Maricha (Piper Nigrum)
Maricha (Piper Nigrum) - The King of Spices
King of spices “Maricha” commonly known as black pepper is largely cultivated in Sarawak State in Malaysia and the Western Ghats of Kerala. Botanically Maricha is known as Piper nigrum and belongs to the Piperaceae family. Maricha is a climbing shrub with a typically pungent odor. In Ayurvedic classical texts, it is one of the ingredient of Trikatu which consist of three herbs with pungent (Katu) Vipaka and Rasa i.e. Sautha, Maricha, and Pippali. Along with this multiple benefits of Maricha are mentioned in Ayurveda like it is used in Agnimandya, Swasha, Kasa, Grehani Roga, Krimi Roga, etc. It is also a main ingredient of Shadushana. Maricha is heat generating, drying, and increases Pitta. It relieves dyspnoea, spasm, and worms. It is fresh and wet, it is sweet after digestion and not much heat generating or not too pungent and heavy to digest. In that state, it is mildly penetrating in action, mucogenic, and doesn’t increase Pitta. Recent research revealed that Maricha consists of various active ingredients like Piperine, B- Caryophyllene, Beta-alanine, pipecolic acid, piperolein A and B, feruperine, dihydroferuperin, piperenol, Pipercide, etc due to which it exhibits various pharmacological activities like anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-obesity, digestive, anti-pyretic activity, etc.
Basonym of Maricha
म्रियन्ते जन्तवो अनेनेति जन्तुघ्न इत्यर्थ: |
Maricha is an efficacious anti- helminthic drug.
Synonyms of Maricha
According to Morphology
वेल्लजम्– वेल्लति प्रसरतीति वेल्लः वल्लीति यावत् |
Maricha plant is a climber.
वल्लीजम्– वल्लयां जातम् ।
Maricha is obtained from the climber.
वृत्त फलम्– वृत्ताकारं फलमस्य ।
Maricha fruits are round in shape.
शिरोवृन्तम्– शीर्षभागे वृन्तमस्य ।
Fruit has a minute cup on the top.
कृष्णम्– कृष्णवर्णम् ।
Fruits are black in color.
According to Properties and Actions
ऊषणम्– ऊषति दाह रुजांश्व जनयतीति ।
Maricha causes burning sensation and pain.
तीक्ष्णं – तीक्ष्णगुणम् ।
Maricha is having sharp qualities.
रूक्षम– रूक्षगुणयुक्तम |
Maricha causes dryness.
कटुकम्– कटुरसे विपाके च ।
Maricha has a pungent taste.
वीरम– प्रकृष्ट वीर्य युकतम् |
Maricha has very strong potency.
कोलकम – कोलक पत्तने व्यवहत मिति वा |
Maricha is commonly stored in ports to export.
Other Properties of Maricha
धर्म पत्तनम – धर्म पतने व्यव्हतं |
Maricha is stored in ports as an item to export to different countries.
यवनेष्टं – यवनानां इष्टम प्रियं |
Maricha is having a great demand by foreigners.
शाकाङ्गं – शाकानाम अङ्गत्वेन संस्कारक रूपेण प्रयुज्यते इति |
Maricha is a commonly used spice stored in the kitchen.
Regional Names of Maricha
- Black Pepper (English)
- Kali Mirch (Hindi)
- Kalumenasu (Kannada)
- Kurumulaka, Nalla muluku (Malayalam)
- Kalamiri (Marathi)
- Golmarica (Bengali)
- Milagu (Tamil)
- Miriyalu (Telugu)
- Kalamari (Gujrati)
- Philphil Asvad (Arabic)
- Philphil Syah (Persian)
Scientific Classification of Maricha
Botanical Name of Maricha
Piper longum Linn.
Piper’s word is derived from the Sanskrit word Pipali or called Peperi in Greek.
Nigrum means black.
Piperaceae (Pippali Kula)
Ayurveda Reference for Maricha (Piper nigrum Linn.)
Classification of Maricha - As Per Charaka and Sushruta
Charaka: Deepniya Mahakshaya, Shula Prashmana Mahakshaya, Krimighana Mahakshaya, Shiro Virechanopaga Mahakshaya
Sushruta: Pipplyadi Gana, Triushana
Maricha's Description in Brihtrayi
|C. S. Su. 2/ 2, 22||S. S. Su. 20/ 12||A. H. Su. 6/ 161, 164, 165|
|C. S. Su. 3/ 11||S. S. Su. 38/ 21, 57||A. H. Su. 10/ 30|
|C. S. Su. 4/ 6, 15, 27, 45||S. S. Su. 39/ 5||A. H. Su. 15/ 33|
|C. S. Su. 27/ 293||S. S. Su. 44/ 9, 17, 49, 64||A. H. Chi. 3/ 29, 48, 78, 98, 115, 142, 173|
|C. S. Vi. 8/ 149, 158||S. S. Su. 46/ 221, 224, 365||A. H. Chi. 4/ 32|
|C. S. Chi. 2. 1/ 30||S. S. Chi. 5/ 18||A. H. Chi. 5/ 57, 58|
|C. S. Chi. 2. 2/ 23||S. S. Chi. 6/ 15||A. H. Chi. 6/ 20, 21|
|C. S. Chi. 2. 4/ 10, 20||S. S. Chi. 7/ 14||A. H. Chi. 7/ 38, 41, 44, 97, 106|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 250||S. S. Chi. 9/ 7, 10||A. H. Chi. 8/ 65, 76, 83, 157, 158|
|C. S. Chi. 6/ 42||S. S. Chi. 11/ 10||A. H. Chi. 9/ 26, 40, 111, 116|
|C. S. Chi. 7/ 48, 74, 87, 117||S. S. Chi. 17/ 41||A. H. Chi. 10/ 12, 14, 16|
|C. S. Chi. 8/ 142, 145||S. S. Chi. 19/ 58||A. H. Chi. 11/ 25|
|C. S. Chi. 9/ 72/ 74||S. S. Chi. 20/ 24||A. H. Chi. 17/ 11|
|C. S. Chi. 11/ 40, 67, 74, 86||S. S. Chi. 22/ 53||A. H. Chi. 19/ 70, 71, 73|
|C. S. Chi. 12/ 32, 36||S. S. Chi. 23/ 15||A. H. Chi. 20/ 25|
|C. S. Chi. 14/ 93, 140, 159, 207||S. S. Chi. 25/ 23||A. H. Chi. 21/ 59|
|C. S. Chi. 15/ 102, 108, 121, 165, 169||S. S. Chi. 37/ 37||A. H. Ka. 2/ 17|
|C. S. Chi. 16/ 129||S. S. Ka. 6/ 3||A. H. U. 3/ 49|
|C. S. Chi. 17/ 98, 110||S. S. Sa. 10/ 22, 45||A. H. U. 5/ 18, 36|
|C. S. Chi. 18/ 71, 73, 90, 104, 180||S. S. Ka. 6/ 3||A. H. U. 11/ 34, 43|
|C. S. Chi. 19/ 113, 116||S. S. Sa. 10/ 22, 45||A. H. U. 13/ 23, 25, 29, 42, 43, 44, 72, 75, 82, 85|
|C. S. Chi. 20/ 39||S. S. U. 12/ 16, 28, 29, 51||A. H. U. 14/ 30|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 50, 183, 193||S. S. U. 17/ 7, 99||A. H. U. 16/ 2, 5, 26, 48, 52|
|C. S. Chi. 24/ 23, 127, 128, 175, 179, 181||S. S. U. 18/ 96, 98, 105||A. H. U. 18/ 50|
|C. S. Chi. 26/ 138, 190, 215218, 243, 244, 245, 259||S. S. U. 19/ 14||A. H. U. 20/ 21|
|C. S. Chi. 30/ 72, 91||S. S. U. 39/ 187||A. H. U. 22/ 31, 49|
|C. S. Ka. 7/ 14, 24, 39||S. S. U. 40/ 148||A. H. U. 30/ 22|
|C. S. Ka. 12/ 21||S. S. U. 42/ 60, 71, 93||A. H. U. 36/ 71|
|C. S. Si. 8/ 41||S. S. U. 46/ 17||A. H. U. 37/ 73|
|C. S. Si. 9/ 22||S. S. U. 47/ 24, 30, 32, 38, 42, 45||A. H. U. 40/ 19|
|S. S. U. 51/ 40, 44|
|S. S. U. 52/ 17, 20, 37|
Maricha's Description in Brihtrayi as Ushana
|C. S. Su. 24/ 49||S. S. U. 18/ 100||A. H. Su. 7/ 35|
|C. S. Chi. 12/ 24||S. S. U. 58/ 48||A. H. Chi. 3/ 52|
|C. S. Chi. 15/ 115||A. H. Chi. 4/ 41, 42|
|A. H. Chi. 9/ 50|
|A. H. Chi. 14/ 11|
|A. H. Chi. 15/ 127|
|A. H. Chi. 17/ 2|
|A. H. Chi. 19/ 12, 27|
|A. H. U. 2/ 10|
|A. H. U. 9/ 33|
|A. H. Chi. 18/ 25|
|A. H. Chi. 24/ 28|
|A. H. Chi. 29/ 28|
|A. H. Chi. 27/ 38|
Maricha's Description in Brihtrayi as Katu
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 5/ 20
Maricha's Description in Brihtrayi as Tikshna, Tikshnaka
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 5/ 54, A. H. Sa. 1/ 88, A. H. U. 14/ 32, A. H. U. 19/ 14
Maricha's Description in Brihtrayi as Shukla Maricha
It is either a variety of Maricha or the seeds of Shigru (Dalhana).
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 11/ 13, 16, S. S. U. 12/ 51
Maricha's Description in Brihtrayi as Shweta Maricha
It is either a variety of Maricha or the seeds of Shigru.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 26/ 244, 245
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. U. 16/ 48
Maricha's Description in Brihtrayi as Sita Maricha
Either it is a Shigru seed or a Shweta variety of Maricha.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 23/ 192
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 225
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. U. 16/ 5, A. H. U. 36/ 72
Maricha's Description in Brihtrayi as Vallija
Ballija in C. S. Sa. 8. 59 has been supposed to be either Maricha or Kusmanda, or the version has been changed from Ballija to Balvaja. In S. S. Ka. 2. 5 It has been replaced by Naraca while Naracaka mentioned in the next group has been replaced by Varataka. Attention may also be drawn to Tiksamula Visha which may be Ballija or Mulaka Visha.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Sa. 8/ 59, 70
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Ka. 2/ 5
Maricha's Description in Brihtrayi as Trikatu
|C. S. Chi. 5/ 78||S. S. Su. 14/ 35||A. H. Chi. 3/ 58|
|C. S. Chi. 9/ 75||S. S. Su. 36/ 12||A. H. Chi. 8/ 109, 140, 146, 154|
|C. S. Chi. 10/ 19||S. S. Su. 38/ 57||A. H. Chi. 10/ 61|
|C. S. Chi. 14/ 107||S. S. Su. 44/ 54, 75||A. H. Chi. 14/ 20, 31, 35|
|C. S. Chi. 15/ 137, 177, 189||S. S. Su. 46/ 432||A. H. Chi. 17/ 9, 15|
|C. S. Chi. 16/ 79||S. S. Chi. 5/ 28||A. H. Chi. 19/ 19, 41, 43|
|C. S. Chi. 17/ 112||S. S. Chi. 7/ 21||A. H. U. 5/ 19, 42, 46|
|C. S. Chi. 18/ 172||S. S. Chi. 8/ 38||A. H. U. 13/ 70, 87|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 40, 215, 241||S. S. Chi. 9/ 34, 55||A. H. U. 20/ 3|
|C. S. Ka. 10/ 12||S. S. Chi. 10/ 6, 14||A. H. U. 22/ 81|
|C. S. Si. 7/ 18||S. S. Chi. 12/ 11||A. H. U. 35/ 22, 24|
|S. S. Chi. 14/ 7, 10, 12||A. H. U. 39/ 46|
|S. S. Chi. 18/ 51|
|S. S. Chi. 23/ 15|
|S. S. Chi. 38/ 25|
|S. S. Chi. 40/ 4, 61|
|S. S. Ka. 2/ 46|
|S. S. Ka. 5/ 62, 63, 78, 81, 82|
|S. S. Ka. 6/ 18|
|S. S. Ka. 7/ 38|
|S. S. Sa. 10/ 22|
|S. S. U. 12/ 25|
|S. S. U. 15/ 12|
|S. S. U. 17/ 27|
|S. S. U. 39/ 185|
|S. S. U. 40/ 144|
|S. S. U. 41/ 39, 46, 50|
|S. S. U. 42/ 49, 54, 111|
|S. S. U. 52/ 28|
|S. S. U. 56/ 16|
|S. S. U. 57/ 10|
|S. S. U. 60/ 49|
|S. S. U. 61/ 31|
Historical Background of Maricha
Brahmanas should not sell Marica and Pippal according to Vedic literature (Pa. Upa. Bhoja 2/ 2/ 77). Its utility is very less, compared to that of Pippali in the ancient days. However, in the Samhita period, the utility of black pepper is more realized and used extensively in therapeutics. Brihattrayi extensively described this plant as an appetizer, carminative and anti-microbial. Sarangdhara quoted it as an example of the Chedana and Pramathi group of drugs. It is mentioned as Avirsya. Brihattrayi has quoted another variety of Marica i.e., Sveta Marica (C. S. Ci. 20/ 19, S. S. Su. 46/ 224, A. H. U. 16/ 2- 5, and A. H. Ut. 36/ 71. Dalhana commented that Shveta Marica is nothing but Sigru bija (seeds of M. pteridosperms). Several other commentators also opined the same. But it appears incorrect since the white variety of Pepper (unprocessed pepper) is available in the market. Thakurji also stated that Sita Marica is either the seeds of Sigru or the decorticated and dried fruits of Marica.
Have A Health Issue?
– Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)
Ayurvedic Allergy Specialist
CEO & Founder of IAFA®
External Morphology of Piper nigrum
- Habit: A stout climber vine perfectly glabrous more or less coriaceous, base cuneate or rounded, woody; stem thickened at the nodes, blade 4-6; petiole 1/2-in. long, basal nerve 3 or 5. The fruiting spike slightly interrupted. drooping 48 in. long, red when ripe. The plant is a branching, climbing, perennial shrub, mostly found in a cultivated state.
- Branches: Branches stout, trailing, and rooting at the nodes.
- Leaves: Leaves entire, 12.5- 17.5 by 5.0- 12.5 cm., very variable in breadth, sometimes glaucous be-neath; base acute, rounded or cordate, equal or unequal, nerves about 5-7 pairs, basal, petiole stout.
- Inflorescence: Flowers minute in spikes, usually dioecious, but often the female bears 2 anthers and the male a pistillode. Anthers 2- celled, flower spike very variable in length and robustness, rachis glabrous.
- Fruit: Fruiting spike very variable in length and pubescences, rachis glabrous. Fruits are ovoid or globose, bright red when ripe. Fruit globose, berry sessile, red, pulp thin; 3-6 mm. in diam., surface (outer coat) dark brown or grey-black strongly reticulated, apex shows remains of sessile stigmas.
- Seed: Seeds are usually globose, testa thin, and albumin hard. Plants continue to bear fruits (produce) for about 25- 30 years in full swing normally and afterward fruiting yield of plants tends to reduce gradually (sometimes and rarely it may go up to 100 years). Two crops of black pepper fruits are in practice during August-September and March-April.
Flowering and Fruiting Time of Piper nigrum
Marich flower in June-July and fruit in December- March.
Distribution of Piper nigrum
The plant is cultivated in hot and moist parts of India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Ceylon, and other tropical countries. It is cultivated particularly in Konkan, Malabar, Travancore, and other parts of Southern India especially in hot and damp parts of the region, also found in Karnataka and Tamilnadu. There are several types of pepper (including hybrids and crosses) grown in India. It probably originated in the hills of southwestern India and also Assam where it is found in a wild state. In the rain forests from North Kanara to Kanyakumari (Southern India, Kerala). It is the most ancient crop in India.
The Useful Part of Piper nigrum
Fruits are dry, globose-shaped, and 3.5 to 6 mm in diameter. The surface is coarse, deeply, and reticulately wrinkled, having a brown or brownish-black color. The fruit bears remain a sessile stigma at the apex. The pericarp is closely adherent to the seed. It has got a strong spicy odor and pungent taste.
Varieties of Maricha
Dhanwantri Nighantu and Raja Nighantu Have Mentioned Two Varieties:
- Maricha (Black)
- Shweta Maricha (white)
These varieties are processed and unprocessed, which is available at present. One another variety of Kshupaja Maricha is found to be described in some texts like Ypga Ratnagar.
In Raj Nighnatu Shweta Maricha has been mentioned separately.
Important Phytoconstituent of Maricha
Pepper contains an alkaloid of 5- 9 %, volatile oil (1- 2.5 %), pungent resin (6.0%), piperidine, and starch.
Recent Research on Maricha (Piper nigrum)
- Choudhary, Prassan & Chakdar, Hillol & Singh, Dikchha & Selvaraj, Chandrabose & Singh, Sanjeev Kumar & Kumar, Sunil & Saxena, Anil. (2020). Computational Studies Reveal Piperine, the Predominant Oleoresin of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) as a Potential Inhibitor of SARS- CoV- 2 (COVID- 19). Current science. 119. 1333- 1342. 10. 18520/ cs/ v119/ i8/ 1333- 1342. In this study, we screened 26 bioactive compounds present in various spices for activity against SARS- CoV- 2 using molecular docking. Results showed that piperine, present in black pepper, had a higher binding affinity (-7.0 kCal/ mol) than adenosine monophosphate (-6.4 kCal/ mol) towards the RNA-binding pocket of the nucleocapsid. Molecular dynamics simulation of the docked complexes confirmed the stability of piperine docked to nucleocapsid protein as a potential inhibitor of the RNA-binding site. Therefore, piperine seems to be a potential candidate to inhibit the packaging of RNA in the nucleocapsid and thereby inhibit viral proliferation. This study suggests that the consumption of black pepper may also help to combat SARS- CoV- 2 directly through possible antiviral effects, besides its immunomodulatory functions.
- Panda, Sunanda & Kar, Anand. (2003). Piperine Lowers the Serum Concentrations of Thyroid Hormones, Glucose, and Hepatic 5′ D Activity in Adult Male Mice. Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme. 35. 523- 6. 10. 1055/ s-2003- 42652. Piperine, the main alkaloid of Piper nigrum fruits, was evaluated for its thyroid hormone and glucose regulatory efficacy in adult male Swiss albino mice. Its daily oral administration (2.50 mg/ kg) for 15 days lowered the serum levels of both the thyroid hormones, thyroxin (T (4)) and triiodothyronine (T (3)) as well as glucose concentrations with a concomitant decrease in hepatic 5′ D enzyme and glucose- 6- phosphatase (G- 6- Pase) activity. However, no significant alterations were observed in animals treated with 0.25 mg/ kg of piperine in any of the activities studied except an inhibition in serum T (3) concentration. The decrease in T (4), T (3) concentrations, and G- 6- Pase was comparable to that of a standard antithyroid drug, Propylthiouracil (PTU). The hepatic lipid-peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of endogenous antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were not significantly altered in either of the doses. It appears that the action of P. nigrum on thyroid functions is mediated through its active alkaloid, piperine. We also suggest that a higher dose of piperine may inhibit thyroid function and serum glucose concentration in euthyroid individuals.
- Liu, Yunbao & Yadav, Vivek & Aggarwal, Bharat & Nair, Muraleedharan. (2010). Inhibitory Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum) Extracts and Compounds on Human Tumor Cell Proliferation, Cyclooxygenase Enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation, and Nuclear Transcription Factor-kappa-B. Natural product communications. 5. 1253- 7. 10. 1177/ 1934578- X- 1000500822. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF- kappa- B, COX- 1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation, and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamines, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamines and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF- kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alkyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose-dependent. The inhibitory concentrations of 50% (IC 50) of the alkylamines were in the range of 13- 200 microg/ mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45- 85%, COX enzymes by 31- 80%, and cancer cell proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.
- Singh, Ramnik & Rao, H. (2008). In vitro antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum Linn. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 4. 115- 120. The fractions R1, R2, and R3 obtained from pet ether extract of Piper nigrum Linn. (PEPN) were investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity. 1,1- Diphenyl- 2- picryl- hydrazyl ( DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were performed. The free radical scavenging activity of the different fractions of PEPN increased in a concentration-dependent manner. R3 and R2 fractions of PEPN in 500 mu g/ml inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 60.48 +/- 3.33% and 58.89 +/- 2.51%, respectively. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the activity of R3 and R2 was found almost similar. R3 (100 mu g/ml) fraction of PEPN inhibited 55.68 +/- 4.48% nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside whereas curcumin in the same amount inhibited 84.27 +/- 4.12%. Moreover, PEPN scavenged the superoxide radical generated by the Xanthine/Xanthine oxidase system. The fraction R2 and R3 in the dose of 1000 mu g/ml also inhibited 61.04 +/- 5.11% and 63.56 +/- 4.17% respectively, the hydroxyl radical generated by Fenton’s reaction. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were also determined, and 56.98 mu g pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in one mg of R3.
- Gulcin, Ilhami. (2005). The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds. International journal of food sciences and nutrition. 56. 491- 9. 10. 1080/ 09637480- 500450248. Water and ethanol crude extracts from black pepper (Piper nigrum) were investigated for their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities in six different assays, namely, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, 1,1- Diphenyl- 2- picryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, and metal chelating activities. Both water extract (WEBP) and ethanol extract (EEBP) of black pepper exhibited strong total antioxidant activity. The 75 microg/ ml concentration of WEBP and EEBP showed 95.5% and 93.3% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, at the same concentration, standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and alpha-tocopherol exhibited 92.1%, 95.0%, and 70.4% inhibition on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. Also, total phenolic content in both WEBP and EEBP were determined as gallic acid equivalents. The total phenolics content of water and ethanol extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and 54.3 and 42.8 microg gallic acid equivalent of phenols was detected in 1 mg WEBP and EEBP.
- Pantsulaia, Ia & Iobadze, Manana & Pantsulaia, Nato & Chikovani, Tinatin. (2014). The Effect of Citrus Peel Extracts on Cytokines Levels and T Regulatory Cells in Acute Liver Injury. BioMed research is international. 2014. 127879. 10. 1155/ 2014/ 127879. Background: T-cell-mediated immune responses contribute to hepatocellular injury during autoimmune hepatitis, viral infection, and hepatotoxins. Pharmacological compounds regulating immune responses are suitable candidates for the prevention/treatment of this pathology. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to define the effects of an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory mixture of citrus peel extract (CPE) on immune-mediated liver injury. Methods: The influence of CPE on liver injury was determined by the activity of transaminases in plasma and the histological changes. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects were studied by measuring the frequency of T regulatory cells (Tregs), cytokines (TNF- α, IL-10, and IFN- γ), and nitric oxide levels. Results: The CPE application notably prevents the development of liver injury through decreasing levels of both cytokines (TNF- alpha, INF) and regulatory T cells and increasing levels of IL- 10. CPE injection also diminished the serum NO, which in turn resulted in an evident reduction of liver damage. Conclusion: Our findings represent the primary preclinical data indicating that the CPE in vivo could ameliorate Con A-induced hepatitis. The low dose of CPE most likely can be used for the treatment of T cell-mediated liver injury as in autoimmune hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, and chronic viral hepatitis.
- Mishra, Raghav & Singh, Shio Kumar. (2009). Antispermatogenic and antifertility effects of fruits of Piper nigrum L. in mice. Indian Journal of experimental biology. 47. 706- 14. The effect of oral administration (25 and 100 mg/ kg body wt/ day, for 20 and 90 days) of fruit powder of Piper nigrum L. on the male reproductive organs of mice, Parkes strain, was investigated. Various reproductive endpoints such as organ weight, histopathology, sperm parameters, sialic acid and fructose contents, and fertility indices were assessed. Histologically, tests in treated mice, except in those treated with 100 mg of dose for 90 days, showed non-uniform degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules, as both affected and normal tubules were observed in the same section. In mice treated with a 100 mg dose for 90 days, degenerative changes were observed in all the tubules. Affected seminiferous tubules showed intraepithelial vacuolation, loosening of germinal epithelium, the occurrence of giant cells, and mixing of spermatids of different stages of spermatogenesis; in severe cases, the tubules were lined by mainly a layer of Sertoli cells. The percentage of affected tubules in the testes of Piper-treated mice was dose-and duration-related. Further, Piper nigrum treatment for 20 days did not cause appreciable alterations in the histological appearance of the epididymis, while the treatment for 90 days caused detectable alterations in the duct. The treatment also had adverse effects on sperm parameters, levels of sialic acid and fructose, and litter size. Fifty-six days after cessation of treatment, the alterations induced in the reproductive organs recovered to control levels, though the litter size in females impregnated by Piper-treated males remained significantly decreased compared to controls.
- Akbar, Proity & Jahan, Ismet Ara & Hossain, Hemayet & Banik, Rajib & Nur, Husna & Hossain, Md. (2018). Antioxidant capacity of piper longum and piper nigrum fruits grown in Bangladesh. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2. 931- 941. The study is performed to determine and compare the antioxidant capacity of water and ethanol extracts of Piper longum and Piper nigrum fruits grown in Bangladesh. DPPH, ABTS and nitric oxide free radical scavenging activity, FRAP, superoxide dismutase, Fe 2+ ion chelating ability, total antioxidant capacity, reducing power assay, total flavonoid, and total phenolic content determination assays were used for evaluation of antioxidant capacity. The ethanol extracts of P. longum (long pepper from Dhaka, long pepper from Rajshahi) and P. nigrum (white pepper, black pepper) fruits showed significant activities compared to the water extracts in most of the antioxidant assays in a dose-dependent manner. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged between 32.83 to 174.92 mg of GAE/g of dry extract and 33.44 to 172.98 mg of QE/g of dry extract, respectively. In total antioxidant capacity and FRAP assay, the activity of the extracts ranged from 9.05 to 199.17 mg AAE/g extract and 5.32 to 18.33 mg FeSO 4 E/g extract. In the DPPH scavenging and SOD assay, the percent inhibitions were found to be similar. However, ABTS, Fe 2+ scavenging, and reducing power assay showed better results for ethanol extracts, while nitric oxide scavenging activity showed better activity for water extracts.
- Alfauziah, Tazyinul. (2016). Production of Potential Antidiabetic Agent from Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) as Effort Enhancing National Resilience. Indonesia is one of the largest pepper manufacturers in the world, with either white or black pepper. Traditionally, black pepper is used for diarrhea, dyspepsia, cholera, and gastric ailments. It contains various active phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavones, steroids, and terpenes. Piperine is the major alkaloid found in black pepper, about 4-6%. Recently, some research has shown that piperine is PPAR- agonist, a ligand-activated transcription factor in adipocytes and macrophages that increase adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, piperine is a potential antidiabetic agent. This paper aims to propose an easy, efficient, and applicable extraction method of piperine from black pepper as an antidiabetic raw material. Various methods of extraction of piperine are soxhlet extraction, reflux extraction, maceration, and supercritical fluid extraction. Comparing those methods based on the piperine yield obtained, we found that the most suitable extraction method was maceration by glacial acetic acid, followed by partitioning with chloroform. The extract was dried on anhydrous sodium sulfate and then concentrated in a rotatory evaporator. Piperine is crystallized by diethyl ether. The Crystal of piperine obtained from this method was 4.6% with high purity. The high production level of black pepper in Indonesia can lead to piperine production as a raw material of antidiabetic agent independently. So, it can decrease the number of imported drugs’ raw materials and increase national resilience in the drug’s raw material provision, especially antidiabetic drugs.
- Godara, R. & Verma, M K & Katoch, Rajesh & Yadav, Anish & Dutt, Prabhu & Satti, Naresh & Katoch, Meenu. (2018). In vitro acaricidal activity of Piper nigrum and Piper longum fruit extracts and their active components against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Experimental and Applied Acarology. 75. 10. 1007/ s10493- 018- 0268- 5. In vitro acaricidal activity of Piper nigrum and P. longum fruit extracts and their active components (piperine for P. nigrum and piperine and piper- longuminine for P. longum) was evaluated against adults engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus using adult immersion test. Three concentrations of each extract with four replications were used in the bioassay. Extracts significantly affected mortality rates of ticks in a dose-dependent manner ranged 12.5- 95.8 % for P. nigrum and 29.2- 87.5 % for P. longum, with an additional effect on the reproductive physiology of ticks by inhibiting oviposition (28.1- 96.9 % by P. nigrum and 36.1- 89.3 % by P. longum). However, the acaricidal and oviposition limiting properties were decreased significantly when the active component(s) of each extract was tested separately. However, the combination of piperine and piper longuminine (obtained from P. longum extract) caused 79.2 % mortality of ticks which is equivalent to the corresponding concentration (~ 5 %) of the extract. It can be concluded that the fruit extracts of P. nigrum and P. longum had both acaricidal and oviposition-limiting actions against the adults of R. (B.) microplus which could make it a valuable component of developing a sustainable strategy for integrated tick management.
- NAZISH, IRAM & SHAIKH, FAIZA & SAWANT, GAURANG. (2020). DOES A LOW DOSE OF PIPER NIGRUM EXTRACT EXERT ANTI-OBESITY ACTIVITY? International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 41-46. 10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i5.27942. Objective: To evaluate the anti-obesity effect of aqueous P. nigrum extract in a murine model of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) (20 g/ day/ rat) for a period of 50 d to induce obesity. Aqueous P. nigrum extract (20 mg/kg) was administered orally to high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats from the 8th day to the 50th day (total 42 d). The parameters like gain in body weight, serum lipids, insulin, and leptin were measured. Results: The rats treated with extract showed a significant reduction in body weight gain, serum insulin, leptin, and lipids as compared to rats fed with only a high-fat diet (HFD). In addition, the extract-treated group showed a considerable rise in high-density lipoprotein (HDL- C) level (29.61± 7.68 mg/ dl) as compared to the control group (23.23± 9.69 mg/ dl). Conclusion: The results indicate that aqueous P. nigrum extract possesses the potential to reduce obesity markers in high-fat diet (HFD) fed rats.
- Moraru, Aurelian & Roşca, Irina & Craciun, Bogdan & Nicolescu, Alina & Chiriac, Anca & Voicu, Victor. (2019). INSIGHTS OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PIPERINE EXTRACTED FROM PIPER NIGRUM L. FARMACIA. 67. 6. 10. 31925/Farmacia. 2019. 6. 24. this study aimed to present new insights into the antimicrobial activity of piperine extracted from Piper nigrum as compared to commercial piperine and to the activity of other similar compounds (namely: protocatechuic acid, L-ascorbic acid, L-tyrosine, and syringic acid) and in synergism with ampicillin and amphotericin B. For this, piperine was isolated, and purified and its structure and high purity were determined by NMR, FTIR, UV-Vis, and TLC analysis. A concentration of 100 mg/mL of piperine proved to have no cytotoxic effect on the opportunistic pathogens represented by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and was slightly efficient against Candida albicans. Nevertheless, piperine improved the ampicillin activity against S. aureus by 14% and at the same time decreased the activity of amphotericin B against C. albicans by 54.2%, their antimicrobial properties being quite different compared to the commercial piperine.
- Vijayakumar, Ramasamy & Nalini, Namasivayamin. (2006). Piperine, an Active Principle from Piper Nigrum, Modulates Hormonal and Apolipoprotein Profiles in Hyperlipidemic Rats. Journal of Basic and clinical physiology and Pharmacology. 17. 71- 86. 10. 1515/ JBCPP. 2006. 17. 2. 71. To study the effect of piperine, an alkaloid, on thyroid hormones and apolipoproteins in high-fat-diet (HFD) and antithyroid drug-induced hyperlipidemic rats.
- Male Wistar rats were first divided into two groups, control diet and high-fat diet (HFD), and then subdivided into four subgroups of ten animals each. The animals were treated with the following regimens for 10 weeks: 1% carboxymethyl cellulose; 10 mg carbimazole (CM)/ kg body weight; 10 mg CM + 40 mg piperine/ kg body weight, and 10 mg CM + 2 mg atorvastatin /ATV/ kg body weight. Lipid profiles, hormone levels, and apolipoprotein levels were studied in all groups.
- HFD and/or CM administration significantly elevated the plasma levels of total cholesterol, VLDL, LDL, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids, but significantly reduced the HDL levels. Moreover, CM administration significantly reduced apo A-I levels and T3, T4, and testosterone levels while significantly elevating plasma apo B, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and insulin levels. The simultaneous administration of piperine and HFD significantly reduced plasma lipids and lipoproteins levels, except for HDL, which was significantly elevated. Piperine supplementation also improved the plasma levels of apo A-I, T3, T4, testosterone, and I and significantly reduced apo B, TSH, and insulin to near-normal levels.
- The data presented here provide evidence that piperine possesses thyrogenic activity, thus modulating apolipoprotein levels and insulin resistance in HFD-fed rats, opening a new view in the management of dyslipidemia by dietary supplementation with nutrients.
- Toma, Zainab. (2010). Antimicrobial Activity of Piperine purified from Piper nigrum. Alkaloid piperine was extracted from dry seeds of the plant Piper nigrum with ethanol by using soxhlet extraction then isolation and purification by recrystallization, the structure of Piperine was confirmed by the IR spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of Piperine was studied against gram+ve, gram-ve bacteria, and Candida albicans piperine showed potent antimicrobial activity against tested organisms especially C. albicans followed by E. coli and less than on P. aeruginosa the zone of inhibition ranges from 8- 23 mm and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) 3.125- 100 mg/ ml.
- Karthiga, Reshmi & Sathya, E. & Devi, P. Suganya. (2010). Isolation of piperidine from Piper nigrum and its antiproliferative activity. J. of Medicinal Plants Research. 4. 1535- 1546. Many plant-derived molecules have shown promising effects in therapeutics. Among the plants investigated to date, one showing enormous potential is the Piperaceae. The present study aimed to extract the phytochemical compounds in different solvent systems in Piper longum, Piper nigrum, and Piper cubeba as well as test their antibacterial and antitumor activity. HPTLC analysis of the P. nigrum sample showed six alkaloid bands; two alkaloid bands were similar to Piperine standards 1 and 2, the other alkaloid may be piperidine, piperettine, and piperanine. The P. longum sample contains three alkaloid bands: one band was similar to Piperine standard 1, the other may be Piper longumine and Piper longuminine and no alkaloid band was found in P. cubeba. The antibacterial activity was tested against gram-positive and negative organisms using the agar well diffusion method. High activity was found in P. nigrum ethanol extract against the organism Salmonella Typhii. The alkaloid piperidine was purified by refluxing method to check the antitumor activity which shows 51.38% of inhibition at 5μg/ml concentration that conforms the compound piperidine to be used as an anticancer drug for further mechanistic works.
- Kumari, P. Saravana & Priya, N.C. (2017). Antiviral activities and cytotoxicity assay of seed extracts of Piper longum and Piper nigrum on human cell lines. 42. 197- 202. Traditional plant-based compounds are seeking more attention from pharmaceutical companies to treat incurable diseases as they have no side effects, ease of recovery in large amounts, and high magnitude of activity. The present study deals with the anti-viral assay of methanolic and chloroform extract from seeds of Piper longum and Piper nigrum which are commonly used in food. From the seeds of Piper longum and Piper nigrum chloroform and methanolic extracts were collected by reflux method and extracts were evaluated against Vesicular stomatitis virus and human parainfluenza virus on HeLa cell lines. Cytotoxicity assay was carried out by MTT assay and LDH measurement. Anti-viral activity of Piper nigrum in chloroform extract showed higher activity than Piper nigrum in methanolic extract against Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus and Human parainfluenza virus on the HeLa cell line. Piper longum in methanolic extract showed higher anti-viral activity than in chloroform extract against both viruses. Cytotoxicity assay of Piper longum treatment showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of growth of HeLa cells at IC 50 values of 46.24, 33.43, and 38.49 µg/ml at 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation respectively. Similarly, the extract of Piper nigrum treatment also showed inhibition of the growth of HeLa cells at IC 50 values of 551.58, 24.18, and 17.47 µg/ ml at 24, 48, and 72 hours of incubation respectively. LDH measurement showed 100 % of inhibition at 260 mg/ml for both extracts of Piper nigrum. Piper longum in methanolic extract showed 100 % of inhibition at 240 mg/ml and no activity was observed in the case of chloroform extract. These results suggest that both Piper longum and Piper nigrum have significant anti-viral and anti-cancer activity in HeLa cells. HPTLC analysis of both the pepper in chloroform extract at 254 nm and 366 nm was done which produces different bands. At 254 nm resolutions of bands were poor and at 366 nm well-resolved bands with different intensity of color of bands confirmed the presence of piperidine.
- Karsha, P.V. & Lakshmi, O.B. (2010). Antibacterial activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) with special reference to its mode of action on bacteria. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 1. 213- 215. During the present study, the antibacterial activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) and its mode of action on bacteria was done. The extracts of black pepper were evaluated for antibacterial activity by the disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the tube dilution method and the mode of action was studied on membrane leakage of UV 260 and UV 280 absorbing material spectrophotometrically. The diameter of the zone of inhibition against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was measured. The MIC was found to be 50- 500 ppm. Black pepper altered the membrane permeability resulting in the leakage of the UV 260 and UV 280 absorbing material i.e., nucleic acids and proteins into the extracellular medium. The results indicate excellent inhibition of the growth of Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Bacillus cereus and Streptococcus faecalis. Among the Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more susceptible followed by Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli.
- Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed & Birhanu, Guteta & Demisse, Shiferaw. (2014). Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food-borne pathogens. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 4. S911- S919. 10. 1016/ S2222- 1808 (14) 60757- X. Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piper nigrum (P. nigrum) and Cassia didymobotyra (C. didymobotyra) (aqueous, methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether) against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa)] and fungi [Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans (C. albicans)] and also to investigate the presence of various phytochemicals in the leaf extracts of tested plants. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined by the disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration were determined by serial dilution method. Results: Methanol leaf extract of test plants exhibited greater antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. The MIC results showed that ethanol, methanol, and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli at a concentration of 12.5 mg/ mL. While ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of S. aureus at a concentration of 6.25 mg/ mL. The MIC values for ethanol, methanol, and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of C. albicans at a concentration of 25.0 mg/ mL. While it was reported that at a concentration of 12.5 mg/ mL methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum was against the Aspergillus spp. The MIC values of methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. at a concentration of 12.5 mg/ mL and 6.25 mg/ mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration of ethanol, methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum for E. coli, and ethanol, methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra for S. aureus was recorded at a concentration of 12.5 mg/ mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration of ethanol and methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra on C. albicans was recorded at a concentration of 25.0 mg/ mL, while, it was found at a concentration of 50.0 mg/ mL for petroleum ether and aqueous leaf extract of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra. However, the MIC of methanol leaf extracts of P. nigrum and ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra for Aspergillus spp. Was recorded at a concentration of 12.5 mg/mL, while, the MIC concentration ranged from 25.0- 50.0 mg/ mL for other tested solvent leaf extracts of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra. Conclusions: This study suggests that test plants could be potential candidates for developing new antimicrobial drugs against the wide range of pathogenic bacteria and fungal strains.
- Nirwane, Abhijit & R., Bapat. (2012). The effect of methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits in Ethanol-CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 4. Piper nigrum popularly known as ‘Black Pepper’ contains an abundant amount of piperine alkaloids. Piperine alkaloids have been implicated in Hepatoprotective activity. To evaluate the effect of methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits in Ethanol- CCl 4 induced hepatotoxicityWistar rats. The methanolic extract of P. nigrum (MEPN) (100 and 200 mg/ kg, p.o., 15 days) and Piperine (PPR) (50 mg/ kg, p.o., 15 days) was gavaged daily to the rats along with Ethanol [40%, 2ml/ 100gm, p.o. for 15 days, twice a day] & on 14th Day CCL 4 [1:1 in groundnut oil, 0.1 ml/ kg, s.c.]. The levels of Triglycerides (TG), aminotransferases (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Bilirubin and Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GSH) and Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels in liver were measured. Morphological and histopathological indices in the liver of healthy and Ethanol-CCl4 treated rats were also measured. In the underlying study, Ethanol- CCl4 exhibited an increase in the hepatic biomarkers (TG, AST, ALT, ALP, and Bilirubin), LPO which were significantly decreased after pretreatment with MEPN (100, 200 mg/kg), and PPR (50 mg/kg). Ethanol- CCl4 significantly decreased levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH which were restored with MEPN and PPR. The results were similar to that of Liv52 [1ml/ kg, p.o. for 15 days], which served as a reference standard. Histopathological studies were also in agreement with the above. The study indicates that P. nigrum possesses potential hepatoprotective activity which may be attributed to its piperine alkaloids, having therapeutic potential in the treatment of liver disorders.
- Tasleem, Farhana & Azhar, Iqbal & Ali, Syed & Perveen, Shaista & Mahmood, Zafar. (2014). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper nigrum L. Asian Pacific Journal of tropical medicine. 7S1. S461- 8. 10. 1016/ S1995-7645 (14) 60275- 3. Objective: To evaluate and compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the pure compound, piperine along with hexane and ethanol extracts of Piper nigrum L. fruit in mice and rats. Methods: The analgesic activity was determined by tail immersion method, analgesia meter, hot plate, and acetic acid-induced writhing test. While the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in rats. Results: Piperine at a dose of 5 mg/ kg and ethanol extract at a dose of 15 mg/ kg after 120 min and hexane extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg after 60 min exhibited significant (P< 0.05) analgesic activity by tail immersion method, in comparison to ethanol extract at a dose of 10 mg/ kg using analgesia-meter in rats. However, with the hotplate method, piperine produced significant (P< 0.05) analgesic activity at lower doses (5 and 10 mg/ kg) after 120 min. A similar analgesic activity was noted with hexane extract at 15 mg/kg. However, in the writhing test, ethanol extract significantly (P< 0.05) stopped the number of writhes at a dose of 15 mg/kg, while piperine at a dose of 10 mg/ kg completely terminated the writhes in mice. In the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect using a plethysmometer, piperine at doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg started producing an anti-inflammatory effect after 30 min, which lasted till 60 min, whereas hexane and ethanol extracts also produced a similar activity at a slightly low dose (10 mg/kg) but lasted for 120 min. Conclusions: It is concluded from the present study that Piper nigrum L possesses potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.
- Shamkuwar, P.B. & Agrawal, Y.P. & Chavan, Shital. (2013). Evaluation of active constituents of Piper nigrum in diarrhea. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 5. 121-125. Piperine was extracted and isolated from Piper nigrum. The antidiarrhoeal effect of piperine and aqueous extract of Piper nigrum was examined in castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhea in mice. Piperine has shown significant inhibition of diarrhea when compared with the anti-diarrheal effect of aqueous extract of Piper nigrum. The results indicate that piperine is the active anti-diarrhoeal constituent of Piper nigrum.
- Ghosh, Sourav & Kumar, Arvind & Sachan, Dr. Neetu & Chandra, Phool. (2021). Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of essential oil from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn. (Black pepper) in mice: involvement of serotonergic but not GABAergic transmission system. Heliyon. 7. e06884. 10. 1016/ j. heliyon. 2021. e06884. In this study, the anxiolytic activity of Piper nigrum essential oil (PNEO) was evaluated in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the antidepressant-like effect was evaluated through a tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Flumazenil, a competitive inhibitor of the GABA receptor in the benzodiazepine site, and WAY-100635 maleate salt, a 5- HT1A receptor antagonist were used to find out the possible mechanism(s) of action of PNEO. To exclude the false-positive results due to the enhancement of the locomotor activity, the animals were submitted to an open field test (OFT). We also measured monoamine levels in the mice’s brains after acute PNEO treatment. The data obtained from the study suggest that the anxiolytics and antidepressant-like effect of PNEO have been observed in EPM and TST respectively in a dose-dependent manner after oral acute and repetitive treatment. WAY- 100635, but not flumazenil was able to reverse the effect of PNEO in EPM and TST both, indicating the possible involvement of the 5- HT1A receptor. The neurochemical analysis showed no alteration in monoamine levels in mice brains. Furthermore, no locomotor impairment or sign of toxicity or changes in body weight, or abnormalities in the biochemical parameters, except for a significant decrease in total cholesterol level was observed after treatment with PNEO. The findings suggest that Piper nigrum EO possesses a dual anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effect through the possible involvement of serotonergic transmission.
- Panda, Sunanda & Kar, Anand. (2003). Piperine Lowers the Serum Concentrations of Thyroid Hormones, Glucose and Hepatic 5′D Activity in Adult Male Mice. Hormone and metabolic research Hormones et metabolism. 35. 523- 6. 10. 1055/ s-2003- 42652. Piperine, the main alkaloid of Piper nigrum fruits, was evaluated for its thyroid hormone and glucose regulatory efficacy in adult male Swiss albino mice. Its daily oral administration (2.50 mg/ kg) for 15 days lowered the serum levels of both the thyroid hormones, thyroxin (T (4)) and triiodothyronine (T (3)) as well as glucose concentrations with a concomitant decrease in hepatic 5′ D enzyme and glucose- 6- phosphatase (G- 6- Pase) activity. However, no significant alterations were observed in animals treated with 0.25 mg/ kg of piperine in any of the activities studied except an inhibition in serum T (3) concentration. The decrease in T (4), T (3) concentrations, and G- 6- Pase was comparable to that of a standard antithyroid drug, Propylthiouracil (PTU). The hepatic lipid-peroxidation (LPO) and the activity of endogenous antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) were not significantly altered in either of the doses. It appears that the action of P. nigrum on thyroid functions is mediated through its active alkaloid, piperine. We also suggest that a higher dose of piperine may inhibit thyroid function and serum glucose concentration in euthyroid individuals.
Rasa Panchaka of Maricha (Sushka - Dry)
|Rasa (Taste)||Katu (Pungent)|
|Guna (Virtue)||Tikshna (Sharp), Laghu (Light)|
|Virya (Potency)||Ushan (Hot Potency)|
|Vipaka (Post-Digestion)||Katu (Pungent)|
Rasa Panchaka of Maricha (Aadra - Fresh)
|Rasa (Taste)||Katu (Pungent)|
|Guna (Virtue)||Guru (Heavy), Tikshna (Sharp)|
|Virya (Potency)||Natyaushana (Nor Very Hot)|
|Vipaka (Post-Digestion)||Madhura (Sweet)|
Dosha Karma of Maricha
Kapha- Vata Shamaka, Vata Hara due to Ushana Virya. Kapha Hara because of Ushan Virya, Kashaya, Katu Rasa, and Katu Vipaka.
Karma (Actions) of Maricha
Deepana, Ama pachana, Krimighna, Kapha Nisaraka, Sweda Janana, Pratibandhaka, Shula Prashmana, Dantya, Chakshushya, Yakrit Uttejaka, Hridya Uttejaka.
Maricha – Swasahara, Deepana, Krimighna, Hridya Roga Hara, Avrishya, Chedana, Shula Hara.
Sweta Maricha – Vishaghna, Avrishya, rasayana, Netra Roga Hara.
Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Maricha
Ajirna, Aadhmana, Mutra Kricha, Dhwaj Bhanga, Pidika, Sotha, Naktandhya, Danta Krimi, Danta Shula, Stroto Rodha Janya Vikara, Charma Vikara, Kilasa, Pama, Rajo Rodha, Dhwaja Bhanga
Maricha – Sula Krimi, Swasa, Kasa, Agnimandya, Mutra Kricha, Vata Vyadhi.
Shweta Maricha – Visha Roga, Netra Roga
Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Maricha
Mandaagni (Deficiency of Digestive Power): Maricadi Churna. (Vanga Sena Ajirna. 91, Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 23)
Grahani Roga and Dysentery
- Marichadta Churna. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15. 108- 10)
- Intake of fine powder of pippali or marica checks even chronic dysentery. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 40)
- One who takes the power of marica mixed with chitraka and sauvarcala with buttermilk becomes free from grahani roga besides udara, splenomegaly, deficient digestion, gulma, and piles. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 6. 53)
- One should take Marica powder with ghee, honey, and sugar or paste of Badari leaves fried in ghee and mixed with rock salt. These are effective as linctus in hoarseness of voice and cough. (C. S. Ci. 18/ 180, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 172)
- Marica mixed with sugar- candy, ghee, and honey should be taken. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 52/ 18)
- Marica alone taken with honey is useful. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 52/ 21, Ashtnaga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 57- 58, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 47)
- Jaggery- water boiled and then cooled and added with honey and marica is useful. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 77)
Hikka Evam Shvaas (Hiccough and Asthma): Bhargi and Sunthi or marica and yavaksara should be taken with warm water. (Ashtanaga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 34)
Pratishaya (Coryza): Marica mixed with jaggery removes acute coryza and is digestive for kapha. The patient, during the treatment, should take a diet with fatty and sour curd. (Vrinda Madhava. 60/ 21, Raja Amrittanda. 10. 1)
Mukh Dushika (Pimples of puberty): Marica mixed with ox-bile should be applied to the face. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 11. 11)
Apatanaka (convulsions): Sour curd mixed with marica and vaca should be taken on an empty stomach. It controls apatanaka. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 18)
Netra Vikara (Eye diseases): Night-blindness-Marica rubbed with curd is the best collyrium for night blindness. (Ashtanaga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 34)
Netra Vikara (Defects of Vision)
- Apratisaranjana. (Ashtanag Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 42)
- Sanmaksika yoga. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 44)
- Marica rubbed with the juice of tamarind and mixed with ghee is applied as a collyrium in the evening. It removes itching and timira caused by vata. (Vaidya Manorma. 16/ 34)
Asru Vikara (Lachrymation): Marica 1 part mixed with realgar 1 ⁄ 2 part is powdered finely and applied as a collyrium. It checks the watering of the eyes. (Gada Nigreha. 3. 3. 446)
For Promoting Rasa: Intake of milk boiled with marica at night promotes rasa. (Harita Samhita. 3/ 9/ 28)
Ghrita Pachana (For digestion of ghee): Marica helps the digestion of ghee. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 6. 144)
Ati Nidra (Excessive Sleep): Marica rubbed with honey and horse’s saliva is applied to eyes as collyrium. It eliminates excessive sleep. (Vanga Sena netraroga. 575)
Shishu Sotha (Oedema in Children): Marica mixed with butter should be given. (Vanga Sena. Bala. 123)
Sthoulya (Obesity): One suffering from obesity should take one betel leaf with ten grains of marica followed by intake of cold water for two months. This makes the man lean and thin. (Vaidya Manorma. 12. 31)
Shula (Colic): Use of Marica rubbed with breast milk as snuff alleviates colic. Similar doses of the paste of jaggery and Marica were taken with warm water. (Vaidya Manorma. 8/ 23)
Pama (Eczema): Powder of marica should be taken with fresh cow-ghee. It destroys eczema and scabies. (Vaidya Manorma. 11/ 49)
Aamyika Paryoga of Maricha – As An Ingredient of Trikatu (Vyosa)
Atisara (Diarrhea): In case of gripping, the patient should be given a diet with milk boiled with trikatu and Salaparni. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 146)
Visuchika: Trikatu mixed with salt and latex of snuhi should be taken. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 56/ 16)
- Tryusanadya ghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 87)
- Hingvastaka churna. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 35)
- Tryusanadya ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 39/ 42)
- Trikatu is said to be wholesome (in cough) and also ghee cooked with a decoction of vidanga. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 52/ 29)
- Trikatu powder should be taken with old jaggery and ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 170)
Galganda (Goitre): Edibles mixed with trikatu and honey or urine, barley preparation, soup of green gram, and vegetables of patola and Nimba with ardraka are wholesome in goiter. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Samhita. 18/ 51)
Upakusha (A Disease of Teeth): Powder of trikatu mixed with salt and honey should be applied. (Vrinda Madhava. 58/ 18)
Benefits of Maricha
- The drug Maricha is a Dipana drug (ausadhi) since it stimulates digestive fire or increase (promote) appetite (stomachic or appetizer) and promote digestive function, and it occupies a prominent place as dipana- pacana herbal drug possessing various medicinal potentialities which make Maricha one of the reputed drugs in Indian medicine. in addition to its very common utility as a spice characteristic of pungency having various kinds and many fold utility.
- In general, the drug is alternative, anthelmintic, appetizer, carminative, febrifuge, stimulant, tonic, and urinary antiseptic. It is intense pungent (katu) in taste (rasa) and hot (usha) in potency (virya). It always provokes the state of vata and kapha dosha. But the medicinal properties of green or fresh (Adra) Maricha differ. Normally the dried fruits of the plant are used as the drug Maricha.
- The drug is used in cough, bronchitis, cold, asthma, coryza, eczema, cataract, headache, influenza, intermittent fever, neuritis, night blindness, respiratory diseases, syphilis, and worms. It is useful as a nervine stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic, anti-dermatosis, emmenagogue, emaciating, and blood-provoking (raktotklesaka). and also cleansing the channels (Stroro- Sodhana) in the human body.
- The powder of Marica is externally applied in different and suitable forms for various ailments. In skin infection, it is applied locally (curna or tail) in powder form and mixed with oil, especially in svitra, kilasa, and pama.
- Ailing conditions of organs with swelling and pain. It is applied.
- The fruit is rubbed in honey and applied to eye diseases e.g. naktandhya, arma, sukla, and others.
- In dental complaints, it is used as tooth powder as well as gargling, and fruits are also chewed in dental problems.
- Maricha is internally administered in several diseases as a single drug, ingredient of several formulations (yoga), and also as a component of trikatu (comprising three major pungent drugs viz. Sunthi, Maricha, and pippali) widely used in Indian medicine. The drug Marica is generally recommended in the treatment of agni- vikara (diseases caused by loss or reduction of normal digestive power or fire, digestive enzymatic abnormality), ajirna (dyspepsia), sula (abdominal colic), adhmana (flatulence), yakrid vikara (liver disorders) and krimi (worms affections). It is used in hrid dourbalya (heart weakness), mutra krchra (dysuria), dhvaja bhanga (impotency), dysmenorrhoea and vata vikara. The drug Maricha is frequently given in käsa, svasa, svara-kantha vikara, pratisyaya, nasaroga, siro roga, and other similar diseases (related to the respiratory system, nose, and throat, etc.).
- In addition, maricha powder is useful in obesity (Medoroga). The ten maricha grains with betel leaf (tambula) are prescribed for intake of cold water for two months (Vaidya Manorama, 12- 11).
- For digestion of ghee, the powder of Marica is given or ghee mixed with Maricha is advisable (Bhavaprakasa, Chikitsa. 6- 44).
- Powder of maricha mixed with butter is suggested for edema of children (Bala sotha).
- The decorticated fruits of marica (black pepper) are known as Sveta Maricha which is also used in eye diseases, snake bites, etc.
Benefits of Maricha on Different Systems of Bodies
External Uses: Its poultice is ushna, an anti-inflammatory and scraping agent. Therefore, it is used in newly formed boils, stye, and abscesses. It is also used in leucoderma, scabies, etc. Pepper powder mixed with oil is also used locally. The application of pepper paste on an inflamed part reduces both the pain and inflammation. Night blindness and Shukla (white opaque ulcer on the cornea) are treated with pepper mixed with honey. In toothache, teeth are brushed with pepper powder (or pepper, dried ginger, and long pepper powder) or decoction of this mixture is used for gargling. Fistula is treated with ksharasutra prepared with black pepper. In comatose patients, inhalation with pepper is given. In pharyngitis, black pepper decoction is used for gargles or they are chewed to reduce inflammation.
Central Nervous System: Maricha is a stimulant and tonic for nerves. Useful in nervous weakness.
Digestive System: Maricha being tikshna and ushna, stimulates salivation, diseases due to Vata and Kapha are relieved, appetite-stimulating, and digestive juices are released. Maricha clears the deposits of kapha on the tongue and chest. It is a liver stimulant and other digestive juices are also released. It is a vermifuge. Loss of appetite, indigestion, liver dysfunction, and colic are treated with pepper which is an optimum remedy.
Circulatory System: As maricha is a stimulant to the circulatory system. The blockage in small capillaries is gradually removed giving a very fine powder of black pepper in water. Useful in hepatitis, splenomegaly, and chronic skin disorders.
Respiratory System: There is no better substance than pepper to reverse the sluggishness of pranavaha srotas and reduce mucous secretion.
Urinary System: Pepper corrects urinary disorders by reducing the viscosity of phlegm and its removal. It increases the flow of urine by stimulating the blood vessels in the kidneys.
Reproductive System: It has a stimulating action on this system. It is useful in dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhea, and impotency.
Skin: Maricha stimulates the channels of sweat, causing perspiration and purifying the skin. Useful in reducing pruritus and skin diseases. Oil of pepper helps in reducing pruritus.
Temperature: In intermittent fever, pepper is used as a primary or adjunct therapy either daily or on alternate days, or every two or three days. Especially white pepper is especially used in Vasanta Suvarna Malati, to gradually increase the efficacy of tissue and reduce chronic cough. It is used for low fevers due to kapha.
Satmikaran: In a small dose, pepper stimulates the action of other drugs due to its strength. It opens up all the srotas, opening up even the narrow channels, with the removal of even the deep-rooted kapha dosha. Because of this effect, it has found a place in trikatu, making it a well-respected formulation in Ayurveda. Its supremacy of properties and actions makes it valuable.
Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Maricha
- Churna (Powder): 500 mg- 1 gram
Classical Reference of Maricha
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 59
मरिचं वेल्लजं कृष्णमूषणं धर्मपत्तनम् |
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 60- 61
Properties and actions
मरिचं कटुकं तीक्ष्णं दीपनं कफवातजित् |
उष्णं पित्तकरं रूक्षं श्वासशूलकृमीन्हरेत् ||
तदार्द्रं मधुरं पाके नात्युष्णं कटुकं गुरु |
किञ्चित्तीक्ष्णगुणं श्लेष्मप्रसेकि स्यादपित्तलम् ||
Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi Varga- 86
Properties and Actions
मरिचं पलितं श्यामं वल्लीजं कृष्णमूषणम् |
यवनेष्टं शिरोवृत्तं कोलकं धर्मपत्तनम् ||
मरिचं कटुतिक्तोष्णं पित्तकृच्छ्रश्लेष्मनाशनम् |
वायुं निवारयत्येव जन्तुसन्ताननाशनम् ||
मरिचं मलिनं श्यामं वेल्लीजं तीक्ष्णमूषणम् ||
यवनेष्टं शिरोदन्तं सुवृजं चर्मबन्धनम् |
Kaiydeva Nighantu, Aushadhi Varga, 1162- 1164
नात्युष्णं मरिचं चार्द्रं स्वादुपाकमपित्तलम् ||
कफप्रसेकि कटुकं किञ्चित् तीक्ष्णकरं गुरु |
शुष्कं सोष्णं रसे पाके कटुकं लघु दीपनम् ||
अवृष्यं रोचनं तीक्ष्णं रूक्षं वातकफापहम् |
कृमिजित् श्वासशूलघ्नं छेदि शोषनुत् पित्तलम् ||
Raja Nighnatu Pipplyadi Varga, 30- 32
मरिचं पलितं श्यामं कोलं वल्लीजमूषणम् |
यवनेष्टं वृत्तफलं शाकाङ्गं धर्मपत्तनम् ||
कटुकं च शिरोवृत्तं वीरं कफविरोधि च |
रूक्षं सर्वहितं कृष्णं सप्तभूख्यं निरूपितम् ||
मरिचं कटु तिक्तोष्णं लघु श्लेष्मविनाशनम् |
समीरकृमिहृद्रोगहरं च रुचिकारकम् ||
Raja Nighnatu Pipplyadi Varga, 33- 34 (Shveta Maricha)
सितमरिचं तु सिताख्यं सितवल्लीजं च बालकं बहुलम् |
धवलं चन्द्रकमेतन्मुनिनाम गुणाधिकं च वश्यकरम् ||
कटूष्णं श्वेतमरिचं विषघ्नं भूतनाशनम् |
अवृष्यं दृष्टिरोगघ्नं युक्त्या चैव रसायनम् ||
Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi Varga- 87, 88, 89
मरीचं शुभ्रमरिचं बीजं शिग्रोस्तु शिग्रुजम् ||
नात्युष्णं नातिरूक्षं च वीर्यतो मरिचं सितम् |
पित्तकोपकरं तीक्ष्णं रूक्षं रोचनदीपनम् ||
रसे पाके च कटुकं कफघ्नं मरिचं लघु |
Priya Nighnatu, Pipplyadi Varga, 4
मरिचम कृष्णम कर्षति दोषान व्यापतान मार्गेभ्य: |
तीक्ष्णौषणम कफ वात छेद करं दीपनं ग्राहि ||
Priya Nighnatu, Pipplyadi Varga, 5 (Shvet Maricha)
श्वेतत्व अलप गुणं स्यात्द भावे शिग्रुजानि बीजानि |
युज्यन्ते तू भिषगिभ: सम्प्रति नेत्रादि रोगेषु ||
Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 27
मन: शिलाले मरिचानि तैलमार्क पय: कुष्ठ हर: प्रदेह: |
Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 46
स्वादु पाक्य आदर मरिच गुरु श्लेष्म प्रसेकि च |
कटूष्ण लघु तच्छुष्कमवृष्य॑ कफवातजित् ||
नात्युष्ण॑ नातिशीतं च वीर्यतो मरिचं सितम् |
Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 27
नात्यर्थमुष्णं, मरिचमवृष्य॑ लघु रोचनम् |
छेदित्वाच्छोषणत्वाच्च दीपनं कफवातजित् ||
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 22
सर्व कास हरणार्थं
लिह्या मरिच चूर्ण वा सघृत क्षौद्रशर्करम् ।
सर्वकासहरं श्रेष्ठ लेह॑ कासार्दितो नर: ||
Bhava Parkasha Kasa Roga Adhikara, 12- 39/ 42
Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 24/ 203
अपतानके मरिच चूर्ण प्रयोग
हन्त्यभुक्त वता पतिमम्लं दध्यपतानकम् |
मरिचेन समायुक्त॑ स्नेह बस्तिरथापि च ||
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 15- 108
Bhava Parkasha Netra Roga Adhikara, 63/ 231
अचिराद्धन्ति नक्तान्ध्य तद्वत्सक्षौद्रमूषणम् |
Chakra Dutta Atisara Chikitsa, 3- 97
अतिसारे मरिच कल्कः
पयसा: पिप्पलीकल्कः पीतो वा मरिचोद्धवः |
त्र्याहात प्रवाहिकां हन्ति चिरकालानुबन्धिनीम ||
Chakra Dutta Grehani Chikitsa, 4/ 28
ग्रहणीरोगे मरिचादि चूर्णम
चूर्ण मरिचमहौषध– कुटजात्लजन क्रमाद द्विगुणम् |
गुडमिश्रमथित पीते ग्रहणी दोषापहं ख्यातम् ||
Chakra Dutta Masa Roga Chikitsa, 58/ 19
प्रतिश्याम प्रतिकारार्थ गुडमरिचयोगः
शोषणं गुडसंयुक्ते खिग्धदध्यम्ल भोजनम् |
Vaidya Manorma, 6/ 23
अविरुद्धोपदंशेन पक्कमन्नेन मात्रया |
भक्षित॑ मरिचं पूर्व भृष्टं दुर्जरतां जयेत् ||
Chakra Dutta Unmada Chikitsa, 20- 47
उन्मादे मरिच अंजनम
मरिचं वा आतपे मासं सपित्तं हितमज्जनम् |
वैकृतं पश्यत: कार्श्य दोषभूतहतस्मृते ||
Chakra Dutta Kustha Chikitsa, 50/ 35- 36, 137- 145
कुष्ठचिकित्सायां मरिचाद्ं बृहन्मरिचाद्यज्न तैल योगा:
Chakra Dutta Kustha Chikitsa, 50- 48
पामा विकारे सिन्दूरादि लेप:
लेपाद्विनिहन्ति पामां तैलं ||
Chakra Dutta Kshudra Roga Chikitsa, 55- 101
इन्द्रलुप्ते मरिच चूर्ण प्रयोग:
वृष्टस्य कर्कशै: पत्रैरिन्द्र लुप्स्य गुण्डनम् |
चूर्णितैभीश्चै: कार्य्य मिन्द्रलु्त विनाशनम् ||
Vanga Sena, Bala Roga, 123
Vaidya Manorma, 8/ 23
शूल तदांशु शमयेद् विणमूत्रे च्यावयेन्नियतम् |
स्तन्य निधृष्ठ मरिच॑ नसि निहित॑ नाशयेच्छूलम् ||
Vanga Sena, Netra Roga, 575
क्षौद्र अश्व बला संपृष्टे मरिचै: नेत्रमज्नात् |
अतिनिद्रा शंमयाति तम: सूर्योदयादिव ||
Vaidya Manorma, 11- 49
हुतवह देश काल बल दोष सात्म्य वताम |
जघनकरा अंगुलिविष कूर्परजनुभवा: करुहवान्धवा: |
सपदि यान्ति रुज: शमनम् ||
Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa, 6/ 144
…. सर्पि: |
मरिचादपि तच्छीघ्र॑ पाक यान्त्येव………….|
Gada Nigreha, 3- 3- 446
नेत्र विकाराणां मरिचं प्रयोगा:
मरिचांश: शिलार्धन योजित: सुप्रचूर्णित: |
नेत्र स्रावं हरत्याशु नराणामय मञ्जनात ||
Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 13/ 84
नक्तान्ध्ये ( रात्र्यध्यत्वम् )
दध्ना विद्यष्टं मरिचं रात्र्यान्ध्या्जनमुत्तमम् |
Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 13/ 44
Vaidya Manorma, 16/ 34
चिंचा स्वरसनिधृष्टं मरिचं सायन्तने तथासाज्यम् |
अक्षिनिषिक्त॑ शमयति कण्डूं तिमिरञ्च वातोत्थम् ||
Harita Samhita, 3- 9- 28
मरिचै: क्वथित॑ दुग्ध॑ पानै रात्री प्रशस्यते |
रसानां तेन वृद्धि: स्यात् ||
Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 40
पिप्पल्या: पिबतः सूक्ष्म रजो मरिचजन्म वा |
चिरकालानुवक्ता अपि नश्यत्याशु प्रवाहिका ||
Sharangdhara Samhita, 2- 6- 53
उदरविकाराणां मरिच प्रयोग
तक्रेण या पिबेन्रित्य॑ चूर्ण मारीच सम्भवम |
चित्रसौवर्चलोपेत ग्रहणी लिग्लीज्ण तस्य नश्यति ||
उदर प्लीह मंदाग्नि गुल्म अर्श नाशनम भवेत |
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 18- 180, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 3/ 172
लिह्मान् मरिचचूर्ण वा मधु स घृत क्षौद्रशर्करम् |
बदरीपत्रकल्क॑ वा घृत भृसत्म ससैन्धवम् ||
स्वरभेद च कासे च लेहमेतं प्रयोजयेत् |
Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 52/ 18
लिह्माद् घृत क्षौद्रयुतां समांशां सितोपलां वा मरिचांशयुक्ताम् |
Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 52/ 21
क्षौद्रेण लिह्मात् मरिचानि चापि |
Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana, 4- 57/ 58, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa, 3/ 70
मधुना मरिच लिह्मात् मधुनैव च जोंगकम् |
पृथग्र रसाश्च मधुना व्याघ्रीवात्ताकभूंगजात् ||
कासबघ्रस्याधशकृत: सुरसम्यासितस्य च ||
Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 3/ 70
गुडोदकं वा क्वथितं सक्षौद्रमरिच हितम् |
Ashtanga Sangreha, Chikitsa, 6- 34
……जलेन वा |
कोष्णेन भारंगी शुण्ठीं च, क्षारं वा मरिचान्वितम् ||
Vrinda Madhava, 60/ 21
प्रतिश्याये पीनसे च
ऊषण गुडसंयुक्त॑ सिग्धदध्यम्लभोजनम् |
Sharangdhara Samhita, 3- 11, 11
तद्वद गोरोचनाम उक्तं मरीचं मुख लेपनं |
Vaidya Manorma, 12/ 31
मास द्वयं प्रकुर्या दश मरिच उपेतंक ताम्बूलं |
खात्वा सुशीत स्तम्भं पिबेत कुश: स्याद अति स्थूल |
Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 2/ 22
तक्रसिद्धा यवागूः स्यात् क्रिमिघ्नी ससुवर्चिका||
Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 3/ 11
मनःशिलाले मरिचानि तैलमार्कं पयः कुष्ठहरः प्रदेहः|
तुत्थं विडङ्गं मरिचानि कुष्ठं लोध्रं च तद्वत् समनःशिलं स्यात्||
Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 4/ 6
पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेराम्लवेतसमरिचाजमोदाभल्लातकास्थिहिङ्गुनिर्यासा इति दशेमानि दीपनीयानि भवन्ति |
Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 4/ 15
अक्षीवमरिचगण्डीरकेबुकविडङ्गनिर्गुण्डीकिणिहीश्वदंष्ट्रावृषपर्णिकाखुपर्णिका इति दशेमानि क्रिमिघ्नानि भवन्ति |
Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 4/ 27
ज्योतिष्मतीक्षवकमरिचपिप्पलीविडङ्गशिग्रुसर्षपापामार्गतण्डुलश्वेतामहाश्वेता इति दशेमानि शिरोविरेचनोपगानि भवन्ति , इति सप्तकः कषायवर्गः||
Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 4/ 45
पिप्पलीपिप्पलीमूलचव्यचित्रकशृङ्गवेरमरिचाजमोदाजगन्धाजाजीगण्डीराणीति दशेमानि शूलप्रशमनानि भवन्ति |
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 2. 1. 24- 33 (Brihani Gutika)
शरमूलेक्षुमूलानि काण्डेक्षुः सेक्षुवालिका|| शतावरी पयस्या च विदारी कण्टकारिका|
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 2. 2/ 23 (Vrishya Dadhi Sara Yoga)
दध्नः सरं शरच्चन्द्रसन्निभं दोषवर्जितम्|
शर्कराक्षौद्रमरिचैस्तुगाक्षीर्या च बुद्धिमान्||
मार्जितं प्रक्षिपेच्छीते घृताढ्ये षष्टिकौदने||
पिबेन्मात्रां रसालायास्तं भुक्त्वा षष्टिकौदनम् |
वर्णस्वरबलोपेतः पुमांस्तेन वृषायते||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 2. 4/ 10, 20 Vrishya Puplika Yoga
कुट्टकं मत्स्यमांसानां हिङ्गुसैन्धवधान्यकैः|
युक्तं गोधूमचूर्णेन घृते पूपलिकाः पचेत्||
माहिषे च रसे मत्स्यान् स्निग्धाम्ललवणान् पचेत्|
रसे चानुगते मांसं पोथयेत्तत्र चावपेत्||
एतौ पूपलिकायोगौ बृंहणौ बलवर्धनौ|
हर्षसौभाग्यदौ पुत्र्यौ परं शुक्राभिवर्धनौ||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 6/ 42 (Madhva Asava)
लोध्रं शटीं पुष्करमूलमेलां मूर्वां विडङ्गं त्रिफलां यमानीम्|
चव्यं प्रियङ्गुं क्रमुकं विशालां किराततिक्तं कटुरोहिणीं च||
भार्ङ्गीं नतं चित्रकपिप्पलीनां मूलं सकुष्ठातिविषं सपाठम्|
कलिङ्गकन् केशरमिन्द्रसाह्वां नखं सपत्रं मरिचं प्लवं च||
द्रोणेऽम्भसः कर्षसमानि पक्त्वा पूते चतुर्भागजलावशेषे|
रसेऽर्धभागं मधुनः प्रदाय पक्षं निधेयो घृतभाजनस्थः||
मध्वासवोऽयं कफपित्तमेहान् क्षिप्रं निहन्याद्द्विपलप्रयोगात्|
पाण्ड्वामयार्शांस्यरुचिं ग्रहण्या दोषं किलासं विविधं च कुष्ठम्||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 7/ 48 (Kusth Nasya)
सैन्धवदन्तीमरिचं फणिज्झकः पिप्पली करञ्जफलम्|
नस्यं स्यात्सविडङ्गं क्रिमिकुष्ठकफप्रकोपघ्नम् ||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 7/ 74 (Madhva Asava)
खदिरसुरदारुसारं श्रपयित्वा तद्रसेन तोयार्थः|
क्षौद्रप्रस्थे कार्यः कार्ये ते चाष्टपलिके च||
त्रिफलैले त्वङ्मरिचं पत्रं कनकं च कर्षांशम्||
मत्स्यण्डिका मधुसमा तन्मासं जातमायसे भाण्डे|
मध्वासवमाचरतः कुष्ठकिलासे शमं यातः||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 5/ 18 (Aptanak Chikitsa)
अपतानकिनमस्रस्ताक्षम वक्र भ्रुवम स्तब्ध मेढ्रम स्वेदनम वेपनम प्रलापिनम खट्वापातिनम बहिरायामिनं चोपक्रमेत् | तत्र प्रागेव स्नेहाभ्यक्तं स्विन्न शरीरमवपीडनेन तीक्ष्णेनोपक्रमेत शिरः शुद्ध्यर्थं; अनन्तरं विदारिगन्धादि क्वाथ मांसरस क्षीर दधि पक्वं सर्पिरच्छं पाययेत्, तथा हि नातिमात्रं वायुः प्रसरति; ततो भद्रदार्वादिवातघ्न गणमाहृत्य सयव कोल कुलत्थं सानूपौदक मांसं पञ्चवर्ग मेकतः प्रक्वाथ्य तमादाय कषायमम्लक्षीरैः सहोन्मिश्र्य सर्पिस्तैल वसा मज्जभिः सह विपचेन्मधुरक प्रतीवापं, तदेतत्त्रैवृतमपतानकिनां परिषेकावगाहाभ्यङ्ग पान भोजनानुवासननस्येषु विदध्यात्; यथोक्तैश्च स्वेदविधानैः स्वेदयेत्, बलीयसि वाते सुखोष्णतुषबुसकरीषपूर्णे कूपे निदध्यादामुखात्, तप्तायां वा रथकारचुल्ल्यां  तप्तायां वा शिलायां सुरापरिषिक्तायां पलाशदलच्छन्नायां शाययेत्, कृशरावेशवारपायसैर्वा स्वेदयेत् | मूलकोरुबूस्फूर्जार्जकार्क सप्तला शङ्खिनी स्वरस सिद्धं तैलमपतानकिनां परिषेकादिषूपयोज्यम् | अभुक्तवता पीतमम्लं दधि मरिचवचायुक्तमपतानकं हन्ति; तैलसर्पिर्वसाक्षौद्राणि वा | एतच्छुद्धवातापतानक विधानमुक्तं, संसृष्टे संसृष्टं कर्तव्यम् | वेगान्तरेषु चावपीडं दद्यात्; ताम्रचूड कर्कट कृष्ण मत्स्य शिशु मारवराहवसाश्चासेवेत, क्षीराणि वा वातहरसिद्धानि, यव कोल कुलत्थ मूलकदधि घृत तैल सिद्धा वा यवागूः; स्नेह विरेचनास्थापनानुवासनैश्चैनं दशरात्राहृत वेगमुपक्रमेत वात व्याधि चिकित्सितं चावेक्षेत; रक्षाकर्म च कुर्यादिति ||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 15, (Abhya Arishta, Arsha Chikitsa)
पिप्पली मरिच विडङ्गैलवालुक लोध्राणां द्वे द्वे पले, इन्द्रवारुण्याः पञ्च पलानि, कपित्थ मध्यस्य दश, पथ्याफलानामर्धप्रस्थः, प्रस्थो धात्रीफलानां, एतदैकध्यं जलचतुर्द्रोणे विपाच्य, पादावशेषं परिस्राव्य, सुशीतं गुडतुलाद्वयेनोन्मिश्र्य, घृतभाजने निःक्षिप्य, पक्षमुपेक्षेत यवपल्ले; ततः प्रातः प्रातर्यथाबलमुपयुञ्जीत | एष खल्वरिष्टः प्लीहाग्निषङ्गार्शो ग्रहणी हृत्पाण्डुरोग शोफ कुष्ठ गुल्मोदर कृमिहरो बलवर्णकरश्चेति ||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 7/ 14 (Kaphaja Ashmari Varunadi Gana Paryoga)
कुष्ठभद्रादिमरिचचित्रकैः ससुराह्वयैः ||
एतैः सिद्धमजासर्पिरूषकादिगणेन च |
भिनत्ति कफसम्भूतामश्मरीं क्षिप्रमेव तु ||
क्षारान् यवागूर्यूषांश्च कषायाणि पयांसि च |
भोजनानि च कुर्वीत वर्गेऽस्मिन् कफनाशने ||
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 7
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 10
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 41
तैलं कृतं गतिमपोहति शीघ्रमेतत्
कन्देषु चामरवरायुधसाह्वयेषु |
सिद्धं विडङ्गरजनीद्वयचित्रकैश्च ||
Specific Formulation of Maricha
- Marichyadi Churna for Kasa
- Marichyadi Taila for Kustha
- Marichyadi Ghrita for Grehani and Kasa
- Marichyadi Kwatha for Jwara
- Marichadi Dhuma for Kasa
- Marichadi Anjana for Unmada, Dristi Dosha
- ChandraPrabha Vati
- Trikatu Churna
- Tribhuvan Kriti Rasa
- Higwadi Churna
- Tryaushnadi Ghrita
- Chandanadi Taila
- Talishadi churna
- Narayana Churna
Adulterant of Maricha
Vidanga (Embelia ribes)
Substitute of Maricha
- Piper longum
- Piper attenuatum
- Piper brachystachyum
Maricha is used to nullify the toxicity of the Vatsnabha.
Contraindication and Side Effects of Maricha
- Due to the hot potency of the dry powder of Maricha or burning after taste, taking large amounts of Maricha can accidentally get into the lungs and has been reported to cause death.
- As Maricha is hot in potency, so avoid its use if you are suffering from a burning sensation, gastritis, a sensitive stomach, etc.
- Maricha also results in anaphylactic reactions, deafness, paralysis, apnea, etc.
- Avoid the use of Maricha during pregnancy and lactation. If consumption should be done it should be done in moderate amounts.
- As Maricha is Avrishya so, if you are suffering from infertility problems, avoid the use of Maricha.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Piper nigrum
- Kumari, P. Saravana & Priya, N. C. (2017). Antiviral activities and cytotoxicity assay of seed extracts of Piper longum and Piper nigrum on human cell lines. 42. 197- 202.
- Hritcu L, Noumedem JA, Cioanca O, Hancianu M, Postu P, Mihasan M. Anxiolytic and antidepressant profile of the methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits in beta-amyloid (1-42) rat model of Alzheimer’s disease. Behav Brain Funct. 2015 Mar 29; 11: 13. doi:10. 1186/ s12993- 015- 0059-7. PMID: 25880991; PMCID: PMC 4389991.
- Shamkuwar, P.B. & Agrawal, Y.P. & Chavan, Shital. (2013). Evaluation of active constituent of Piper nigrum in diarrhea. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 5. 121- 125.
- Choudhary, Prassan & Chakdar, Hillol & Singh, Dikchha & Selvaraj, Chandrabose & Singh, Sanjeev Kumar & Kumar, Sunil & Saxena, Anil. (2020). Computational Studies Reveal Piperine, the Predominant Oleoresin of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) as a Potential Inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Current science. 119. 1333- 1342. 10. 18520/ cs/ v119/ i8/ 1333- 1342.
- Panda, Sunanda & Kar, Anand. (2003). Piperine Lowers the Serum Concentrations of Thyroid Hormones, Glucose, and Hepatic 5′ D Activity in Adult Male Mice. Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme. 35. 523- 6. 10. 1055/ s- 2003- 42652.
- Shaikh, Junaid & Patil, Matsyagandha. (2019). Recent Advances in Pharmacology of Piper nigrum and Piperine: A Review.
- Ghosh, Sourav & Kumar, Arvind & Sachan, Dr. Neetu & Chandra, Phool. (2021). Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of essential oil from the fruits of Piper nigrum Linn. (Black pepper) in mice: involvement of serotonergic but not GABAergic transmission system. Heliyon. 7. e06884. 10. 1016/ j. heliyon. 2021. e06884.
- Ahmad, Nisar & Fazal, Hina & Abbasi, Bilal & Farooq, Shahid & Ali, Mohammad & Khan, Mubarak. (2012). The biological role of Piper nigrum L. (Black pepper): A review. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2. 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (12) 60524- 3.
- Devaraj VC, Krishna BG, Viswanatha GL, Kamath JV, Kumar S. Hepatoprotective activity of Hepax-a polyherbal formulation. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011 Apr; 1 (2): 142- 6. doi: 10. 1016/ S2221-1691 (11) 60013- 0. PMID: 23569745; PMCID: PMC 3609179.
- Nirwane, Abhijit & R., Bapat. (2012). The effect of methanolic extract of Piper nigrum fruits in Ethanol-CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Der Pharmacia Lettre.
- Liu, Yunbao & Yadav, Vivek & Aggarwal, Bharat & Nair, Muraleedharan. (2010). Inhibitory Effects of Black Pepper (Piper Nigrum ) Extracts and Compounds on Human Tumor Cell Proliferation, Cyclooxygenase Enzymes, Lipid Peroxidation, and Nuclear Transcription Factor-kappa-B. Natural product communications. 5. 1253- 7. 10. 1177/ 1934578X1000500822.
- Panda, Sunanda & Kar, Anand. (2003). Piperine Lowers the Serum Concentrations of Thyroid Hormones, Glucose and Hepatic 5′D Activity in Adult Male Mice. Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme. 35. 523- 6. 10. 1055/ s- 2003- 42652.
- Karsha, P.V. & Lakshmi, O. B. (2010). Antibacterial activity of black pepper (Piper nigrum Linn.) with special reference to its mode of action on bacteria. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 1. 213- 215.
- Khan, Asim & Ahmad, Jameel & Kapoor, Prem & Jahangir, Umar & Parveen, Shagufta & Khan, Qamar. (2016). EFFICACY OF PIPER NIGRUM BLACK PEPPER: A REVIEW.
- Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed & Birhanu, Guteta & Demisse, Shiferaw. (2014). Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food-borne pathogens. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 4. S911- S919. 10. 1016/ S2222- 1808 (14) 60757- X.
- Karthiga, Reshmi & Sathya, E. & Devi, P.Suganya. (2010). Isolation of piperdine from Piper nigrum and its antiproliferative activity. J. of Medicinal Plants Research. 4. 1535- 1546.
- Godara, R. & Verma, M K & Katoch, Rajesh & Yadav, Anish & Dutt, Prabhu & Satti, Naresh & Katoch, Meenu. (2018). In vitro acaricidal activity of Piper nigrum and Piper longum fruit extracts and their active components against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Experimental and Applied Acarology. 75. 10. 1007/ s10493- 018- 0268- 5.
- Kumar, Satyanshu & Kar, Ashish & Patel, Jinal & Beena, Chekunnath & Sohil, Vohra & Singh, Raghuraj. (2021). Antioxidant activities, phenolics, and piperine contents in four Piper species from India.
- Vijayakumar, Ramasamy & Nalini, Namasivayamin. (2006). Piperine, an Active Principle from Piper Nigrum, Modulates Hormonal and Apolipoprotein Profiles in Hyperlipidemic Rats. Journal of Basic and clinical physiology and Pharmacology. 17. 71- 86. 10. 1515/ JBCPP. 2006. 17. 2. 71.
- Singh, Ramnik & Rao, H.. (2008). In vitro antioxidant activity of Piper nigrum Linn. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 4. 115-120.
- Toma, Zainab. (2010). Antimicrobial Activity of Piperine purified from Piper nigrum.
- Vaidya, A. & Rathod, Maitreyi. (2014). An in vitro study of the immunomodulatory effects of Piper nigrum (black pepper) and Elettaria cardamomum (cardamom) extracts using a murine macrophage cell line. American International Journal of Research in Formal, Applied & Natural Sciences. 8. 18- 27.
- Alfauziah, Tazyinul. (2016). Production of Potential Antidiabetic Agent from Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) as Effort Enhancing National Resilience.
- Sivalingam, Azhagu Madhavan. (2021). ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF PIPER NIGRUM METHANOLIC EXTRACT AGAINST A549 HUMAN LUNG CANCER CELL LINE. 43.
- Parganiha, R. & Verma, S. & Chandrakar, S. & Pal, Shri & Sawarkar, H.A. & Kashyap, P. (2011). In vitro anti-asthmatic activity of fruit extract of Piper nigrum (Piperaceae). Inter. J Herbal Drug Res. 1. 15- 18.
- Shah SS, Shah GB, Singh SD, Gohil PV, Chauhan K, Shah KA, Chorawala M. Effect of piperine in the regulation of obesity-induced dyslipidemia in high-fat diet rats. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 May; 43 (3): 296- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 0253- 7613. 81516. PMID: 21713094; PMCID: PMC 3113382.
- Mishra, Raghav & Singh, Shio Kumar. (2009). Antispermatogenic and antifertility effects of fruits of Piper nigrum L. in mice. Indian Journal of experimental biology. 47. 706- 14.
- Chopra, Bhawna & Dhingra, Ashwani K. & Kapoor, Ram & Prasad, Deo. (2016). Piperine and Its Various Physicochemical and Biological Aspects: A Review. Open Chemistry Journal. 3. 75-96. 10. 2174/ 187484- 2201603- 010075.
- Belemkar, Sateesh & Kumar, Abhimanyu & Pata, Muslim. (2013). Pharmacological screening of herbal extract of Piper nigrum (Maricha) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum for Anticonvulsant activity. Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology.
- NAZISH, IRAM & SHAIKH, FAIZA & SAWANT, GAURANG. (2020). DOES A LOW DOSE OF PIPER NIGRUM EXTRACT EXERT ANTI-OBESITY ACTIVITY? International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 41- 46. 10. 22159/apps. 2020v12i5. 27942.
- Vazhacharickal, Prem & Mathew, Jiby & N K, Sajeshkumar & Babu, Annie. (2017). Phytochemical and anti-diabetic activities of different plant parts extracted among black pepper (Piper nigrum) varieties in comparison with Piper longum and Piper betel: an overview.
- Gülçin, Ilhami. (2005). The antioxidant and radical scavenging activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) seeds. International journal of food sciences and nutrition. 56. 491- 9. 10. 1080/ 096374- 805004- 50248.
- Mishra, Arun & Kumar, Arvind. (2017). Pharmacological Applications of Diphenylamine and Its Derivative as Potent Bioactive Compound: A Review. Current Bioactive Compounds. 13. 1- 1. 10. 2174/ 157340- 7213666170- 301155550.
- Bang JS, Oh DH, Choi HM, Sur BJ, Lim SJ, Kim JY, Yang HI, Yoo MC, Hahm DH, Kim KS. Anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effects of piperine in human interleukin 1beta-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and rat arthritis models. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009; 11 (2): R49. doi 10. 1186/ ar2662. Epub 2009 Mar 30. PMID: 19327174; PMCID: PMC- 2688199.
- Zahin, Maryam & Bokhari, Najat & Ahmad, Iqbal & Husain, Fohad & Althubiani, Abdullah & Alruways, Mashael & Perveen, Kahkashan & Shalawi, Misfera. (2021). Antioxidant, antibacterial, and antimutagenic activity of Piper nigrum seeds extracts. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 28. 10. 1016/ j. sjbs.2021. 05. 030.
- Akbar, Proity & Jahan, Ismet Ara & Hossain, Hemayet & Banik, Rajib & Nur, Husna & Hossain, Md. (2018). Antioxidant capacity of piper longum and piper nigrum fruits grown in Bangladesh. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2. 931- 941.
- Zodape, Gautam & Gaikwad, Vishal. (2020). Effect of Piper Nigrum (Linn.) on Infertility Induced by Ethionamide and Para Amino Salicylic Acid in Female Sprague –Dawley Rats. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 13. 1029- 1035. 10. 13005/ bpj/ 1972.
- Tasleem, Farhana & Azhar, Iqbal & Ali, Syed & Perveen, Shaista & Mahmood, Zafar. (2014). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper nigrum L. Asian Pacific Journal of tropical medicine. 7S1. S461- 8. 10. 1016/ S1995- 7645 (14) 60275- 3.
- Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009.
- Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
- Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
- Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009.
- Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
- Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006.
- Dhanwantri Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
- Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
- Shodhala Nighnatu, Haritkyadi varga.
- Priya Nighantu by P. V. Sharma, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
- Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy.
- K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
- Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
- Rasa Taringini. 24. 172- 173
- Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sanskrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.
Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)