Souvira / Raja Badara (Zizyphus Sativa, Ziziphus Xylopyrus, Zizyphus Vulgaris) -
Part - 2
The Type of Badara Widely Used for Diabetes
Souvira or Raja Badara botanically known as Zizyphus vulgaris or Zizyphus xylopyra is a deciduous tree that belongs to the Rhamnaceae family. Souvira is the variety of Badara in which the size of the fruit is larger than other varieties. The fruits of Souvira are edible. In alternative medicine, the Souvira i.e. Z. vulgaris has been used as anti- diabetic, anti-hypertension, and anti-hyperlipidemia for a long time. Now recent studies revealed its active constituents like Stepharine, asimilobine, N- nornuciferin, jujubogenin, and sativanines due to which it also contributes as an excellent anti-bacterial, antioxidant, sedative, etc. In Ayurvedic classical texts, Souvira Badara, when fully ripe is very sweet, and larger. This variety is cold in potency, expels out the hardened faces, is heavy, promotes Sukra, nourishing and controls vitiated Pitta and Rakta, burning sensation, thirst, and emaciation.
पच्यमानं सुमधुरं सौवीरं बदरं महत् |
सौवीरबदरं शीत भेदनं गुरु शुक्रलम ||
बृहण पित्तदाहास्त्र क्षयतृष्णानिलापहम् |
कोलम तु मधुरं दाहि रुच्यम उष्णम च वातहत् ||
कफपित्तकरं चापि सारकं गुरु च स्मृतम् |
हस्वं कर्कन्धू कथित तत्कषायं तथाम्लकम् |
मधुरं च भवेत् स्निग्ध॑ गुरुपित्तानिलापहम् ||
शुष्कं भेद्य अग्निकृत सर्वं लघु तृष्णाक्लमास्त्रनुत ||
Guna Ratna Mala, Vaidya Kailashpati, Vaidya Anugreha Narayana, Acharya P. V. Sharma, Chaukhamba Publication, reprint, 2016.
तीन प्रकार के बदर पाए जाते है, जिनके फलो की संरचना तथा गुणों में भिन्नता पायी जाती है | बदर के भिन्न प्रकार के फलों के गुण:-
- बड़ीबेर/ राज बदर – सौवीर के लक्षण (Zizyphus sativa / Z. sativus Gaertn. / Zizyphus vulgaris / Z. xylopyra Willd.) – पकता हुआ जो उत्तम मधुर तथा अकार में बड़ा हो, वह सौवीर है | इसका फल शीत, गुरु, भेदन, शुक्रवर्धक, बृहण, पित्तविकार, दाह, रक्तविकार, क्षयरोग एवं तृष्णा को दूर करता है |
- कोल बदर का लक्षण (Zizyphus jujuba Mill & Lamk. / Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.) – यह सौवीर की अपेक्षा छोटा, पकने पर मधुर कोल कहलाता है |
- कर्कन्धू (झरबेरी) के लक्षण Zizyphus nummularia Burm. f.) – छोटी बेर को कर्कन्धू कहा गया है | इसका फल– अम्ल, कषाय, मधुर, गुरु, स्निग्ध तथा वातपित्तशामक होता है |
Mainly three varieties of Badar are found, whose fruits differ morphologically and in properties. Qualities of different types of fruits of Badar-
- Characteristics of Badiber / Raj Badar / Sauveer (Zizyphus sativa / Z. sativus Gaertn. / Zizyphus vulgaris / Z. xylopyra Willd.) – The ripe one which is sweet and large, is Sauveer. Its fruit is cold in potency, heavy to digest (Guru), piercing in nature (bhedana), Aphrodiasic, and Brihana (increase weight), used in Pittaja disorder, inflammation, a blood disorder, tuberculosis, thirst, etc.
- Characteristics of Badar / Kola (Zizyphus jujuba Mill & Lamk. / Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.) – It is called sweet Kola when ripened, smaller than Sauveer.
- Characteristics of Karkandhu / Choti Badara / Kshudra Badara (Zizyphus nummularia Burm. f.) – The small berry has been called Karkandhu. Its fruit is acid, astringent, sweet, heavy, and Vata Pitta Shamaka in nature.
Basonym of Badara and Its Type Souvira
बद स्थैर्ये |
The fruit of Badara will impart strength.
Souvira (A. H. Su. 6/ 120)
उरुमाणं प्रियालं च बृंहणं गुरु शीतलम्|
स्वादुपाकरसं स्निग्धं विष्टम्भि कफशुक्रकृत्|
S. Su. 46/ 146
पुरातनं तृट्शमनं श्रमघ्नं दीपनं लघु |
सौवीरं बदरं स्निग्धं मधुरं वातपित्तजित् ||
कषायं स्वादु सङ्ग्राहि शीतं सिञ्चितिकाफलम् |
Souvira is sweet in taste and balances Vata and Pitta.
Synonyms of Badara and its type Souvira
Souvira – Mahat Badara, Kunvala, Phenila, Ghonta.
According to Habit
सौवीरम– सुवीर देशे भवं सौवीरम |
Badara is commonly available in Souvira Desha.
कुवल – कौ भूमौ वलती भ्र्मति इति |
Badara plants grow throughout the world.
According to Morphology
कर्कन्धु – कर्क कण्टकम दधाति वा |
The tree of the Badara consists of thorns.
कोल – कोलति घनी भवति |
The seeds of the Badara are very hard.
According to Properties and Action
फेनिल – कफ वर्द्धनात |
Badara fruit increases Kapha.
Regional Names of Badara
- Jujube fruit, Indian plum, Jujuba tree (English)
- Baer (Hindi)
- Bore Hannu (Kannada)
- Illantha (Malayalam)
- Bori (Marathi)
- Bor (Gujrati)
- Elandappajam (Tamil)
- Regu Chettu (Telegu)
- Kul (Bengali)
Scientific Classification of Souvira
Botanical Name of Badara
Badara and Kola Both are Considered As:-
Zizyphus jujuba Mill. & Lamk. / Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.
Zizyphus is an Egyptian name.
Jujuba means English origin.
Its type Souvira is known as Zizyphus vulgaris/ Z. xylopyra/ Z. sativa.
Rhamnaceae (Badara Kula)
Ayurveda Reference for Badara and Its Type Souvira - Zizyphus Jujuba / Z. vulgaris / Z. sativa
Controversy of Badara and Its Type Souvira by P. V. Sharma
बदर, कोल और कर्कन्धु ये तीन जातियाँ बदर की मानी जाती हैं । बदर का फल बड़ा, कर्कन्धु का सबसे छोटा और कोल (या कुवल ) का मध्यम प्रमाण का होता है । चरक के सुत्रस्थान ( अ. २७ ) में इन तीनों का पृथक –पृथक् उल्लेख है ( १४१, २७९, १३२ ) । सिन्चितिकाफल का भी प्रथक् से वर्णन है । सुश्रुत ने फल वर्ग के प्रारम्भ ( सु. सु. ४६/ १३९ ) में जो मधुराम्ल फलों की सूची दी है उसमें बदर की पाँच जातियों का उल्लेख है– बदर, कोल, कर्कन्धु , सौवीर और सिंचितिका फल । सौवीर चरक में नहीं है, चरक का कुवल सुश्रुत में नहीं है, अतः सौवीर और कुवल को एक ही मानना चाहिए । चक्रपाणि ने बदर को मध्यप्रमाण एवं मधुर बतलाया है ( बदरं मध्यप्रमाणं, तद्धि मघुरमेव भवति—च. सु. २७/ १४१ ) । कर्कन्धु को श्रृंगाल बदरी ( च. सू. २७/ १३२) कहा है । सौवीर के विषय में डल्हण ने परिचय देते हुए कहा है कि यह सबसे बड़ा, आम और पक्व सभी अवस्थाओं में मधुर तथा मरुदेशज होता है—सौवीर महत्तम आम पक्व अवस्थासु मधुरं मरू देशजं (सु. सू. ४६/ १३९) सिञ्चितिका फल के परिचय में डल्हण ने इसे सौवीर का भेद बतलाया है जो अतिमधुर, मुष्टि् प्रमाण और उत्तरापथज होता है– सिञ्चितिका फलं तद्धद एवाति– मधुरो मुष्टिप्रमाण उत्तरापथजः (सु. सु. ४६/ १३९ ) । चक्रपाणि ने इसके विषय में कोई टिप्पणी नहीं दी है । डल्हण ने सौवीर को ही महत्तम कहा: पुनः उसका भेद सिच्चितिका मुष्टिप्रमाण ( उससे भी बड़ा ) बतलाया । इसका आकार सेब से मिलता–जुलता है अतः भ्रान्ति वश कुछ लोग इससे सेब लेते हैं । वस्तुतः यह बदरभेद है। सेब का वर्णन सर्व प्रथम भावप्रकाश में मिलता है क्योंकि यह युरोप वासियों के साथ आया। इनके अतिरिक्त एक गोपघोण्टा भी है जो भक्ष्य फलों में नहीं आता । इसे घुंट, घोंट या ककोड़ा लोकभाषा में कहते हैं । इन बदरभेदों के वानस्पतिक नाम ये हैं :
१. बदर – Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.
२. कोल – Zizyphus mauritiana Lam.
३. कर्कन्धु – Zizyphus nummularia Burm. F.
श्रृंगाल बदरी: Z. oenophia Mill.
४. सौवीर – Z. jujuba Mill. / Z. vulgaris
५. सिञ्चितिका फल – Z. jujuba Mill.
इस प्रसंग में सौवीर के सम्बन्ध में भी कुछ ज्ञातव्य है। सिंधु –सौवीर पश्चिमी भारत का प्राचीन प्रदेश रहा है जो सिन्धु और झेलम नदी के तट पर स्थित था | बाद में ये दोनों मिल गये और सिन्ध कहलाने लगे । उसी प्रदेश में होने वाले द्रब्यों को सौवीर कहते थे । बदर के अतिरिक्त, कांजी , अन्ज्जन भेद तथा शालिविशेष के लिए सौवीर शब्द प्रचलित है ।
Classification of Badara and Its Types - As Described in Charaka and Sushruta
Charaka: Hridya Varga Mahakshaya, Swedopaga Mahakshaya, Hikka Nigrehana Mahakshaya, Virechnopaga Mahakshaya, Shrmhara Mahakshaya, Chardi Nigrehana Mahakshaya.
Sushruta: Nyagrodhadi Gana.
Types of Badara
According to Bhava Parkasha three types of Badara are there:
Raj Nighnatu also mentioned three types of Badara:
- Raja Badara
- Bhu Badari
- Laghu Badara
The Botanical Sources of all varieties of Badara are:
- Kola: Zizyphus jujuba Lamk.
- Sauvira: Zizyphus sativa Gaertn.
- Karkandhu: Zizyphus nummularia W. & H.
- Ghonta: Zizyphus xylopyra Willd.
- Valli Badara: Zizyphus oenoplea Mill.
There are three main kinds of Badara mainly based on fruit size viz., Badara, Ksudrabadara and Rajabadara and Zizyphus jujuba Linn., Zizyphus nummularia W. & A. and Zizyphus sativa Gaertn. are respectively. So here in this article, we will discuss the three main varieties of Badara.
Badara and Its Types - Description in Brihtrayi
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Souvira
It is a kind of Badara called Unnava. This is the biggest variety of Badara fruit obtained from Zizyphus sativa or Z. vulgaris. Sauvira is also the name of a preparation mentioned in C. S. Su. 27/ 188 and called Kanji (a type of sour gruel).
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 146
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 6/ 120
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Karkandhu
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 24, C. S. Su. 25/ 49, C. S. Su. 27/ 129, C. S. Vi. 8/ 144, C. S. Chi. 13/ 123, C. S. Chi. 26/ 192, C. S. Ka. 11/ 6, C. S. Si. 11/ 25
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 145
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 6/ 137, A. H. Su. 19/ 14, A. H. Chi. 15/ 13
Badara's Description of Brihtrayi as a synonym of Kuvala
It is one of the purgative acid fruits considered to be a large variety of Badara. Kuvala like Sinchitika may not be any variety of Zizyphus fruits. It is likely the fruit of Garcinia cowa Roxb. called Cova or Kusuma in Bihar. It has also been mentioned together with Vriksha Amla, Amalvetasa, and other allied fruits in the same context.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 10, 24, C. S. Chi. 25/ 49, C. S. Ni. 2/ 2, C. S. Vi. 8/ 144/ 147
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Koli
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 41
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Simbitika
It has been recognized to be the Seva (Pyrus malus Linn.) and not a variety of Sauvira which is a variety of Badara.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 27/ 139
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 147
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Sukti Patra
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 25/ 49
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Ghonta Phala
This has been identified by Dalhana with the popular name Karkati or Badari, Karkata, Kakora, and Ghunta are the tribal names prevalent in the forest areas of Mirzapur (U.P) and Bihar. Ghonta is also a synonym of a Puga. The Puga Phala and Ghonta Phala are also hard and spherical though the former is much smaller than the better.
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 17/ 34
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 17, A. H. U. 30/ 38, 39
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Kola
|C. S. Su. 2/ 11,13||S. S. Su. 39/ 7||A. H. Su. 6/ 125, 137, 139|
|C. S. Su. 3/ 17||S. S. Su. 42/ 18||A. H. Su. 22/ 19|
|C. S. Su. 13/ 84, 94||S. S. Su. 44/ 20||A. H. Su. 25/ 37|
|C. S. Su. 27/ 274||S. S. Su. 45/ 120||A. H. Sa. 1/ 65|
|C. S. Ni. 5/ 7||S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 145, 206, 375, 390, 432||A. H. Sa. 2/ 47|
|C. S. Vi. 8/ 147||S. S. Ni. 16/ 45||A. H. Chi. 1/ 32, 157|
|C. S. Sa. 8/ 54||S. S. Chi. 2/ 53||A. H. Chi. 3/ 159|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 186||S. S. Chi. 5/ 18||A. H. Chi. 4/ 42|
|C. S. Chi. 5/ 71, 76, 88||S. S. Chi. 7/ 7||A. H. Chi. 5/ 65|
|C. S. Chi. 9/ 59||S. S. Chi. 12/ 5||A. H. Chi. 6/ 16, 27, 77|
|C. S. Chi. 11/ 33||S. S. Chi. 15/ 29||A. H. Chi. 7/ 12, 31, 106|
|C. S. Chi. 13/ 83, 116, 124||S. S. Chi. 16/ 36||A. H. Chi. 8/ 149|
|C. S. Chi. 14/ 200||S. S. Chi. 20/ 58||A. H. Chi. 9/ 29, 49, 116|
|C. S. Chi. 15/ 82, 88||S. S. Chi. 31/ 42||A. H. Chi. 10/ 15, 28|
|C. S. Chi. 17/ 107, 135||S. S. Chi. 35/ 9||A. H. Chi. 11/ 2, 19|
|C. S. Chi. 18/ 157||S. S. Chi. 37/ 21||A. H. Chi. 12/ 21|
|C. S. Chi. 19/ 38, 46, 118||S. S. Chi. 38/ 66, 104||A. H. Chi. 13/ 23|
|C. S. Chi. 20/ 22, 28||S. S. Chi. 40/ 5||A. H. Chi. 14/ 12, 15, 29|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 94, 96||S. S. Sa. 10/ 16, 38||A. H. Chi. 15/ 8, 13, 43, 93|
|C. S. Chi. 24/ 120, 150||S. S. U. 3/ 27||A. H. Chi. 21/ 28|
|C. S. Chi. 25/ 83||S. S. U. 12/ 21, 31, 42||A. H. Ka. 2/ 40|
|C. S. Chi. 26/ 45, 81||S. S. U. 39/ 213, 279||A. H. Ka. 4/ 56|
|C. S. Chi. 28/ 113, 118, 131, 139, 174||S. S. U. 40/ 55, 134||A. H. Ka. 5/ 5, 18, 32, 42|
|C. S. Chi. 29/ 103||S. S. U. 44/ 37||A. H. U. 2/ 34|
|C. S. Ka. 7/ 29||S. S. U. 46/ 17||A. H. U. 11/ 44|
|C. S. Ka. 8/ 8||S. S. U. 47/ 39, 41||A. H. U. 25/ 35|
|C. S. Ka. 10/ 10||S. S. U. 49/ 33||A. H. U. 26/ 39|
|C. S. Ka. 11/ 6||S. S. U. 50/ 27||A. H. U. 32/ 20|
|C. S. Ka. 12/ 7||S. S. U. 51/ 38|
|C. S. Si. 4/ 4, 28, 38||S. S. U. 52/ 24|
|C. S. Si. 7/ 10, 37, 50||S. S. U. 54/ 22|
|C. S. Si. 10/ 19||S. S. U. 58/ 57|
|C. S. Si. 11/ 25||S. S. U. 61/ 27|
Badar's Description in Brihtrayi as Badar or Badari
The tree is called Badari and the fruit is Badara, Kola, Karkandhu, Sauvira, and Ghonta are various species of Zizyphus of which the first three only are edible. The so-called other Badara varieties such as Sinchitika and Kuvala have different botanical sources.
|C. S. Su. 4/ 10, 22, 24, 28, 30, 40, 43||S. S. Su. 38/ 47||A. H. Su. 6/ 120|
|C. S. Su. 13/ 95||S. S. Su. 39/ 7||A. H. Chi. 1/ 33, 135|
|C. S. Su. 15/ 6||S. S. Su. 42/ 18||A. H. Chi. 3/ 7, 17|
|C. S. Su. 23/ 15||S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 145, 146, 147, 432||A. H. Chi. 5/ 37|
|C. S. Su. 25/ 49||S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 145, 206, 375, 390, 432||A. H. Chi. 6/ 17|
|C. S. Su. 26/ 112||S. S. Chi. 10/ 6||A. H. Chi. 9/ 18, 36|
|C. S. Su. 27/ 129, 138||S. S. Chi. 19/ 42||A. H. Chi. 15/ 18|
|C. S. Ni. 2/ 2||S. S. Chi. 20/ 59||A. H. Chi. 17/ 20|
|C. S. Vi. 8/ 144 (2), 147, 151||S. S. Chi. 34/ 13||A. H. Ka. 6/ 25|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 257, 266||S. S. Chi. 38/ 85||A. H. U. 2/ 48, 72|
|C. S. Chi. 8/ 141||S. S. Sa. 10/ 4, 23||A. H. U. 5/ 20|
|C. S. Chi. 11/ 37||S. S. U. 18/ 36||A. H. U. 13/ 28|
|C. S. Chi. 13/ 129||S. S. U. 32/ 7||A. H. U. 32/ 23|
|C. S. Chi. 14/ 12, 205, 215||S. S. U. 39/ 280||A. H. U. 34/ 3|
|C. S. Chi. 18/ 43, 181||S. S. U. 40/ 96, 132|
|C. S. Chi. 19/ 34||S. S. U. 41/ 47|
|C. S. Chi. 20/ 28, 38||S. S. U. 42/ 26, 98|
|C. S. Chi. 22/ 35||S. S. U. 52/ 19|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 187||S. S. U. 57/ 9|
|C. S. Chi. 24/ 160|
|C. S. Chi. 28/ 110, 120|
|C. S. Ka. 1/ 8, 29|
|C. S. Ka. 9/ 5|
|C. S. Ka. 11/ 6|
|C. S. Ka. 12/ 7|
|C. S. Si. 6/ 82|
|C. S. Si. 7/ 30|
|C. S. Si. 10/ 37|
Historical Background of Badara
It is a small thorny tree bearing clusters of small light-yellow flowers. It is found in many parts of India and is also cultivated for edible fruits. The tree is called Badari and the fruit is Badara. Charaka used the term Badara in his Vargas while Susruta mentioned Badari in Nyagrodhadi gana. Bhavamisra described three varieties viz., Karkandhu, Sauvira & Kola. Ghonta is the other variable mentioned in Raja Nighantu. Ghonta is identified by Dalhana with the popular name Karkati. The botanical sources for all varieties of Badara are:
- Kola – Z. jujuba Lamk.
- Sauvira – Z. sativa Gaertn.
- Karkandhu – Z. nummularia W. & H.
- Ghonta – Z. xylopyra willd.
- Valli Badara – Z. oenoplea (Linn.) Mill.
Raja Badara/ Unnava/ Zizyphus Sativus / Z. Vulgarsi- It is a thorny tree growing up to 10 m and its flowers are light green colored. It grows at 6500 ft in the Himalayas and is also cultivated in West Bengal. Sauvira is a kind of Badara which is also known as Unnava. This is considered to be the biggest variety of Badara fruit. In the Brhat Trayi texts, we do not come across the term Unnava but it is described under the name Sauvira in three contexts by Susruta and Vagbhata (S. S. Su. 46/ 139 & 146, A. H. Su. 6/ 120).
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External Morphology of Sauvira (Z. sativa Gaertn. / Z. vulgaris)
- Habit: Souvira is a small deciduous tree, often shrubby, quite glabrous, branches of young plants armed with very short spines, one straight, 2.5 cm. long, other much shorter recurved, older trees usually unarmed, flowering shoots about 15- 20 cm. long, often fascicled on dwarf branches.
- Leaves: Leaves of a Souvira are 2.5- 5 cm. long, ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, crenate-serrate, oblique, 3- nerved, petiole, 2.5- 7.5 mm. long.
- Inflorescence: Flowers of Souvira are axillary clusters. Petals of Souvira flowers are clawed, tips truncated. The disk is obscurely lobed. Styles 2, united to the middle.
- Fruit: The fruit of Souvira is drupe ellipsoid, 2 cm. long, stone tuberculate.
Flowering and Fruiting Time of Souvira
Distribution of Souvira (Z. sativa)
It is found in Punjab Himalayas up to 6,500 feet; eastwards to Bengal, N.W.F. province; Balochistan, Persia.
The Useful Part of Badara and Its Types
Phala (fruit), Twaka (Bark)
Important Phytoconstituents Present in Raja Badara (Z. sativa/ Z. vulgaris):
Stepharine, asimilobine, N- nornuciferin, jujubogenin, sativanines.
Recent Research on Souvira (Z. sativus / Z. vulgaris)
- Solati, Jalal & Soleimani, Nastaran. (2010). Antidiabetic effects of ethanolic extract of Ziziphus vulgaris L. in streptozocin induced. Physiology and Pharmacology. Introduction: Herbal medicine and medicinal plants such as Ziziphus vulgaris L. are widely used for the treatment of diseases such as diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of alcoholic extracts of Z. vulgaris fruit on serum glucose, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and activities of aminotransferase enzymes in streptozocin (STZ)- induced diabetic adult male rats. Methods: Herbal material was dried, ground, and then extracted with ethanol using the Soxhlet apparatus. The combined extract was evaporated to dryness and the residue was dissolved in water and used for treatments. Adult male rats were rendered diabetic by a single i.p. injection of STZ (65 mg/ kg). Normal and diabetic rats were daily treated with the extract dissolved in 0.5 ml distilled water (0.25, 0.5,1, and 1.5 g/ kg) and administered by oral gavage for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, blood samples were collected from retro-orbital sinuses of rats (Stone method) and serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, and activity of aminotransferase enzymes were measured using enzymatic methods. Results: Continuous supplementation of the extract at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 1.5 g/ kg in diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and triglyceride levels after 14 days compared to the control group. Levels of LDL, HDL, and activities of serum aminotransaminase enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), were not significantly changed in the extract-treated group concerning the control. Conclusion: Obtained results showed that Z. vulgaris contains effective antidiabetic compounds and may be useful for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
- Solati, Jalal & Soleimani, Nastaran. (2009). Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Ziziphus vulgaris L. streptozocin-induced diabetic adult male Wistar rats. Acta Diabetologia. 47. 219- 23. 10. 1007/ s00592- 009- 0166- 8. Herbal medicine and medicinal plants such as Ziziphus vulgaris L. are widely used for the treatment of diseases such as diabetes mellitus. We investigated the effects of water extracts of Ziziphus vulgaris L. fruit on serum glucose, triglycerides, LDL- cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and activities of aminotransferase enzymes streptozocin-induced diabetic adult male rats. Continuous supplementation of this water extract by gavage at doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 g/ kg in 0.5 ml distilled water in diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels after 14 days. The levels of HDL-cholesterol and insulin, and the activities of serum aminotransaminase enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed significantly in the extract-supplemented group compared to the control group.
- Hussein, Hala & El-Sayed, Eman & Said, Aataa. (2006). Antihyperglycemic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Zizyphus spina christi and Zizyphus jujuba in Alloxan Diabetic Rats. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2 (5). 10. 3923/ ijp. 2006. 563. 570. The present research aims to investigate the effects of methanol extracts of Zizyphus spina christi (ZSC) and Zizyphus jujuba (ZJ) roots for the treatment of alloxan diabetic rats. Sixty rats were included in the study; they were divided into six groups. The first group, non-diabetic control rats received distilled water. In the 2nd and third groups, non-diabetic control rats were given oral doses of ZSC and ZJ extracts (100 mg kg-1 body weight). The fourth group, diabetic control rats received distilled water. In the fifth and sixth groups, diabetic rats were given an oral dose of ZSC and ZJ extracts (100 mg kg-1 body weight). Fasting serum glucose was measured every week and the period of the treatment continued for 2 weeks. Serum insulin, lipid profiles, and liver and kidney functions were measured at the end of the experiment. In diabetic rats both extracts significantly reduced fasting serum glucose level (p< 0.001) and markedly increased serum insulin level (p< 0.001). ZJ significantly reduced serum total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and lipid peroxides (LP) (p<0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL- C) (p< 0.05), but no significant difference on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL- C). Meanwhile, ZSC caused a noticeable decrease in TC, TG (p< 0.05) and LP (p< 0.001) compared with the untreated diabetic rats. ZJ significantly decreased alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and total bilirubin (TB) (p< 0.001) in diabetic rats. Serum creatinine and urea showed a significant reduction in diabetic rats treated with ZSC extract. Both extracts produced no significant changes in all studied parameters except for a significant reduction of serum lipid peroxides and urea by ZJ extract as compared to untreated diabetic control. Present data revealed that both extracts of ZSC and ZJ have beneficial effects on diabetic rats. They reduce hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and lipid peroxides that associate with diabetes. Besides, they were safe for liver and kidney functions. The effect of ZJ is more pronounced than that of ZSC.
- Goli- Malekabadi, Najmeh & Asgary, Sedigheh & Rashidi, Bahman & Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood & Ghanadian, Mustafa & Hajian, Shabnam & Sahebkar, Amirhossein. (2014). The protective effects of Ziziphus vulgaris L. Fruits on biochemical and histological abnormalities induced by diabetes in rats. Journal of complementary & integrative medicine. 11. 10/ 1515/ jcim-2014- 0010. Background: Diabetes mellitus arises from a deficient production and action of insulin. Ziziphus vulgaris L. (jujube) is a medicinal plant that is known to have anti-diabetic actions. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of jujube fruit powder and extract against biochemical imbalances in streptozotocin (STZ)- induced diabetes. Methods: Diabetes was induced in rats using intraperitoneal injection of STZ at a dose of 60 mg/ kg body weight (bw). Jujube powder (1 g/ kg bw) and extract (1 g/ kg bw) were administered daily via gavage, from two weeks before three weeks after STZ injection. Serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and lipids and histological changes of the pancreas tissue were assessed at the end of the study. Results: The kaempferol content of jujube extract was found to be 0.013 ± 0.0005% (w/ w). Two weeks of supplementation with jujube powder resulted in a significant reduction of serum glucose levels compared with the non-diabetic control group before STZ treatment. Both jujube preparations prevented serum insulin decrease following STZ treatment, increased antioxidant capacity, and reduced total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and malondialdehyde levels. Jujube powder reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C- reactive protein concentrations while jujube extract did not affect these parameters. Histopathological examination revealed a significant attenuation of pancreatic inflammation in the jujube-treated animals. Conclusions: The present findings suggest a protective role of jujube supplementation, in particular in the powdered form, against diabetes-induced biochemical and histopathological abnormalities.
- Bencheikh, Noureddine & Bouhrim, Mohamed & Alami Merrouni, Ilyass & Boutahiri, Salima & Kharchoufa, Loubna & Addi, Mohamed & Tungmunnithum, Duangjai & Hano, Christophe & Eto, Bruno & Abdelkhaleq, Legssyer & Mostafa, Elachouri. (2021). Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam. Fruits. Applied Sciences. 11. 7788. 10. 3390/ app. 11177788. Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam. (Z. lotus) is a medicinal plant species that is widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin. Moroccans traditionally use it to treat many illnesses thanks to its beneficial medicinal properties. The purpose of this study is to assess the anti-hyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities of a flavonoid-rich aqueous extract of Z. lotus fruits (ZLF). The 2- 2- diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and the β-carotene bleaching test were used to determine the antioxidant activity of ZLF. The anti-hyperlipidemic effect of the aqueous extract of ZLF (200 and 400 mg/ kg) was evaluated in albino mice exposed to the chronic high-fat diet, based on lipid profile, blood sugar, and changes in growth performance. The results showed that the aqueous extract of ZLF rich in flavonoids (2242.89 ± 25 µg QE (quercetin equivalent)/mg) and has a considerable antioxidant power against DPPH radicals (IC50 = 116 ± 0.02 µg/ mL) and β- carotene oxidation. The aqueous extract of ZLF also showed a significant anti-hyperlipidemic effect by improving abnormal changes in lipid profile and blood glucose levels in albino mice exposed to a chronic high-fat diet. Our findings suggest that the anti-hyperlipidemic activities of ZLF aqueous extract are correlated with its flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Therefore, the aqueous extract of ZLF could be an essential therapeutic candidate for hyperlipidemia patients, thanks to its richness in bioactive molecules.
- Niri, Zahra & Shidfar, Farzad & Jabbari, Masoumeh & Zarrati, Mitra & Hosseini, AghaFateme & Malek, Mojtaba & Dehnad, Afsaneh. (2021). The effect of dried Ziziphus vulgaris on glycemic control, lipid profile, Apo-proteins, and hs- CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 45. e13193. 10. 1111/jobs. 13193. We aimed to evaluate the effect of dried Ziziphus vulgaris consumption on liver enzymes, blood pressure, inflammatory status, glycemic control, and lipid concentrations in type 2 diabetes patients. Seventy‐six diabetic participants (aged 20– 65 years) were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 38) and placebo (n = 38) groups. The intervention group received 30 g/day of dried Z. vulgaris for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, there was a significant reduction in the percentage change of weight, body mass index [BMI], insulin, homeostasis model assessment‐insulin resistance [HOMA‐ IR], Apoprotein B100 [ApoB100], and high‐sensitive c‐reactive protein [hs‐CRP] in the intervention group compared to the controls. Also, increased values of quantitative insulin check index and Apoprotein A‐I [ApoA‐I] in the Z. vulgaris group compared to the controls were observed. In conclusion, the consumption of dried Z. vulgaris fruit could have beneficial effects on improving glycemic control and reducing vascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Practical applications In the present study we found that consumption of 30 g/day dried Z. vulgaris fruit in patients with type 2 diabetes for 12 weeks has beneficial anti‐inflammatory, anti‐hyperglycemic, and anti‐hyperlipidemic effects on type 2 diabetes mellitus [T2DM] patients compared to the control group. Thus, it seems reasonable to design a large‐scale clinical trial to determine the potential adverse effects of higher doses of this fruit and identify the therapeutic doses for the complementary treatment in T2DM medication. The medication with this popular fruit as an ingredient could be easily accepted by diabetic patients and may reduce the dependency and dosage of some of the routine diabetes medications which often have some adverse side effects.
- Huang, Xuedan & Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko & Norikura, Toshio & Kennedy, David & Hasuma, Tadayoshi & Matsui-Yuasa, Isao. (2007). Mechanism of the Anti-Cancer Activity of Zizyphus jujuba in HepG2 Cells. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 35. 517- 32. 10. 1142/ S0192415X0700503X. The Zizyphus jujuba fruit has been used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb and considered to affect various physiological functions in the body for thousands of years. However, its anti-cancer activity and mechanism of action remain to be elucidated. We investigated the anti-cancer activity of Zizyphus jujuba Mill and its underlining mechanisms of action in human hepatoma cells (HepG2) and found that the extract of Z. jujuba decreased the viability of the cells. Further extraction of the initial Z. jujuba extract with organic solvents revealed that the chloroform fraction (CHCl (3)- F) was the most effective. Interestingly, the CHCl (3)- F induced not only apoptosis but also G1 arrest at a low concentration (100 mg/ml) and G2/M arrest at a higher concentration (200 mg/ ml) by cell cycle assay. Apoptosis, an increase in intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) level, a decline of mitochondrial membrane potential at low Z. jujuba concentrations, and a ROS-independent mitochondrial dysfunction pathway at high concentrations were all observed. CHCl (3)- F-induced G1 arrest in Hep G2 cells was associated with an increase in phosphorylation of Rb and p27 (Kip1) and a decrease of phosphorylated Rb. However, CHCl (3)- F-induced G2/M arrest in HepG2 cells correlated with a decrease of the p27 (Kip1) levels and generation of the phosphorylation of p27 (Kip1), however, the phosphorylation of Rb protein remained. Collectively, our findings suggest that the CHCl(3)- F extract of Z. jujuba extract induced a concentration-dependent effect on apoptosis and a differential cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells.
- Vafaei, F & Farzad, Abdollahzadeh. (2015). Investigating the effects of Hydroalcoholic extract of jujube fruit (Zizyphus vulgaris L.) on second-degree burn wound healing in Balb/c mice. Journal of Medicine and Life. 8. 117-120. Background and Objective: Two-thirds of all accidents and injuries leading to death all around the world occur in developing countries like Iran. One of these accidents is a burn which can have unpleasant effects on the individual’s body and soul. Skin wound healing is a process that happens as a result of coordination between tissues, cells, and different factors. The remaining inflammation and insufficient amount of vessel construction are among the most important causes of delayed wound healing. In recent years, jujube fruit (Zizyphus vulgaris L.) has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects as a traditional therapeutic agent. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effects of jujube fruit extract on second-degree burn wounds among Balb/ c mice. Materials and Methods: The present empirical-interventional study included 48 Balb/ c mice weighing approximately 30 +/- 3 gr. Afterburn wounds of 1.5 cm2 were created and second-degree burns were affirmed by a pathologist, the mice were divided into four control groups; one treated with Vaseline, one treated with silver sulfadiazine ointment, one treated with jujube fruit extract 1%, and a control group. Result: In treatment groups, 1 gr ointment containing hydroalcoholic extract of jujube fruit was utilized twice a day until complete recovery. Afterward, the four groups were compared concerning the wound area and histopathology. The collected data were analyzed through one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests by using SPSS software. Conclusion: There was a significant difference between the intervention group and the Vaseline and control groups concerning the percentage of wound recovery (P smaller than 0.05). The results of the study indicated that the jujube fruit extract could accelerate burn wound healing among Balb/ c mice. It is recommended that further research is conducted on the effects of different doses of this medicine on laboratory animals and then on humans.
- Mukhtar, Hiba & Ansari, S & Ali, M. & Naved, T. (2004). New Compounds from Zizyphus vulgaris. Archives of physiology and biochemistry. 42. 508-11. 10. 1080/ 13880200490891890. A lanostane-type triterpene, zizyphulanostane- 21- oic acid, and a terpenic delta- lactone, zizyphulanostan- 18- oic acid, have been isolated from the roots of Zizyphus vulgaris Lam. (syn. Z. sativa Gaertn., Z. mauritina. Lam.) and characterized as lanosta- 25 (26)-en- 9alpha- ol- 21- oic acid and lanosta- 25 (26)- en- 22beta- ol- 18- oic acid 3 (19)- oldie, respectively, based on spectroscopic techniques and chemical means.
- Abdallah, Emad & Elsharkawy, Eman & Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz. (2016). Biological activities of methanolic leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications. 9. 605- 614. 10. 21786/ bbrc/ 9.4/ 6. Ziziphus mauritiana is recognized for traditional use in different areas as its fruits are consumed locally in some parts of Saudi Arabia. However, little is known about the biological activities of the leaves. The current study has aimed to evaluate some bioactive properties of the methanol leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana. Phytochemical analysis was performed using colorimetric methods: Disc diffusion, MIC, and MBC method were used to determine the antimicrobial activity; DPPH scavenging activity and reduction capacity was determined spectrophotometrically for the antioxidant activity, and carrageenan-induced paw edema method using rat models was employed to evaluate the anti-infl ammatory activity. The study revealed the presence of some bioactive phytochemical constituents such as saponins, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, and flavonoids. The methanol leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana has significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876 and Proteus vulgaris (multi-drug resistant isolate) and varied degrees against other bacterial strains but it was not significant. The plant extract also has potent antioxidant (IC50 value of 0.024 g/ L competitor to the ascorbic acid and the quercetin, with observed reducing the power of Iron III to Iron II) and anti-inflammatory properties (71.83 % reduction in inflammation at a concentration of 400 mg/ kg body weight of rats). The results obtained in the present study suggest that leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana can be used as a source of functional ingredients for pharmaceutical drug industries.
- Ikram, M. & Ogihara, Y. & Yamasaki, Katsutoshi. (2004). Structure of a New Saponin From Zizyphus vulgaris. Journal of Natural Products – J NAT PROD. 44. 10. 1021/ np50013a016. The structure of a major saponin obtained from the leaves and stems of Zizyphus vulgaris was obtained by C13-NMR and confirmed by chemical degradation experiments. The structure was assigned as 3- O- [(2- O- α- D- fucopyranosyl- 3- O- β- D- glucopyranosyl)- α- L- arabinopyranosyl] jajubogenin.
- Krishna, Hare & Parashar, Avinash. (2013). Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Some Indian Jujube (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) Cultivars. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 37. 571- 577. 10. 1111/jobs. 12008. Twenty-eight varieties of Indian jujube were estimated for various health-promoting compounds such as ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, flavanol, O-dihydric phenol, and total phenolics. The antioxidant capacity was also measured by cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and 1, 1 diphenyl- 2- picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) assays. The ascorbic acid content varied from 47.81 to 160.12 mg/ 100 g, total phenolics from 48.69 to 196.34 mg/ 100 g, total flavonoids from 60.32 to 173.11 mg/ 100 g, flavanol from 25.21 to 70.59 mg/ 100 g and O-dihydric phenol from 5.03 to 19.26 mg/ 100 g fresh weight. The average antioxidant activities were 1.6– 6.33 and 1.22– 5.49 μM TE/g as determined by the CUPRAC and FRAP assays, respectively. Likewise, according to the results obtained, cv. ZG- 3 was found to exhibit the strongest DPPH free radical scavenging activity followed by Katha Phal and Thar Sevika. The study also revealed a considerable amount of variation among the genotypes tested to their phenolic content and antioxidant activity.
- Siddharth, Panchal & Kailash, Panchal & Vyas, Niraj & Modi, Karuna & Vimal, Patel & Bharadia, Praful. (2010). Antiulcer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Stem Bark. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2. 6-11. The methanolic extract of Ziziphus mauritiana stem bark was evaluated for its antiulcer activity using two models. Models are ethanol-induced gastric ulcers model and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. It was found that the methanolic extract of stem bark has significant antiulcer activity in a dose-dependent manner where 3 different oral doses were prepared (100 mg/ kg of body weight, 250 mg/ kg of body weight, and 500 mg/ kg of body weight). The evaluation was done on both models comparing with reference standard ranitidine (80 mg/ Kg/p.o.). The compounds like alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins, phytosterols, flavonoids, and tannins were detected by the usual chemical tests in methanolic extract. The above result shows that Ziziphus mauritiana stem bark probably contains some active ingredients that could be developed for above mentioned abnormal conditions as have been claimed by traditional systems of medicine.
- Meziti, Asma & Bouriche, Hamama & Meziti, Hicham & Kada, Seoussen & Senator, Abderrahmane & Demirtas, Ibrahim. (2017). ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF RUBUS FRUTICOSUS AND ZIZYPHUS VULGARIS METHANOL EXTRACTS. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 9. 69. 10. 22159/apps. 2017v9i2. 14374. Objective: This report is an attempt to study the phenolic composition of Rubus fruticosus (RFE) and Zizyphus vulgaris ( ZVE ) methanol extracts and evaluate their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in-vitro and in-vivo. Methods: Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of extracts were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC- TOF/ MS. The antioxidant activities were evaluated in vitro using DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. The effect of RFE and ZVE on DNA cleavage induced by UV-photolysis was also investigated. The antioxidant effect of RFE and ZVE was tested in vivo using the blood total antioxidant capacity test in mice. On the other hand, the anti-inflammatory activity was assessed in vivo using two models of acute inflammation, ear edema and vascular permeability. Results: The phytochemical analysis of these extracts showed that RFE possesses higher polyphenolic and flavonoid content than ZVE. In the same way, RFE exerted the highest antioxidant capacity with an IC50 value of 14 µg/ ml in the DPPH assay, 1.58 mmol of Trolox E/mg extract, and 3.39 mmol FesO4/ mg extract in ABTS, and FRAP assay respectively. The studied extracts showed a concentration-dependent protective effect on DNA cleavage induced by H2O2 UV-photolysis. The daily oral administration of 200 mg/ kg of RFE or ZVE for three weeks showed an improvement of the blood total antioxidant capacity; the HT50 values were151.45 min and 146.72 min for the groups treated with RFE and ZVE, respectively versus 122.5 min for the control group. The topical application of 2 mg/ear of RFE inhibited Croton oil-induced ear edema by 75.72 %, while the inhibition exerted by ZVE was 64.24 %. These inhibitions were higher than that of indomethacin, used as a reference. Moreover, the oral administration of 400 mg/ kg of RFE inhibited significantly (33.57 %) acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. However, this effect was lower than this of indomethacin. The inhibition effect exerted by ZVE was not significant. Conclusion: The results obtained in this investigation showed that RFE possesses strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in comparison with ZVE, which may be attributed to the presence of polyphenolic phytoconstituents.
- Pandey, Manoj & Singh, Jagdish & Singh, Ashok & Singh, Virendra. (2008). Xylopyrine-C, a new cyclopeptide alkaloid from Zizyphus xylopyra. Journal of Asian natural products research. 10. 735- 8. 10. 1080/ 10286- 020802015877. A new 14-membered ring cyclopeptide alkaloid xylopyrine-F, together with known alkaloids nummularine-P and sativanine-H, has been isolated from the root bark of Zizyphus xylopyra, and their structures were established by chemical and spectral evidence.
- Sharma, Vimal & Chauhan, Nagendra & Lodhi, Santram & Singhai, A. K. (2009). Anti- Depressant Activity of Zizyphus xylopyrus. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 1. 12- 17. 10. 5138/ ijpm. 2009. 0975. 0185. 05788. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract (ext.), ethyl acetate (EA) fractions, and a precipitate fraction (ppt.) of total ethanolic extract of Zizyphus xylopyrus on depression in rats. In the present study, the antidepressant effect of Zizyphus xylopyrus was examined using two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) in rats and the tail suspension test (TST) in rats. The ethanolic extract when administered at an acute dose of 50 mg/ kg of body weight (P< 0.01) reduced the immobility time by 10 and 15 seconds as compared to the immobility time of control in both the screening models. Similarly, EA reduced the latter by 30 and 35 secs. The ppt. fraction showed the best activity, reducing the immobility time by 50 and 60 secs. in both tests. These results showed that after standard i.e., Imipramine HCl (30 mg/ kg), the ppt. fraction is potent among all the studied drugs The present study demonstrated that Zizyphus xylopyrus exerts an antidepressant effect in these two behavioral models. It may be due to the presence of flavonoids.
- Patel, Satish & Sharma, Vimal & Chauhan, Nagendra & Lodhi, Santram & Shinghai, Abhay. (2013). A study of antioxidant and antiulcer activity of Zizyphus xylopyrus. Spatula DD. 3. 167- 177. 10. 5455/ spatula. 20131011031145. SUMMARY Aim: Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. (Rhamnaceae) is used in folk medicine for treating ulcers, as an antinociceptive, antidepressant, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory. The major aim of this study was to evaluate the antiulcer and antioxidant activity of Z. xylopyrus. Method: Antiulcer activity of Z. xylopyrus leaf extracts and fractions (50 mg/ kg, b.w., orally) were evaluated employing HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer and stress-induced acute gastric lesion ulcer models in rats. Whereas the antioxidant activity of Z. xylopyrus leaf extracts and fractions have been assayed using in vitro methods like 2, 2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl- hydrate (DPPH) assay, nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (NBT) assay, reductive ability, and superoxide anion scavenging activity. Results: The percent inhibition of aqueous precipitate fraction of ethyl acetate extract was found to be 93 % and 92 % compared to the standard drug ranitidine in the treated group of animals. Similarly, the aqueous precipitate fraction showed a significant (P< 0.01) dose-dependent decrease in the index of ulcerative lesions produced in both models in rats when compared to the standard drug ranitidine (20 mg/ kg, b.w. orally). Ethanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction of Z. xylopyrus also showed prominent antioxidant activity. Conclusion: Results obtained from the present work, it can be inferred that ethanolic extracts and the aqueous precipitate of Z. xylopyrus must have secondary metabolites contributing to the stated activities. Further exhaustive phytochemical work is needed to isolate, characterize and perform bioassays for the compound providing antioxidant and anti-ulcer activity.
- Raghavendra & T.R., Prashith & S, Akarsh & Ashwini, H.S. (2016). Phytochemical Analysis, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf and Fruit of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. (Rhamnaceae). Science, Technology, and Arts Research Journal. 4. 83. 10. 4314/ star. v4i4. 12. In the present study, phytochemical screening, the content of total phenolics, antifungal and antioxidant activity of leaf and fruit extract of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. (Rhamnaceae) was investigated in vitro. The leaf and fruit extracts were obtained by maceration process using methanol as solvent. The extracts were screened for phytochemicals by standard tests. Flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and phenols were found in both extracts. The antifungal activity of extracts was evaluated by the poisoned food technique. Leaf extract suppressed the growth of test fungi to a high extent when compared to fruit extract. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and Ferric reducing assays. Both extracts exhibited radical scavenging and ferric-reducing activity in a dose-dependent manner with marked activity exhibited by the leaf extract. The Folin- Ciocalteau reagent method was employed to estimate the total phenolic content of extracts. Phenolic content was slightly higher in the leaf extract. A positive correlation was observed between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The plant can be used against phytopathogenic fungi and to prevent and control oxidative damage. Further studies are to be carried out to isolate active principles from the plant and to determine their bioactivities.
- Mishra, Vijay. (2018). Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of fruit extracts of indigenous medicinal plant, Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GREEN PHARMACY. 12. 10. 22377/jpg. v12i04. 2267. Aim: This study aims to investigate the antioxidant activity of fruit extracts of an indigenous medicinal plant, Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. Materials and Methods: The coarsely powdered fruit of Z. xylopyrus Willd. was successfully extracted first with petroleum ether and chloroform, followed by ethyl acetate and at last ethanol. The total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and total tannin content (TTC) were estimated using quercetin and tannic acid equivalents as standard. The antioxidant activity of different extracts was determined by different standard in vitro methods including. Results: Among all extracts, ethyl acetate extract (ZXEAE) possessed potent antioxidant activity, namely hydroxyl radical (OH°) scavenging assay (IC 50 128.1 ± 0.63 µg/ mL), 2, 2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical (DPPH°) scavenging assay (IC 50 101.2 ± 1.75 µg/ mL), nitric oxide radical (NOº) scavenging assay (IC 50 122.5 ± 2.04 µg/ mL), superoxide radical (O 2 ¯) scavenging activity assay (IC 50 64.1 ± 1.24 µg/ mL), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (98.6 ± 2.05 µg/ mL). Study results suggested that the antioxidant activity of ZXEAE might be due to the presence of polyphenols, namely TFC (31.23 ± 0.39 quercetin equivalent [QE] mg/ g extract), TPC (198.14 ± 0.69 gallic acid equivalent [GAE] mg/g extract), and TTC (18.38 ± 1.79 GAE mg/ g extract). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the presence of flavonoids in Z. xylopyrus fruits showing marked antioxidant activity, which can be used for establishing the hepatoprotective potential of Z. xylopyrus.
- T.R., Prashith & S, Akarsh. (2019). Phytochemical Analysis, Antifungal and Antioxidant Activity of Leaf and Fruit of Zizyphus xylopyrus. In the present study, phytochemical screening, content of total phenolics, and antifungal and antioxidant activity of leaf and fruit extract were investigated in vitro. The leaf and fruit extracts were obtained using methanol as solvent. The extracts were screened for phytochemicals by standard tests. Flavonoids, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, and phenols were found in both extracts. The antifungal activity of extracts was evaluated by the poisoned growth of test fungi to a high extent when compared to fruit extract. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, and Ferric reducing assays. Both extracts exhibited radical scavenging and ferric-reducing activity in a dose-dependent manner with marked activity exhibited by leaf extract. The Folin method was employed to estimate the total phenolic content of extracts. Phenolic content was slightly higher in the leaf extract. A positive correlation was observed between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The plant can be used against phytopathogenic fungi and to prevent and control oxidative damage. Further studies are to be carried out to isolate active principles from the plant and to determine their bioactivities.
- Sameera, N.S. & Mandakini, B. P. (2015). Investigations into the antibacterial activity of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. and Ziziphus xylopyra (Retz.) Willd. International Food Research Journal. 22. 849- 853. Ziziphus plants (Rhamnaceae family) are reported to possess bioactive compounds, recognized for traditional use and medicinal importance. The present work aims to evaluate the antibacterial activity of stem extracts of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. and Ziziphus xylopyra (Retz.) Willd. Stem barks were extracted in different solvents and analyzed by agar well diffusion assay. Z. mauritiana methanol extract (ZMM-A) had the greatest antibacterial activity against S. aureus (22 mm) which was identical to positive control Gentamycin (22 mm), while the Gram-negative test organisms were resistant to Z. xylopyra aqueous-dioxane extract (ZXAD). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to suppress the most sensitive S. aureus exemplified ZMM- A extract at 1.5 mg/ ml and Z. xylopyra methanol extract (ZXM- A) at 2.5 mg/ ml. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC- MS) study of potent ZMM-A and ZXM- A extracts reflects the presence of a variety of compounds responsible for antibacterial activity and require further intensive study. This research finding signifies methanolic Ziziphus stem bark extracts as a possible and reliable natural source of pharmaceutical drugs with antibacterial potential.
- Jain, Shweta & Jain, Sourabh & Chauhan, Nagendra & Vaidya, Ankur. (2018). Gastrointestinal Protective Effect of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz) Willd Leaf Extract Against Indomethacin and HCl-EtOH Induced Ulcers. Current Traditional Medicine. 04. 10. 2174/ 22150- 83804666- 181012124047. background: Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. (Rhamnaceae) is a straggling shrub or a small tree, armed with spines, found throughout north-western India, Pakistan, and China. Method: The aerial and root barks, leaves, and fruits of Zizyphus species are used in medicine for the treatment of various diseases such as weakness, liver complaints, obesity, diabetes, skin infections, fever, diarrhea, insomnia, and digestive disorders. Ethanolic extract of leaves of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz) Wild was prepared by solvent extraction and subjected to study the protective effect against Indomethacin and HCl-EtOH induced ulcer using Ranitidine (100 mg/ kg) and Omeprazole (8mg/ kg) as standard respectively. Results: Histopathological lesions with marked disorientation of the gastric epithelium were observed in the negative control, while extract-treated rats showed better-protected mucosa with intact epithelium in comparison to standard-treated rats. Ulcer index and percentage ulcer protection also represent the protective effects of the extract. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Z. xylopyrus (Retz) Wild leaves extract was found to be significantly protective against gastric ulcers.
- Begum, Hasnah & Said, Gulam Khan, Hasnah Begum & Izzah, Nurul & Sarmin, Mohd & Arzmi, Mohd & Amiruddin, Hanis & Arina, Anis & Radzi, Mohd. (2020). Antifungal Activities of Ziziphus mauritiana against Candida albicans: In Vitro Study. Compendium of Oral Science. 7. 10. 24191/ cos. v7i0. 17489. Medicinal plants have been discovered and used in traditional medicine and pharmaceutical industries for centuries. In the current study, Ziziphus mauritiana leaves were used as it is rich with many biologically active compounds such as flavonoids, polyphenols, saponins, and tannins. Previous studies reported the antibacterial and antifungal effects of Z. mauritiana on various microorganisms. However, the antifungal activities of Z. mauritiana methanol extract on Candida albicans (Clinical and American Type Culture Collection Strains) have not been discovered extensively. Objectives: Therefore, the current study aims to investigate the antifungal activity of Z. mauritiana leaves methanol extracts against C. albicans ATCC strain and clinical isolate (from oral cancer patients). Methods: Antifungal susceptibility test (AST) was performed using disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) to determine the antifungal activity of methanol leaves extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against C. albicans ATCC and clinical isolates. Results: The results obtained showed that there is no zone of inhibition seen from the disk diffusion test for both strains. However, the minimal inhibitory and minimal fungicidal concentration showed that Ziziphus mauritiana methanol extracts were able to inhibit C. albicans clinical isolate but not ATCC strain at 500 mg/ mL. Conclusion: The finding of this study suggests that Ziziphus mauritiana leaves methanol extract showed promising results against Candida albicans. Thus, it can be used as a source of functional ingredients for pharmaceutical drug industries to reduce or inhibit oral fungal infection.
- V.K, Sharma & M, Tiwari & Chauhan, Nagendra & R.K, Nema. (2012). Phytochemical investigation on the Ethanolic Extract on the Leaves of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 3. 26- 37. The present work is done on the leaves of Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. to investigate the presence of the various types of Phytoconstituents present in this rare medicinal herb. The leaves were extracted successively using various organic and polar solvents. For phytochemical investigation, Preliminary qualitative chemical tests and TLC were mainly used. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of this herb showed the presence of various types of Phytoconstituents viz. Flavonoids, Saponins, Tannins, etc., and based on the results of qualitative chemical tests, ethanolic extract was chosen for 1- D, 2- D TLC, Co- TLC, and HPTLC. Various solvent systems were tested to obtain the best results but only two gave the best results. Ethyl Acetate-n-Butanol-Water (10: 10: 4) and Ethyl Acetate-n-Butanol-Water-Formic acid (10: 10: 4: 2) gave 11 spots were detected in 1-D TLC of the ethanol extract of leaves, instead, 17 spots were detected in case of 2-D TLC implying two developed solvent systems i.e. Ethyl Acetate-n-Butanol-Water (10: 10: 4) and Ethyl Acetate- n- Butanol- Water- Formic acid (10: 10: 4: 2). All the detection was done under UV light at 254 and 366 nm. Comparative Co-TLC with standard Rutin and Quercetin showed the presence of two flavonoids in the ethanolic extract which were Rutin and Quercetin. HPTLC studies on Ethanolic extract also showed 11 spots and colors like TLC studies, which further confirmed the TLC results. Based on these results it can be concluded that Zizyphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. contains various Phytoconstituents, mainly Flavonoids, which have proven medicinal properties. This rare herb might be very useful in various ailments like ulcers, depression, etc. if scientific studies were done.
- Pandey, V. & Singh, J. & Shah, Arif. (2004). Cyclopeptide Alkaloids from Zizyphus xylopyra. Journal of Natural Products – J NAT PROD. 49. 10. 1021/ np50047a036. 14- Membered cyclopeptide alkaloids, franganine, frangufoline, amphibine-D, and mauritine-A have been isolated from the whole plant of Zizyphus xylopyra, and their structures established by spectral evidence. This is the first report of these alkaloids from Z. xylopyra.
- Singhal, U. & Goyal, A. & Solanki, Narendra & Jain, V.K. & Goyal, P. K. (2012). Pharmacognostical study on the fruit of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Willd. International Journal of Drug Development & Research. 4. 263- 267. Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) willd known as katber is used traditionally in the treatment of various diseases like Bronchial Asthma, Thirst, and Diarrhoea and as an Aphrodisiac, Antimicrobial, Anti Inflammatory Antinociceptive and as Anticonvulsants. Present Paper deals with the Pharmacognostic study of the fruit part of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) willd., for its identification and to distinguish it from the coexisting weeds and adulterants. The section of fruit has a thick pericarp, hard and thick seeds, and a sclerotic seed coat. The seeds are endospermous. A powdered sample of the drug showed large pieces of pericarp and individual sclereids. Calcium oxalate crystals are Present in the cells of the fruit wall. Epidermal Trichomes of the powdered sample are unicellular, unbranched and thick-walled, and curved or twisted. The study includes Macroscopic, Microscopic characters, Physico-chemical characters, and phytochemical investigation of fruit parts of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) willd.
Rasa Panchaka of Badara and Its Type Souvira
|Rasa (Taste)||Madhura (Sweet), Amla (Sour), Kashaya (Astringent)|
|Guna (Virtue)||Snigdha (Oily), Guru (Heavy), Picchila|
|Virya (Potency)||Sheeta (Cold Potency)|
|Vipaka (Post-Digestion)||Madhura (Sweet)|
Kshudra Badara Karkandhu is Kashaya, Madhura in taste (rasa), and Snigdha and Guru in Guna (properties) and pacify Vata and Pitta. Raja Badara is Madhura (sweet) in taste with cold potency and Shukrala, Bhedana, and Brihana in Karma.
Dosha Karma of Badara and Its Types
Vata Pitta Shamaka, Vata Hara due to Madhura Vipaka and Madhura, Amla Rasa. Pitta Hara because of Sheeta Virya, Madhura Rasa, and Madhura Vipaka.
Karma (Actions) of Badara and Its Types
Souvira – Brihana, Shukrala, Bhedana, Daha Shamaka, Trishna Hara.
Karkandhu – Bhedana, Agni Deepana, Laghu, Trishna Shamaka, Shrama Hara, Rakta Vikara Nasahaka
Kola – Grahi Ruchikara
Sushka Badara (Dried Fruit) – Agni Vardhaka, Mala Vardhaka, Trishnahara
Abhyantra Karma of Badara: Rochana, Hridya, Ruchi Vardhaka, Shonit Sthapana, Grahi, Anulomna, Trishna Nigrehana, Deepana, pachana, Hikka Nigrehana, Kapha Nisaraka, Mutra Gata Sharkara Nasahaka, Mutrala, Swedopaga, Daha Prashmanan, Jwaraghana, Brihan, Shrmhara.
Bahya Karma of Badara: Leaves are Daha Prashmana, Tvak is Vrana Shodhaka or Vrana Ropaka, Seeds are lekhana, leaves of Badara are Jihva swaad Grehana Shakti Hara.
Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Badara and Its Types
Souvira – Karshya, Vivandha, Daha, Shukra Dourbalya, and Trishna.
Karkandhu – Rakta Pitta, Vata Pitta Vikara Nashaka, Trishna, Agnimandya
Kola – Atisara, Aruchi.
Sushka Badara (Dried fruit) – Vivandha, Trishna, Agnimandya.
Abhyantra: Rakta Vikara, Rakta Pitta, Hrid Dourbalya, Trishna, Agnimandya, Aruchi, Vivandh, Ikshu Meha, Udarda, Tvag Dosha, Jwara, Vata- pitta Kasa, Vata- Pitta Swasa, Vata- Pitta Hikka, Shosha, Kshaya, Dourbalya, Angamarda, Shrama.
Bahya: Vishphota, Netra Roga, Vrana, Daha.
Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Souvira
Rakta Atisara (Diarrhea with blood): In Rakta Atisara one should take paste prepared from the root of Badara, Tila, honey, and milk. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2/ 5/ 20)
Kasa (Cough): Leaves of Badara should be fried in Ghee, then little quantity of Saindhava Lavana is added and given internally in the case of Kasa. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 52/ 20)
Benefits of Badara and Its Types
- The Mula (roots) of Badara is bitter and cooling, Badara alleviates Kapha and cures headache and biliousness.
- The bark of badara cures boils and checks diarrhea and dysentery.
- The leaves of Badara are bitter and cooling, it alleviates Kapha, reduces obesity and cures diarrhea, and are antipyretic.
- Souvira: The Pakwa Phala ripe fruit (souvira type) is cooling, indigestible, and removes burning sensation, thirst, vomiting, biliousness, consumption, and blood diseases and it is a tonic, laxative, and aphrodisiac.
- Kola: A small variety (kola) is hot and tasty. Kola is laxative and it allays Vata and Kapha and it causes a burning sensation in the body.
- Karkandhu: A still smaller variety (Karkandhu) is sour, acrid, sweet, oily, bitter, and indigestible. It allays vata and pitta. The fruits of Karkandhu (Zizyphus nummularia W. & A.) are sweet and sour, wholesome, appetizer stomachic, and they cure Kapha and may increase biliousness. Ripe fruits are edible. Ripe fruits are considered to be cool and astringent and are useful in bilious affections.
- Apakwa Phala: The unripe fruit (Apakva Phala) of Badara pacifies vata and causes kapha.
- Sushaka Phala: The dry fruit (Suska Phala) is a laxative and appetizer. It removes impurities from the blood, and it allays thirst.
- The seeds (bija) are acrid and sweetish. They are tonics, and aphrodisiacs and cure diseases, cough, asthma, and thirst; it allays Vata and cures vomiting, burning sensation, biliousness, and leucorrhea.
- The root and bark are tonic. The leaves are anthelmintic. They are good for stomatitis and gum bleeding. They heal wounds, ulcers, and syphilitic ulcers. They cure asthma and liver complaints.
- The flowers afford a good collyrium in eye troubles.
- The unripe fruit increases thirst and lessens expectoration and biliousness.
- The ripe fruit is sweet, and sour and has a flavor not good for digestion it causes diarrhea in large doses, and it is good for fevers, wounds, and ulcers.
- The seeds are astringent and tonic to the heart and brain and they allay thirst.
- Various parts of Badara (Zizyphus jujuba Linn.) are medicinally used in different ailments besides its fruits or berries ripe are edible commonly. The leaves boiled in milk are given virulent gonorrhea.
- An infusion of leaves is used as an eye lotion in conjunctivitis. A paste of tender leaves and twigs is applied to boils, carbuncles, and abscesses to promote suppuration. The boiled leaves are applied over the navel and the public region in dysuria.
- Berries are a blood purifier and aid in digestion. They are pectoral and styptic.
- The dried ripe fruit is a mild laxative and expectorant.
- Seeds are given with buttermilk in bilious disorders. An ointment made of the seeds with some bland oil is locally applied as a liniment in rheumatism.
- The ripe berries are favorable to heart debility as a cardio-tonic, and useful in blood ailments and hemorrhage.
- The leaves are powdered and orally given in glycosuria in doses of 4- 6 gms. twice a day with a suitable vehicle (Anupana in Iksumeha).
- The paste of leaves is made to the burning sensation. Leaves are boiled in water which is employed as mouthwash or gargle for mouth cavity ailments.
- The bark is boiled in water to prepare decoction which is orally given to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and other bowel complaints. Fruits are useful in loss of appetite, constipation, and thirst conditional.
- It is useful in urticaria, skin affection, eruptions, consumption, general debility, hiccough, and throat affections.
- The young leaves are pounded with those of Udumbara (Ficus glomerata) and applied to scorpion stings.
- The bark is used as an astringent in gingivitis. Fruits are mucilaginous, pectoral, and styptic. The leaves are prescribed in antipyretic or antifebrile baths and lotions. Roots are given in the form of decoction in febrile conditions and it is also helpful to act as a tonic in debility.
- The leaves are applied to scabies and boiled. Smoke is used for colds in the head and nasal discharges.
- The decoction of leaves is employed as a hip bath for joint pains and as a gargle in sore throat and bleeding gums. Ripe drupes are eaten commonly.
Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Badara and Its Types
- Tvak Kwaath (Bark decoction): 50- 100 ml
- Phala (Fruit): 5- 7 in number (ripe fruit of Badara is edible)
Classical Reference of Badara and Its Types
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamra Phaladi Varga- 71- 72
पुंसि स्त्रियाञ्च कर्कन्धूर्बदरी कोलमित्यपि |
फेनिलं कुवलं घोण्टा सौवीरं बदरं महत् |
अजप्रिया कुहा कोली विषमोभयकण्टका ||
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamra Phala Varga, 73- 77
Properties and Actions
पच्यमानं सुमधुरं सौवीरं बदरं महत् |
सौवीरं बदरं शीतं भेदनं गुरु शुक्रलम् ||
बृंहणं पित्तदाहास्रक्षयतृष्णानिवारणम् |
सौवीरं लघु सम्पक्वं मधुरं कोलमुच्यते ||
कोलं तु बदरं ग्राहि रुच्यमुष्णञ्च वातलम् |
कफपित्तकरं चापि गुरु सारकमीरितम् ||
कर्कन्धूः क्षुद्रबदरं कथितं पूर्वसूरिभिः |
अम्लं स्यात्क्षुद्रबदरं कषायं मधुरं मनाक् ||
स्निग्धं गुरु च तिक्तञ्च वातपित्तापहं स्मृतम् |
शुष्कं भेद्यग्निकृत्सर्वं लघुतृष्णाक्लमास्रजित् ||
Dhanwantri Nighantu Aamra Phaladi Varga- 88- 89
बदरं कोलकं कोलं सौवीरं फेनिलं कुहम् |
कर्कन्धुकं गुडफलं बालेष्ठं फलशौशिरः ||
कर्कन्धुकोलबदरमम्लं वातकफापहम् |
पक्वं पित्तानिलहरं स्निग्धं च मधुरं रसे ||
पुरातनं तृट्शमनमामघ्नं दीपनं लघु |
सौवीरबदरं स्निग्धं मधुरं वातपित्तजित् ||
Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 353- 362
घोटा घुण्टा गोपघुण्टा बदरी मर्कटी गुहा |
राष्ट्रवृद्धिकरी कोली गोकण्टी युग्मकण्टिका ||
स्निग्धच्छदा कोशफला परा सौवीरकापरा |
हस्तिकोली सिञ्चितिकापरा कर्कन्धुकी घुका ||
बदर्यस्तुवराः स्निग्धाः कफप्रशमनाः स्मृताः |
बदरं चापरं कोलं कुवलं फेनिलं कुहम् ||
कर्कन्धु ह्रस्वबदरं बेरटं कन्धुकं धुकम् |
स्यादापक्वादिवस्थासु स्वादु सौवीरकं महत् ||
मुष्टिप्रमाणं बदरं स्वादु सिञ्चितिकाफलम् |
कफपित्तहरं पुष्पं कुष्ठघ्नं बदरस्य च ||
हस्तिकोलं हिमं स्वादु पित्तघ्नं तुवरं गुरु |
सङ्ग्राहि रोचनं स्निग्धं विबन्धाध्मानपुष्टिदम् ||
सौवीरं मधुरं स्निग्धं स्वादुपाकरसं हिमम् |
भेदनं गुरु विष्टम्भि बृंहणं कफशुक्रदम् ||
बदरं तुवरञ्चोष्णं लघु सङ्ग्राहि रोचनम् ||
वातघ्नं कफकृत्तद्वत् कोलमुष्णं सरं गुरु |
तद्वत् कर्कन्धु पक्वानि स्वादु स्निग्धरसानि च ||
घ्नन्ति पित्तानिलं, सर्वं शुष्कं मेधाग्निकृल्लघु |
तस्य मज्जा तु रुचिरो मधुरो वीर्यवर्धनः |
Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 136- 139
बदरो बदरी कोली कर्कन्धूः कोलफेनिलौ |
सौवीरको गुडफलो बालेष्टः फलशैशिरः ||
दृढबीजो वृत्तफलः कण्टकी वक्रकण्टकः |
सुबीजः सुफलः स्वच्छः सुरसः स्मृतिसम्मितः ||
बदरं मधुरं कषायमम्लं परिपक्वं मधुराम्लमुष्णमेतत् |
कफकृत्पचनातिसाररक्तश्रमशोषार्तिविनाशनं च रुच्यम् ||
बदरस्य पत्रलेपो ज्वरदाहविनाशनः |
त्वचा विस्फोटशमनी बीजं नेत्रामयापहम् ||
Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 140- 141
राजबदरो नृपेष्टो नृपबदरो राजवल्लभश्चैव |
पृथुकोलस्तनुबीजो मधुरफलो राजकोलश्च ||
राजबदरः सुमधुरः शिशिरो दाहार्तिपित्तवातहरः |
वृष्यश्च वीर्यवृद्धिं कुरुते शोषश्रमं हरते ||
Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 142- 143
भूबदरी क्षितिबदरी वल्लीबदरी च बदरिवल्ली च |
बहुफलिका लघुबदरी बदरफली सूक्ष्मबदरी च ||
भूबदरी मधुराऽम्ला कफवातविकारहारिणी पथ्या |
दीपनपाचनकर्त्री किञ्चित् पित्तास्रकारिणी रुच्या ||
Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 144- 145
Kshudra / Laghu badara
सूक्ष्मफलो लघुबदरो बहुकण्टः सूक्ष्मपत्रको दुःस्पर्शः |
मधुरः शम्बराहारः शिखिप्रियश्चैव निर्दिष्टः ||
लघुबदरं मधुराम्लं पक्वं कफवातनाशनं रुच्यम् |
स्निग्धं तु जन्तुकारकमीषत्पित्तार्तिदाहशोषघ्नम् ||
Priya Nighnatu, Phala Varga, 64- 66
सौवीरन्तु सुशीतं मधुरं गुरु भेदनं भवेद् वृष्यम् |
हन्ति सवात॑ पित्त दाह क्षयरक्तपित्ततृष: ||
कोल रुच्यज्लोष्ण वातघ्नं श्रलेष्मपित्तकृत् प्रोक्तम् |
कर्कन्धू: क्षुद्रतमा साम्लकषाया भवेत्तद्वत् ||
कर्कन्धू: शुष्कचूर्ण लोके तथ्युज्यते बदरचूर्णम् |
लघुदीपनमथ तृष्णा श्रम वातक्लान्तिपित्तघ्नम ||
Chakra Dutta, 54- 32
लिहेद्वा बादरम चूर्णम पाचनार्थं गुड़ च |
अनेनाशु विपच्यन्ते वात पित्त काफात्मिका ||
Chakra Dutta, 55- 49
व्यंग हर बदारास्थि लेप
व्यंगजी अरुण त्वग्वा छाएगी क्षीर प्रपेशिता ||
Chakra Dutta, 45- 6
नाडी व्रण घोण्टाफलादिवर्त्तिका
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 24- 160- 161
बदरीपल्लवोत्थश्व तथैवारिष्टकोद्धव: ||
फेनिलायाश्व य: फेनस्तेदाहं लेपनं शुभम् |
Chakra Dutta, Swar Bheda Chikitsa. 14- 10
स्वरभेदे बदरी पत्र कल्क प्रयोग:
बदरपत्रकल्क॑ वा घृत भृष्टं ससैन्धवम् |
स्वरोपघाते कासे च लेहमेवं प्रयोजयेत् ||
Chakra Dutta, 36- 16
स्थौल्या बदरी पत्र सिद्ध पेया
बदरी पत्र कल्केन पेया कांजीका साधिता |
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 180- 186
लाजपेयां सुखजरां पिप्पलीनागरैः शृताम्||
पिबेज्ज्वरी ज्वरहरां क्षुद्वानल्पाग्निरादितः|
अम्लाभिलाषी तामेव दाडिमाम्लां सनागराम्||
सृष्टविट् पैत्तिको वाऽथ शीतां मधुयुतां पिबेत्|
पेयां वा रक्तशालीनां पार्श्वबस्तिशिरोरुजि||
श्वदंष्ट्राकण्टकारिभ्यां सिद्धां ज्वरहरां पिबेत्|
ज्वरातिसारी पेयां वा पिबेत् साम्लां शृतां नरः||
शृतां विदारीगन्धाद्यैर्दीपनीं स्वेदनीं नरः||
कासी श्वासी च हिक्की च यवागूं ज्वरितः पिबेत्|
विबद्धवर्चाः सयवां पिप्पल्यामलकैः शृताम्||
सर्पिष्मतीं पिबेत् पेयां ज्वरी दोषानुलोमनीम्|
कोष्ठे विबद्धे सरुजि पिबेत् पेयां शृतां ज्वरी||
पिबेत् सबिल्वां पेयां वा ज्वरे सपरिकर्तिके||
अस्वेदनिद्रस्तृष्णार्तः पिबेत् पेयां सशर्कराम्||
नागरामलकैः सिद्धां घृतभृष्टां ज्वरापहाम्|
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 71, Hapushadi Ghrita
तत् परं वातगुल्मघ्नं शूलानाहविमोक्षणम्||
बस्तिहृत्पार्श्वशूलं च घृतमेतद्व्यपोहति||
इति हपुषाद्यं घृतम्|
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 28- 34, Kshat Ksheen Chikitsa
मधूकमधुकक्षीरसिद्धं वा तण्डुलीयकम्|
मूढवातस्त्वजामेदः सुराभृष्टं ससैन्धवम्||
क्षामः क्षीणः क्षतोरस्कस्त्वनिद्रः सबलेऽनिले|
शर्करां यवगोधूमौ जीवकर्षभकौ मधु|
शृतक्षीरानुपानं वा लिह्यात् क्षीणः क्षती कृशः||
क्रव्यादमांसनिर्यूहं घृतभृष्टं पिबेच्च सः|
साश्वकर्णैः शृतात् क्षीरादद्याज्जातेन सर्पिषा|
यष्ट्याह्वनागबलयोः क्वाथे क्षीरसमं घृतम्|
पयस्यापिप्पलीवांशीकल्कसिद्धं क्षते शुभम्||
कोललाक्षारसे तद्वत् क्षीराष्टगुणसाधितम्|
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15- 82- 88, Dashmuladya Ghritam
द्वे पञ्चमूले सरलं देवदारु सनागरम्|
पिप्पलीं पिप्पलीमूलं चित्रकं हस्तिपिप्पलीम्||८२||
शणबीजं यवान् कोलन् कुलत्थान् सुषवीं तथा  |
पाचयेदारनालेन दध्ना सौवीरकेण वा||८३||
चतुर्भागावशेषेण पचेत्तेन घृताढकम्|
स्वर्जिकायावशूकाख्यौ क्षारौ दत्त्वा च युक्तितः||८४||
सैन्धवौद्भिदसामुद्रबिडानां रोमकस्य च|
ससौवर्चलपाक्यानां भागान्द्विपलिकान् पृथक्||८५||
विनीय चूर्णितान् तस्मात् पाययेत् प्रसृतं बुधः|
करोत्यग्निं बलं वर्णं वातघ्नं भुक्तपाचनम्||८६||
इति दशमूलाद्यं घृतम्|
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 83- 85
पूतिगन्धान् विवर्णांश्च बहुस्रावान्महारुजः|
व्रणानशुद्धान् विज्ञाय शोधनैः समुपाचरेत्||
त्रिफला खदिरो दार्वी न्यग्रोधादिर्बला कुशः|
निम्बकोलकपत्राणि कषायाः शोधना मताः||
तिलकल्कः सलवणो द्वे हरिद्रे त्रिवृद्धृतम्|
मधुकं निम्बपत्राणि प्रलेपो व्रणशोधनः||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 81- 89
तैलं ससौवीरकमस्तुतक्रं वाते प्रपेयं लवणं सुखोष्णम्|
मूत्राम्बुसिद्धं लवणैश्च तैलमानाहगुल्मार्तिहृदामयघ्नम्||
पक्त्वा जले तेन विपाच्य तैलमभ्यङ्गपानेऽनिलहृद्गदध्नम्||
सहिङ्गुभिः साधितमग्र्यसर्पिर्गुल्मे सहृत्पार्श्वगदेऽनिलोत्थे||
सपुष्कराह्वं फलपूरमूलं महौषधं शट्यभया च कल्काः|
क्वाथः कृतः पौष्करमातुलुङ्गपलाशभूतीकशटीसुराह्वैः|
सनागराजाजिवचायवानीक्षारः सुखोष्णो लवणश्च पेयः||
पथ्याशटीपौष्करपञ्चकोलात् समातुलुङ्गाद्यमकेन कल्कः|
गुडप्रसन्नालवणैश्च भृष्टो हृत्पार्श्वपृष्ठोदरयोनिशूले||
स्यात्त्र्यूषणं द्वे त्रिफले सपाठे निदिग्धिकागोक्षुरकौ बले द्वे|
ऋद्धिस्त्रुटिस्तामलकी स्वगुप्ता मेदे मधूकं मधुकं स्थिरा च||
शतावरी जीवकपृश्निपर्ण्यौ द्रव्यैरिमैरक्षसमैः सुपिष्टैः|
प्रस्थं घृतस्येह पचेद्विधिज्ञः प्रस्थेन दध्ना त्वथ माहिषेण||
मात्रां पलं चार्धपलं पिचुं वा प्रयोजयेन्माक्षिकसम्प्रयुक्ताम्|
श्वासे सकासे त्वथ पाण्डुरोगे हलीमके हृद्ग्रहणीप्रदोषे||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 2/ 53
आमाशयस्थे रुधिरे वमनं पथ्यमुच्यते |
पक्वाशयस्थे देयं च विरेचनमसंशयम् ||
आस्थापनं च निःस्नेहं कार्यमुष्णैर्विशोधनैः |
यवकोलकुलत्थानां निःस्नेहेन रसेन च ||
भुञ्जीतान्नं यवागूं वा पिबेत् सैन्धवसंयुताम् |
अतिनिःस्रुतरक्तो वा भिन्नकोष्ठः पिबेदसृक् ||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 18, Aptanaka, Rakshoghana, Chikitsa
अपतानकिनम स्रस्ताक्षमवक्रभ्रु वमस्तब्ध मेढ्रम स्वेदनम वेपनम प्रलापिनम खट्वापातिनमबहिरायामिनं चोपक्रमेत् | तत्र प्रागेव स्नेहाभ्यक्तं स्विन्न शरीरमवपीडनेन तीक्ष्णेनोपक्रमेत शिरःशुद्ध्यर्थं; अनन्तरं विदारिगन्धादिक्वाथ मांसरसक्षीरदधिपक्वं सर्पिरच्छं पाययेत्, तथा हि नातिमात्रं वायुः प्रसरति; ततो भद्रदार्वादिवातघ्नगणमाहृत्य सयवकोलकुलत्थं सानूपौदकमांसं पञ्चवर्गमेकतः प्रक्वाथ्य तमादाय कषायमम्लक्षीरैः सहोन्मिश्र्य सर्पिस्तैल वसामज्जभिः सह विपचेन्मधुरकप्रतीवापं, तदेतत्त्रैवृतमपतानकिनां परिषेकावगाहाभ्यङ्गपान भोजनानुवासननस्येषु विदध्यात्; यथोक्तैश्च स्वेदविधानैः स्वेदयेत्, बलीयसि वाते सुखोष्णतुषबुसकरीषपूर्णे कूपे निदध्यादामुखात्, तप्तायां वा रथकारचुल्ल्यां तप्तायां वा शिलायां सुरा परिषिक्तायां पलाशदलच्छन्नायां शाययेत्, कृशरा वेशवार पायसैर्वा स्वेदयेत् | मूलकोरुबूस्फूर्जार्जकार्क सप्तला शङ्खिनी स्वरस सिद्धं तैलमपतानकिनां परिषेकादिषूपयोज्यम् | अभुक्त वता पीतमम्लं दधि मरिच वचा युक्तमपतानकं हन्ति; तैल सर्पिर्वसाक्षौद्राणि वा | एतच्छुद्धवातापतानकविधानमुक्तं, संसृष्टे संसृष्टं कर्तव्यम् | वेगान्तरेषु चावपीडं दद्यात्; ताम्रचूडकर्कटकृष्णमत्स्यशिशुमारवराहवसाश्चासेवेत, क्षीराणि वा वातहरसिद्धानि, यवकोलकुलत्थमूलकदधिघृततैलसिद्धा वा यवागूः; स्नेहविरेचनास्थापनानुवासनैश्चैनं दशरात्राहृतवेगमुपक्रमेत, वातव्याधिचिकित्सितं चावेक्षेत; रक्षाकर्म च कुर्यादिति ||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 5, Parmeha Pidika Chikitsa
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 28- 39, Mudhgarbha Chikitsa
योनिसन्तर्पणेऽभ्यङ्गे पाने बस्तिषु भोजने ||
बलातैलमिदं चास्यै दद्यादनिलवारणम् |
बलामूलकषायस्य दशमूलीशृतस्य च ||
यवकोलकुलत्थानां क्वाथस्य पयसस्तथा |
अष्टावष्टौ शुभा भागास्तैलादेकस्तदेकतः ||
पचेदावाप्य मधुरं गणं सैन्धवसंयुतम् |
तथाऽगुरुं सर्जरसं सरलं देवदारु च ||
मञ्जिष्ठां चन्दनं कुष्ठमेलां कालानुसारिवाम् |
मांसीं शैलेयकं पत्रं तगरं सारिवां वचाम् ||
तत् साधुसिद्धं सौवर्णे राजते मृन्मयेऽपि वा ||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 20/ 57- 60, Ahiputana Chikitsa
धात्र्याः स्तन्यं शोधयित्वा बाले साध्याऽहिपूतना |
पीतं घृतं नाशयति कृच्छ्रामप्यहिपूतनाम् |
त्रिफलाकोलखदिरकषायं व्रणरोपणम् ||
लेपोऽम्लपिष्टो बदरीत्वग्वा सैन्धवसंयुता ||
कपालतुत्थजं चूर्णं चूर्णकाले प्रयोजयेत् |
चिकित्सेन्मुष्ककच्छूं चाप्यहिपूतनपामवत् ||
अत ऊर्ध्वं प्रवक्ष्यामि पुटपाकप्रसाधनम् |
Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra, 18- 33- 37
द्वौ बिल्वमात्रौ श्लक्ष्णस्य पिण्डौ मांसस्य पेषितौ ||
द्रव्याणां बिल्वमात्रं तु द्रवाणां कुडवो मतः |
तदैकध्यं समालोड्य पत्रैः सुपरिवेष्टितम् ||
मृदावलिप्तमङ्गारैः खादिरैरवकूलयेत् ||
सक्षीरद्रुमकाष्ठैर्वा गोमयैर्वाऽपि युक्तितः ||
स्विन्नमुद्धृत्य निष्पीड्य रसमादाय तं नृणाम् |
तर्पणोक्तेन विधिना यथावदवचारयेत् ||
कनीनके निषेच्यः स्यान्नित्यमुत्तानशायिनः |
रक्ते पित्ते च तौ शीतौ कोष्णौ वातकफापहौ ||
Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra, 32/ 5- 7
हितं घृतं तुगाक्षीर्यां सिद्धं मधुरकेषु च |
कुष्ठतालीशखदिरचन्दनस्यन्दने तथा ||
देवदारुवचाहिङ्गुकुष्ठं गिरिकदम्बकः |
गन्धनाकुलिकुम्भीके मज्जानो बदरस्य च |
कर्कटास्थि घृतं चापि धूपनं सर्षपैः सह ||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 20/ 26- 28
पित्तात्मिकायामनुलोमनार्थं द्राक्षाविदारीक्षुरसैस्त्रिवृत् स्यात्|
कफाशयस्थं त्वतिमात्रवृद्धं पित्तं हरेत् स्वादुभिरूर्ध्वमेव||
शुद्धाय काले मधुशर्कराभ्यां लाजैश्च मन्थं यदि वाऽपि पेयाम्|
प्रदापयेन्मुद्गरसेन वाऽपि शाल्योदनं जाङ्गलजै रसैर्वा||
खर्जूरमांसान्यथ नारिकेलं द्राक्षामथो वा बदराणि लिह्यात्||
स्रोतोजलाजोत्पलकोलमज्जचूर्णानि लिह्यान्मधुनाऽभयां च|
द्राक्षारसं वाऽपि पिबेत् सुशीतं मृद्भृष्टलोष्टप्रभवं जलं वा|
जम्ब्वाम्रयोः पल्लवजं कषायं पिबेत् सुशीतं मधुसंयुतं वा||
निशि स्थितं वारि समुद्गकृष्णं सोशीरधान्यं चणकोदकं वा|
गवेधुकामूलजलं गुडूच्या जलं पिबेदिक्षुरसं पयो वा||
सेव्यं पिबेत् काञ्चनगैरिकं वा सबालकं तण्डुलधावनेन|
कल्कं तथा चन्दनचव्यमांसीद्राक्षोत्तमाबालकगैरिकाणाम्|
शीताम्बुना गैरिकशालिचूर्णं मूर्वां तथा तण्डुलधावनेन||
Specific Formulation of Badara
- Badariadi Dhupa for Updansha, Vrana
- Badari Churnadi Yoga for Pradara
- Badari Patra Peya for Stholya
- Badra Asava
No specific classical formulation of Souvira has been mentioned. However it is used as an alternative to Badara in the formulation and also its juice, and powder is used traditionally.
Contraindication and Side Effects of Badara and Its Types
- No known side effects of Badara, Souvira are still being studied but avoid its use during pregnancy and lactating mothers.
- As sour (Amla Rasa) are incompatible to use with milk, so avoid the usage of the Badara Amla variety with milk.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Z. sativus / Z. vulgaris / Z. xylopyrus
- Mukhtar, Hiba & Ansari, S & Ali, M. & Naved, T. (2004). New Compounds from Zizyphus vulgaris. Archives of physiology and biochemistry. 42. 508-11. 10. 1080/ 13880200490891890.
- Ikram, M. & Ogihara, Y. & Yamasaki, Katsutoshi. (2004). Structure of a New Saponin from Zizyphus vulgaris. Journal of Natural Products – J NAT PROD. 44. 10. 1021/ np50013a016.
- Asgarpanah, Jinous & Haghighat, Elaheh. (2012). A Review of Phytochemistry and Medicinal Properties of Jujube (Ziziphus vulgaris L.).
- Abdallah, Emad & Elsharkawy, Eman & Ed-Dra, Abdelaziz. (2016). Biological activities of methanolic leaf extract of Ziziphus mauritiana. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Communications. 9. 605- 614. 10. 21786/ bbrc/ 9.4/ 6.
- Siddharth, Panchal & Kailash, Panchal & Vyas, Niraj & Modi, Karuna & Vimal, Patel & Bharadia, Praful. (2010). Antiulcer Activity of Methanolic Extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Stem Bark. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 2. 6- 11.
- Niri, Zahra & Shidfar, Farzad & Jabbari, Masoumeh & Zarrati, Mitra & Hosseini, AghaFateme & Malek, Mojtaba & Dehnad, Afsaneh. (2021). The effect of dried Ziziphus vulgaris on glycemic control, lipid profile, Apo-proteins, and hs-CRP in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled clinical trial. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 45. e13193. 10. 1111/jobs. 13193.
- Naik, Suresh & Bhagat, Sushant & Shah, Priyank & Tare, Abhishek & Ingawale, Deepa & Wadekar, Raju. (2013). Evaluation of the anti-allergic and anti-anaphylactic activity of ethanolic extract of Zizyphus jujuba fruits in rodents. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 23. 811- 818. 10. 1590/ S0102-695- X2013000500014.
- Solati, Jalal & Soleimani, Nastaran. (2009). Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Ziziphus vulgaris L. streptozocin-induced diabetic adult male Wistar rats. Acta Diabetologia. 47. 219- 23. 10. 1007/ s00592- 009- 0166- 8.
- Asgary, Sedigheh & Rafieian- Kopaei, Mahmood & Goli- Malekabadi, Najmeh. (2016). The Effects of Jujube Fruit (Ziziphus vulgaris) Powder in Antioxidant Capacity Elevation and Prevent of Inflammation Detection Due to Diabetes in Wistar Rat. journal of ilam university of medical sciences. 24. 55- 64. 10. 18869/ acad- pub. sjimu. 24. 5. 55.
- Huang, Xuedan & Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko & Norikura, Toshio & Kennedy, David & Hasuma, Tadayoshi & Matsui-Yuasa, Isao. (2007). Mechanism of the Anti-Cancer Activity of Zizyphus jujuba in HepG2 Cells. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 35. 517- 32. 10. 1142/ S0192415X0700503X.
- Kaleem, Waqar & Kaleem, Naveed & Muhammad, Haroon & Khan, Abdur & Rauf, Abdur. (2014). Pharmacological and Phytochemical Studies of Genus Zizyphus. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research. 21. 1243- 1263. 10. 5829/dose. mejsr. 2014. 21. 08. 21099.
- Vafaei, F & Farzad, Abdollahzadeh. (2015). Investigating the effects of Hydroalcoholic extract of jujube fruit (Zizyphus vulgaris L.) on second-degree burn wound healing in Balb/c mice. Journal of Medicine and Life. 8. 117- 120.
- Hussein, Hala & El-Sayed, Eman & Said, Aataa. (2006). Antihyperglycemic, Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Zizyphus spina christi and Zizyphus jujuba in Alloxan Diabetic Rats. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2 (5). 10. 3923/ ijp. 2006. 563. 570.
- Bencheikh, Noureddine & Bouhrim, Mohamed & Alami Merrouni, Ilyass & Boutahiri, Salima & Kharchoufa, Loubna & Addi, Mohamed & Tungmunnithum, Duangjai & Hano, Christophe & Eto, Bruno & Abdelkhaleq, Legssyer & Mostafa, Elachouri. (2021). Antihyperlipidemic and Antioxidant Activities of Flavonoid-Rich Extract of Ziziphus lotus (L.) Lam. Fruits. Applied Sciences. 11. 7788. 10. 3390/ app11177788.
- Krishna, Hare & Parashar, Avinash. (2013). Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Some Indian Jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) Cultivars. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 37. 571- 577. 10. 1111/ jfbc. 12008.
- Goli- Malekabadi, Najmeh & Asgary, Sedigheh & Rashidi, Bahman & Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood & Ghanadian, Mustafa & Hajian, Shabnam & Sahebkar, Amirhossein. (2014). The protective effects of Ziziphus vulgaris L. Fruits on biochemical and histological abnormalities induced by diabetes in rats. Journal of complementary & integrative medicine. 11. 10. 1515/ jcim-2014- 0010.
- Solati, Jalal & Soleimani, Nastaran. (2010). Antidiabetic effects of ethanolic extract of Ziziphus vulgaris L. in streptozocin induced. Physiology and Pharmacology.
- Gandagule UB, Duraiswamy B, Zalke AS, Qureshi MA. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of the leaves of Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz) Willd. Anc Sci Life. 2013 Apr; 32 (4): 245- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 0257-7941.131986. PMID: 24991075; PMCID: PMC- 4078477.
- Mansoori, Mohammad & Kaur, Charanjit & Gupta, M.K. & Vyas, Manish & Mishra, Vijay. (2018). Ziziphus xylopyrus (Retz.) Wild.: A plant of enormous biomedical potential. International Journal of Green Pharmacy. 12. S322-S329.
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- Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
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Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)