Badara / Kola
(Ziziphus Jujuba, Ziziphus Mauritiana) - Part - 1
Badara - A Rich Source of Food, Fodder, Nutrient, and Medicine
Badara is wildly and cultivated found in India and it is a native fruit of India. Badara is one of the plants that is used from top to root, that’s why it is a rich source of food, nutrition, and fodder as well as full of medicinal properties. It is considered a good source of vitamin C and sugar. In Ayurvedic classical texts, various varieties of Badara are mentioned and various uses of Badara and its variety are given. Badara, which is fully ripe, very sweet (Madhura), and larger is known as Sauvira. This variety is Sheeta Virya (cold in potency), expels out the hardened faces, is heavy, promotes Sukra, nourishing and controls vitiated Pitta and Rakta, burning sensation, thirst, and emaciation. The same Sauvira variety, which is just smaller in size and sweet when ripe is called kola. Kola variety is absorbent, Ushana Virya (hot in potency), vitiates Kapha and Pitta, heavy, laxative, and pacifies Vata. The fruit of karkandhu which is still smaller in size is sour, bitter, astringent, and slightly sweet, demulcent, heavy, and controls Vata and Pitta. All varieties, when dried, expel faces, are light in action, increase appetite and control thirst, tiresomeness, and diseases of Rakta. In recent research different varieties of Badara show different types of secondary metabolites and exhibit various properties like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-diarrheal anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, etc.
पच्यमानं सुमधुरं सौवीरं बदरं महत् |
सौवीरबदरं शीत भेदनं गुरु शुक्रलम ||
बृहण पित्तदाहास्त्र क्षयतृष्णानिलापहम् |
कोलम तु मधुरं दाहि रुच्यम उष्णम च वातहत् ||
कफपित्तकरं चापि सारकं गुरु च स्मृतम् |
हस्वं कर्कन्धू कथित तत्कषायं तथाम्लकम् |
मधुरं च भवेत् स्निग्ध॑ गुरुपित्तानिलापहम् ||
शुष्कं भेद्य अग्निकृत सर्वं लघु तृष्णाक्लमास्त्रनुत ||
Guna Ratna Mala, Vaidya Kailashpati, Vaidya Anugreha Narayana, Acharya P. V. Sharma, Chaukhamba Publication, reprint, 2016.
तीन प्रकार के बदर पाए जाते है, जिनके फलो की संरचना तथा गुणों में भिन्नता पायी जाती है | बदर के भिन्न प्रकार के फलों के गुण:-
- बड़ीबेर / राज बदर – सौवीर के लक्षण (Zizyphus sativa / Z. sativus Gaertn. / Zizyphus vulgaris / Z. xylopyra Willd.) – पकता हुआ जो उत्तम मधुर तथा अकार में बड़ा हो, वह सौवीर है | इसका फल शीत, गुरु, भेदन, शुक्रवर्धक, बृहण, पित्तविकार, दाह, रक्तविकार, क्षयरोग एवं तृष्णा को दूर करता है |
- कोल बदर का लक्षण (Zizyphus jujuba Mill & Lamk. / Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.) – यह सौवीर की अपेक्षा छोटा, पकने पर मधुर कोल कहलाता है |
- कर्कन्धू (झरबेरी) के लक्षण Zizyphus nummularia Burm. f.) – छोटी बेर को कर्कन्धू कहा गया है | इसका फल – अम्ल, कषाय, मधुर, गुरु, स्निग्ध तथा वातपित्तशामक होता है |
Mainly three varieties of Badar are found, whose fruits differ morphologically and in properties. Qualities of different types of fruits of Badar-
- Characteristics of Badiber / Raj Badar / Sauveer (Zizyphus sativa / Z. sativus Gaertn. / Zizyphus vulgaris / Z. xylopyra Willd.) – The ripe one which is sweet and large, is Sauveer. Its fruit is cold in potency, heavy to digest (Guru), piercing in nature (Bhedana), Aphrodiasic, and Brihana (increase weight), used in Pittaja disorder, inflammation, blood disorder, tuberculosis and thirst, etc.
- Characteristics of Badar / Kola (Zizyphus jujuba Mill & Lamk. / Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.) – It is called sweet Kola when ripened, smaller than Sauveer.
- Characteristics of Karkandhu / Choti Badara / Kshudra Badara (Zizyphus nummularia Burm. f.) – The small berry has been called Karkandhu. Its fruit is acid, astringent, sweet, heavy, and Vata Pitta Shamaka in nature.
Basonym of Badara
बद स्थैर्ये |
The fruit of Badara (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. & Lamk.) will impart strength.
Synonyms of Badara
According to Habit
सौवीरम– सुवीर देशे भवं सौवीरम |
Badara is commonly available in Souvira Desha.
कुवल – कौ भूमौ वलती भ्र्मति इति |
Badara plants grow throughout the world.
According to Morphology
कर्कन्धु – कर्क कण्टकम दधाति वा |
The tree of the Badara consists of thorns.
कोल – कोलति घनी भवति |
The seeds of the Badara are very hard.
According to Properties and Action.
फेनिल – कफ वर्द्धनात |
Badara fruit increases Kapha.
Regional Names of Badara
- Jujube fruit, Indian plum, Jujuba tree (English)
- Baer (Hindi)
- Bore Hannu (Kannada)
- Illantha (Malayalam)
- Bori (Marathi)
- Bor (Gujrati)
- Elandappajam (Tamil)
- Regu Chettu (Telegu)
- Kul (Bengali)
- Kunar, Unnaba, Ber (Punjabi)
Scientific Classification of Badara
Botanical Name of Badara
Badara and Kola both taken as:-
Zizyphus jujuba Mill. & Lamk./ Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.
Zizyphus is an Egyptian name.
Jujuba means English origin.
Rhamnaceae (Badara Kula)
Ayurveda reference for Badara- Zizyphus jujuba Mill. / Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.
Controversy of Badara and Its Type by P. V. Sharma
बदर, कोल और कर्कन्धु ये तीन जातियाँ बदर की मानी जाती हैं । बदर का फल बड़ा, कर्कन्धु का सबसे छोटा और कोल (या कुवल ) का मध्यम प्रमाण का होता है । चरक के सुत्रस्थान ( अ. २७ ) में इन तीनों का पृथक –पृथक् उल्लेख है ( १४१, २७९, १३२ ) । सिन्चितिकाफल का भी प्रथक् से वर्णन है । सुश्रुत ने फल वर्ग के प्रारम्भ ( सु. सु. ४६/ १३९ ) में जो मधुराम्ल फलों की सूची दी है उसमें बदर की पाँच जातियों का उल्लेख है– बदर, कोल, कर्कन्धु , सौवीर और सिंचितिका फल । सौवीर चरक में नहीं है, चरक का कुवल सुश्रुत में नहीं है, अतः सौवीर और कुवल को एक ही मानना चाहिए । चक्रपाणि ने बदर को मध्यप्रमाण एवं मधुर बतलाया है ( बदरं मध्यप्रमाणं, तद्धि मघुरमेव भवति—च. सु. २७/ १४१ ) । कर्कन्धु को श्रृंगाल बदरी ( च. सू. २७/ १३२) कहा है । सौवीर के विषय में डल्हण ने परिचय देते हुए कहा है कि यह सबसे बड़ा, आम और पक्व सभी अवस्थाओं में मधुर तथा मरुदेशज होता है—सौवीर महत्तम आम पक्व अवस्थासु मधुरं मरू देशजं (सु. सू. ४६/ १३९) सिञ्चितिका फल के परिचय में डल्हण ने इसे सौवीर का भेद बतलाया है जो अतिमधुर, मुष्टि् प्रमाण और उत्तरापथज होता है– सिञ्चितिका फलं तद्धद एवाति– मधुरो मुष्टिप्रमाण उत्तरापथजः (सु. सु. ४६/ १३९ ) । चक्रपाणि ने इसके विषय में कोई टिप्पणी नहीं दी है । डल्हण ने सौवीर को ही महत्तम कहा: पुनः उसका भेद सिच्चितिका मुष्टिप्रमाण ( उससे भी बड़ा ) बतलाया । इसका आकार सेब से मिलता–जुलता है अतः भ्रान्ति वश कुछ लोग इससे सेब लेते हैं । वस्तुतः यह बदरभेद है। सेब का वर्णन सर्व प्रथम भावप्रकाश में मिलता है क्योंकि यह युरोप वासियों के साथ आया। इनके अतिरिक्त एक गोपघोण्टा भी है जो भक्ष्य फलों में नहीं आता । इसे घुंट, घोंट या ककोड़ा लोकभाषा में कहते हैं । इन बदरभेदों के वानस्पतिक नाम ये हैं :
१. बदर – Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.
२. कोल – Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.
३. कर्कन्धु – Zizyphus nummularia Burm. F.
श्रृंगाल बदरी: Z. oenophia Mill.
४. सौवीर – Z. jujuba Mill. / Z. vulgaris
५. सिञ्चितिका फल – Z. jujuba Mill.
इस प्रसंग में सौवीर के सम्बन्ध में भी कुछ ज्ञातव्य है। सिंधु –सौवीर पश्चिमी भारत का प्राचीन प्रदेश रहा है जो सिन्धु और झेलम नदी के तट पर स्थित था | बाद में ये दोनों मिल गये और सिन्ध कहलाने लगे । उसी प्रदेश में होने वाले द्रब्यों को सौवीर कहते थे । बदर के अतिरिक्त, कांजी , अन्ज्जन भेद तथा शालिविशेष के लिए सौवीर शब्द प्रचलित है ।
Classification of Badara - As Per Charaka and Sushruta
Charaka: Hridya Varga Mahakshaya, Swedopaga Mahakshaya, Hikka Nigrehana Mahakshaya, Virechnopaga Mahakshaya, Shrmhara Mahakshaya, Chardi Nigrehana Mahakshaya.
Sushruta: Nyagrodhadi Gana.
Types of Badara
According to Bhava Parkasha, Dhanwantri, and Madanpala Nighantu three types of Badara are there:
Raj Nighnatu mentioned four types of Badara:
- Raja Badara
- Bhu Badari
- Laghu Badara
Kaiydeva Nighnatu has mentioned 5 types of Badara:
The botanical sources of all varieties of Badara are:
- Kola: Zizyphus jujuba Lamk.
- Sauvira: Zizyphus sativa Gaertn.
- Karkandhu: Zizyphus nummularia W. & H.
- Ghonta: Zizyphus xylopyra Willd.
- Valli Badara: Zizyphus oenoplea Mill.
There are three main kinds of Badara mainly based on fruit size viz., Badara, Ksudrabadara and Rajabadara and Zizyphus jujuba Linn., Zizyphus nummularia W. & A. and Zizyphus sativa Gaertn. are respectively. So here in this article, we will discuss the three main varieties of Badara.
Badara's Description in Brihtrayi
Badara's Description of Brihtrayi - As A Synonym of Kuvala
It is one of the purgative acid fruits considered to be a large variety of Badara. Kuvala like Sinchitika may not be any variety of Zizyphus fruits. It is likely the fruit of Garcinia cowa Roxb. called Cova or Kusuma in Bihar. It has also been mentioned together with Vriksha Amla, Amalvetasa, and other allied fruits in the same context.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 10, 24, C. S. Chi. 25/ 49, C. S. Ni. 2/ 2, C. S. Vi. 8/ 144/ 147
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Koli
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 41
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Simbitika
It has been recognized to be the Seva (Pyrus malus Linn.) and not a variety of Sauvira which is a variety of Badara.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 27/ 139
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 147
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Sukti Patra
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 25/ 49
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Ghonta Phala
This has been identified by Dalhana with the popular name Karkati or Badari, Karkata, Kakora, and Ghunta are the tribal names prevalent in the forest areas of Mirzapur (U.P) and Bihar. Ghonta is also a synonym of a Puga. The Puga Phala and Ghonta Phala are also hard and spherical though the former is much smaller than the better.
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 17/ 34
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 17, A. H. U. 30/ 38, 39
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Souvira
It is a kind of Badara called Unnava. This is the biggest variety of Badara fruit obtained from Zizyphus sativa or Z. vulgaris. Sauvira is also the name of a preparation mentioned in C. S. Su. 27/ 188 and called Kanji (a type of sour gruel).
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 146
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 6/ 120
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Karkandhu
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 24, C. S. Su. 25/ 49, C. S. Su. 27/ 129, C. S. Vi. 8/ 144, C. S. Chi. 13/ 123, C. S. Chi. 26/ 192, C. S. Ka. 11/ 6, C. S. Si. 11/ 25
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 145
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 6/ 137, A. H. Su. 19/ 14, A. H. Chi. 15/ 13
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Kola
|C. S. Su. 2/ 11,13||S. S. Su. 39/ 7||A. H. Su. 6/ 125, 137, 139|
|C. S. Su. 3/ 17||S. S. Su. 42/ 18||A. H. Su. 22/ 19|
|C. S. Su. 13/ 84, 94||S. S. Su. 44/ 20||A. H. Su. 25/ 37|
|C. S. Su. 27/ 274||S. S. Su. 45/ 120||A. H. Sa. 1/ 65|
|C. S. Ni. 5/ 7||S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 145, 206, 375, 390, 432||A. H. Sa. 2/ 47|
|C. S. Vi. 8/ 147||S. S. Ni. 16/ 45||A. H. Chi. 1/ 32, 157|
|C. S. Sa. 8/ 54||S. S. Chi. 2/ 53||A. H. Chi. 3/ 159|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 186||S. S. Chi. 5/ 18||A. H. Chi. 4/ 42|
|C. S. Chi. 5/ 71, 76, 88||S. S. Chi. 7/ 7||A. H. Chi. 5/ 65|
|C. S. Chi. 9/ 59||S. S. Chi. 12/ 5||A. H. Chi. 6/ 16, 27, 77|
|C. S. Chi. 11/ 33||S. S. Chi. 15/ 29||A. H. Chi. 7/ 12, 31, 106|
|C. S. Chi. 13/ 83, 116, 124||S. S. Chi. 16/ 36||A. H. Chi. 8/ 149|
|C. S. Chi. 14/ 200||S. S. Chi. 20/ 58||A. H. Chi. 9/ 29, 49, 116|
|C. S. Chi. 15/ 82, 88||S. S. Chi. 31/ 42||A. H. Chi. 10/ 15, 28|
|C. S. Chi. 17/ 107, 135||S. S. Chi. 35/ 9||A. H. Chi. 11/ 2, 19|
|C. S. Chi. 18/ 157||S. S. Chi. 37/ 21||A. H. Chi. 12/ 21|
|C. S. Chi. 19/ 38, 46, 118||S. S. Chi. 38/ 66, 104||A. H. Chi. 13/ 23|
|C. S. Chi. 20/ 22, 28||S. S. Chi. 40/ 5||A. H. Chi. 14/ 12, 15, 29|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 94, 96||S. S. Sa. 10/ 16, 38||A. H. Chi. 15/ 8, 13, 43, 93|
|C. S. Chi. 24/ 120, 150||S. S. U. 3/ 27||A. H. Chi. 21/ 28|
|C. S. Chi. 25/ 83||S. S. U. 12/ 21, 31, 42||A. H. Ka. 2/ 40|
|C. S. Chi. 26/ 45, 81||S. S. U. 39/ 213, 279||A. H. Ka. 4/ 56|
|C. S. Chi. 28/ 113, 118, 131, 139, 174||S. S. U. 40/ 55, 134||A. H. Ka. 5/ 5, 18, 32, 42|
|C. S. Chi. 29/ 103||S. S. U. 44/ 37||A. H. U. 2/ 34|
|C. S. Ka. 7/ 29||S. S. U. 46/ 17||A. H. U. 11/ 44|
|C. S. Ka. 8/ 8||S. S. U. 47/ 39, 41||A. H. U. 25/ 35|
|C. S. Ka. 10/ 10||S. S. U. 49/ 33||A. H. U. 26/ 39|
|C. S. Ka. 11/ 6||S. S. U. 50/ 27||A. H. U. 32/ 20|
|C. S. Ka. 12/ 7||S. S. U. 51/ 38|
|C. S. Si. 4/ 4, 28, 38||S. S. U. 52/ 24|
|C. S. Si. 7/ 10, 37, 50||S. S. U. 54/ 22|
|C. S. Si. 10/ 19||S. S. U. 58/ 57|
|C. S. Si. 11/ 25||S. S. U. 61/ 27|
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Badar or Badari
The tree is called Badari and the fruit is Badara, Kola, Karkandhu, Sauvira, and Ghonta are various species of Zizyphus of which the first three only are edible. The so-called other Badara varieties such as Sinchitika and Kuvala have different botanical sources.
|C. S. Su. 4/ 10, 22, 24, 28, 30, 40, 43||S. S. Su. 38/ 47||A. H. Su. 6/ 120|
|C. S. Su. 13/ 95||S. S. Su. 39/ 7||A. H. Chi. 1/ 33, 135|
|C. S. Su. 15/ 6||S. S. Su. 42/ 18||A. H. Chi. 3/ 7, 17|
|C. S. Su. 23/ 15||S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 145, 146, 147, 432||A. H. Chi. 5/ 37|
|C. S. Su. 25/ 49||S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 145, 206, 375, 390, 432||A. H. Chi. 6/ 17|
|C. S. Su. 26/ 112||S. S. Chi. 10/ 6||A. H. Chi. 9/ 18, 36|
|C. S. Su. 27/ 129, 138||S. S. Chi. 19/ 42||A. H. Chi. 15/ 18|
|C. S. Ni. 2/ 2||S. S. Chi. 20/ 59||A. H. Chi. 17/ 20|
|C. S. Vi. 8/ 144 (2), 147, 151||S. S. Chi. 34/ 13||A. H. Ka. 6/ 25|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 257, 266||S. S. Chi. 38/ 85||A. H. U. 2/ 48, 72|
|C. S. Chi. 8/ 141||S. S. Sa. 10/ 4, 23||A. H. U. 5/ 20|
|C. S. Chi. 11/ 37||S. S. U. 18/ 36||A. H. U. 13/ 28|
|C. S. Chi. 13/ 129||S. S. U. 32/ 7||A. H. U. 32/ 23|
|C. S. Chi. 14/ 12, 205, 215||S. S. U. 39/ 280||A. H. U. 34/ 3|
|C. S. Chi. 18/ 43, 181||S. S. U. 40/ 96, 132|
|C. S. Chi. 19/ 34||S. S. U. 41/ 47|
|C. S. Chi. 20/ 28, 38||S. S. U. 42/ 26, 98|
|C. S. Chi. 22/ 35||S. S. U. 52/ 19|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 187||S. S. U. 57/ 9|
|C. S. Chi. 24/ 160|
|C. S. Chi. 28/ 110, 120|
|C. S. Ka. 1/ 8, 29|
|C. S. Ka. 9/ 5|
|C. S. Ka. 11/ 6|
|C. S. Ka. 12/ 7|
|C. S. Si. 6/ 82|
|C. S. Si. 7/ 30|
|C. S. Si. 10/ 37|
Historical Background of Badara
It is a small thorny tree bearing clusters of small light-yellow flowers. It is found in many parts of India and is also cultivated for edible fruits. The tree is called Badari and the fruit is Badara. Charaka used the term Badara in his Vargas while Susruta mentioned Badari in Nyagrodhadi gana. Bhavamisra described three varieties viz., Karkandhu, Sauvira & Kola. Ghonta is the other variable mentioned in Raja Nighantu. Ghonta is identified by Dalhana with the popular name Karkati. The botanical sources for all varieties of Badara are:
- Kola – Z. jujuba Lamk.
- Sauvira – Z. sativa Gaertn.
- Karkandhu – Z. nummularia W. & H.
- Ghonta – Z. xylopyra willd.
- Valli Badara – Z. oenoplea (Linn.) Mill.
Raja Badara/ Unnava/ Zizyphus Sativus / Z. Vulgarsi – It is a thorny tree growing up to 10 m and its flowers are light green colored. It grows at 6500 ft in the Himalayas and is also cultivated in West Bengal. Sauvira is a kind of Badara which is also known as Unnava. This is considered to be the biggest variety of Badara fruit. In the Brhat Trayi texts, we do not come across the term Unnava but it is described under the name Sauvira in three contexts by Susruta and Vagbhata (S. S. Su. 46/ 139 & 146, A. H. Su. 6/ 120).
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External Morphology of Z. jujuba
- Habit: Kola is a small sub-deciduous tree with a dense spreading crown, commonly 0.6 meters high.
- Bark: The bark of the jujuba is blackish to grey or brown, rough, regularly, and deeply furrowed. The furrows are about 1.2 cm. apart. Blaze 9- 13 mm., short fiber, pink with or without paler streaks. The juice turned purplish black on the blade of a knife.
- Stem: Branches of the jujuba are usually armed with spines, mostly in pairs, one straight and the other curved. Young shoots are more or less densely pubescent.
- Leaves: Leaves of jujuba are 3- 6.3 by 2.5- 5 cm., oblong or ovate, usually minutely serrulate or apex distinctly, dotted, obtuse, base oblique, and 3-nerved. Nerves depressed on the glabrous shining upper surface, densely clothed beneath with white or half tomentum. Petioles of the Kola leaves are 2.5- 10 mm. long.
- Flowers: Flowers of the jujuba are 3.8- 5 mm. diam., greenish, in dense axillary tomentose cymes or fascicles 1.2- 1.9 cm. long.
- Fruit: Fruit of the jujuba are drupe 1.2- 2.5 cm. diam., globose, first yellow then orange, and finally reddish brown, containing a single stone surrounded by fleshy pulp; green, mostly yellowish (or other shade) when ripe, edible.
Flowering and fruiting time of Z. jujuba Linn.
Distribution of Z. jujuba Linn.
It is indigenous and naturalized throughout India, Burma, and Ceylon, in the outer Himalayas up to 4,500 feet, in China, Afghanistan, Africa, and Australia.
External Morphology of Z. Mauritiana
- Habit: Z. mauritiana is a small tree, 6- 8 meters in height.
- Leaves: Leaves of mauritiana are simple, alternate, oval and lanceolate, apex in obtuse and acute with rounded and acute base and entire margins. Its petiole surface is red and green with hairs.
- Inflorescence: Flowers are bisexual, with cymose axillary fascicles, Petals 5 in number.
- Fruit: Drupe, oblong, globose, yellow, or orange when ripe.
Chemical Composition of Z. mauritiana
Fruits contain acids, mucilaginous matter, and sugars. Bark and leaves contain tannin and Zizyphic acid, crystalline substances.
- Bark: Leucocyanidin, mauritines, A, B, C, D, E, & F frangufoline.
- Fruit: Jujubosides A & B, zizogenin, zeatin, frangufoline, saponin, etc.
- Leaves: Rutin, yuziphine, yuzirin.
The Useful Part of Badara
Phala (fruit), Twaka (Bark)
Important phytoconstituents present in Z. jujuba
Leucocyanidin, mauritines A to F. Frangufoline, Jujubosides, Zizogenin, frangufoline, Yuziphine, Yuzirine.
Important phytoconstituents present in Z. mauritiana
Terpenoids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, amino acids, proteins, etc.
Recent Research on Z. jujuba
- Zhang, Yanlei & Sun, Xin & Vidyarthi, Sriram & Zhang, Rentang. (2021). Active components and antioxidant activity of thirty-seven varieties of Chinese jujube fruits (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). International Journal of Food Properties. 24. 1479- 1494. 10. 1080/ 10942912. 2021. 1977656. Jujube has received more and more attention due to its nutritional value and pharmacological effects. This study evaluated the quality of different varieties of jujube by comparing the main active components and antioxidant activities of thirty-seven varieties of jujube through titration, UV spectrophotometry, and High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results revealed that there were differences in active components and antioxidant capacity among jujube cultivars. Among the thirty-seven varieties of jujube, Qingxuyuanzao (QXYZ) had the highest contents of total phenols and flavonoids, which were 16.33 mg GAE/ g DW and 41.18 mg RE/ g DW, respectively, and had the highest free radical scavenging (DPPH: 29.79 mg Vc/ g DW; ABTS: 50.90 mg Trolox/ g DW) and reducing abilities (62.13 mg Trolox/g DW). Correlation analysis indicated that the content of total flavonoids, total phenols, and phenolic acid ((+)-catechin, caffeic acid, rutin) in jujube had a high positive correlation with antioxidant capacity. According to principal component analysis (PCA), the comprehensive scores of different varieties of jujube were calculated. The top five jujube varieties with comprehensive scores are ‘QXYZ,’ Suyuanling (SYL), Xiangzao (XZ), Dunhuangdazao (DHDZ), and Meimizao (MMZ). In this paper, the main active components and antioxidant capacity of thirty-seven jujube varieties have been studied, which provides a theoretical basis for jujube breeding and the development of active nutrients for jujube.
- Kamiloglu, Onder & Ercisli, Sezai & Engül, Memnune & Toplu, Celil & Serce, Sedat. (2009). Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) Genotypes selected from Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8. 303- 307. We determined the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanol extracts from fifteen selected jujube genotypes endogenous to the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The total phenolic content of the fruits was analyzed by Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method, while the total antioxidant activity was analyzed using the -carotene bleaching, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 2, 2- diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity (DPPH) assays. The highest total phenolic content was observed in MHS 6 and MHS 7 genotypes (42 and 40 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) g -1 dry weight (DW), while the lowest content was found in MHS 5 and MHS 14 (28 and 25 mg GAE g -1 DW). MHS 13 was among the genotypes with the highest antioxidant capacity in all three methods tested (1237 µmol g -1 in FRAP, 83% in -the carotene bleaching method, and 99% in DPPH). The present study demonstrates the potential value of jujube genotypes for pharmaceuticals and nutrition.
- XUE, ZIPING & FENG, WEIHUA & CAO, JIANKANG & CAO, DONGDONG & JIANG, WEIBO. (2009). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents in peel and pulp of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) fruits. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 33. 613 – 629. 10. 1111/ j. 1745- 4514. 2009. 00241. x. Total phenolic contents in peel and pulp of the fruits of three Chinese jujube cultivars (Ziziphus jujuba cv. mayazao, Z. jujuba cv. dongzao and Z. jujuba cv. yuanzao) were determined. The antioxidant activities in the peel and pulp of the jujube fruits were measured by different methods, including 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). The total phenolic content in the peel was five to six times higher than that in the pulp of all three cultivars. The phenolics contents in the jujube were different from the cultivars. The EC50 (Concentration of lyophilized samples needed to decrease the initial DPPH radical concentration by 50%), FRAP, and TEAC values of the peel and pulp were remarkably correlated to their total phenolic contents (R = −0.922, R = 0.985, and R = 0.997, respectively). The results indicated that the high capacity of antioxidants in Chinese jujube fruit could be attributed to the high phenolic content in the fruit.
- Memarpoor-Yazdi, Mina & Mahaki, Hanie & Zardini, Hadi. (2013). Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates and purified peptides from Zizyphus jujuba fruits. Journal of Functional Foods. 5. 62– 70. 10. 1016/ j. jff. 2012. 08. 004. In recent years, there has been considerable interest in bioactive peptides derived from food proteins which might have beneficial effects on human health. Zizyphus jujuba is a medicinal plant with well-demonstrated biological functions for which various bioactive compounds except antioxidant peptides have been reported. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of Z. jujuba-derived protein hydrolysates and the purified peptides. Based on this study, it was revealed that the hydrolysates prepared from Z. jujuba fruit possessed antioxidant effects. Among the prepared hydrolysates, trypsin hydrolysate with the highest antioxidant activity was fractionated using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The most potent antioxidant peptides, named fractions F3 and F6, were identified as VGQHTR (MW: 678.36 ± 0.3 Da) and GWLK (MW: 482.27 ± 0.3 Da), respectively, using tandem mass spectrometry. This study demonstrated that the derived hydrolysates and the purified peptides from Z. jujuba proteins can prevent oxidative reactions and might be underutilized for food preservation and medicinal purposes. However, more detailed studies are required to explore their antioxidant abilities in vivo.
- Abd-Alrahman, Sherif & Salem-Bekhet, Mounir & Elhalwagy, Manal. (2013). Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphus Jujuba Seeds Extract. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 7. 379- 385. This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity and chemical composition of Ziziphus jujuba extract. The extract was obtained using a 50% aqueous-ethanol extraction solution to extract Ziziphus jujuba seeds. The extract was prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity against six bacterial strains by determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results revealed that the 50% aqueous-ethanol extract is potent in inhibiting bacterial growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The chemical composition of fenugreek was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/ MS). The 13- Heptadecyn- 1- ol (12.95 %), 7- Ethyl- 4- decen- 6- one (9.73 %), Lineoleoyl chloride (8.54 %), Linoleic acid (6.37 %), 2, 5- Octadecadiynoic acid, methyl ester (5.57 %) and Palatinol A (4.81 %) were the highest abundant compounds out of total 20 compounds were identified in the Ziziphus jujuba seeds extract.
- Hong, Eun-Hye & Song, Jae & Kang, Kyo Bin & Sung, Sang & Ko, Hyun-Jeong & Yang, Heejung. (2015). Anti-Influenza Activity of Betulinic Acid from Zizyphus Jujuba on Influenza A/ PR/ 8 Virus. Biomolecules & therapeutics. 23. 345-9. 10.4062/biomolther.2015.019. Betulinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene isolated from the Jujube tree (Zizyphus jujube Mill), has been known for a wide range of biological and medicinal properties such as antibacterial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihelmintic, antinociceptive, and anticancer activities. In the study, we investigated the antiviral activity of influenza A/ PR/ 8 virus-infected A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line and C57BL/6 mice. Betulinic acid showed anti-influenza viral activity at a concentration of 50 μM without significant cytotoxicity in influenza A/PR/8 virus-infected A549 cells. Also, betulinic acid significantly attenuated pulmonary pathology including increased necrosis, numbers of inflammatory cells, and pulmonary edema induced by influenza A/PR/8 virus infection compared with vehicle- or oseltamivir-treated mice in vivo model. The down-regulation of IFN-γ level, which is critical for innate and adaptive immunity in viral infection, after treating betulinic acid in mouse lung. Based on the obtained results, it is suggested that betulinic acid can be the potential therapeutic agent for virus infection via anti-inflammatory activity.
- Devi, M. Uma. (2020). Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Zizyphus jujuba. 9. 1510- 1513. Red date or Bera (Pushto), is used primarily for its fruits. Jujube, a delicious fruit, is an effective herbal remedy improving stamina and muscular strength and aids weight gain, strengthens liver function, and increases immune system resistance. This study aims to evaluate the in-vitro efficacy of the anti-bacterial activity of crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of Zizyphus jujuba against some human pathogenic bacterial strains. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of Zizyphus jujuba extract were carried out by using the disc diffusion method. The crude methanol, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions showed 41.37, 44.82, 41.37, 55.17, and 44.82 % activity against Enterobacter aerogenes respectively. The crude methanolic extract and n-hexane fractions were inactive against Escherichia coli, S. pneumoniae, and Klebsiella pneumonia respectively. From this study, the extracts namely n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of Zizyphusjujubea possess antibacterial activity.
- Bashir, Ahmad & Khan, Iftikhar & Bashir, Shumaila & Azam, Sadiq & Hussain, Farrukh. (2011). Screening of Zizyphus jujuba for antibacterial, phytotoxic, and haemagglutination activities. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10. 2514- 2519. Plants are very useful, self-generating machines that produce a variety of useful bioactive products. Keeping in view this idea, the crude methanolic extract and various fractions of Zizyphus jujuba were screened for antibacterial, phytotoxic, and haemagglutination activities. The n-hexane and aqueous fractions showed significant activity of 60 and 66.66 % against Bacillus pumalis and Pseudomonas aeruginous, respectively. The activity of ethyl acetate fraction was 65.38, 62.96, 62.96, and 72 % against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhi, P. aerugenosa, and B. pumas, respectively. On the contrary, no activity of this fraction was recorded against Streptococcus pneumoniae. The crude, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions showed 41.37, 44.82, 41.37, 55.17, and 44.82 % activity against Enterobacter aerogenes, respectively. The crude methanolic extract and n-hexane fractions were inactive against Escherichia coli, S. pneumoniae, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction was moderately phytotoxic against Lemna minor L at 1000 μg/ ml. All the other fractions showed low phytotoxic activity at 1000 μg/ ml. At 100 μg/ml, all the fractions showed low phytotoxic activity except crude methanolic extract, which was inactive. All the test samples were inactive at 10 μg/ ml. All dilutions of the test samples showed no haemagglutination activity against any blood group.
- Moustafa, Mahmoud & Sayed, Mahmoud & Alamri, Saad & Alghamdii, Huda & Shati, Ali & Alrumman, Sulaiman & Khatani, Mohmed & Qthanin, Rahma & Siddique, Sajda & Ahmed, Dalia & Negm, Sally & Emam, Ahmed. (2022). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the pericarp of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. and their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Bangladesh Journal of Botany. 51. 305- 312. 10. 3329/bj. v51i2. 60428. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) used in this study were prepared from Ziziphus Jujuba Mill. aqueous pericarp extract. Potent antibacterial activity was recorded from AgNPs– Z. jujuba pericarp against P. Pseudomonas aeruginosa > K. Klebsiella pneumoniae > M. Micrococcus luteus > S. Staphylococcus aureus > P. Proteus mirabilis > S. Shigella flexneri. Less antifungal activity was found against phytopathogenic fungi with inhibition efficacy of P. Penicillium expansum > M. Macrophomina phaseolina > A. Alternaria alternata > D. Drechslera halides, F. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. UV-Vis spectral analysis of formed AgNPs– Z. jujuba was recorded at 450 nm and three characteristic diffraction peaks was observed at 2 =38.235, 43.95, and 64.42. FTIR patterns were located in the region of 4000– 400 cm−1 and AgNPs particle size was noticed between 20 and 71 nm with a spherical shape embedded in bio-materials. These findings indicate that AgNPs– Z. jujuba pericarp aqueous extract could be utilized to control various bacterial infections in humans as well as against phytopathogenic fungi. Bangladesh J. Bot. 51(2): 305-312, 2022.
- Marilena, Hovanet & Ancuceanu, Robert & Dinu, Mihaela & Oprea, Eliza & Budura, Emma & Negreș, Simona & Velescu, Bruno & Duţu, L.E. & Anghel, Iuliana & Titirica, Irina & Morosan, Elena & Seremet, Oana. (2016). Toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. leaves. Farmacia. 64. 802-808. A dried ethanolic extract, obtained from Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) leaves were tested to evaluate the effects on plant cell division, its acute oral toxicity, and anti-inflammatory properties. Two inflammation experimental models on rats, with carrageenan and kaolin as inflammatory agents, were used. The experimental group was treated by gavage for 7 days with 5 % aqueous suspension of the extract (500 mg/kg b.w.) and the control group with 1 mL/100 g b.w. distilled water. The reference group, on the 7th day, was treated with 0.1 % indomethacin solution (10 mg/kg b.w.). No toxic symptoms or mortality were observed in any animals. In both inflammation models, a very weak anti-inflammatory effect was detected, a little better in the kaolin model but generally inferior to indomethacin. A statistically significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Triticum radicles was observed at 0.5% and 1% concentrations, accompanied by microscopic signs of cytotoxicity.
- M, Ajay & D, Giles. (2019). Anti-Inflammatory, Antiulcer and Anticancer Activities of Saponin Isolated from the Fruits of Ziziphus jujuba. The Natural Products Journal. 09. 10. 2174/ 2210315509666190429145610. Background
- Ziziphus jujuba Mill was commonly used for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional systems of medicine. Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the isolates of methanolic extract from the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill for their antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity. Method: Methanolic extracts of Ziziphus jujuba Mill was subjected to chromatography and eluted using ethyl acetate: methanol mixture and investigated for its structural features using IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass spectral data. The isolated compound was evaluated for its in vitro COX-2 inhibition studies, cytotoxicity studies, and in vivo anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, and anticancer activity. Result: The spectral data revealed that the backbone of the isolate was 3- O- α- L- rhamnopyranosyl- (1→ 6)- β- D- glucopyranosyl jujubogenin-20- O- (2, 3, 4- O- tri acetyl)- α- L- rhamnopyranoside. The isolated compound showed a significant reduction in inflammation and edema. Moderate anticancer activity was also observed for the isolate. Conclusion: It was concluded that the isolated saponin possesses moderate antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activity which could help in the identification of leads for the treatment of cancer-related inflammation.
- Hoshyar, Reyhane & Mahaqiq, Zabihullah & Torabi, Nihad & Abolghasemi, Aliyeh. (2015). Antitumor Activity of Aqueous Extract of Ziziphus Jujube Fruit in Breast Cancer: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction. 9. 10. 1016/ S2305- 0500 (15) 30007- 5. Objective: To investigate various therapeutic effects of the medicinal plant Ziziphus jujube (Z. jujube), such as antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Methods: The present study was conducted to assess the beneficial effects of the aqueous extract of Z. jujube fruit on the proliferation of breast cancer cells by MTT assay and the antioxidant by FRAP, hematological and biochemical alterations caused by NMU-induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats. The rats were divided into five groups, control group A (n=10), Z. jujube control group B (n= 10), NMU control group C (n= 15), Z. jujube treatment group D (n=15), and Z. jujube prevention group E (n=15). At the end of the experimental period, all the animals were euthanized, and blood was collected by heart puncture. Results: The Z. jujube revealed a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect against an MDA- MB-468 cell line and its treatment significantly.
- Mesaik, Ahmed & Poh, Hiap & Bin, Ooi & Elawad, Izzaddinn & Alsayed, Badr. (2018). In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Bacterial, and Anti-Diarrhoeal Activity of Ziziphus Jujuba Fruit Extract. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 6. 10. 3889/ oamjms. 2018. 168. BACKGROUND: Ziziphus jujuba belongs to the family Rhamnaceae widely distributed in subtropical and tropical countries. It is used traditionally for several pharmacological purposes including anti-inflammation, antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial, as well as tonic and sometimes as hypnotic (sedative). AIM: To determine the in vivo antidiarrhoeal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities of Z. jujuba fruit ethanolic extract. METHOD: The fruit was macerated and extracted with 95% (v/ v) ethanol. The antidiarrhoeal activity was evaluated using castor oil and an Escherichcoli-induced diarrhea mouse model. The antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity was investigated at graded doses (400- 1200 mg/ kg). The anti-inflammatory effects were tested using carrageenan-induced paw edema in female Wistar rats. Rat’s treatment groups received tragacanth, 100 mg/kg diclofenac sodium, 800 mg/kg, 1200 mg/ kg, or 1600 mg/ kg of an ethanolic extract of Z. jujuba (EEZJ). All treatment groups were fed with the compounds one hour before carrageenan injection at of rat’s paw. Also, the EEZJ was further analyzed by HPLC- PDA system for identification of the presence of betulinic acid and quercetin. RESULTS: EEZJ’s different doses did not show inhibitory activity against castor oil-induced diarrhea except for the higher (1200 mg/kg) dose. However, the frequency of defecation of stools and watery stool were reduced significantly when compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.01 respectively), resulting in overall 67 % inhibition of diarrhea. Our anti-inflammatory results demonstrated that EEZJ was able to inhibit the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats to a significant degree (p ≤ 0.05) and the paw volume and thickness of both left and right paw were affected compared to the negative control group. CONCLUSION: EEZJ possesses antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity in a dose depending on the manner and may provide a pharmacological basis for its clinical use in diarrheal diseases. The activity may partially be due to the presence of betulinic acid and quercetin.
- Li, Ganpeng & Wu, Linfen & Wei, Jie & Xu, Shitao & Huang, Haitao & Gao, Xuemei & Hu, Qiu-Fen. (2013). Two new flavonoids from the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 49. 617- 620. 10. 1007/ s10600- 013- 0692- z. Two new flavonoids, 8- formyl- 3′, 4′- dihydroxy- 6, 7-dimethoxyflavone (1) and 8- formyl- 4′- hydroxy- 3′, 6, 7- trimethoxyflavone (2), were isolated from the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Their structures were elucidated based on extensive NMR and MS means. The anti-tobacco mosaic virus (anti-TMV) and antioxidant activity of 1 and 2 were evaluated. They both showed anti-TMV activity with inhibition rates of 92.8 % and 88.6 %, and antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 3.16 μg/ mL and 3.87 μg/ mL, respectively.
- Jiang, Jian-Guo & Huang, Xiao-Juan & Chen, Jian & Lin, Qing-Sheng. (2007). Comparison of the sedative and hypnotic effects of flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides extracted from Semen Ziziphus jujube. Natural product research. 21. 310- 20. 10. 1080/ 14786410701192827. Semen Ziziphus jujube (SZJ), the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. var. spinosa is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine used for its action on insomnia. To analyze the effective component, we investigated and compared the sedative and hypnotic effects of three kinds of compounds, flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides. Flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides were extracted from SZJ and orally administered to mice separately at 17 g kg(-1) per day for certain days before animal tests. Spontaneous motility and coordinated movement tests were used to observe the effects of the three kinds of compounds on the mouse behavior, and sodium barbital-induced sleeping time of the mouse was tested to analyze the effects of the three kinds of compounds on the sleep of the mouse. Results show that flavonoids and saponins caused a significant reduction of walking time and coordinated movement ability of mice, significantly prolonged their sleeping time at 40 mg kg (-1), ip, subthreshold dose, and increased the sleeping number of animals at 50 mg kg (-1), ip, super threshold dose induced by coeliac injection of sodium barbital. Polysaccharides did not show any significance in all animal tests. Comparative analysis showed that saponins had a more effective sedative and hypnotic function than flavonoids; polysaccharides did not show a sedative and hypnotic effect.
Recent Research on Z. mauritiana
- Okala, A. & Ladan, M.J. & Wasagu, R.S.U. & Shehu, Kasimu. (2014). Phytochemical studies and In Vitro antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana fruit extract. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 6. 885- 888. The present study was aimed at investigating the phytochemical and antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana fruit. Qualitative phytochemical studies were carried out which revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, and tannins. The antioxidant properties of the extract were also evaluated using various in vitro assays. The IC 50 value of 2, 2- diphenyl-2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was found to be 338.45 μg/ ml. Reducing power assay was another in vitro model used which showed antioxidant potential by reducing ferrous ions which were concentration dependent. Measurement of total phenolic compounds was found to be 402.31 ± 53.6mg Gallic Acid Equivalent/ 100g. 2014–2015, International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research.
- Upadhyay, Dr. Sukirti & Upadhyay, Dr. Prashant & Ghosh, Ashoke K & Mishra, Ankita & Mahalwal, Vijender & Srivastava, Srishti. (2015). Antibacterial potency of Ziziphus mauritiana (Fam-Rhamnaceae) roots. Drug Development and Therapeutics. 6. 44. 10. 4103/ 2394- 2002. 148895. Background: Ziziphus mauritiana is a well-known herb generally its fruit is used for stomach ailments or infections. The genus Ziziphus is known for its antimicrobial potency. Material and Methods: Here Z. mauritiana roots were taken for conducting experiments in various bacterial strains for evaluating their antibacterial potency by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and zone of inhibition were also determined. The mode of action was determined by leakage of nucleic acid and its determination by UV spectrometry. Results: The root extract of Z. mauritiana possesses excellent antibacterial activity as its activity is well compared with the standard drug ciprofloxacin. The mode of action of the extract was bactericidal. Conclusion: Effective and safe herbal antibiotics may be produced in the future by root extract of Z. mauritiana.
- Mohamadou, Salamatou & Bayoi, James & Djoulde, Roger & Steve, Nodem & Léopold, Tatsadjieu Ngoune. (2021). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. And Ziziphus mucronate Lam. Extracts. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 10. 9734/ JAMPS/ 2021/ v23i830252. The objective of this study was to determine the phytochemical profile and antimicrobial activity of leaf and bark extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana and Ziziphus mucronata. For this purpose, an extraction by maceration using ethanol was carried out and the extracts were subjected to antibacterial activity assessment through qualitative and quantitative approaches. The qualitative tests were performed using the agar well diffusion method while for quantitative tests minimal inhibitory, bactericidal, and fungicidal concentrations (MIC, MBC, or MFC) were used and determined through microdilution in microplates method. The antimicrobial mechanisms such as cell lysis and action on the proton pump of the extracts were also studied. The highest extraction yield was obtained with the Z. mauritiana leaf extract (28.8%). In addition, the highest contents of polyphenols (256.6 mg GEA/g DM) and flavonoids (165.2 mg CE/g DM) were obtained with the bark of Z. mucronata. The bark extracts of Z. mauritiana exhibited the highest antibacterial activity (36.7 mm on Staphylococcus aureus) while, Z. mucronata extracts are more active on fungi, with the highest activity on Candida albicans (26.7 mm). The antimicrobial activity of the extract increases with the concentration, and, regarding the MBC/MIC and MFC/ MIC ratio, the extracts showed bacteriostatic activity on the different bacteria and fungi and the possible mechanism included activity on the proton pump. The bark and leaf extracts of Z. mauritiana and Z. mucronata could be used in traditional medicine to treat infections due to these multiple pathogens.
- Mishra, Tulika & Khullar, Madhu & Bhatia, Aruna. (2011). Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Z. Jujube mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: 2011. 10. 1155/ 2011/ 765029. Ziziphus mauritiana (Lamk.) is a fruit tree that has folkloric implications against many ailments and diseases. In the present study, the anticancer potential of seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana in vitro against different cell lines (HL- 60, Molt- 4, HeLa, and normal cell line HGF) by MTT assay as well as in vivo against E. ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice was investigated. The extract was found to markedly inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells. The Annexin and PI binding of treated HL- 60 cells indicated apoptosis induction by extract in a dose-dependent manner. The cell cycle analysis revealed a prominent increase in the sub-go population at a concentration of 20 μg/ ml and above. Agarose gel electrophoresis confirmed DNA fragmentation in HL- 60 cells after 3 h incubation with the extract. The extract also exhibited potent anticancer potential in vivo. Treatment of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss albino mice with varied doses (100- 800 mg/ kg b/ wt.) of plant extract significantly reduced tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and improved hemoglobin content, RBC count, mean survival time, tumor inhibition, and percentage lifespan. The enhanced antioxidant status in extract-treated animals was evident from a decline in levels of lipid peroxidation and increased levels of glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase.
- Abalaka, Moses & Daniyan, Safiya & Mann, Abdullahi. (2010). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of two Ziziphus species (Ziziphus mauritiana L. and Ziziphus spinachristi L.) on some microbial pathogens. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 4. 135- 139. The antimicrobial effects of Ethanolic extracts of leaves of two species of the genus Ziziphus were determined against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. S. pyogenes was the most susceptible followed by E. coli while S. aureus was the least susceptible. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 1 mg, 5 mg ml -1, and 20 mg, 40 mg ml1, respectively. Extracts showed no activity against the fungal isolates -A. niger and C. albicans. The plants cannot be used in treating any type of fungal infection (dermatophycoses). The phytochemicals identified were cardiac glycosides, polyphenols, saponins, and tannins. Extracts from these plants could be useful in the treatment of nosocomial infections, opportunistic infection of the urinary tract (UTI), infantile gastroenteritis, travelers’ diarrhea, wound infection, meningitis, and wounds infection which are diseases caused by some of these organisms.
- Youl, Estelle & Ouedraogo, Cyrille & Gambo, Moustapha & Moussa, Ouedraogo & Kiendrebeogo, Martin & Traoré, Aristide & Guissou, Innocent. (2019). Antioxidant activity of crude ethanolic extract and fractions of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. (Rhamnaceae) leaves from Burkina Faso. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 30. 10. 1515/ jbcpp- 2017- 0176. Background: Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. is a plant used in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso in the treatment of several diseases, of which diabetes is characterized by oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of the extracts of leaves of this plant. Methods: The crude hydroethanolic extract (HEE) of the leaves of Z. mauritiana and their partitionists in n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate, and in the residual aqueous solution (the F1, F2, F3, and F4 fractions, respectively) were first prepared. The content of polyphenols was determined, and the antioxidant effects of the extracts were evaluated by their 1,1- diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Results: The HEE as well as the F3 and F4 fractions were rich in polyphenols with contents between 58 and 84 mg equivalent gallic acid per 100 mg. The flavonoid content was 4 mg quercetin equivalents in the HEE and the F4 fraction. Except for the F1 fraction, the HEE and the other fractions showed significant DPPH scavenging activity (IC 50 between 8 and 12 μg/ mL). The IC 50 of TBARS by different extracts was in the range of 1–5 μg/ mL, and the FRAP activity was 7– 85 mg ascorbic acid equivalent per 100 mg. Total polyphenol content was highly correlated with antioxidant activities. Conclusions: The HEE, F3, and F4 fractions were found to be the richest in polyphenols and had the best antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts of the leaves of Z. mauritiana is due to these polyphenolic compounds.
- Talmale, Suhas & Bhujade, Arti & Patil, Mandakini. (2015). Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of Zizyphus mauritiana root bark.6. 10. 1039/ C5FO00270B. Allergy sometimes might be very dangerous and one of the main factors responsible for allergy is the complement system which can lead to a life-threatening reaction called anaphylaxis. Cycloxygenase-1 (COX- 1), Cycloxygenase- 2 (COX- 2), and 5- Lipoxygenase (5- LOX) trigger allergic and inflammatory reactions. Several anti-allergic synthetic drugs are available but are costly and show many side effects. Here is the place where the ancient traditional system of medication mentioned in Ayurveda finds an edge on various synthetic drugs. Zizyphus mauritiana is referred to as the storehouse of phytochemicals in Ayurveda. The stem and root barks of Zizyphus mauritiana were dried and powdered under controlled conditions. Extractions of dried powders were performed separately in different solvents in the increasing order of their polarity and were tested for their ability to inhibit the complement system. Aqueous extract of root bark was found to be more effective in inhibiting the complement system. Fractionation of aqueous extract resulted in the isolation of the Most Active Fraction (MAF) which inhibited complement system, COX- 1, COX- 2, and 5- LOX with IC50 values of 0.006 μg/ ml, 0.065 μg/ ml, 0.008 μg/ ml, and 0.083 μg/ ml, respectively. MAF was proved to be successful in down-regulating the pro-inflammatory mediators like TNF- α, COX- 2, and iNOS when tested on RAW 264. 7 cell lines. In vivo, MAF was found to be preventive against anaphylactic shock and Arthurs reaction, when daily orally administered to Wistar rats. Phytochemical analysis of the MAF fraction indicated that it is rich in tannins. Results indicate that MAF, a fraction isolated from the aqueous extract of root bark of Zizyphus mauritiana, has potent anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties.
- Abdallah, Emad & Elsharkawy, Eman & Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz. (2016). Biological activities of methanolic leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications. 9. 605- 614. 10. 21786/ bbrc/ 9.4/ 6. Ziziphus mauritiana is recognized for traditional use in different areas as its fruits are consumed locally in some parts of Saudi Arabia. However, little is known about the biological activities of the leaves. The current study has aimed to evaluate some bioactive properties of the methanol leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana. Phytochemical analysis was performed using colorimetric methods: Disc diffusion, MIC, and MBC method were used to determine the antimicrobial activity; DPPH scavenging activity and reduction capacity was determined spectrophotometrically for the antioxidant activity, and carrageenan-induced paw edema method using rat models was employed to evaluate the anti-infl ammatory activity. The study revealed the presence of some bioactive phytochemical constituents such as saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and flavonoids. The methanol leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana has significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and Proteus vulgaris (multi-drug resistant isolate) and varied degrees against other bacterial strains but it was not significant. The plant extract also has potent antioxidant (IC50 value of 0.024 g/ L competitor to the ascorbic acid and the quercetin, with observed reducing the power of Iron III to Iron II) and anti-inflammatory properties (71.83 % reduction in inflammation at a concentration of 400 mg/ kg body weight of rats). The results obtained in the present study suggest that leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana can be used as a source of functional ingredients for pharmaceutical drug industries.
- Naik, Suresh & Bhagat, Sushant & Shah, Priyank & Tare, Abhishek & Ingawale, Deepa & Wadekar, Raju. (2013). Evaluation of the anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of ethanolic extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruits in rodents. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 23. 811- 818. 10.1590/ S0102- 695X- 2013000500014. The present study reports the anti-allergic activity of ethanolic extract of Zizyphus jujuba Mill., Rhamnaceae, and its possible mode of action. The effect of extract of Z. jujuba at different doses (250, 500, and 1000 mg/ kg, orally) was simulated on studied animal models of asthma and allergy: a) milk-induced eosinophilia and leukocytosis; b) compound 48/ 80 induced mast cell degranulation; and active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. In addition, an extract of Z. jujube’s effect on sensitized guinea pig ileum (ex vivo) and tracheal chain preparations (in vitro) was investigated. Treatment with extract of Z. jujuba at all doses significantly: prevented the milk-induced eosinophilia and compound 48/80 induced degranulation of mesenteric mast cells; decreased passive cutaneous and active anaphylactic reactions. In addition, the extract of Z. jujuba inhibited acetylcholine as well as histamine-induced tracheal chain contraction, and also antigen-induced contraction of sensitized guinea pig ileum (Shultz-Dale inhibition test). Furthermore, it also exhibited free radical scavenging activity (in vitro). The observed anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of the extract of Z. jujuba may be largely through the stabilization of mast cells by the membrane presence of phytoconstituents (Steroidal saponins and flavonoids).
Rasa Panchaka of Badara / Kola
|Rasa (Taste)||Madhura (Sweet), Amla (Sour), Kashaya (Astringent)|
|Guna (Virtue)||Snigdha (Oily), Guru (Heavy), Picchila|
|Virya (Potency)||Sheeta (Cold Potency)|
|Vipaka (Post-Digestion)||Madhura (Sweet)|
Kshudra Badara Karkandhu is Kashaya, Madhura in taste (rasa), and Snigdha and Guru in Guna (properties) and pacify Vata and Pitta. Raja Badara is Madhura (sweet) in taste with cold potency and Shukrala, Bhedana, and Brihana in Karma.
Dosha Karma of Badara / Kola
Vata Pitta Shamaka, Vata Hara due to Madhura Vipaka and Madhura, Amla Rasa. Pitta Hara because of Sheeta Virya, Madhura Rasa, and Madhura Vipaka.
Karma (Actions) of Badara / Kola
Kola – Grahi Ruchikara
Sushka Badara (Dried fruit) – Agni Vardhaka, Mala Vardhaka, Trishnahara
Abhyantra Karma of Badara: Rochana, Hridya, Ruchi Vardhaka, Shonit Sthapana, Grahi, Anulomna, Trishna Nigrehana, Deepana, pachana, Hikka Nigrehana, Kapha Nisaraka, Mutra Gata Sharkara Nasahaka, Mutrala, Swedopaga, Daha Prashmanan, Jwaraghana, Brihan, Shrmhara.
Bahya Karma of Badara: Leaves are Daha Prashmana, Tvak is Vrana Shodhaka or Vrana Ropaka, Seeds are lekhana, leaves of Badara are Jihva swaad Grehana Shakti Hara.
Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Badara/ Kola
Kola – Atisara, Aruchi.
Sushka Badara (Dried fruit) – Vivandha, Trishna, Agnimandya.
Abhyantra: Rakta Vikara, Rakta Pitta, Hrid Dourbalya, Trishna, Agnimandya, Aruchi, Vivandh, Ikshu Meha, Udarda, Tvag Dosha, Jwara, Vata- pitta Kasa, Vata- Pitta Swasa, Vata- Pitta Hikka, Shosha, Kshaya, Dourbalya, Angamarda, Shrama.
Bahya: Vishphota, Netra Roga, Vrana, Daha.
Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Badara / Badari
Daha (Burning sensation): In the burning sensation, the application of the fourth of the leaves of Badari, Nimba, and Upodika is useful. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 160, Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39/ 285)
- The patient should be fed on the soup of radish or badara fruits cooked with curd and pomegranate and have ample ghee. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 31- 33)
- Decoctions of the bark of badari, arjuna, jambu, amra, shallaki, and vetasa mixed with sugar and honey check diarrhea. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 96)
- Badara fruits are boiled and mixed with jaggery, and oil should be taken. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 133, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 18)
- Badari root should be taken with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 96)
Rakta Atisara (Diarrhoea with blood)
- Paste of badari root mixed with that of tila and added with honey and milk checks diarrhea with blood. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 5. 20)
- Dhataki, badari leaves, etc. should be taken separately with curd by one suffering from tenesmus. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2/ 120)
- One suffering from diarrhea with blood should take the juice of badari bark or decoction of sunthi and kadamba bark at night for three days. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 3)
Kasa, Swara Bheda (Cough and hoarseness of voice)
- In cough and hoarseness of voice, one should take marica powder mixed with ghee, honey, and sugar or paste of badari leaves fried in ghee and mixed with rock salt. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 180- 181, Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 52/ 20)
- Seed-kernel of badara should be taken with wine, curd, or curd-water; or a paste of pippali fried in ghee and mixed with rock salt should be taken. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 17)
Chardi (Vomiting): To check the vomit caused by kapha one should take powder of sour badara fruits with jambu, or karkatshringi with musta or durlabha with honey. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 20/ 38)
Pleehodara (Splenomegaly): A paste of pounded badara leaves mixed with oil is applied locally and pressed. During this period, the patient is kept on a milk diet. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 90)
Ahiputanaka (Diaper dermatitis): Badari bark mixed with rock salt is applied. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 20/ 59)
Masurika (Pox): Powder of badara fruit mixed with jaggery should be taken for maturation. It is useful for all types of pox. (Vrinda Madhava. 56/ 27)
Pradara (Leuccorhea): Intake of badara powder with jaggery or banana with goat’s milk or laksa with ghee checks pradara. (Vrinda Madhava. 63/ 12)
Slimy enema: Badari is one of the components of a slimy enema. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 38/ 85)
Shira Shula (Headache): The application of the paste of badari leaves and pippali on the forehead removes headaches. (Gada Nigreha. 3. 1. 131)
Medo Roga/ Sthoulya (Obesity): Liquid gruel mixed with sour gruel and a paste of badari leaves alleviates obesity. (Chakra Dutta. 36/ 16)
Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Kola
Bhasmaka (Excessive hunger): Paste the seed kernel of kola with water and destroy bhasmaka immediately. (Vanga Sena. Bhasmaka. 9)
Arsha (Piles): The patient is given a tub- a bath, after the massage, in the warm decoction of kola or buttermilk or buttermilk or curd-scum or cow’s urine. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 46- 47)
Trishna (Thirst): The facial application of the group panchamlaka (five sours)- kola, dadima, vriksamla, changeri, and chukrika- pacifies thirst immediately. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 151, Vrinda Madhava. 16/ 26)
Mukha Dushika (Pimples): Seed-kernel of kola mixed with jaggery, hare’s blood, and honey, or kustha kept within mätulunga with honey should be applied for a week. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 32/ 20)
Benefits of Badara
- The Mula (roots) of Badara is bitter and cooling, Badara alleviates Kapha and cures headache and biliousness.
- The bark of badara cures boils and checks diarrhea and dysentery.
- The leaves of Badara are bitter and cooling, it alleviates Kapha, reduces obesity and cures diarrhea, and are antipyretic.
- Souvira: The Pakwa Phala ripe fruit (souvira type) is cooling, indigestible, and removes burning sensation, thirst, vomiting, biliousness, consumption, and blood diseases and it is a tonic, laxative, and aphrodisiac.
- Kola: A small variety (kola) is hot and tasty. Kola is laxative and it allays Vata and Kapha and it causes a burning sensation in the body.
- Karkandhu: A still smaller variety (Karkandhu) is sour, acrid, sweet, oily, bitter, and indigestible. It allays vata and pitta. The fruits of Karkandhu (Zizyphus nummularia W. & A.) are sweet and sour, wholesome, appetizer stomachic, and they cure Kapha and may increase biliousness. Ripe fruits are edible. Ripe fruits are considered to be cool and astringent and are useful in bilious affections.
- Apakwa Phala: The unripe fruit (Apakva Phala) of Badara pacifies vata and causes kapha.
- Sushaka Phala: The dry fruit (Suska Phala) is a laxative and appetizer. It removes impurities from the blood, and it allays thirst.
- The seeds (bija) are acrid and sweetish. They are tonics, and aphrodisiacs and cure diseases, cough, asthma, and thirst; it allays Vata and cures vomiting, burning sensation, biliousness, and leucorrhea.
- The root and bark are tonic. The leaves are anthelmintic. They are good for stomatitis and gum bleeding. They heal wounds, ulcers, and syphilitic ulcers. They cure asthma and liver complaints.
- The flowers afford a good collyrium in eye troubles.
- The unripe fruit increases thirst and lessens expectoration and biliousness.
- The ripe fruit is sweet, and sour and has a flavor not good for digestion. It causes diarrhea in large doses, and it is good for fevers, wounds, and ulcers.
- The seeds are astringent and tonic to the heart and brain and they allay thirst.
- Various parts of Badara (Zizyphus jujuba Linn.) are medicinally used in different ailments besides its fruits or berries ripe are edible commonly. The leaves boiled in milk are given virulent gonorrhea.
- An infusion of leaves is used as an eye lotion in conjunctivitis. A paste of tender leaves and twigs is applied to boils, carbuncles, and abscesses to promote suppuration. The boiled leaves are applied over the navel and the public region in dysuria.
- Berries are a blood purifier and aid in digestion. They are pectoral and styptic.
- The dried ripe fruit is a mild laxative and expectorant.
- Seeds are given with buttermilk in bilious disorders. An ointment made of the seeds with some bland oil is locally applied as a liniment in rheumatism.
- The ripe berries are favorable to heart debility as a cardio-tonic, and useful in blood ailments and hemorrhage.
- The leaves are powdered and orally given in glycosuria in doses of 4- 6 gms. twice a day with a suitable vehicle (Anupana in Iksumeha).
- The paste of leaves is made to the burning sensation. Leaves are boiled in water which is employed as mouthwash or gargle for mouth cavity ailments.
- The bark is boiled in water to prepare decoction which is orally given to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and other bowel complaints. Fruits are useful in loss of appetite, constipation, and thirst conditional.
- It is useful in urticaria, skin affection, eruptions, consumption, general debility, hiccough, and throat affections.
- The young leaves are pounded with those of Udumbara (Ficus glomerata) and applied to scorpion stings.
- The bark is used as an astringent in gingivitis. Fruits are mucilaginous, pectoral, and styptic. The leaves are prescribed in antipyretic or antifebrile baths and lotions. Roots are given in the form of decoction in febrile conditions and it is also helpful to act as a tonic in debility.
- The leaves are applied to scabies and boiled. Smoke is used for colds in the head and nasal discharges.
- The decoction of leaves is employed as a hip bath for joint pains and as a gargle in sore throat and bleeding gums. Ripe drupes are eaten commonly.
Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Badara
- Tvak Kwaath (Bark decoction): 50- 100 ml
- Phala (Fruit): 5- 7 in number (ripe fruit of Badara is edible)
Classical Reference of Badara
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamra Phaladi Varga- 71- 72
पुंसि स्त्रियाञ्च कर्कन्धूर्बदरी कोलमित्यपि |
फेनिलं कुवलं घोण्टा सौवीरं बदरं महत् |
अजप्रिया कुहा कोली विषमोभयकण्टका ||
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamra Phala Varga, 73- 77
Properties and actions
पच्यमानं सुमधुरं सौवीरं बदरं महत् |
सौवीरं बदरं शीतं भेदनं गुरु शुक्रलम् ||
बृंहणं पित्तदाहास्रक्षयतृष्णानिवारणम् |
सौवीरं लघु सम्पक्वं मधुरं कोलमुच्यते ||
कोलं तु बदरं ग्राहि रुच्यमुष्णञ्च वातलम् |
कफपित्तकरं चापि गुरु सारकमीरितम् ||
कर्कन्धूः क्षुद्रबदरं कथितं पूर्वसूरिभिः |
अम्लं स्यात्क्षुद्रबदरं कषायं मधुरं मनाक् ||
स्निग्धं गुरु च तिक्तञ्च वातपित्तापहं स्मृतम् |
शुष्कं भेद्यग्निकृत्सर्वं लघुतृष्णाक्लमास्रजित् ||
Dhanwantri Nighantu Aamra Phaladi Varga- 88- 89
बदरं कोलकं कोलं सौवीरं फेनिलं कुहम् |
कर्कन्धुकं गुडफलं बालेष्ठं फलशौशिरः ||
कर्कन्धुकोलबदरमम्लं वातकफापहम् |
पक्वं पित्तानिलहरं स्निग्धं च मधुरं रसे ||
पुरातनं तृट्शमनमामघ्नं दीपनं लघु |
सौवीरबदरं स्निग्धं मधुरं वातपित्तजित् ||
Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 353- 362
घोटा घुण्टा गोपघुण्टा बदरी मर्कटी गुहा |
राष्ट्रवृद्धिकरी कोली गोकण्टी युग्मकण्टिका ||
स्निग्धच्छदा कोशफला परा सौवीरकापरा |
हस्तिकोली सिञ्चितिकापरा कर्कन्धुकी घुका ||
बदर्यस्तुवराः स्निग्धाः कफप्रशमनाः स्मृताः |
बदरं चापरं कोलं कुवलं फेनिलं कुहम् ||
कर्कन्धु ह्रस्वबदरं बेरटं कन्धुकं धुकम् |
स्यादापक्वादिवस्थासु स्वादु सौवीरकं महत् ||
मुष्टिप्रमाणं बदरं स्वादु सिञ्चितिकाफलम् |
कफपित्तहरं पुष्पं कुष्ठघ्नं बदरस्य च ||
हस्तिकोलं हिमं स्वादु पित्तघ्नं तुवरं गुरु |
सङ्ग्राहि रोचनं स्निग्धं विबन्धाध्मानपुष्टिदम् ||
सौवीरं मधुरं स्निग्धं स्वादुपाकरसं हिमम् |
भेदनं गुरु विष्टम्भि बृंहणं कफशुक्रदम् ||
बदरं तुवरञ्चोष्णं लघु सङ्ग्राहि रोचनम् ||
वातघ्नं कफकृत्तद्वत् कोलमुष्णं सरं गुरु |
तद्वत् कर्कन्धु पक्वानि स्वादु स्निग्धरसानि च ||
घ्नन्ति पित्तानिलं, सर्वं शुष्कं मेधाग्निकृल्लघु |
तस्य मज्जा तु रुचिरो मधुरो वीर्यवर्धनः |
Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 136- 139
बदरो बदरी कोली कर्कन्धूः कोलफेनिलौ |
सौवीरको गुडफलो बालेष्टः फलशैशिरः ||
दृढबीजो वृत्तफलः कण्टकी वक्रकण्टकः |
सुबीजः सुफलः स्वच्छः सुरसः स्मृतिसम्मितः ||
बदरं मधुरं कषायमम्लं परिपक्वं मधुराम्लमुष्णमेतत् |
कफकृत्पचनातिसाररक्तश्रमशोषार्तिविनाशनं च रुच्यम् ||
बदरस्य पत्रलेपो ज्वरदाहविनाशनः |
त्वचा विस्फोटशमनी बीजं नेत्रामयापहम् ||
Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 140- 141
राजबदरो नृपेष्टो नृपबदरो राजवल्लभश्चैव |
पृथुकोलस्तनुबीजो मधुरफलो राजकोलश्च ||
राजबदरः सुमधुरः शिशिरो दाहार्तिपित्तवातहरः |
वृष्यश्च वीर्यवृद्धिं कुरुते शोषश्रमं हरते ||
Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 142- 143
भूबदरी क्षितिबदरी वल्लीबदरी च बदरिवल्ली च |
बहुफलिका लघुबदरी बदरफली सूक्ष्मबदरी च ||
भूबदरी मधुराऽम्ला कफवातविकारहारिणी पथ्या |
दीपनपाचनकर्त्री किञ्चित् पित्तास्रकारिणी रुच्या ||
Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 144- 145
Kshudra/ Laghu badara
सूक्ष्मफलो लघुबदरो बहुकण्टः सूक्ष्मपत्रको दुःस्पर्शः |
मधुरः शम्बराहारः शिखिप्रियश्चैव निर्दिष्टः ||
लघुबदरं मधुराम्लं पक्वं कफवातनाशनं रुच्यम् |
स्निग्धं तु जन्तुकारकमीषत्पित्तार्तिदाहशोषघ्नम् ||
Priya Nighnatu, Phala Varga, 64- 66
सौवीरन्तु सुशीतं मधुरं गुरु भेदनं भवेद् वृष्यम् |
हन्ति सवात॑ पित्त दाह क्षयरक्तपित्ततृष: ||
कोल रुच्यज्लोष्ण वातघ्नं श्रलेष्मपित्तकृत् प्रोक्तम् |
कर्कन्धू: क्षुद्रतमा साम्लकषाया भवेत्तद्वत् ||
कर्कन्धू: शुष्कचूर्ण लोके तथ्युज्यते बदरचूर्णम् |
लघुदीपनमथ तृष्णा श्रम वातक्लान्तिपित्तघ्नम ||
Chakra Dutta, 54- 32
लिहेद्वा बादरम चूर्णम पाचनार्थं गुड़ च |
अनेनाशु विपच्यन्ते वात पित्त काफात्मिका ||
Chakra Dutta, 55- 49
व्यंग हर बदारास्थि लेप
व्यंगजी अरुण त्वग्वा छाएगी क्षीर प्रपेशिता ||
Chakra Dutta, 45- 6
नाडी व्रण घोण्टाफलादिवर्त्तिका
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 24- 160- 161
बदरीपल्लवोत्थश्व तथैवारिष्टकोद्धव: ||
फेनिलायाश्व य: फेनस्तेदाहं लेपनं शुभम् |
Chakra Dutta, Swar Bheda Chikitsa. 14- 10
स्वरभेदे बदरी पत्र कल्क प्रयोग:
बदरपत्रकल्क॑ वा घृत भृष्टं ससैन्धवम् |
स्वरोपघाते कासे च लेहमेवं प्रयोजयेत् ||
Chakra Dutta, 36- 16
स्थौल्या बदरी पत्र सिद्ध पेया
बदरी पत्र कल्केन पेया कांजीका साधिता |
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 180- 186
लाजपेयां सुखजरां पिप्पलीनागरैः शृताम्||
पिबेज्ज्वरी ज्वरहरां क्षुद्वानल्पाग्निरादितः|
अम्लाभिलाषी तामेव दाडिमाम्लां सनागराम्||
सृष्टविट् पैत्तिको वाऽथ शीतां मधुयुतां पिबेत्|
पेयां वा रक्तशालीनां पार्श्वबस्तिशिरोरुजि||
श्वदंष्ट्राकण्टकारिभ्यां सिद्धां ज्वरहरां पिबेत्|
ज्वरातिसारी पेयां वा पिबेत् साम्लां शृतां नरः||
शृतां विदारीगन्धाद्यैर्दीपनीं स्वेदनीं नरः||
कासी श्वासी च हिक्की च यवागूं ज्वरितः पिबेत्|
विबद्धवर्चाः सयवां पिप्पल्यामलकैः शृताम्||
सर्पिष्मतीं पिबेत् पेयां ज्वरी दोषानुलोमनीम्|
कोष्ठे विबद्धे सरुजि पिबेत् पेयां शृतां ज्वरी||
पिबेत् सबिल्वां पेयां वा ज्वरे सपरिकर्तिके||
अस्वेदनिद्रस्तृष्णार्तः पिबेत् पेयां सशर्कराम्||
नागरामलकैः सिद्धां घृतभृष्टां ज्वरापहाम्|
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 71, Hapushadi Ghrita
तत् परं वातगुल्मघ्नं शूलानाहविमोक्षणम्||
बस्तिहृत्पार्श्वशूलं च घृतमेतद्व्यपोहति||
इति हपुषाद्यं घृतम्|
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 28- 34, Kshat Ksheen Chikitsa
मधूकमधुकक्षीरसिद्धं वा तण्डुलीयकम्|
मूढवातस्त्वजामेदः सुराभृष्टं ससैन्धवम्||
क्षामः क्षीणः क्षतोरस्कस्त्वनिद्रः सबलेऽनिले|
शर्करां यवगोधूमौ जीवकर्षभकौ मधु|
शृतक्षीरानुपानं वा लिह्यात् क्षीणः क्षती कृशः||
क्रव्यादमांसनिर्यूहं घृतभृष्टं पिबेच्च सः|
साश्वकर्णैः शृतात् क्षीरादद्याज्जातेन सर्पिषा|
यष्ट्याह्वनागबलयोः क्वाथे क्षीरसमं घृतम्|
पयस्यापिप्पलीवांशीकल्कसिद्धं क्षते शुभम्||
कोललाक्षारसे तद्वत् क्षीराष्टगुणसाधितम्|
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15- 82- 88, Dashmuladya Ghritam
द्वे पञ्चमूले सरलं देवदारु सनागरम्|
पिप्पलीं पिप्पलीमूलं चित्रकं हस्तिपिप्पलीम्||८२||
शणबीजं यवान् कोलन् कुलत्थान् सुषवीं तथा  |
पाचयेदारनालेन दध्ना सौवीरकेण वा||८३||
चतुर्भागावशेषेण पचेत्तेन घृताढकम्|
स्वर्जिकायावशूकाख्यौ क्षारौ दत्त्वा च युक्तितः||८४||
सैन्धवौद्भिदसामुद्रबिडानां रोमकस्य च|
ससौवर्चलपाक्यानां भागान्द्विपलिकान् पृथक्||८५||
विनीय चूर्णितान् तस्मात् पाययेत् प्रसृतं बुधः|
करोत्यग्निं बलं वर्णं वातघ्नं भुक्तपाचनम्||८६||
इति दशमूलाद्यं घृतम्|
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 83- 85
पूतिगन्धान् विवर्णांश्च बहुस्रावान्महारुजः|
व्रणानशुद्धान् विज्ञाय शोधनैः समुपाचरेत्||
त्रिफला खदिरो दार्वी न्यग्रोधादिर्बला कुशः|
निम्बकोलकपत्राणि कषायाः शोधना मताः||
तिलकल्कः सलवणो द्वे हरिद्रे त्रिवृद्धृतम्|
मधुकं निम्बपत्राणि प्रलेपो व्रणशोधनः||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 81- 89
तैलं ससौवीरकमस्तुतक्रं वाते प्रपेयं लवणं सुखोष्णम्|
मूत्राम्बुसिद्धं लवणैश्च तैलमानाहगुल्मार्तिहृदामयघ्नम्||
पक्त्वा जले तेन विपाच्य तैलमभ्यङ्गपानेऽनिलहृद्गदध्नम्||
सहिङ्गुभिः साधितमग्र्यसर्पिर्गुल्मे सहृत्पार्श्वगदेऽनिलोत्थे||
सपुष्कराह्वं फलपूरमूलं महौषधं शट्यभया च कल्काः|
क्वाथः कृतः पौष्करमातुलुङ्गपलाशभूतीकशटीसुराह्वैः|
सनागराजाजिवचायवानीक्षारः सुखोष्णो लवणश्च पेयः||
पथ्याशटीपौष्करपञ्चकोलात् समातुलुङ्गाद्यमकेन कल्कः|
गुडप्रसन्नालवणैश्च भृष्टो हृत्पार्श्वपृष्ठोदरयोनिशूले||
स्यात्त्र्यूषणं द्वे त्रिफले सपाठे निदिग्धिकागोक्षुरकौ बले द्वे|
ऋद्धिस्त्रुटिस्तामलकी स्वगुप्ता मेदे मधूकं मधुकं स्थिरा च||
शतावरी जीवकपृश्निपर्ण्यौ द्रव्यैरिमैरक्षसमैः सुपिष्टैः|
प्रस्थं घृतस्येह पचेद्विधिज्ञः प्रस्थेन दध्ना त्वथ माहिषेण||
मात्रां पलं चार्धपलं पिचुं वा प्रयोजयेन्माक्षिकसम्प्रयुक्ताम्|
श्वासे सकासे त्वथ पाण्डुरोगे हलीमके हृद्ग्रहणीप्रदोषे||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 2/ 53
आमाशयस्थे रुधिरे वमनं पथ्यमुच्यते |
पक्वाशयस्थे देयं च विरेचनमसंशयम् ||
आस्थापनं च निःस्नेहं कार्यमुष्णैर्विशोधनैः |
यवकोलकुलत्थानां निःस्नेहेन रसेन च ||
भुञ्जीतान्नं यवागूं वा पिबेत् सैन्धवसंयुताम् |
अतिनिःस्रुतरक्तो वा भिन्नकोष्ठः पिबेदसृक् ||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 18, Aptanaka, Rakshoghana, Chikitsa
अपतानकिनम स्रस्ताक्षमवक्रभ्रु वमस्तब्ध मेढ्रम स्वेदनम वेपनम प्रलापिनम खट्वापातिनमबहिरायामिनं चोपक्रमेत् | तत्र प्रागेव स्नेहाभ्यक्तं स्विन्न शरीरमवपीडनेन तीक्ष्णेनोपक्रमेत शिरःशुद्ध्यर्थं; अनन्तरं विदारिगन्धादिक्वाथ मांसरसक्षीरदधिपक्वं सर्पिरच्छं पाययेत्, तथा हि नातिमात्रं वायुः प्रसरति; ततो भद्रदार्वादिवातघ्नगणमाहृत्य सयवकोलकुलत्थं सानूपौदकमांसं पञ्चवर्गमेकतः प्रक्वाथ्य तमादाय कषायमम्लक्षीरैः सहोन्मिश्र्य सर्पिस्तैल वसामज्जभिः सह विपचेन्मधुरकप्रतीवापं, तदेतत्त्रैवृतमपतानकिनां परिषेकावगाहाभ्यङ्गपान भोजनानुवासननस्येषु विदध्यात्; यथोक्तैश्च स्वेदविधानैः स्वेदयेत्, बलीयसि वाते सुखोष्णतुषबुसकरीषपूर्णे कूपे निदध्यादामुखात्, तप्तायां वा रथकारचुल्ल्यां तप्तायां वा शिलायां सुरा परिषिक्तायां पलाशदलच्छन्नायां शाययेत्, कृशरा वेशवार पायसैर्वा स्वेदयेत् | मूलकोरुबूस्फूर्जार्जकार्क सप्तला शङ्खिनी स्वरस सिद्धं तैलमपतानकिनां परिषेकादिषूपयोज्यम् | अभुक्त वता पीतमम्लं दधि मरिच वचा युक्तमपतानकं हन्ति; तैल सर्पिर्वसाक्षौद्राणि वा | एतच्छुद्धवातापतानकविधानमुक्तं, संसृष्टे संसृष्टं कर्तव्यम् | वेगान्तरेषु चावपीडं दद्यात्; ताम्रचूडकर्कटकृष्णमत्स्यशिशुमारवराहवसाश्चासेवेत, क्षीराणि वा वातहरसिद्धानि, यवकोलकुलत्थमूलकदधिघृततैलसिद्धा वा यवागूः; स्नेहविरेचनास्थापनानुवासनैश्चैनं दशरात्राहृतवेगमुपक्रमेत, वातव्याधिचिकित्सितं चावेक्षेत; रक्षाकर्म च कुर्यादिति ||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 5, Parmeha Pidika Chikitsa
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 28- 39, Mudhgarbha Chikitsa
योनिसन्तर्पणेऽभ्यङ्गे पाने बस्तिषु भोजने ||
बलातैलमिदं चास्यै दद्यादनिलवारणम् |
बलामूलकषायस्य दशमूलीशृतस्य च ||
यवकोलकुलत्थानां क्वाथस्य पयसस्तथा |
अष्टावष्टौ शुभा भागास्तैलादेकस्तदेकतः ||
पचेदावाप्य मधुरं गणं सैन्धवसंयुतम् |
तथाऽगुरुं सर्जरसं सरलं देवदारु च ||
मञ्जिष्ठां चन्दनं कुष्ठमेलां कालानुसारिवाम् |
मांसीं शैलेयकं पत्रं तगरं सारिवां वचाम् ||
तत् साधुसिद्धं सौवर्णे राजते मृन्मयेऽपि वा ||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 20/ 57- 60, Ahiputana Chikitsa
धात्र्याः स्तन्यं शोधयित्वा बाले साध्याऽहिपूतना |
पीतं घृतं नाशयति कृच्छ्रामप्यहिपूतनाम् |
त्रिफलाकोलखदिरकषायं व्रणरोपणम् ||
लेपोऽम्लपिष्टो बदरीत्वग्वा सैन्धवसंयुता ||
कपालतुत्थजं चूर्णं चूर्णकाले प्रयोजयेत् |
चिकित्सेन्मुष्ककच्छूं चाप्यहिपूतनपामवत् ||
अत ऊर्ध्वं प्रवक्ष्यामि पुटपाकप्रसाधनम् |
Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra, 18- 33- 37
द्वौ बिल्वमात्रौ श्लक्ष्णस्य पिण्डौ मांसस्य पेषितौ ||
द्रव्याणां बिल्वमात्रं तु द्रवाणां कुडवो मतः |
तदैकध्यं समालोड्य पत्रैः सुपरिवेष्टितम् ||
मृदावलिप्तमङ्गारैः खादिरैरवकूलयेत् ||
सक्षीरद्रुमकाष्ठैर्वा गोमयैर्वाऽपि युक्तितः ||
स्विन्नमुद्धृत्य निष्पीड्य रसमादाय तं नृणाम् |
तर्पणोक्तेन विधिना यथावदवचारयेत् ||
कनीनके निषेच्यः स्यान्नित्यमुत्तानशायिनः |
रक्ते पित्ते च तौ शीतौ कोष्णौ वातकफापहौ ||
Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra, 32/ 5- 7
हितं घृतं तुगाक्षीर्यां सिद्धं मधुरकेषु च |
कुष्ठतालीशखदिरचन्दनस्यन्दने तथा ||
देवदारुवचाहिङ्गुकुष्ठं गिरिकदम्बकः |
गन्धनाकुलिकुम्भीके मज्जानो बदरस्य च |
कर्कटास्थि घृतं चापि धूपनं सर्षपैः सह ||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 20/ 26- 28
पित्तात्मिकायामनुलोमनार्थं द्राक्षाविदारीक्षुरसैस्त्रिवृत् स्यात्|
कफाशयस्थं त्वतिमात्रवृद्धं पित्तं हरेत् स्वादुभिरूर्ध्वमेव||
शुद्धाय काले मधुशर्कराभ्यां लाजैश्च मन्थं यदि वाऽपि पेयाम्|
प्रदापयेन्मुद्गरसेन वाऽपि शाल्योदनं जाङ्गलजै रसैर्वा||
खर्जूरमांसान्यथ नारिकेलं द्राक्षामथो वा बदराणि लिह्यात्||
स्रोतोजलाजोत्पलकोलमज्जचूर्णानि लिह्यान्मधुनाऽभयां च|
द्राक्षारसं वाऽपि पिबेत् सुशीतं मृद्भृष्टलोष्टप्रभवं जलं वा|
जम्ब्वाम्रयोः पल्लवजं कषायं पिबेत् सुशीतं मधुसंयुतं वा||
निशि स्थितं वारि समुद्गकृष्णं सोशीरधान्यं चणकोदकं वा|
गवेधुकामूलजलं गुडूच्या जलं पिबेदिक्षुरसं पयो वा||
सेव्यं पिबेत् काञ्चनगैरिकं वा सबालकं तण्डुलधावनेन|
कल्कं तथा चन्दनचव्यमांसीद्राक्षोत्तमाबालकगैरिकाणाम्|
शीताम्बुना गैरिकशालिचूर्णं मूर्वां तथा तण्डुलधावनेन||
Specific Formulation of Badara
- Badariadi Dhupa for Updansha, Vrana
- Badari Churnadi Yoga for Pradara
- Badari Patra Peya for Stholya
- Badra Asava
- Amritprasha Ghrita for Kshat Ksheena
- Changeri Ghrita for Arsha
- Rohitaka Ghrita for Udarad and Gulma
- Rasna Ghrita for Kasa
- Shatyadi Ghrita for Gulma
- Bala Ghrita for Mutra ghata
- Badara Phaldi Ghrita for Kasa
- Badra Patra Kalka is used for Parvahika, Shira Shula, Kasa, and Swara Bheda.
Contraindication and Side Effects of Badara
- No known side effects of Badara are still being studied but avoid its use during pregnancy and lactating mothers.
- As sour (Amla Rasa) are incompatible to use with milk, so avoid the usage of the Badara Amla variety with milk.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Z. jujuba
- Venkatachalam, Dhanapal. (2019). Screening of Anthelmintic Activity of Various Extracts of Zizyphus Jujuba Bark. American Journal of PharmTech Research. 9. 191- 197. 10. 46624/a ptr. 2019. v9. i6. 015.
- M, Ajay & D, Giles. (2019). Anti-Inflammatory, Antiulcer and Anticancer Activities of Saponin Isolated from the Fruits of Ziziphus jujuba. The Natural Products Journal. 09. 10. 2174/ 22103155096661904. 29145610.
- Jiang, Jian-Guo & Huang, Xiao-Juan & Chen, Jian & Lin, Qing-Sheng. (2007). Comparison of the sedative and hypnotic effects of flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides extracted from Semen Ziziphus jujube. Natural product research. 21. 310- 20. 10. 1080/ 1478641070. 1192827.
- Li, Ganpeng & Wu, Linfen & Wei, Jie & Xu, Shitao & Huang, Haitao & Gao, Xuemei & Hu, Qiu-Fen. (2013). Two new flavonoids from the fruits of Ziziphus jujuba. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 49. 617- 620. 10. 1007/ s10600- 013- 0692- z.
- Mesaik, Ahmed & Poh, Hiap & Bin, Ooi & Elawad, Izzaddinn & Alsayed, Badr. (2018). In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Bacterial, and Anti-Diarrhoeal Activity of Ziziphus Jujuba Fruit Extract. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 6. 10. 3889/ oamjms. 2018. 168.
- Bashir, Ahmad & Khan, Iftikhar & Bashir, Shumaila & Azam, Sadiq & Hussain, Farrukh. (2011). Screening of Zizyphus jujuba for antibacterial, phytotoxic, and haemagglutination activities. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10. 2514- 2519.
- Kamiloglu, Onder & Ercisli, Sezai & Engül, Memnune & Toplu, Celil & Serce, Sedat. (2009). Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of jujube (Zizyphus jujube Mill.) Genotypes selected from Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8. 303- 307.
- Hoshyar, Reyhane & Mahaqiq, Zabihullah & Torabi, Nihad & Abolghasemi, Aliyeh. (2015). Antitumor Activity of Aqueous Extract of Ziziphus Jujube Fruit in Breast Cancer: An In Vitro and In Vivo Study. Asian Pacific Journal of Reproduction. 9. 10. 1016/ S2305- 0500 (15) 30007- 5.
- Marilena, Hovanet & Ancuceanu, Robert & Dinu, Mihaela & Oprea, Eliza & Budura, Emma & Negreș, Simona & Velescu, Bruno & Duţu, L.E. & Anghel, Iuliana & Titirica, Irina & Morosan, Elena & Seremet, Oana. (2016). Toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. leaves. Farmacia. 64. 802-808.
- Rekha U, Dr & Bhuminathan, S. & Shankar, P. (2021). Anticancer Activity of “Ziziphus jujuba” – A Review. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 261- 269. 10. 9734/ jpri/ 2021/ v33i59B34377.
- Hong, Eun-Hye & Song, Jae & Kang, Kyo Bin & Sung, Sang & Ko, Hyun-Jeong & Yang, Heejung. (2015). Anti-Influenza Activity of Betulinic Acid from Zizyphus jujuba on Influenza A/PR/8 Virus. Biomolecules & therapeutics. 23. 345- 9. 10. 4062/ biomother. 2015. 019.
- Moustafa, Mahmoud & Sayed, Mahmoud & Alamri, Saad & Alghamdii, Huda & Shati, Ali & Alrumman, Sulaiman & Khatani, Mohmed & Qthanin, Rahma & Siddique, Sajda & Ahmed, Dalia & Negm, Sally & Emam, Ahmed. (2022). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the pericarp of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. and their in vitro antimicrobial activity. Bangladesh Journal of Botany. 51. 305- 312. 10. 3329/bj. v51i2. 60428.
- Memarpoor-Yazdi, Mina & Mahaki, Hanie & Zardini, Hadi. (2013). Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates and purified peptides from Zizyphus jujuba fruits. Journal of Functional Foods. 5. 62– 70. 10. 1016/ j. jff. 2012. 08. 004.
- Adjdir, Sara & Nabila, Benariba & Adida, Houria & Kamila, Gheffour & Imad, EL HACI & Mohammed, Terki & Fekhikher, Zohra & Benramdane, Hanane & Bekkara, Fouzia & Rabah, Djaziri. (2021). Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Fruit from Tlemcen. Journal Of Biochemical Technology. 12. 40- 44. 10. 51847/ mAJJfuBvan.
- Devi, M.Uma. (2020). Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Zizyphus jujuba. 9. 1510- 1513.
- Yan, Min & Wang, Yan & Watharkar, Ritesh & Pu, Yunfeng & Wu, Cuiyun & Lin, Minjuan & Lu, Dengyang & Liu, Mingzhe & Bao, Jingkai & Xia, Yilei. (2021). Physicochemical And Antioxidant Activity of Fruit Harvested from Eight Jujube (Ziziphus Jujuba Mill.) Cultivars At Different Development Stages. 10. 21203/ rs.3. rs- 498991/ v1.
- Zhang, Yanlei & Sun, Xin & Vidyarthi, Sriram & Zhang, Rentang. (2021). Active components and antioxidant activity of thirty-seven varieties of Chinese jujube fruits (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.). International Journal of Food Properties. 24. 1479- 1494. 10. 1080/ 10942912. 2021. 1977656.
- XUE, ZIPING & FENG, WEIHUA & CAO, JIANKANG & CAO, DONGDONG & JIANG, WEIBO. (2009). Antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents in peel and pulp of Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill) fruits. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 33. 613 – 629. 10. 1111/ j. 1745- 4514. 2009. 00241. x.
- Abd-Alrahman, Sherif & Salem-Bekhet, Mounir & Elhalwagy, Manal. (2013). Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphus jujuba Seeds Extract. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology. 7. 379- 385.
- Chen J, Liu X, Li Z, Qi A, Yao P, Zhou Z, Dong TTX, Tsim KWK. A Review of Dietary Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube): Developing Health Food Supplements for Brain Protection. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017; 2017: doi: 10. 1155/ 2017/ 3019568. Epub 2017 Jun 7. PMID: 28680447; PMCID: PMC 5478819.
- Lu Y, Bao T, Mo J, Ni J, Chen W. Research advances in bioactive components and health benefits of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruit. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2021 Jun 15; 22 (6): 431- 449. doi 10. 1631/jus. B2000594. PMID: 34128368; PMCID: PMC 8214949.
- Chen J, Tsim KWK. A Review of Edible Jujube, the Ziziphus jujuba Fruit: A Health Food Supplement for Anemia Prevalence. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Nov 26; 11: 593655. doi 10. 3389/ fphar. 2020. 593655. PMID: 33324222; PMCID: PMC 7726020.
- Tahergorabi Z, Abedini MR, Mitra M, Fard MH, Beydokhti H. “Ziziphus jujuba”: A red fruit with promising anticancer activities. Pharmacogn Rev. 2015 Jul-Dec; 9 (18): 99- 106. doi 10. 4103/ 0973- 7847. 162108. PMID: 26392706; PMCID: PMC 4557242.
- Daneshmand F, Zare-Zardini H, Tolueinia B, Hasani Z, Ghanbari T. Crude Extract from Ziziphus Jujuba Fruits, a Weapon against Pediatric Infectious Disease. Iran J Ped Hematol Oncol. 2013; 3 (1): 216- 21. Epub 2013 Jan 22. PMID: 24575267; PMCID: PMC 3915445.
- Shahrahmani N, Amir Ali Akbari S, Mojab F, Mirzai M, Shahrahmani H. The Effect of Zizyphus Jujube Fruit Lotion on Breast Fissure in Breastfeeding Women. Iran J Pharm Res. 2018 Winter; 17 (Suppl): 101- 109. PMID: 29796034; PMCID: PMC 5958329.
- Ebrahimimd S, Ashkani-Esfahani S, Poormahmudibs A. Investigating the efficacy of zizyphus jujuba on neonatal jaundice. Iran J Pediatr. 2011 Sep; 21 (3): 320- 4. PMID: 23056808; PMCID: PMC 3446193.
- Kubota H, Morii R, Kojima-Yuasa A, Huang X, Yano Y, Matsui-Yuasa I. Effect of Zizyphus jujuba extract on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Am J Chin Med. 2009; 37 (3):597- 608. doi 10. 1142/ S0192415X09007089. PMID: 19606518.
- Rajaei A, Salarbashi D, Asrari N, Fazly Bazzaz BS, Aboutorabzade SM, Shaddel R. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of extracts from the seed and pulp of Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) grown in Iran. Food Sci Nutr. 2020 Dec 4; 9 (2): 682- 691. doi 10. 1002/ fsn3.2031. PMID: 33598153; PMCID: PMC 7866595.
- Abedini MR, Erfanian N, Nazem H, Jamali S, Hoshyar R. Anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects of Ziziphus Jujube on cervical and breast cancer cells. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2016 Mar-Apr;6(2):142-8. PMID: 27222827; PMCID: PMC4877962.
- Alam MM, Ali A, Ali M, Mir SR. Chromatographic Isolation and Spectroscopic Identification of Phytoconstituents of Jujuba Seeds (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.). J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2017 Jan- Mar; 9 (1): 26- 32. doi 10. 4103/ 0975-7406. 206217. PMID: 28584490; PMCID: PMC 5450467.
- Adhvaryu MR, Reddy N, Parabia MH. Anti-tumor activity of four Ayurvedic herbs in Dalton lymphoma ascites bearing mice and they are short-term in vitro cytotoxicity on DLA-cell-line. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2008 Jun 18; 5 (4): 409- 18. doi 10. 4314/ ajtcam. v5i4. 31297. PMID: 20161965; PMCID: PMC 2816583.
- Liu W, Ge T, Pan Z, Leng Y, Lv J, Li B. The effects of herbal medicine on epilepsy. Oncotarget. 2017 Jul 18; 8 (29): 48385- 48397. doi 10. 18632/ oncotarget.16801. PMID: 28423368; PMCID: PMC 5564656.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Z. mauritiana
- Okala, A. & Ladan, M.J. & Wasagu, R.S.U. & Shehu, Kasimu. (2014). Phytochemical studies and In Vitro antioxidant properties of Ziziphus mauritiana fruit extract. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 6. 885- 888.
- Youl, Estelle & Ouédraogo, Cyrille & Gambo, Moustapha & Moussa, Ouedraogo & Kiendrebeogo, Martin & Traoré, Aristide & Guissou, Innocent. (2019). Antioxidant activity of crude ethanolic extract and fractions of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. (Rhamnaceae) leaves from Burkina Faso. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. 30. 10. 1515/ jbcpp-2017- 0176.
- Afzal, Samina, Murium Batool, Bashir Ahmad Ch, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad Uzair, and Khurram Afzal. “Immunomodulatory, cytotoxicity, and antioxidant activities of roots of Ziziphus mauritiana.” Pharmacognosy magazine 13, no. Suppl 2 (2017): S262.
- Talmale, Suhas & Bhujade, Arti & Patil, Mandakini. (2015). Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of Zizyphus mauritiana root bark. Food Funct.. 6. 10. 1039/ C5FO00270B.
- Abdallah, Emad & Elsharkawy, Eman & Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz. (2016). Biological activities of methanolic leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications. 9. 605- 614. 10. 21786/ bbrc/ 9.4/ 6.
- Abalaka, Moses & Daniyan, Safiya & Mann, Abdullahi. (2010). Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of two Ziziphus species (Ziziphus mauritiana L. and Ziziphus spinachristi L.) on some microbial pathogens. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 4. 135- 139.
- Upadhyay, Dr. Sukirti & Upadhyay, Dr. Prashant & Ghosh, Ashoke K & Mishra, Ankita & Mahalwal, Vijender & Srivastava, Srishti. (2015). Antibacterial potency of Ziziphus mauritiana (Fam-Rhamnaceae) roots. Drug Development and Therapeutics. 6. 44. 10. 4103/ 2394- 2002. 148895.
- Mohamadou, Salamatou & Bayoï, James & Djoulde, Roger & Steve, Nodem & Léopold, Tatsadjieu Ngoune. (2021). Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. And Ziziphus mucronate Lam. Extracts. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 10. 9734/ JAMPS/ 2021/ v23i830252.
- Mishra, Tulika & Khullar, Madhu & Bhatia, Aruna. (2011). Anticancer Potential of Aqueous Ethanol Seed Extract of Z. Jujube mauritiana against Cancer Cell Lines and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: 2011. 10. 1155/ 2011/ 765029.
- Shady NH, Soltane R, Maher SA, Saber EA, Elrehany MA, Mostafa YA, Sayed AM, Abdelmohsen UR. Wound Healing and Antioxidant Capabilities of Zizyphus mauritiana Fruits: In-Vitro, In-Vivo, and Molecular Modeling Study. Plants (Basel). 2022 May 24; 11 (11): 1392. doi 10. 3390/ plants11111392. PMID: 35684165; PMCID: PMC 9183023.
- Chiou CY, Shih HC, Tsai CC, Jin XL, Ko YZ, Mantiquilla JA, Weng IS, Chiang YC. The genetic relationships of Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) cultivars using SSR markers. Heliyon. 2020 Oct 2; 6 (10): e05078. doi 10. 1016/ j. heliyon. 2020. e05078. PMID: 33072904; PMCID: PMC 7549064.
- Abdel-Sattar M, Almutairi KF, Al-Saif AM, Ahmed KA. Fruit properties during the harvest period of eleven Indian jujubes (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) cultivars. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 Jun; 28 (6): 3424- 3432. doi 10. 1016/ j. sjbs. 2021. 03. 006. Epub 2021 Mar 17. PMID: 34121881; PMCID: PMC 8176135.
- Kabir SR, Asaduzzaman A, Amin R, Haque AT, Ghose R, Rahman MM, Islam J, Amin MB, Hasan I, Debnath T, Chun BS, Zhao X, Rahman Khan MK, Alam MT. Zizyphus mauritiana Fruit Extract-Mediated Synthesized Silver/Silver Chloride Nanoparticles Retain Antimicrobial Activity and Induce Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells through the Fas Pathway. ACS Omega. 2020 Aug 5; 5 (32): 20599- 20608. doi 10. 1021/ acsomega. 0c02878. PMID: 32832813; PMCID: PMC 7439699.
- Yahia Y, Benabderrahim MA, Tlili N, Bagues M, Nagaz K. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts from different plant parts of two Ziziphus Mill. species. PLoS One. 2020 May 19; 15 (5): e0232599. doi 10.1371/ journal. pone. 0232599. PMID: 32428000; PMCID: PMC 7236975.
- Prakash, Om, Shazia Usmani, Ruchi Singh, Namrata Singh, Amresh Gupta, and Akash Ved. “A panoramic view on phytochemical, nutritional, and therapeutic attributes of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.: A comprehensive review.” Phytotherapy Research 35, no. 1 (2021): 63- 77.
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Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)