa (Taste)||Tikta (Bitter), Kashaya (Astringent)|
|Guna (Virtue)||Ruksha (Dry), Laghu (Light)|
|Virya (Potency)||Sheeta (Cold Potency)|
|Vipaka (Post-Digestion)||Katu (Pungent)|
Dosha Karma of Avartaki
Kapha Pitta Shamaka
Pitta Shamaka due to its Sheeta Virya and Kashaya, Tikta Rasa. Kapha Shamaka because of its Katu Vipaka and Kashaya, Tikta Rasa.
Karma (Actions) of Avartaki
Stambhana (Prabala), Krimighana, Rakta Stambhana Rodhaka, Mutra Sangrahniya, Shukra Stambhana (pushpa), Garbhasaya Stravahara, Kusthghana, Kandughana, Cakshushya, (flower), Mehaghana, Vishaghana (beeja), Chardi, Krimihara (phala), Kaphaghana, Swasahara, Trishnagrahana, Varnya (mula).
Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Avartaki
Abhyantara: Atisara, Pravahika, Rakta Atisara, Krimi, Raktasrava, Raktapitta, Pramehasrava, Madhumeha, Sukrameha, Pradara, Garbhashya Strava, Atyaartava, Kustha, Kandu, Charm Vikara, Shukrashya, Sheeghra Virya Patana, Vrana Vikara, Swasa Kasahara, Trishna, Daha, Jwara, Dhatukshaya.
Bahya: Vrana, Netra Abhishyanda.
Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Avartaki
Atisara (Diarrhoea): Churna of seeds are given 6 grams with water or buttermilk will help in Atisara.
Twak Vikara (Skin diseases): Swarasa of Avartaki is useful in Twak Vikara.
Benefits of Avartaki
- The root is alexiteric, useful in thirst, and urinary discharges, cures tumors, skin diseases, and asthma, and causes flatulence.
- The leaves are anti-helminthic and good for ulcers, leprosy, and skin diseases. A decoction of the entire plant is given in diabetes mellitus and other ailments.
- The flowers are used in urinary discharges, nocturnal emissions, diabetes, and throat troubles.
- The fruits are anti-helminthic and useful in vomiting, thirst, and urinary discharges.
- The seeds are alexipharmic; used in ophthalmia, diabetes, and dysentery.
- The bark is astringent. The seeds are applied to the eyes in chronic purulent conjunctivitis.
- The bark and roots are considered astringent and used as an alternative.
- The plant is given in chylous urine as a diuretic and in diabetes with good results; either its powder with honey is given or its decoction.
- An infusion of the leaves makes a cooling drink. The bark being highly astringent is a valuable substitute for tannic acid or oak bark.
- A decoction of the flowers and flower buds is an excellent remedy for diabetes; they are also used as pessaries to check an excessive menstrual flow.
- The seeds are refrigerant and attenuated; an electuary made of the seeds is administered in doses of a small teaspoonful twice a day. Their fine powder is a valuable remedy for purulent ophthalmia ailment; the fine powder is blown into the affected eyes, or an ointment made with coconut oil or sesame oil is applied. The seeds are also given in diabetes in the same form as the flowers used.
- In ulcers and conjunctivitis, the paste and collyrium of the plant are applied. It is used in hemorrhage as a styptic.
- External use is also made in skin affections. Whole plants or various parts are useful in leucorrhoea. The seeds are used to counter poisons.
- The decoction of the bark is used in hydrocele. The juice of the root bark mixed with salt is given in cholera, gastro-enteritis, gastritis, colic, vomiting, and dyspepsia; and it is given bowel and intestinal complaints.
- The leaves are pasted over the abdomen in the condition of colic. In the cases of sprains and bruises, the leaves admixtured with leaves of tamarind (Cincha patra) and svarjika kshara are made into a paste and it is topically applied over affected organs.
- The fomentation of leaves or vapored leaves (svedita patra) is locally applied over Snayuka Janya shotha (naru diseases in Rajasthan), and similar complaints.
- The leaves are pasted over glandular inflammation and it also reduces pain. In the condition of stiffness of the neck, shoulder, or any other organs, the leaves are employed to cover the coat where the patient is lying down, and this kind of application is said to be helpful to relieve the trouble.
- The application of leaves is useful in stomatitis; the leaves are chewed, and the juice is used as a gargle or local lotion.
- The flowers are used to promote skin color and are used in color ailments. In liver enlargement and inflammation, the leaves are pasted externally as well as they are (juice) given orally. Various parts of the plant are useful in veterinary medicine.
Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Avartaki
- Beeja Churna (Powder): 3- 6 grams
- Twaka Kwatha (Decoction): 50- 100 ml
- Pushpa Swarasa (Seed Powder): 10- 20 ml
Classical reference of Avartaki
Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, 203
आवर्तकी तिन्दुकिनी विभाण्ड पीत कालिका |
चर्मरंग पीतपुष्पा महा जालिनी रुच्यते ||
Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi varga, 204
Properties and actions
आवर्तकी च कुष्ठघ्नी स ऊर्ध्व अधो दोष नाशिनी |
कषाय शीतल वृष्य त्रिदोशघ्न अतिसारजित ||
Madanpal Nighantu, Abhyadi Varga, 245- 246
Synonyms, Properties and actions
महाजालनिका चर्मरङ्गः स्यात्पीतकीलका |
आवर्तकी बिन्दुकिनी विभाण्डी रक्तपुष्पिका ||
महाजालनिका तिक्ता रेचनी कफपित्तजित् |
हन्ति दाहोदरानाहशोथकुष्ठक्रिमिज्वरान् ||
Raja Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, 134,135
Synonyms, Properties and actions
आवर्तकी तिन्दुकिनी विभाण्डी विषाणिका रङ्गलता मनोज्ञा |
सा रक्तपुष्पी महदादिजाली सा पीतकीलाऽपि च चर्मरङ्गा ||
वामावर्ता च सम्प्रोक्ता भूसङ्ख्या शशिसंयुता |
आवर्तकी कषायाम्ला शीतला पित्तहारिणी ||
आहुलयम तिक्त शीतं स्याच्च चक्षुष्य पित्त दोषनुत |
मुख रुक कुष्ठ कण्डुति जंतु शूल व्रणापहम ||
पुष्पम फलं च तत्पुष्प॑ सहसा प्रमेहशमनं स्वर्णस्य वर्णप्रद॑ |
बाल॑ तस्य फल वमिक्रिमिहरं सर्वप्रमेहापहम् |
तृष्णाघ्नं सकषायमक्षिहितकृद् रुच्य॑ तथा दुर्जर |
तदबीजं मधुमेहहद् विषहरं रक्तातिसारं जयेत् ||
तन्मूल॑ पवनप्रकोपि मधुर तृष्णाप्रमेहं जयेदच्छवासघनम गुरु रक्त पित्त शमनं शुक्र क्षय पूजितं |
Kaiydeva Nighnatu, Aushadhi varga, 996- 998
चर्मरङ्गाबिन्दुकिनी विभाण्डी पीतकीलिका ||
आर्वतकी रक्तपुष्पी मलाजालिनिका मता |
चर्मरङ्गा सरा तिक्ता कषाया कफपित्तहा ||
Kaiydeva Nighnatu, Aushadhi varga, 999- 1001
तत्पुष्पं सहसा प्रमेहहरणं स्वर्णस्य वर्णप्रदम् |
बालं तस्य फलं वमिकृमिहरं सर्वप्रमेहापहम् ||
तृष्णाघ्नं सकषायमक्षिहितकृद्रुच्यं तथा दुर्जरम् |
तद्बीजं मधुमेरहृद् विषहरं रक्तातिसारं जयेत् ||
तन्मूलं पवनप्रकोपि मधुरं तृष्णां प्रमेहं जयेत् |
श्वासघ्नं गुरु रक्तपित्तशमनं शुक्रक्षये पूजितम् ||
Dravyaguna Vigyana, Page 381
आवर्तकी कषाय अति स्तम्भनी तिक्त शीतला |
रक्त पित्त अतिसारघ्नी कृमि कुष्ठ विनाशिनी |
नेत्र रोग प्रमेहे च तात पुष्पम तू प्रयुजिते |
Ashtanga Hridya, Chikitsa 19- 22
Shodhala Nighantu, Chandanadi Varga, 368
मषावर्तकिनी तीक्ष्णा रेचनी वामनी मता |
अग्नितुल्यास्थिमांसानां द्रावणी क्रिमिनाशनी ||
तद्वदङ्गारका सा तु वातरक्तहरा स्मृता |
भल्लातकस्य त्वङ्मांसं बृंहणं स्वादुशीतलम् ||
Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 19
उमे बृहत्यौ रजनीं शुकाख्यां काकादनीं चापि सकाकमाचीम् |
आदारिबिम्बीं सकदम्बपुष्पीं विपाच्य सर्पिर्विपचेत् कषाये ||
तत् पाण्डुतां हन्त्युपयुज्यमानं क्षीरेण वा मागधिका यथाग्नि |
Specific Formulation of Avartaki
- Avartaki Ghrita for Pandu
- Avartaki Putapaka for Netra Roga
Contraindication and Side Effects of Avartaki
- Excessive usage of Avartaki may result in vomiting, nausea, dizziness, diarrhea, liver damage, etc.
- Avoid using Avartaki during pregnancy and lactation.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Cassia auriculata
- Nawaz, Madiha & Banu, Afroos & Mohamed, S. & Palanivelu, M. & Mariam, Ayesha. (2020). Anticancer Activity of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Cassia auriculata Extract. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 1-9. 10. 9734/ ejmp/ 2020/ v31i230210.
- Raja, Devados & Jeganathan, Nattanmai & Manavalan, Rajappan. (2013). In vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of Cassia auriculata Linn. International Current Pharmaceutical Journal. 2. 10. 3329/ ICJ. v2i6. 14869.
- Pari, L. & Latha, M. (2008). Antidiabetic Activity of Cassia auriculata Flowers: Effect on Lipid Peroxidation in Streptozotocin Diabetes Rats. Pharmaceutical Biology. 40. 512- 517. 10. 1076/ phbi. 40. 7. 512. 14683.
- Ganesh, Soorya & Lakshminarayanan, Arivarasu & Shanmugam, Rajeshkumar & Thangavelu, Lakshmi. (2021). Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Cassia auriculata Flower Extract. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 396- 403. 10. 9734/ jpri/ 2021/ v33i62A35614.
- Ahmad, Dr & Thayyil, Hameed & Shaik, Rasheed & Ibrahim, Mohammed. (2010). Anti-ulcer activity of cassia auriculata leaf extract. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2. 53– 57. 10. 1016/ S0975- 3575 (10) 80050- 1.
- Vijayaraj, Panneerselvam & Kannan, Muthukumar & Jayaraja, Sabarirajan & Nachiappan, Vasanthi. (2011). Antihyperlipidemic activity of Cassia auriculata flowers in triton WR 1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathology. 10. 1016/ j. etc. 2011. 07. 001.
- Subhadradevi, V & Asokkumar, K & Umamaheswari, M & Thirumalaisamy, Sivashanmugam & Ushanandhini, J & Jagannath, P. (2012). Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves and Flowers of Cassia auriculata Linn. Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research. 46. 10. 3329/ bjsir. v46i4. 9600.
- Doshi, Gaurav & Shidhaye, Supriya & Aggarwal, Gayatri & Pillai, Preeja & Bhalerao, Abhijeet & Desai, Sandhya. (2011). Antibacterial potential of Cassia auriculata flowers. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology Research. 1.
- Murugan, Thiru & Wins, J & Manavalan, Murugan. (2013). Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata. Indian Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 75. 122- 5. 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 113546.
- Vijaya Vara Prasad, Medapati. (2011). EVALUATION OF CASSIA AURICULATA LEAVES FOR ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY IN EXPERIMENTAL RATS.
- Jaydeokar, Ashish & Bandawane, Deepti & Bibave, Kiran & Patil, Tushar. (2014). Hepatoprotective potential of Cassia auriculata roots on ethanol and antitubercular drug-induced hepatotoxicity in experimental models. Pharmaceutical biology. 52. 344- 55. 10. 3109/ 13880209. 2013. 837075.
- Prasanna, Rajagopalan & Chinna Konda Chandramoorthy, Harish & Pichai, R & Sakthisekaran, D & Gunasekaran, P. (2008). Anti-cancer effect of Cassia auriculata leaf extract in vitro through cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in human breast and larynx cancer cell lines. Cell biology international. 33. 127- 34. 10. 1016/ j. cell. 2008. 10. 006.
- Jalalpure, Sunil & Patil, MB & Pai, Aruna & Shah, BN & Salahuddin, Mohammed. (2005). Antidiabetic Activity Of Cassia auriculata Seeds In Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine. 8. 10. 4314/ njnpm. v8i1. 11807.
- Bandawane, D.D. & Beautikumari, S. & Gate, S.S. & Patel, A. N. (2014). Evaluation of the anti-arthritic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of Cassia auriculata Linn. leaves. Biomedicine & Aging Pathology. 4. 10. 1016/ j. biomass. 2013. 10. 009.
- S. Hithesh & S, Karthik & Jai, Shankar & S, Umakanth & Ahmed, Syed & M, Rupesh. (2022). A Pharmacological Review on Cassia Auriculata. Journal of Innovations in Applied Pharmaceutical Science (JIAPS). 113-117. 10. 37022/ jiaps. v7i3. 363.
- Nille, Guruprasad & Ramachandra Reddy, Konduru. (2016). A Phytopharmacological Review of Plant – Cassia auriculata. International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives. 6. 1- 9.
- Baruah, Himangshu & Parveen, Rehana & Meena, Vandana. (2021). Cassia auriculata: A healing herb for all remedies.
- Sahoo, Jyotirmayee & Thummakomma, Kamalaja & Suchiritha, S & Pettugani, Sreedevi. (2020). Nutritional composition of cassia auriculata flower powder. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 9. 867-870.
- Haripriya, Vijayakumari & Dhamotharan, Karuppusamy & Shukla, Santosh & Suvekbala, Vemparthan & Ragupathy, Lakshminarayanan & Kumaran, Alaganandam. (2018). Aphrodisiac properties of hydro‐alcoholic extract of Cassia auriculata flower in male rats. Andrologia. 51. 10. 1111/ and. 13180.
- Kainsa, Sushma & Kumar, Praveen & Rani, Poonam. (2012). Pharmacological Potentials of Cassia auriculata and Cassia fistula Plants: A Review. Pakistan Journal of biological sciences: PJBS. 15. 408- 17. 10. 3923/ pjbs. 2012. 408. 417.
- Chavan, Radheshyam & Kadam, Ambadas & Choudhari, Sachin. (2022). Metabolic Profile of Cassia Auriculata L. Extracts by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.
- Nille GC, Mishra SK, Chaudhary AK, Reddy KRC. Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Review on Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb.: A Special Insight to Antidiabetic Property. Front Pharmacol. 2021 Aug 24; 12: 647887. doi 10. 3389/ fphar. 2021. 647887. PMID: 34504420; PMCID: PMC8423098.
- Deshmukh, K.. (2016). PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF CASSIA AURICULATA (L.): A REVIEW. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences. 2. 81- 88.
- Rajendran V, Krishnegowda A, Nachiappan V. Antihyperlipidemic activity of Cassia auriculata flower extract in oleic acid-induced hyperlipidemia in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Food Sci Technol. 2017 Aug; 54 (9): 2965-2972. doi 10. 1007/ s13197- 017- 2735- 0. Epub 2017 Jun 6. PMID: 28928537; PMCID: PMC 5583127.
- Murugan T, Wins JA, Murugan M. Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Constituents of Leaf Extracts of Cassia auriculata. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2013 Jan; 75 (1): 122- 5. doi 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 113546. PMID: 23901174; PMCID: PMC 3719143.
- Surana SJ, Gokhale SB, Jadhav RB, Sawant RL, Wadekar JB. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Various Fractions of Cassia auriculata Linn. in Alloxan Diabetic Rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008 Mar-Apr;70(2):227-9. doi 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 41461. PMID: 20046718; PMCID: PMC 2792492.
- Seshadri VD. Zinc oxide nanoparticles from Cassia auriculata flowers showed potent antimicrobial and in vitro anticancer activity against the osteosarcoma MG- 63 cells. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 Jul; 28 (7): 4046- 4054. doi 10. 1016/ j. sjbs. 2021. 04. 001. Epub 2021 Apr 12. PMID: 34220263; PMCID: PMC 8241895.
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- Sitaram, T. & Lakshminarayanan, Arivarasu & Shanmugam, Rajeshkumar & Thangavelu, Lakshmi. (2021). Preparation of Ethanolic Extract of Cassia auriculata and Its Anti-Diabetic Activity. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 380- 386. 10. 9734/ jpri/ 2021/ v33i62A35612.
- Jyothi, S.G. & Chavan, S.C. & Somashekaraiah, B. V. (2012). In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antidiabetic efficacy of Cassia auriculata L. Flowers. Global Journal of Pharmacology. 6. 33- 40.
- Tietel, Zipora & Ananth, Devanesan & Sivasudha, T. & Klipcan, Liron. (2021). Metabolomics of Cassia Auriculata Plant Parts (Leaf, Flower, Bud) and Their Antidiabetic Medicinal Potentials. Omic: a journal of integrative biology. 25. 10. 1089/ omi. 2021. 0010.
- Nille GC, Mishra SK, Chaudhary AK, Reddy KRC. Ethnopharmacological, Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Review on Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb.: A Special Insight to Antidiabetic Property. Front Pharmacol. 2021 Aug 24; 12: 647887. doi 10. 3389/ fphar. 2021. 647887. PMID: 34504420; PMCID: PMC 8423098.
- Tietel Z, Ananth DA, Sivasudha T, Klipcan L. Metabolomics of Cassia Auriculata Plant Parts (Leaf, Flower, Bud) and Their Antidiabetic Medicinal Potentials. OMICS. 2021 May; 25 (5): 294- 301. doi 10. 1089/ omi. 2021. 0010. Epub 2021 Apr 27. PMID: 33904794.
- Chew YL, Khor MA, Xu Z, Lee SK, Keng JW, Sang SH, Akowuah GA, Goh KW, Liew KB, Ming LC. Cassia alata, Coriandrum sativum, Curcuma longa and Azadirachta indica: Food Ingredients as Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Atopic Dermatitis-A Comprehensive Review. Molecules. 2022 Aug 26; 27 (17): 5475. doi 10. 3390/ molecules 27175475. PMID: 36080243; PMCID: PMC 9457827.
- Jeyashanthi N, Ashok V. Anti-Oxidative Effect of Cassia auriculata on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2010 Oct; 25 (4): 429- 34. doi 10. 1007/ s12291- 010- 0040- z. Epub 2010 Sep 14. PMID: 21966119; PMCID: PMC 2994575.
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Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)