Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Haridra Dwaya – Curcuma longa Linn., Berberis aristata Dc.

    Haridra Dwaya – Curcuma longa Linn., Berberis aristata Dc.

    Haridra Dwaya: Ultimate solution for skin allergies, liver dysfunction, and diabetes

    Introduction

    Haridra Dwaya consists of two herbs Haridra and Daru Haridra. Haridra commonly known as Haldi is a famous spice that is used as a common ingredient in Indian dishes. Haridra is botanically known as Curcuma longa and is an essential medicinal plant in the Ayurvedic literature of the Zingiberaceae family. Haridra is Ayurveda’s golden drug, which is classically mentioned as Varya, Vrna Ropaka, Meda Ghana, Stanaya Shodhaka, etc. Haridra not only exhibits medicinal value, but it equally exhibits cosmetic, and religious importance. Recent research revealed that Haridra consists of curcumin, ß- turmerone, dimethoxy curcumin, and dihydro curcumin. Borneol, Camphor, Camphene, Procurcumadiol, pro-curcumenol, etc exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, hepato- protective activities, etc. Due to these properties, Haridra is used to cure various disorders like Kustha, Prameha, Krimi, Apachi, Visha, Pandu, etc., on the other hand, Daru Haridra is botanically known as Berberis aristata and belongs to Berberidaceae family. Pharmacologically Daru Haridra is similar to Haridra but specifically, Daru Haridra cures the diseases of the eyes, ears, and oral cavity. It is found in the outer Himalayas from Garhwal to Bhutan. Historically this herb is famous for its use to anticipate Plague disease by ancient Egyptians. It consists of various active ingredients like Berberine, Berbamine, Oxycanthine (Alkaloids), Astringent principles, etc due to which it exhibits hepatoprotective activity, hypoglycemic activity, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory, cardiotonic activities, etc. Daru Haridra fruit is a rich source of Vitamin C.  Daru Haridra is used to cure various disorders like skin disease, eye disorders, wound healing, etc. Daru Haridra is famous for its formulation Rasanjana i.er Rashut which is used to cure various ophthalmic disorders and act as a tonic and excellent blood purifier.

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    Basonym of Haridra

    हरिं हरितं वर्ण हलीमकाख्यं द्राति अपसारयति इति |

    Haridra is yellow in color.

    Synonyms of Haridra

    • According to morphology

    पीता- पीतवर्णकन्दा, पीत पुष्पा च |

    Rhizomes of Haridra are yellow and even flowers are also yellow colored.

    कांचनी- स्वर्णवर्णा |

    Haridra Rhizome is yellow like that of Gold.

    निशाख्या- निशा रजनीत्यादि नामभिर्व्यवहता |

    Turmeric is also known by names like Nisha, Rajani, etc. owing to its yellow-colored rhizomes.

     

    • According to properties and action

    कृमिघ्ना- कृमिनाशिनी |

    Haridra is an efficacious anti- helminthic drug.

    मेहघ्नी- प्रमेहरोगे विशेषेण प्रशस्ता |

    Haridra is a very potent anti-diabetic drug.

    वरवर्णिनी- वर: श्रेष्ठो वर्णो अस्या: |

    Haridra has an attractive bright yellow color.

    रजनी- रञ्जयति वस्त्रादिनी वस्त्रादि रंजने प्रयुक्तेत्यर्थ: |

    Haridra imparts color to the cloth hence used for coloring.

    वर्ण विलासिनी- वर्ण विलासयति प्रसादयतीतिं |

    Haridra is one of the most popular cosmetics.

    विषघ्नी- विष हन्तीति |

    Haridra is an effective antidote for poison.

    हट्ट विलासनी – हृदमापणम विलासयति शोभयातीति |

    Haridra gives a good look to the shops where it is sold.

    योषित प्रिया- योषित प्रिया स्त्रीणां प्रिया उद्वर्तनादिके प्रयोजन त्वात |  

    Haridra is the best cosmetic substance liked by ladies.

    Basonym of Daru Haridra

    दारु प्रधाना हरिद्रा वर्णा
    काष्ठसय पीत वर्णाद दारुहरिद्रेति संज्ञस्त |
    (By Priya Nighantu Satpushpadi Varga, 172)

    The plant has yellow wood which is the main useful Part.

    Synonyms of Daru Haridra

    • According to morphology

    कटंकटेरी: – पत्राणां कण्टकिंत्वात्‌ |

    Leaves of Daru Haridra are spiny-toothed.

    कण्टकिनी- पत्रे कण्टकयुक्ता |

    Leaves are spiny-toothed.

    दार्वी – दारुप्रधानौषधि: |

    Wood is an important part used in medicine.

    पीतदारू- पीतं दार्वस्य |

    The wood of Daru Haridra is yellow.

    पीतद्रु -पीतश्वासौ द्रुमश्च पीतकाण्डत्वात्‌ पीतपुष्पत्वाच्च |

    The stem and flowers of Daru Haridra are yellow colored.

    पर्जन्या- मेघागमे फलागमात्‌ ।

    Fruit occurs in the rainy season.

     

    • According to properties and action

    कृमिहरा- कृमीन्‌ हरतीति ।

    Daru Haridra is a good anti-helminthic.

    पचम्पचा- पाकानन्तरं पचति धातुपाकं करोति यकृतीति |

    Daru Haridra improves liver function.

    कुसुम्भ्ला- कुसुम्भवत वर्ण लातीति |

    Imparts yellow color like that of Kusumba (Carthamus tinctorius).

    Regional names of Haridra

    • Turmeric (English)
    • Haldi, Haradi (Hindi)
    • Arishina (Kannada)
    • Kooneit (Malayalam)
    • Halad (Marathi)
    • Hardakh (Punjabi)
    • Haldar (Gujarati)
    • Halud (Bengali)
    • Pasupu (Telegu)
    • Makhal (Tamil)
    • Ladir (Can.)
    • Urukussaphar (Arab)
    • Jardachob (Pers.)

    Regional names of Daru Haridra

    • Indian berbery (English)
    • Daru Haldi (Hindi)
    • Arishina (Kannada)
    • Kooneit (Malayalam)
    • Daru Halad (Marathi)
    • Dara Haldi (Punjabi)
    • Daru Haladar (Gujarati)
    • Daru Haridra (Bengali)
    • Mani Paupa, Kasturi Paspu (Telegu)
    • Gara Menjal, Mara Manzal (Tamil)
    • Darchoba (Pers.)
    • Kingora, Kashmal, Kashmoi, Kilmora (U. P hills)

    Scientific classification of Haridra

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Monocotyledons 
    Series Epigyne
    Family Zingiberaceae/ Scitamineae
    GenusCurcuma
    Species longa

    Scientific classification of Daru Haridra

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassPolypetalae
    Series Thalamiflorae
    Order Ranales
    Family Berberidaceae
    GenusBerberis
    Species aristata

    Botanical Name of Haridra

    Curcuma longa Linn.

    Curcuma is derived from the Arabic name – Kurkum, Longa means long.

    Family – Zingiberaceae (Haridra Kula)

    Botanical Name of Daru Haridra

    Berberis aristata DC.

    Berberis is an Arabic name belonging to the berberis family and aristate means furnished with an elongated projecting bristle, in connection with the costa (rib).

    Family – Berberidaceae (Daru Haridra Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Haridra (Curcuma longa)

    Ayurveda reference for Daru Haridra (Berberis aristata)

    Classification of Haridra as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Kusthghana Mahakshaya, Vishghana Mahakshaya, Lekhniya  Mahakshaya. 
    • Sushruta: Haridradi Gana, Mustadi Gana. 

    Classification of Daru Haridra as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Arshoghna Mahakshaya, Kandughna Mahakshaya, Lekhniya  Mahakshaya. 
    • Sushruta: Haridradi Gana, Mustadi Gana, Lakshadi Gana.

    Haridra's description in Brihtrayi

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Haridra

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 4S. S. Su. 14/ 36A. H. Su. 7/ 25
    C. S. Su. 3/ 2, 7, 13, 24S. S. Su. 36/ 16, 17, 26, 27A. H. Su. 15/ 35
    C. S. Su. 4/ 3, 13, 16S. S. Su. 38/ 26, 53, 63A. H. Su. 26/ 47
    C. S. Su. 23/ 11, 18S. S. Su. 39/ 7, 9A. H. Chi. 3/ 133
    C. S. Su. 26/ 119 (Haaridar)S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Chi. 4/ 10
    C. S. Ni. 4/ 20S. S. Chi. 1/ 71, 112, 114A. H. Chi. 10/ 57
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, 150, 158 (2)S. S. Chi. 2/ 38, 75, 90, 93A. H. Chi. 12/ 6
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 54, 73S. S. Chi. 5/ 10A. H. Chi. 19/ 65, 72, 79, 85
    C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 47, 75S. S. Chi. 6/ 12, 20A. H. Chi. 21/ 47
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 19 (Haridra Varna)S. S. Chi. 7/ 35A. H. Chi. 22/ 14
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 25, 26, 37S. S. Chi. 8/ 41, 48A. H. U. 5/ 36, 45
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 107, 152S. S. Chi. 9/ 8, 10, 28, 45, 46, 49, 57A. H. U. 22/ 81
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 157S. S. Chi. 10/ 14A. H. U. 24/ 22
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 53, 55S. S. Chi. 11/ 7, 8A. H. U. 26/ 55
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 156, 182S. S. Chi. 14/ 10, 11A. H. U. 30/ 22
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 46, 52, 93, 97, 98, 118S. S. Chi. 16/ 15, 17, 25A. H. U. 32/ 22, 31
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 76S. S. Chi. 17/ 19, 22, 41A. H. U. 35/ 21
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 160S. S. Chi. 18/ 41A. H. U. 37/ 71
    C. S. Chi. 22/ 48S. S. Chi. 25/ 38A. H. U. 39/ 11, 46, 104
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 68, 190, 197, 216, 230S. S. Ka. 2/ 49
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 84S. S. Ka.  3/ 17
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 183S. S. Ka. 5/ 61
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 29S. S. Ka. 6/ 3, 19
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 84, 141S. S. Ka. 7/ 39
    C. S. Ka. 1/ 21S. S. Ka. 8/ 47
    C. S. Si. 10/ 22S. S. Sa. 10/ 45
    S. S. U. 11/ 7
    S. S. U.12/ 48
    S. S. U. 17/ 42
    S. S. U. 38/ 27
    S. S. U. 39/ 185, 186, 237
    S. S. U. 28, 39, 42, 60, 62, 64
    S. S. U. 41/ 45
    S. S. U. 42/ 70
    S. S. U. 44/ 17, 22, 25
    S. S. U. 51/ 22, 40, 43, 49
    S. S. U. 52/ 18, 34
    S. S. U. 55/ 24
    S. S. U. 56/ 18
    S. S. U. 60/ 45

     

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Kshanada

    Kshnada is Haridra and Kshanade is equivalent to Haridra Dwaya i.e Haridra and Daru Haridra.

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 17/ 17

     

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Goura Aamlaka

    This is supposed to be either Gaura (whitish) variety of Amalaka or indicates two substances i.e Gaura Sharshapa or Haridra and Aamlaka.

     

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 18/ 184, C. S. Chi. 22/ 35

     

    Vagbhata (Ashtanga Hridya): A. H. Chi. 3/ 176

     

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Nisha

    When the Nishadwaya word is used Haridra and Daruharidra are considered.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Chi. 6/ 31S. S. Chi. 8/ 30A. H. Su. 14/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 161S. S. Chi. 17/ 21A. H. Su. 15/ 40
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 71S. S. Chi. 20/ 28A. H. Su. 21/ 17
    S. S. Chi. 37/ 33A. H. Su. 26/ 40
    S. S. Chi. 38/ 63A. H. Su. 27/ 36
    S. S. Ka. 8/ 52, 73A. H. Chi. 1/ 65
    S. S. U. 17/ 27, 45A. H. Chi. 4/ 42
    S. S. U. 39/ 181, 251A. H. Chi. 8/ 21, 22
    S. S. U. 40/ 99A. H. Chi. 9/ 59, 64
    S. S. U. 61/ 35A. H. Chi. 11/ 60
    S. S. U. 62/ 27A. H. Chi. 12/ 17
    A. H. Chi. 13/ 5, 6
    A. H. Chi. 15/ 10, 70
    A. H. Chi. 16/ 44
    A. H. Chi. 19/ 33, 38, 42, 64
    A. H. Chi. 21/ 59
    A. H. U. 2/ 24, 55, 66
    A. H. U. 15, 19, 20
    A. H. U. 7/ 19
    A. H. U. 9/ 32
    A. H. U. 11/ 22, 38, 49
    A. H. U. 13/ 69
    A. H. U. 16/ 15
    A. H. U. 18/ 47
    A. H. U. 22/ 92, 104
    A. H. U. 25/ 43, 60, 67
    A. H. U. 30/ 34
    A. H. U. 34/ 28, 64
    A. H. U. 35/ 26
    A. H. U. 36/ 82, 84
    A. H. U. 37/ 38, 70
    A. H. U. 38/ 26
    A. H. U. 40/ 48

     

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Pitangi

    Vagbhata (Ashtanga Hridya): A. H. U. 22/ 98

     

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Rajni

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Chi. 1- 1, 24S. S. Su. 13/ 18A. H. Su. 10/ 29 (Dwi Ranjani)
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 67 (Rajni Dwaya), 76, 86, 99, 144 (Rajnyo)S. S. Su. 26/ 20A. H. Chi. 6/ 73
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 41, 76S. S. Su. 38/ 72A. H. Chi. 13/ 35
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 17S. S. Chi. 2/ 73, 82A. H. Chi. 16/ 36
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 39S. S. Chi. 8/ 43, 45 (Rajni Dwaya)A. H. Chi. 17/ 39
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 118S. S. Su. 9/ 55 (Rajni Dwaya)A. H. Chi. 19/ 8, 39, 41, 44
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 104S. S. Chi. 17/ 41 (Rajni Dwaya)A. H. Chi. 22/ 36 (Rajni Dwaya)
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 144S. S. Chi. 18/ 16A. H. U. 2/ 38, 76
    C. S. Chi. 22/ 48, 23, 40, 49, 51, 55(Rajni Dwaya), 78, 100 (Rajni Dwaya), 184 9Rajni Dwaya), 189, 212, (Rajni dwaya), 219 (Rajnyo), 245S. S. Chi. 19/ 35A. H. U. 5/ 10 (Rajni Dwaya)
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 113S. S. Chi. 20/ 34A. H. U. 6/ 27
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 62, 144, 208S. S. Chi. 25/ 20A. H. U. 9/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 113, 148S. S. Chi. 28/ 3A. H. U. 16/ 13
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 51, 270S. S. Chi. 38/ 25A. H. U. 18/ 56
    C. S. Ka. 4/ 15S. S. Ka. 1/ 36A. H. U. 19/ 8 (Rajnyo)
    C. S. Ka. 7/ 15S. S. Ka. 2/ 45 (Rajni Dwaya)A. H. U. 28/ 35
    C. S. Si. 4/ 17S. S. Ka. 5/ 74A. H. U. 37/ 32, 83
    S. S. Ka. 6/ 9A. H. U. 38/ 18, 40
    S. S. Ka. 7/ 33A. H. U. 39/ 17
    S. S. Ka. 8/ 44, 48, 49, 68, 73, 102, 131, 136
    S. S. U. 9/ 14, 23
    S. S. U. 18/ 100
    S. S. U. 24/ 29
    S. S. U. 39/ 226, 241, 291
    S. S. U. 42/ 49
    S. S. U. 44/ 15, 19, 31
    S. S. U. 45/ 33
    S. S. U. 57/ 10 9Rajni Dwaya), 13
    S. S. U. 60/ 43
    S. S. U. 61/ 31
    S. S. U. 62/ 23

     

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Rajani Mukhya

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 57/ 10

     

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Ratri

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 9/ 12, S. S. U. 10/ 5

     

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Gauri

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Si. 4/ 20

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 16. 27 (10), S. S. Chi. 5/ 8, S. S. Chi. 17/ 10, 13

     

    Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Vishghani or Vishghna

    From Vishghani or Vishghna Haridra, Katabhi, Nirvisha like alexipharmic drugs are accepted.

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 62/ 30 (Vishghani)

     

    Vagbhata (Ashtanga Hridya): A. H. Su. 15/ 30 (Vishghna)

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Daru Haridra

    This is the wood of some species of Berberis, mostly, B. aristata DC., B. asiatica Roxb. ex. DC., B. lycium Royle, and B. vulgaris Linn. The barks of stem and root are also used. They are popularly known by different local names like Kingora, Kasmala, Kilmora, and Chitra. It has been mentioned by several other synonyms used for Haridra.

     

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 3, 12, 14, C. S. Vi. 7/ 17, C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, 150, C. S. Chi. 14/ 160, C. S. Chi. 19/ 59, 87, C. S. Chi. 21. 58

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 38/ 27, 54, S. S. Chi. 11/ 8

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Darvi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 5/ 60S. S. Su. 46/ 432A. H. Su. 15/ 4
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 27, 28S. S. Chi. 2/ 69A. H. Su. 20/ 38
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 45, 60, 83, 90, 93, 96, 102, 113, 119, 135, 139S. S. Chi. 5/ 42A. H. Su. 22/ 19
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 136S. S. Chi. 9/ 35A. H. Sa. 1/ 62
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 33S. S. Chi. 18/ 18A. H. Chi. 8/ 103, 131
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 51S. S. Chi. 19/ 40A. H. Chi. 9/ 58, 90
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 186, 196, 22, 231, 234S. S. Chi. 20/ 18A. H. Chi. 10/ 35
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 135, 137S. S. Ka. 5/ 82A. H. Chi. 11/ 8
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 53, 62, 72, 96S. S. U. 10/ 4A. H. Chi. 12/ 6, 7
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 58, 91, 96, 136S. S. U. 12/ 16, 19A. H. Chi. 16/ 16, 43
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 83, 87, 93S. S. U. 17/ 15A. H. Chi. 17/ 32
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 52, 187, 190, 196, 197, 199, 200, 236, 241S. S. U. 18/ 96A. H. Chi. 18/ 7, 35
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 133S. S. U. 19/ 15A. H. Chi. 19/ 2, 37, 40, 59, 62, 77
    C. S. Si. 3/ 59S. S. U. 39/ 223, 246A. H. U. 22/ 28
    C. S. Si. 4/ 19S. S. U. 40/ 63, 77, 86, 104A. H. U. 13/ 6, 93
    A. H. U. 16/ 25, 33, 57
    A. H. U. 22/ 55, 56, 87, 97, 98, 100, 105
    A. H. U. 25/ 67
    A. H. U. 26/ 26
    A. H. U. 37/ 73

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Kanta Kateri

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 3/ 9, C. S. Chi. 6. 32

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 12/ 7

     

    Vagbhata (Ashtanga Hridya): A. H. Chi. 9/ 62, A. H. Chi. 11/ 11, A. H. Chi. 19/ 67, A. H. U. 3/ 45, A. H. U. 16/ 8, A. H. U. 30/ 39

     

    Daru Haridra’s substitute description in Brihtrayi i.e Kalyeka

    Kaliya and the other allied names refer to this South Indian plant with constituents and properties more or less similar to the Berberis (Daruharida) of North so much so that it has since long been accepted as a substitute for it. The drug was formerly exported from Ceylon and known in the world market as Ceylon Calumba and used as a substitute for true foreign Calumba. The name Kalambaka found in some Nighantus has, it seems, its origin in the above fact. Dalhana has described it as similar to Daru Haridra or to Pita Chandana.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 3/ 25S. S. Su. 38/ 12A. H. Su. 22/ 20
    C. S. Vi. 6/ 16S. S. Su. 39/ 9A. H. Chi. 12/ 8
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 257S. S. Chi. 20/ 35A. H. U. 16/ 4
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 72S. S. Chi. 25/ 39A. H. U. 25/ 61
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 30S. S. Chi. 37/ 36A. H. U. 32/ 23, 27, 31
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 53S. S. Ka. 1/ 54A. H. U. 37/ 86
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 73S. S. Ka. 6/ 15
    C. S. Chi. 24/ 158S. S. U. 12/ 7
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 115S. S. U/ 44/ 31
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 232S. S. U. 45/ 39
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 110
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 88

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Kshanade

    Kshnada is Haridra and Kshanade is equivalent to Haridra Dwaya i.e Haridra and Daru Haridra.

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 17/ 17

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Gauri

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Si. 4/ 20

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 16. 27 (10), S. S. Chi. 5/ 8, S. S. Chi. 17/ 10, 13

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Daru Nisha

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 6/ 40

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Nisha

    When the Nishadwaya word is used Haridra and Daruharidra are considered.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Chi. 6/ 31S. S. Chi. 8/ 30A. H. Su. 14/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 161S. S. Chi. 17/ 21A. H. Su. 15/ 40
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 71S. S. Chi. 20/ 28A. H. Su. 21/ 17
    S. S. Chi. 37/ 33A. H. Su. 26/ 40
    S. S. Chi. 38/ 63A. H. Su. 27/ 36
    S. S. Ka. 8/ 52, 73A. H. Chi. 1/ 65
    S. S. U. 17/ 27, 45A. H. Chi. 4/ 42
    S. S. U. 39/ 181, 251A. H. Chi. 8/ 21, 22
    S. S. U. 40/ 99A. H. Chi. 9/ 59, 64
    S. S. U. 61/ 35A. H. Chi. 11/ 60
    S. S. U. 62/ 27A. H. Chi. 12/ 17
    A. H. Chi. 13/ 5, 6
    A. H. Chi. 15/ 10, 70
    A. H. Chi. 16/ 44
    A. H. Chi. 19/ 33, 38, 42, 64
    A. H. Chi. 21/ 59
    A. H. U. 2/ 24, 55, 66
    A. H. U. 15, 19, 20
    A. H. U. 7/ 19
    A. H. U. 9/ 32
    A. H. U. 11/ 22, 38, 49
    A. H. U. 13/ 69
    A. H. U. 16/ 15
    A. H. U. 18/ 47
    A. H. U. 22/ 92, 104
    A. H. U. 25/ 43, 60, 67
    A. H. U. 30/ 34
    A. H. U. 34/ 28, 64
    A. H. U. 35/ 26
    A. H. U. 36/ 82, 84
    A. H. U. 37/ 38, 70
    A. H. U. 38/ 26
    A. H. U. 40/ 48

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Pitta Daru

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Si. 9/ 13, C. S. Si. 10/ 22

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 19/ 13, S. S. Chi. 31/ 5

     

    Vagbhata (Ashtanga Hridya): A. H. Chi. 13/ 33

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Pitadru

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 10/ 42, C. S. Chi. 12/ 25, C. S. Chi. 17/ 110, C. S. Chi. 26/ 97, C. S. Si. 4/ 28

     

    Vagbhata (Ashtanga Hridya): A. H. Chi. 6/ 52, A. H. Ka. 5/ 31, A. H. U. 7/ 31

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi in Rajni Dwaya

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Chi. 1- 1, 24S. S. Su. 13/ 18A. H. Su. 10/ 29 (Dwi Ranjani)
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 67 (Rajni Dwaya), 76, 86, 99, 144 (Rajnyo)S. S. Su. 26/ 20A. H. Chi. 6/ 73
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 41, 76S. S. Su. 38/ 72A. H. Chi. 13/ 35
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 17S. S. Chi. 2/ 73, 82A. H. Chi. 16/ 36
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 39S. S. Chi. 8/ 43, 45 (Rajni Dwaya)A. H. Chi. 17/ 39
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 118S. S. Su. 9/ 55 (Rajni Dwaya)A. H. Chi. 19/ 8, 39, 41, 44
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 104S. S. Chi. 17/ 41 (Rajni Dwaya)A. H. Chi. 22/ 36 (Rajni Dwaya)
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 144S. S. Chi. 18/ 16A. H. U. 2/ 38, 76
    C. S. Chi. 22/ 48, 23, 40, 49, 51, 55(Rajni Dwaya), 78, 100 (Rajni Dwaya), 184 9Rajni Dwaya), 189, 212, (Rajni dwaya), 219 (Rajnyo), 245S. S. Chi. 19/ 35A. H. U. 5/ 10 (Rajni Dwaya)
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 113S. S. Chi. 20/ 34A. H. U. 6/ 27
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 62, 144, 208S. S. Chi. 25/ 20A. H. U. 9/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 113, 148S. S. Chi. 28/ 3A. H. U. 16/ 13
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 51, 270S. S. Chi. 38/ 25A. H. U. 18/ 56
    C. S. Ka. 4/ 15S. S. Ka. 1/ 36A. H. U. 19/ 8 (Rajnyo)
    C. S. Ka. 7/ 15S. S. Ka. 2/ 45 (Rajni Dwaya)A. H. U. 28/ 35
    C. S. Si. 4/ 17S. S. Ka. 5/ 74A. H. U. 37/ 32, 83
    S. S. Ka. 6/ 9A. H. U. 38/ 18, 40
    S. S. Ka. 7/ 33A. H. U. 39/ 17
    S. S. Ka. 8/ 44, 48, 49, 68, 73, 102, 131, 136
    S. S. U. 9/ 14, 23
    S. S. U. 18/ 100
    S. S. U. 24/ 29
    S. S. U. 39/ 226, 241, 291
    S. S. U. 42/ 49
    S. S. U. 44/ 15, 19, 31
    S. S. U. 45/ 33
    S. S. U. 57/ 10 9Rajni Dwaya), 13
    S. S. U. 60/ 43
    S. S. U. 61/ 31
    S. S. U. 62/ 23

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi as Souvarnitvaka

    This has been identified as the bark of Daru Haridra by Chakra Dutta or with Aragvadha by others. It could also be the root of Toddalea asiatica which is yellow. The same can be said about the Suvarna Taka mentioned in A. H. Su. 21/ 17

     

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 7/ 76

     

    Daru Haridra’s description in Brihtrayi in Haridraka

    Haridra refers to Haridra which stands for Daruharidra in all the places except in A. H. Su. 7. 41 where it appears to stand for a variety of yellow-colored mushrooms according to some. Cakra in his comments on Haridraka in C. S. Su. 26, 114 wrongly believes it to be a variety of a bird called Haritala. But in C. S. Su. 26. 119 Haridraka flesh again has been mentioned where a change in the version from Haridraka to Haritala has been suggested. Thus, Haridra in A. H. Su. 7. 41 and Haridraka in C. S. Su. 26. 114 are the same vegetable substance and to avoid confusion Haridraka in C. S. Su.26. 114 and 119 may be replaced by Haridra and Harita (Haritala) respectively.

     

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 26/ 114, 119 (Haridra Seesak, Haridragni, Haaridraka Mansa)

     

    Vagbhata (Ashtanga Hridya): A. H. Su. 7/ 41 (Haridra), 44 (Haridra Shulaka)

     

    Description of Rasanjana in Brihitrayi (The extract obtained from Daru Haridra)

     

    It is also known as Rasonta.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 3/ 12S. S. Su. 14/ 37A. H. Su. 2/ 6
    C. S. Su. 5/ 12S. S. Su. 15/ 38A. H. Su. 14/ 23
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 61, 84, 93, 97, 125S. S. Su. 16/ 27 (11)A. H. Su. 15/ 14
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 188, 196, 220S. S. Su. 38/ 40, 44A. H. Chi. 3/ 168
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 129, 134S. S. Sa. 10/ 44, 57A. H. Chi. 8/ 115
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 169, 177S. S. Chi. 1/ 98, 101A. H. Chi. 9/ 62
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 59, 115S. S. Chi. 8/ 41A. H. Chi. 10/ 39
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 78, 243S. S. Chi. 9/ 10, 57A. H. Chi. 19/ 87
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 188, 194, 199, 208, 224, 225, 250, 258S. S. Chi. 10/ 15A. H. Ka. 4/ 40
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 90, 96S. S. Chi. 18/ 52A. H. U. 2/ 73
    C. S. Si. 3/ 39, 60S. S. Chi. 19/ 40, 45A. H. U. 11/ 11, 37
    C. S. Si. 11/ 22S. S. Chi. 20/ 57, 59A. H. U. 14/ 30
    C. S. Si. 12/ 27, 31S. S. Chi. 22/ 11, 16A. H. U. 16/ 3, 52
    S. S. Chi. 38/ 26, 44, 72, 94, 108A. H. U. 18/ 27
    S. S. Ka. 7/ 39A. H. U. 22/ 31, 56
    S. S. U. 11/ 9, 15A. H. U. 25/ 62
    S. S. U. 12/ 23A. H. U. 34/ 4, 45
    S. S. U. 14/ 7
    S. S. U. 17/ 12, 15, 39, 43, 44
    S. S. U. 18/ 60
    S. S. U. 19/ 14
    S. S. U. 21/ 14, 49
    S. S. U. 24/ 35
    S. S. U. 40// 60, 61, 62, 93

     

    Description of Rasanjana in Brihitrayi (The extract obtained from Daru Haridra) as Tarkshyasaila

    Both Tarkshya or Tarkshyasaila are the names of Daru Haridra Nirmit Rasanjana.

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 9/ 13, 25

     

    Vagbhata (Ashtanga Hridya): A. H. Su. 15/ 4, A. H. Chi. 8/ 109, A. H. Ka. 4/ 9, A. H. U. 5/ 19

    Historical background of Haridra

    In the Vedic literature, Haridra is extensively described. Sayana claimed it as Medhya when administered with honey and ghee. It is indicated for Svitra and Palita when used along with Bhringaraja, Indravaruni, and Nil according to Sounakiya Atharva Veda Samhita. It was also used externally (as Udvartana) in Hrdroga and Kamala. In Kousika Sutra, Haridra was mentioned as an antidote for snake venom. In the Ayurvedic literature also it is one of the most commonly used herbs (both internally as well as externally). Sushruta high- lighted its importance in the management of Pittaja and Kaphaja Prameha (S. S. Ci. 6). Vagbhata quoted it as the best for Prameha. Presently it is considered an important anti-diabetic and antioxidant drug.

    Historical background of Daru Haridra

    In the Vedic literature “Kesava Paddati” describes Daru Haridra along with Haridra in the management of Khalitya for topical application (Ke. Pa. 30/ 10). Daru Haridra is extensively used in Ayurvedic therapeutics.

    A controversial study of Haridra

    Haridra sold in the market is found in Dwaya Akriti( two different shapes), one is long and the second is round. Some confuse the later variety as C. domestica which is the synonym of C. longa. The rhizomes nearer to the stem are round and the others are longitudinal in shape. If the turmeric rhizomes are dried as it is, they appear dark brown colored. To preserve the roots, farmers treat them by boiling and then drying which gives yellow color. One should find out the difference in the efficacy of the original and treated varieties.

    A controversial study of Daru Haridra

    There is no controversy over the identification of this herb. Due to non-availability, another herb Cocinium fenestratum is used in South India as Daruharidra. There are three well-identified Berberis species viz, 

    • The rocky mountain group B. aquifolium Pursh 
    • The Asiatic group i.e., B. aristata DC 
    • The European group i.e., B. vulgaris Linn.

    Probably Dalhana identified the second variety of Daru Haridra during his period. He quoted Kaliyakam as a herb that is similar to Daruhardira and known as Malayadri Chandana. Bapalal Vaidya described C. fenestratum as Valli Chandana. Thakur Balvant Singh considered Kaalya as C. fenestratum which is abundantly used in Ceylon and South India. Other species of Berberis viz., B. asiatica Roxb. ex Dc., B. lycium Royle, etc., are also used as substitutes. From the above description, it is apparent that both the South North Indian Vaids are using C. fenestratum and B. aristata as Daru Haridra. Both the plants are rich in berberine and therefore there should be no hitch in their vice-versa utility. The main controversy appears with the extract of Daruharidra which is described as Rasanjana. Charaka mentioned ‘Rasanjana’ for Sravana (Tiksna Anjana). With the advent of Rasanjana there are also two types viz., herbal and mineral.

    Varieties of Haridra

    Haridra is only one, but we come across the description of two Haridras in the texts viz., Haridra and Daru Haridra. Shodhala considered both Haridras as the best anti- dotes for various poisons. Bhavamira described Haridra, Amragandhi Haridra (Karpura Haridra), Vana Haridra and Daru Haridra.

     

    Dalhana has described two types of Haridra:

    • Pinda Haridra 
    • Daru Haridra

    Varieties of Daru Haridra

    Direct reference to different varieties of Daruharidra is not observed in the ancient texts. But Dalhana quoted Daruharidra and Kaliyaka as two plants that look alike i.e. B. aristata and C. fenestratum.

    External morphology of Curcuma longa

    • Habit: Haridra is a tall herb root stock large, ovoid, with sessile, cylindric tubers orange-colored inside.
    • Leaves: Leaves of Haridra are very large, in tufts up to 1.2 meters or more long, including the petiole, which is about as long as the blade, oblong-lanceolate, tapering to the base.
    • Inflorescence: Spike inflorescence is present in Haridra, 10-15 cm long, peduncle 15 cm or more, concealed by the sheathing petiole. Flowering bracts of Haridra are pale green, bracts of coma tinged with pink.
    • Flowers: Pale yellow if bracts, Corolla tube has funnel-shaped upper half which is pinkish white.

    External morphology of Curcuma amada Roxb. (Variety of Haridra)

    • Habit- A herb, with large rootstock, tubers are sessile and thick, cylindric or ellipsoid shaped, pale-yellow colored inside.
    • Leaf- Seen in tufts, long petiole, the blade is 30 to 45 cm long and 7 to 12 cm wide, oblong-lanceolate, acute tip, narrowed to the base, glabrous, and green on both sides. Petioles as long as the leaf blade (30-45 cm.)
    • Inflorescence- Spike inflorescence with a long peduncle.
    • Flowers- Flowers are white or very pale yellow. Flowers in autumnal spikes 7.5-15 by 3.8-5 cm. in the center of the tuft of leaves, peduncle 15 cm. long or more, flowering bracts 2.5 cm. long, greenish-white, bracts of the coma longer and narrower, tinged with pink or red, Calyx nearly 13 mm. long, obtusely 3-toothed. Corolla white or very pale yellow; tube about 2.5 cm. long; lobes oblong, acute. Lip semi-elliptic, yellow, 3-lobed, the middle lobe emarginate.
    • Rootstock large sessile tubers thick, cylindric or ellipsoid, pale yellow inside.  Rootstock smells like the odor of mango fruit and appears like a ginger rhizome, and the source plant resembles turmeric herb; these features combine in the popular name Mango-Ginger, in the category of Turmeric drugs group.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Flowering: August- September

    Fruiting: October

    External morphology of Curcuma aromatica Salisb. (Variety of Haridra)

    • Habitat: Herb. 
    • Root: Rootstock large, of palmately branched, sessile, annulate biennial tubers yellow and aromatic inside. 
    • Leaves: Leaves are 38- 60 by 10- 20 cm., oblong-elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, caudate-acuminate, green, often variegated above, pubescent beneath, base deltoid, petioles as long as or longer than the blade. 
    • Flowers: Flowering stem appearing with or before the leading stem, as thick as the forefinger sheathed. Flowers fragrant, shorter than the bracts, in spikes 15-50 cm., long; flowering bracts 3.8- 5 cm. long, ovate, recurved, cymbiform, rounded at the up, pale green, connate below forming pouches for the flowers; bracts of the coma 5.7- 5 cm. long, more or less tinged with red or pink, Calyx 8 mm. long, irregularly 3-lobed. Corolla-tube 2.5 cm. long, the upper half funnel-shaped, lobes pale rose-colored, the lateral lobes oblong, the dorsal longer, ovate, concave, arching over the anthers. Lip yellow, obovate, deflexed, sub entire, or obscurely 3-lobed. Lateral staminodes are oblong, and obtuse, as long as the corolla lobes.

    External morphology of Berberis aristata

    • Habit: Daru Haridra is a large deciduous shrub that usually grows 10 ft. in height.
    • Stem: Stem of Daru Haridra (Berberis aristata)20 cm in diameter, twigs whitish or pale yellowish brown.
    • Bark: Bark of Berberis aristata is Pale brown, closely and rather deeply furrowed, rough; blaze is 5- 7.5 mm, bright yellow with coarse reticular fiber.
    • Leaves- Leaves of Daruharidra are 4- 10 cm long, 1.5- 3 cm wide, obovate or elliptic, entire or spinous toothed, base gradually narrowed, with prominent reticulate nerves, glossy dark green above, glossy pale green but not glaucous beneath, sessile or very small petiole up to 4 mm.
    • Inflorescence- Simple drooping raceme.
    • Flowers- Seen in bunches with stout pedicels, 4- 6 mm long, bright yellow colored.
    • Fruit- Ovoid shaped, 1 cm long, blue or black colored.

    External morphology of Coscinium fenestratum Colebr.

    • Habit: Coscinium fenestratum commonly known as Kaliyaka is considered Daru Haridra in the South region of India and is a climbing shrub. Branches are covered with fuscous cinereous bark, striate when young yellow tomentose.
    • Leaves: Leaves of Kaliyaka are, 15-25 cm long, 12-25 cm wide, Lamina is coriaceous, shining and smooth above, minutely tomentose beneath, rotund-ovate or broadly cordate, emarginate at the base, the apex is linear- acuminate. The petiole is 10- 12 cm in length.
    • Inflorescence: Supra axillary dense flowered.
    • Flowers: Male flowers are globose, 6 mm in diameter, and petals are yellow. Female flowers are pilose.
    • Fruit: Drupe, slightly tomentose, 2-2.5 cm in diameter.

    Flowering and Fruiting time of Haridra

    Farming seasons.

    Flowering and Fruiting time of Daru Haridra

    Spring to the summer season

    Distribution of Haridra

    Haridra is cultivated throughout India.

    Distribution of Daru Haridra

    It is found in the Himalayas at an elevation from 6000 to 10000 feet.

    The useful part of Haridra

    Rhizome

     

    Rhizome of Haridra occurs in two forms:

     

    Long turmeric consists of lateral branches of the rhizome and ground turmeric is the primary rhizome. The long turmeric is cylindrical, upto7 cm long, and 1.5 cm broad and has a yellowish-brown external surface with small round root scars. The round turmeric is ovate, oblong, or conical in shape,4 to 8cm in length and 2 to 3 cm in diameter. The transversely cut portion of both the forms shows a waxy surface of deep orange color, having a central cylinder twice as broad as the cortex. It has a characteristic aromatic odor and bitter taste.

    The useful part of Daru Haridra

    Root and Root bark

     

    Market samples of Daruharidra (Berberis asiatica) will have hard, cylindrical, more or less gnarled pieces of root, up to 10 cm or more in diameter. The outer surface is corky, grayish brown and prominently fissured both longitudinally and transversely. The wood is lemon yellow and distinctly radiated. The root bark of Daru Haridra is 4 to 6 mm thick. The root bark is corky externally, and friable. Internally root bark is smooth, closely satiated, and yellowish brown. It is very difficult to break and has a faint phenolic odor and better taste.

     

    In South India, Coscinium fenestratum is used as a source for Daruharidra. In the market, the material consists of dried cut lengths of the stem, 20 to 30 cm in length and 4 to 12 cm in diameter. Rots are cylindrical, straight, or slightly twisted. The surface is pale gray or grayish yellow in colour, covered with somewhat spiral striations running longitudinally. The transversely cut portion is greenish yellow and shows a thick woody surface, characterized by an array of several medullary rays, radiating from a well-defined centrally placed pith. On break, it becomes short pieces and powdery. Doesn’t have any particular dour and has a slightly bitter taste.

    Important phytoconstituent of Haridra

    Rhizome of Haridra contains 5% volatile oil, Resin, abundant zingiberaceous starch grains, and yellow coloring substances known as curcuminoids. The chief component of curcuminoids is known as curcumin (50-60%). The volatile oil contains mono and sesquiterpenes such as Alpha and beta-pinene, a-phellandrene, camphor, camphene, zingiberene, and alpha and beta curcumenes.

    Important phytoconstituent of Daru Haridra

    Berberis aristata: Berberine, Berbamine, Oxycanthine (Alkaloids), Astringent principles.

     

    Coscinium fenestratum: Stem yielded berberine, hentriacontane, sitosterol and its glucoside, palmitic and oleic acids, saponin.

     

    Root yielded Berberrubine, Jatorrhizine, Thalifendine, and Palmatine.

     

    Root bark afforded berberine an alkaloid

    Recent research on Curcuma longa (Haridra)

    • This study reports the induction of cellular senescence of human colon cancer cells HCT1 16 upon curcumin treatment. The study demonstrated a new antitumor activity of curcumin leading to cancer cell senescence and revealed the presence of a functional link between senescence and autophagy in curcumin-treated cells. Mosieniak G, Adamowicz M, Alster O, Jaskowiak H, Szczepankiewicz AA, Wilczynski GM, Ciechomska IA, Sikora E. Curcumin induces permanent growth arrest of human colon cancer cells: link between senescence and autophagy. Mech Ageing Dev. 2012 Jum; 133(6):444-55. doi: 10. 1016/ j. mad. 2012. 05. 004. Epub 2012 May 18.
    • To explore the therapeutic potential of turmeric for epilepsy further, we analyzed its anticonvulsant activity in a larval zebrafish seizure assay. Researchers presented the first report on the anticonvulsant properties of bisabolene sesquiterpenoids and provide evidence that warrants further investigation toward the mechanistic understanding of their neuromodulator activity. Orellana- Paucar AM et all. Anticonvulsant activity of bisabolene sesquiterpenoids of Curcuma longa in zebrafish and mouse seizure models. Epilepsy Behav. 2012 May;24 (1): 14- 22. Epub 2012 Apr 5.
    • In the present study, curcumin was observed to contain a high level of polyphenols and strong antioxidant activity. Then, the antihyperglycemic effect of curcumin was examined for various signaling pathways using C (2)C(12) mouse myoblast cells. Results indicate that curcumin can promote AMPK activation and glucose uptake with increased insulin sensitivity in muscle cells as a potential anti-diabetic therapeutic agent. Kang C, Kim E. Synergistic effect of curcumin and insulin on muscle cell glucose metabolism, Food Chem Toxicology 2010 Aug- Sep; 48 (8- 9) 2366- 73. Epub 2010 Jun 1.
    • In the present study, researchers investigated the effects of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and curcumin on behaviors and serotonergic receptor-coupled AC- cAMP signal pathway in rats. These results suggested that the potent antidepressant property of curcumin might be attributed to its improvement of the AC- cAMP pathway as well as CREB via suppressing central 5- HT (1A/ 1B/ 7) receptors in the CUMS rats. Li YC, Wang FM, Pan Y, Qiang LQ, Cheng G, Zhang WY, Kong LD. Antidepressant-like effects of curcumin on serotonergic receptor-coupled AC-cAMP pathway in chronic unpredictable mild stress of rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacology Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Apr 30; 33 (3) A35- 49. Epub 2009 Jan 22.
    • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the preventive effects of curcumin against acute pancreatitis (AP) induced by cerulean in mice and to elucidate the possible mechanism of curcumin action. Curcumin significantly decreased the pancreas injury and reversed the elevation of serum amylase, ALT, and AST activities. Yu VVG, Xu G, Ren GJ, Xu X, Yuan HQ, Qi XL, Tian KL. Preventive action of curcumin in experimental acute pancreatitis in the mouse. Indian J Med Res. 2011 Nov; 134 (5): 717- 24.
    • Sodium curcumin stimulated bile flow by acting as a hydro cholagogue. Despite a decrease in the concentration of solids in the bile, the total amounts of solids excreted during the entire period of activity of the drug were found to increase. Curcumin seemed to combine the choleretic and hydrocholagogic action with antiseptic properties and thus would be an ideal therapeutic agent in conditions of the biliary systems and gall bladder due to suppressed staphylococcal infection. The drug had low toxicity (Ramprasad & Sirsi, 1956, 1957a).
    • Curcuma powder has been found to increase appreciably the mucin content of gastric juice in rabbits and thus may be useful in gastric disorders (Mukherjee et al., 1961).
    • It was found that the antibacterial activity of C. longa against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms was lesser in degree as compared to penicillin and streptomycin (Basu, 1971).
    • Fresh extract of C. longa was found to possess considerable inhibitory action on contraction induced by acetylcholine, histamine, and barium chloride on isolated guinea pig ileum, rabbit intestine, and rat uterus (Sinha et al., 1970).
    • The alcoholic and ethereal extracts showed a hypocholesterolemic effect (Pachauri & Mukherjee, 1970)
    • The PE, alcoholic and aqueous extracts of rhizome showed 80%, 60%, and 100% antifertility activity in albino rats at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight respectively (Garg, 1971).
    • Curcumin inhibited carrageenin-induced edema in rats and mice. The regression line in both cases paralleled that of cortisone but not of phenyl butanone. It also inhibited formalin-induced acute edema in mice and subacute arthritis in rats. Curcumin inhibited pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats (Srimal et al., 1971).
    • The PE extract and two of its fractions i.e., A (viscous oil) and B (crystalline solid) were found to have significant anti-inflammatory activity in rats which was compared favorably with hydrocortisone acetate and phenylbutazone. The fraction reduced the histamine content of the rat skin to about 50% of the control voles, whereas hydrocortisone acetate decreased the histamine content to 58% in the controls. Both fractions reduced the SGOT & SGPT levels in formalin-induced arthritic rats. The extract did not show any significant toxic effects (Arora et al., 1970, 1971).
    • Curcumin (7.5 mg/kg) caused a sharp but transient fall of BP which was not blocked by atropine, antihistamines, or ß- blockers. On the isolated heart of guineapig, curcumin revealed a depressant effect (Sinha et al., 1972).
    • Its anti-inflammatory activity is investigated regarding the inhibition of activated proteases responsible for acute inflammatory processes. The volatile oil of the plant was found to inhibit trypsin as well as hyaluronidase enzymes (Tripathi et al., 1973).
    • A clinical trial with C. longa was conducted in 114 patients with respiratory diseases (71 cases of bronchitis, 13 cases of bronchiectasis, 18 cases of bronchial asthma, and 12 cases of tropical eosinophilia). The drug was administered in gradually increasing doses from 4-32 g daily for 15-45 days. Significant improvement in signs and symptoms was observed (Shankar, 1974).
    • The volatile oil given orally (0.01 ml/kg) was compared with cortisone acetate (10 mg/kg) against adjuvant arthritis in rats. The drug was found to have a significant effect in suppressing the primary swelling on the 3rd day of the injection of adjuvant as also the secondary swelling which appeared on the 13th day (Chandra & Gupta, 1972).
    • The anti-inflammatory effect of volatile oil is greater than that of hydrocortisone (Katare, 1974).
    • Three curcuminoids (curcumin I, I, III) were compared for their cytotoxic, tumor-reducing, and antioxidant activities. Curcumin III was found to be more active than the other two in short-term cytotoxic activity but inhibited the growth of tumor cells (L929) in the culture at a similar concentration (IC 50-1 micron. / ml). The curcuminoids also inhibited lipid peroxidation. The amount needed for 50% inhibition was 20, 14, and 11 micro. /ml for curcumin I, I & III respectively (Anton R.J. et al., 1992).
    • The hypolipidemic activity of C. longa (50% ethanol) extract was studied in hyperlipidemic rabbits. The increased cholesterol levels were brought to normal by the administration of C. longa. Similarly, phospholipids and triglyceride levels were also reduced (Purohit & Daradka, 1999).
    • Oral administration of curcumin to rats caused a significant reversal in lipid peroxidation, and brain lipids and produced enhancement of glutathione, a non-enzymatic antioxidant in ethanol intoxicated rats, revealing the anti-oxidative and hypolipidemic action of curcumin responsible for its protective role against ethanol-induced brain injury (Ramakrishnan et al., 1999).

    Recent research on Berberis aristata (Daru Haridra)

    • To evaluate the anti-neoplastic activity of the extracts of Berberis aristata in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (BAC) – bearing mice with cisplatin as a positive control in the advanced state of tumorigenesis. The ethanol exact was observed to be more efficient and the presence of alkaloids and flavonoids may be responsible for the observed anticancer effects. Pai KS, Srilatha P, Surakant K, Setty MM, Nayak PG, Ra CM, Baliga MS. Anticancer activity of Berberis aristata in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing mice: a preliminary study. Pharm Biol. 2012 Mar; 50 (3): 270- 7. Epub 2011 Nov 15.
    • The antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of four Berberis species viz. Berberis aristata, Berberis asiatica, Berberis Chitra, and Berberis lycium were tested against eleven bacterial and eight fungal strains. B. aristata root extract gave low MICs values against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus favus while stem extract against Streptococcus pneumoniae. Singh M. Srivastava S, Rawat AK. Antimicrobial activities of Indian Berberis species. Phytotherapies. 2007. Dec; 78 (7- 8): 574- 6. Epub 2007 May. 24.
    • Malhotra, Bhanu & Kulkarni, Giriraj & Dhiman, Neerupma & Kumar, Arun & London, Harsha Kharkwal. (2021). Recent advances on Berberis aristata emphasize berberine alkaloids including phytochemistry, pharmacology, and drug delivery system. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 27. 100433. 10.1016/j.hermed.2021.100433. The use of medicinal plants is an age-old tradition and recent progress in modern therapeutics has stimulated the use of natural products worldwide for diverse ailments and diseases. Ethnomedicinal values of plants form the ground of “Herbal Drug Industry ” and “Green Medicines”. Berberis aristata (B. aristata) also known as “Daruharidra”, native to the Himalayan region is an important medicinal plant used since ancient times for treating a variety of diseases such as splenomegaly, malaria, jaundice, rheumatism, conjunctivitis, and others. Scientific evidence suggests that it is its versatile biological functions that support its traditional use in the Orient. An extensive search in electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Sciences, and ScienceDirect) was used to identify the phytochemical studies of Berberine. Berberine is a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, which occurs as an active constituent in B. aristata as well as various other medicinal plants that have an array of pharmacological properties. This review aims to highlight the morphology, distribution, phytochemistry, synthesis, chemical reactions, nanoformulation, and important pharmacological properties of B. aristata. It also gives insights into developing further bioactive compounds from the plant scaffolds or additional pleiotropic roles with special emphasis on metabolites isolated from Berberis used in the treatment of life-threatening disorders including cancers, heart diseases, and diabetes mellitus.
    • To investigate the detailed pharmacokinetics of berberine and its mechanisms of hepatobiliary excretion, an in vivo microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. The results indicate that berberine displays a linear pharmacokinetic phenomenon in the dosage range from 10 to 20 mg. kg (-1). Tsai PL, Tsai TH. Hepatobiliary excretion of berberine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004 Apr; 32 (4): 405- 12.
    • The water is extracted from Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn) Colebr. (CF extract) was tested for hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects. Acute and subchronic toxicity as well as motor activity of CF extract were also evaluated. The present study demonstrates that CF extract is effective in reducing blood pressure in anesthetized normotensive rats. Wongcome T, Panthong A Jesadanont S, Kanjanapothi D, Taesotikul, T Lertprasertsuke N. Hypotensive effect and toxicology of the extract from Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn.) Colebr. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 22; 111 (3): 468- 75. Epub 2006 Dec 21.
    • The antibacterial activity of Coscinium fenestratum is mainly due to the presence of berberine. Nair GN Narasimhan, S, Shiburaj, S, Abraham TK. Antibacterial effects of Coscinium fenestratum. Fitoterapia. 2005 Sep, 76 (6): 585- 7.
    • The anti- hepatotoxic activity of methanol extract of Coscinium fenestratum stem (MEC) was investigated against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatopathy in rats. This study unravels the anti-hepatotoxic activity of MEC Venukumar MR, Latha MS. Effect of Coscinium fenestratum of hepatotoxicity in rats. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 2004 Aug; 42 (8): 792- 7.
    • Shahid, Mohd & Rahim, T. & Shahzad, Anwar & Tajuddin, Tajuddin & Latif, Abdul & Fatma, T. & Rashid, Mamoon & Raza, Adil & Mustafa, Sarbast. (2009). Ethnobotanical studies on Berberis aristata DC. root extracts. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY. 8. 556-563. The aqueous and alcoholic extract of fresh Berberis aristata DC roots, as well as the aqueous extract of dried roots, were compared for their antibacterial and antifungal activities by the disc diffusion method. All three extracts showed wide antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. Among the Gram Negative bacteria tested, the antibacterial activity was limited to Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella dysenteriae type 1, and Vibrio cholera; with the best activity against V. cholerae. MICs of the alcoholic extracts against Gram-positive bacteria ranged between 3.8 ×10 -3 to 6.1 ×10 -3 mg/ml and for Gram-negative bacteria from 6.1 ×10 -3 to 7.6 10 -3 mg/ml. The MICs for Candida species ranged between 0.02 to 3.8 ×10 -3 mg/ml and for Aspergillus species, it was 3 × 10 -3 mg/ml. All three extracts also had antifungal activity against the fungal species tested, except Candida krusei. The extracts of B. aristata also demonstrated anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, amino acids, tannins, terpenes, resins, phenols, and reducing sugars as major compounds.

    Rasa Panchaka of Haridra

    Rasa (Taste)Tikta (bitter), Katu (pungent)
    Guna (Virtue)Ruksha (dry), Laghu (light)
    Virya (potency)Ushna (hot potency)
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Rasa Panchaka of Daru Haridra

    Rasa (Taste)Tikta (bitter), Kashaya (astringent)
    Guna (Virtue)Ruksha (dry), Laghu (light)
    Virya (potency)Ushna (hot potency)
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Haridra

    Kapha Pitta Shamaka. Pitta Shamaka because of Tikta Rasa. Kapha Shamaka because of Ushana Virya, Tikta, Katu Rasa and Katu Vipaka.

    Dosha Karma of Daru Haridra

    Pitta Kapha Shamaka. Pitta Shamaka because of Tikta Rasa. Kapha Shamaka because of Ushana Virya and Tikta Rasa.

    Karma (Actions) of Haridra

    • Haridra: Varnya, Twacya, Pramehahara, Sothahara, Vranahara, Kandughna, Visaghna, Kusthaghna, Krmighna, Rucikara, Sitapittahara
    • Amragandhi Haridra: Kandughna
    • Vana Haridra: Kusthaghna and Vataraktanasaka

    Karma (Actions) of Daru Haridra

    Netrya, Asya Roga Hara, Karna Roga Hara, Kandu Ghna, Vrna Hara, Visa Ghna, Kustha Ghna, Prameha Hara, Rakta Shodhaka, Yakrduttejaka, Varnya.

     

    Rasanjana Karma- Netrya, Visaghna, Rasayana and Chedana.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Daru Haridra

    • Abhyantara Paryoga (internal indication): Yakrid Vikara, Kamala, Pandu, Agnimandya-Pravahika, Aruci, Trishna (Phala), Rakta Srava, Raktavikara- Phiranga (Rasanjana), Raktapitta, Raktarsa, Rakta Pradara, Kasa, Pradara- Shveta- Raktapradara, Prameha-Pistameha, Unmada- Graha, Kustha- Kandu- Visphota, Vrddhiroga Tvagvikara-Varnavikara, Jvara- Jirnajvara- Visamajvara, Dourbalya.
    • Bahya Paryoga (External indication): Sothavedanayukta Vikara Netraroga- Netrabhisyanda- Netrasotha- Naktandhya, Karnaroga- Karnasula-Karnasrava- Putikarna, Rakta Vikarajanya Shotha, Phiranga, Upadamsa-Sarvalinga Vikara- Suka Dosha, Gandamala, Bhagandara, Visarpa, Bala Gudapaka, Sarpavisa, Mukharoga, Vrana Nadivrana.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Haridra

    Tvagvikara, Charma Roga, Kandu, Pamadadru, Raktadosa, Raktavikara, Rakta Shuddhi Varnavikara, Pandu, Raktasrava, Kamala, Pramhearoga, Kaphaja Meha, Arsa-Bhagandara, Vrana- Ksata- Raktasrava, Medoroga- Deha Dourgandhya, Visarpa-Kandu, Sukardanstra Visa, Asmari- Mutra Sarkara Vikara, Cippa- Kunakha, Arbuda- Apaci, Slipada, Stanapida- Stanyavikara, Deha- Mukha Vaivarnya, Aruci- Vibandha, Sukrameha, Dourbalya, Kasa, Svasa, Tamakasvasa, Galasotha, Svarabheda, Udaravikara, Jalodara, Abhighataja Vedana Shotha, Krmi, Sutika Roga, Netrabhisyanda, Mukha- Dantaroga,Yakrt Pliharerddhi.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Darvi (Daruharidra)

    Paandu, Kamala (Anemia and jaundice)

     

    • Darvi Ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16. 54)
    • One suffering from jaundice should take in morning cooled decoction of Triphala, Guduci, Darvi or Nimba mixed with honey. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16. 63)

     

    Kustha (skin disorder)

     

    • Darvi or Rasanjana was taken with cow’s urine checks for leprosy. Similarly, acts of Haritaki are taken with Trikatu, jaggery, and oil for a month. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 7. 61)
    • Darvi and Rasanjana, Nimba and Patola, Khadira (heartwood), Aragvadha and Kutaja, Triphala, Saptaparna and Tinisa and Karavira- these eight decoctions should be used in various ways such as bath, intake, paste, rubbing, dusting and processing of oil and ghee for alleviation of Kustha. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 7. 97- 99)
    • Decoction of Darvi, Khadira, and Nimba (all barks) destroys Kustha. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 37)

     

    Visarpa (Erysipelas): In wounds, oil cooked with Darvi, Vidanga, and Kampillaka is useful and in that having predominance of Kapha and Pitta Ghrta cooked with Durva juice is efficacious. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Stahana. 18. 35)

     

    Mutra Kriccha (Dysuria):  In dysuria caused by pitta, Darvi with Amalaki juice mixed with honey should be taken. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26. 53)

     

    Vrishan Vriddhi (Scrotal enlargement): In the diseases caused by Kapha paste of Darvi should be taken with cow’s urine. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 13. 33, Vrinda Madhava. 40. 5)

     

    Mukha Roga (Diseases of mouth):  The extract of Darvi (Rasanjana) with honey destroys the diseases of the mouth, and disorders of blood and sinus. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26. 202; also Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 22. 105, Vrinda Madhava. 58. 81)

     

    Pratishaya (Coryza):  Smoking should be used with sticks made of Darvi, Ingudi, Kanti, Kinihi, and Tulasi. (Vrinda Madhava. 60. 16)

     

    Netra Vikara (Eye diseases)

     

    • Milk boiled with Daruharidra cooled and mixed with a little rock salt should be used for washing eyes or Sunthi rubbed with breast- milk and mixed with ghee should be used as collyrium. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 9. 23)
    • The decoction made of Darvi 40 gm with water 640 ml reduced to one-eighth is mixed with honey and used for washing. It is useful in inflammation of the eyes caused by all dosas. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 16. 8)
    • Eye-drop should be used in the decoction of Darvi and Prapaundarika. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 16. 33)
    • Rasanjana combined with Trikatu is made into pills that are rubbed and applied as a paste. It destroys Anjananamika (stye) associated with itching and inflammation. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 11. 49)
    • In night blindness, a stick made of Rasanjana, Haridra, Daruharidra, leaves of Jati, and Nimba mixed with liquid cow dung is used (as collyrium). (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 1385)

     

    Pradara (Vaginal discharge)

     

    • Darrvyadi Kvatha. (Vrinda Madhava. 63. 6)
    • Daru Haridra Kwatha (Decoction of Daruharidra) mixed with Madhu (honey) should be taken followed by intake of Tandulodaka (rice water). (Gada Nigreha. 6. 1. 24)

     

    Vishakta (Poison): In case of poisoning, Haridra and Daruharidra are used as a paste, etc. There is no remedy better than these. (Gada Nigreha. 7. 1. 11)

     

    Updansha (Soft chancre): In this disorder, the paste of Rasanjana, Sirisha, and Haritaki mixed with honey should be used. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 11. 107)

     

    Prameha (Diabetes):  Darvi and Amalaki juice mixed with honey alleviates Prameha. (Vaidya Manorma. 7. 20)

     

    Vrna (Wound): Oil cooked with Durva juice or Kampillaka or paste of Darvi bark is excellent for healing wounds. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25. 93)

     

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Rasanjana (Semi-solid extract of Daaru Haridra)

     

    Rakta Arsha (Bleeding piles): Rasanjana is boiled with milk until it becomes semi-solid. Then one-fourth of the powder of Nimba leaves is added to it and made into pills. It is useful in bleeding piles. (Siddha Bhaishjya Mannimala. 4. 239)

     

    Medo Roga (Obesity)

     

    • Rasanjana is the best drug for obesity. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 40/ 49)
    • In obesity, Rasanjana, Brihat Panchamula, Guggulu, Silajatu and decoction of Agnimantha are useful. (Ashtanga Hridya Sutra Sthana. 14. 23)

     

    Kustha (skin disorder)

     

    • Darvi or Rasanjana with cow urine checks leprosy. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 7. 61)
    • Rasanjana should be taken internally for a month and also applied as paste externally. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 9. 46)

     

    Updansha (Soft chancre): Rasanjana mixed with Sirisa and Haritaki and also honey should be applied externally. It destroys Upadamsa. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 11. 107)

     

    Naadi Vrana (Sinus): Rasanjana, Haridra, Daruharidra, Manjistha, Nimba leaves, Trivit, Tejovati, and Danti- paste of these drugs destroy the sinus. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8. 41)

     

    Pratishaya (Coryza): Oil cooked in Rasanjana, Ativisa, Musta, and Devadaru should be used as snuff. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 24. 35)

     

    Puti Karna (Foetid ears): Rasanjana rubbed with breast milk and mixed with honey is useful even in chronic fetid ears with discharge. (Vrinda Madhava. 59. 48)

     

    Netra Vikara (Eye diseases)

     

    • Rasanjana with honey or Kasisa with rock salt should be applied. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 12. 18, Ashtanga Hriya Uttara Tantra. 11. 11, VrindaMadhava. 61. 68)
    • Arjuna-Collyrium should be applied with (1) rock salt, honey, and Kataka (2) Rasanjana with honey, or (3) Kaashish with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 12. 23)
    • Ahiputanaka: Rasanjana mixed with honey should be applied to the wound. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara tantra. 2. 72, Vrinda Madhava. 57. 22)

     

    Kesha Vardhan: By application of the ash of elephant tusk and Rasanjana hairs grow even on palms. (Vrinda Madhava. 57. 84)

     

    Rakta Pradara (Meno-metrorrhagia)

     

    • Rasanjana and Aksa should be taken with goat’s milk. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 30. 97)
    • Rasanjana and Tanduliyaka (root) mixed with honey and taken with rice-water checks all types of Pradara. Similarly, Bharngi with Sunthi alleviates bronchial asthma. (Vrinda Madhava. 63. 7)

     

    Bala Roga (Pediatric disorders):  Proctitis- In proctitis Rasanjana is specifically efficacious as intake and paste. (Sushruta Samhita Sharira Sthana. 10. 44, Vrinda Madhava. 66. 21)

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Haridra

    Sthantrana Janit Vyadhi (Disorders due to change of place): One should take Haridra pounded with sour gruel. Thus, he does not get affected by the disorders due to the change of place. (Vaidya Manorma. 1. 16)

     

    Arsha (Piles): Paste of Haridra powder mixed with latex of Snuhi or Pippali pounded with ox-bile and Haridra should be applied. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14. 52)

     

    Pandu (Anemia):  One should take Haridra mixed with Triphala, ghee, and honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 17)

     

    Kamala (Jaundice)

     

    • Haridradi ghrta (CS.Ci.16.53)
    • Haridra, red ochre, and Amalaka are used as collyrium to alleviate jaundice. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 44)

     

    Kasa (Cough):  Powder of Haridra impregnated with Vasa juice and taken with a fatty layer of milk checks dry cough. (Siddha Bhaishjya Mannimala. 4/ 333)

     

    Shvasa (Bronchial asthma)

     

    • Haridra should be burnt by closed heating and the ash 2 gm be given with honey. It alleviates asthma and cough. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4. 375)
    • The patient should inhale the smoke of the wick made of Haridra, Patra, Eranda root, lac, realgar, Devadaru, and orpiment, pounded together. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17. 77)
    • Haridra put in saline water for twenty-one days and then parched on fire should be kept in the mouth, It checks hiccough, cough, asthma, and disorders of Kapha. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4. 376)

     

    Trishna (Thirst):  In thirst caused by Kapha, one should take water processed with Haridra and mixed with honey and sugar. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 8. 81, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 6. 42)

     

    Prameha (Diabetes) 

     

    • Haridra powder mixed with honey should be taken with the juice of Amalaki. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6. 26, Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11. 8, Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 14. 5, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 12. 5)
    • There is no Prameha incurable for Haridra. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6. 17, 20)
    • Decoction of Haridra and Daruharidra is a specific remedy for Pistameha. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11. 9)

     

    Kustha (skin disorder): One crosses over the sinful disease by taking Haridra 40 gm. With urine for a month. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 9. 45, Bhel Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6. 56)

     

    Shool (Colic): Haridra 10 gm with equal quantity of Yavani and salt 2.5 gm. Is powdered and cooked in ghee at 40 gm. This formulation should be taken Ushan (warm) in Tivra Shool (severe colic). (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4. 509)

     

    Masurika (Pox): A piece of Haridra and tamarind leaves taken with cold water to alleviate pox. (Chakra Dutta. 54. 9)

     

    Visarpa (Erysipelas): Haridra and Bhringraj root in equal parts pounded with cold water and the paste applied locally. It alleviates erysipelas. (Vrinda Madhava. 57. 97)

     

    Shleepada (Filaria): Haridra mixed with jaggery should be taken with cow urine. It destroys filaria and also ringworm. (Vrinda Madhava. 42. 14, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 45. 14)

     

    Vatarakta (Gout):  Decoction of Haridra and Guduci mixed with honey should be taken in Vatarakta predominant in Kapha. Similarly, Triphala decoction should be used. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 29. 79)

     

    Ashmari (Calculus): By taking Haridra and jaggery in equal parts with sour gruel, gravels pass away. (Vanga Sena. Ashmari. 45)

     

    Kshudra Roga (Minor diseases)

     

    • In whitlow, Haritaki rubbed with Haridra juice in an iron vessel should be applied frequently. (Vrinda Madhava. 57. 18)
    • Cow’s urine is 80 ml. mixed with the paste of Haridra should take. It destroys scabies and eczema. (Vrinda Madhava. 51. 41)

     

    Vishakta (Poisoning)

     

    • Ghee should be cooked separately with the paste of Haridra, Nakuli, and Jati. It is efficacious in poisoning. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 40. 127)
    • Intake of ghee mixed with Haridra, rock salt, and honey is useful in poisoning by root or arrow. (Vrinda Madhava. 68. 18)
    • Both types of Haridra are the unparalleled remedy for poisoning used as paste etc. (Gada Nigreha. 6. 3. 11)

     

    Vata Vyadhi (Vataja disorder): Fine powder of Haridra is put in oil for three hours then the oil is extracted. It alleviates disorders of Vata. (Vaidya Manorma .12. 2, also 25)

     

    Vyanga (Freckles): The paste of Haridra and Rakta Chandana pounded with buffalo’s milk should be applied to the face. It removes the dark shade. (Rasa Ratna Samucchya. 24. 45)

    Benefits of Haridra

    • The rhizome is pungent and bitter, and it is heating, laxative, anthelmintic, vulnerable, tonic, alexiteric, and emollient. It is useful to improve the complexion. The rhizome is useful in Kapha and Vata. It is used in diseases of the blood, leucoderma, scabies, urinary discharges, inflammations, anemia, bad taste in the mouth, biliousness, dyspepsia, elephantiasis, snakebite, small-pox, swellings, boils, bruises, and sprains.
    • The rhizome is bitter, and it is carminative, maturant and diuretic. It is good for affections of the liver and jaundice, urinary discharges, scabies, and bruises. The rhizome is used as a stimulant and the rhizome is externally applied to pains and bruises. It is orally given for blood diseases. Its use in the external application in bruises, leech bites, etc. which is frequently used medicine.
    • Fresh juice is considered to be anthelmintic. The decoction of the rhizome is applied to relieve catarrh and purulent ophthalmia. 
    • The turmeric rhizome is prescribed for the treatment of affections of the liver and jaundice.
    • A decoction of the turmeric applied in purulent conjunctivitis is very effective in relieving pain. The fumes of the burning turmeric directed into the nostrils cause a copious mucous discharge and relieve the congestion.
    • The turmeric powder or decoction is useful in diarrhea which is troublesome and difficult to subdue in atonic subjects. It is employed in Jvara types like Santata, Satata, trityaka, etc (intermittent fevers) and dropsy. It contains a lot of essential oil and starch, and it acts as a stimulant and aromatic tonic.
    • The roots, parched and powdered, are given in bronchitis; the fumes are used during hysteric fits.
    • The smoke produced by sprinkling powdered turmeric rhizome over burnt charcoal relieves scorpion- sting when the part affected is exposed to the smoke for a few minutes. A paste made of fresh rhizome is applied to the head in case of vertigo.
    • The rhizome of turmeric and alum in the proportion of 1 to 20 is blown into the ear in chronic otorrhea. 
    • A paste made of the flowers is used in ringworm and other parasitic skin diseases, and also in the treatment of gonorrhea.
    • The rhizome is used externally for cutaneous affections, and internally given in colic, amenorrhea, and congestions. 
    • The leaves are considered useful as antipyretic.
    • The rhizome is used as a tonic, stimulant, aperient, carminative, cordial, emmenagogue, astringent, detergent, and diuretic.
    • Turmeric rhizome and its powder are most commonly used for daily domestic needs, the powder is a household cosmetic as well as a common remedy that is very frequently used; domestically rhizome powder is used in various ailments as a favorite popular household medicine.
    • The powder is applied to cuts, bruises, enclosed wounds, and ulcers. In catarrhal cough, sore throat, throat affections, and allied ailments, the decoction of the rhizome is used as a gargle and for intake; and also the piece of the rhizome is slightly burnt (Bhrsta Haridra) and given for chewing.
    • The milk boiled with turmeric (can be added with sugar) is given for cold, diarrhea, intermittent fevers, dropsy, jaundice, liver disorders, urinary diseases, worms, trauma, and fracture.
    • Fresh juice is given and anthelmintic is used in bronchitis. The powder of the rhizome mixed with the juice of Amala (Dhatri) is used in diabetes and jaundice. The powder is given to flatulence and indigestion. The powder is also used as a paste for dental and gum troubles.
    • The Swarasa (fresh juice) of Haridra is applied to skin affections as an antiparasitic agent. The rhizome is used as a blood purifier and externally applied to sprains and wounds.
    • The rhizome is employed as an important ingredient in various pharmaceutical preparations (yoga). Turmeric carries religious and cultural significance besides valuable domestic and medicinal importance.

    Benefits of Daru Haridra

    • The root- bark, wood, and an extract made from the root- bark are alternatives, and used in skin diseases, menorrhagia, diarrhea, jaundice, and eye affections.
    • Daru Haridra Kwatha (decoction of root bark) is given in Vishama Jwara (malarial fever).
    • The roots are useful for healing ulcers, urethral discharges in leucorrhea, ophthalmia, jaundice, fevers, and source of an extract (Rasanjana or Rasaunt) which is a medicinal potent and quite useful product of this drug; the extract is used frequently in various ailments in the external mode of application, and the extract is also orally used in certain diseases.
    • Daruharidra Satva, known as Rasanjana or Rasaunt (Wood extract) is dark brown, an extract of the consistency of opium having a bitter, astringent taste, readily soluble in water, forming a rich yellowish-brown color.
    • The raw material of Daruharidra Phala or Zarisk is a moist sticky mass of small black fruit most of them are abortive, but a few contain one or two oblong seeds with a thin roguish brown resin, beneath which a membranous covering exists.

    Benefits of Haridra on different systems of bodies

    • External uses on Tvaka (skin): Local application of turmeric is anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and complexion enhancer. It cures skin disorders and has wound cleaning and healing properties. Turmeric smoke relieves hiccups, lowers respiration, and also relieves pain caused due to scorpion bite. It is very strong. Its paste acts as an antidote. Those who develop a cough and other respiratory disorders from drinking milk can be treated with turmeric.
    • Nervous system: Analgesic by Ushna Veerya. In cases of injury, a mixture of turmeric and jaggery administered orally reduces pain and promotes circulation.
    • Digestive system: Turmeric is better in taste, appetizer, laxative, cholagogue, and anthelmintic. Because of these properties of Daru Haridra, it is used for treating Aruchi (loss of appetite), hepatitis, Vivandha (constipation), Jalodara (ascites), and worms. There is a wrong belief that turmeric causes jaundice or it is harmful to jaundice.
    • Circulatory system: Turmeric stimulates blood formation and circulation and it is also hemostatic. Turmeric is useful in treating anemia, bleeding disorders, and other blood diseases.
    • Respiratory system: Because of its Tikta and Tikshna properties, turmeric is useful as an expectorant. Kapha (mucous) developed due to drinking milk and other ailments due to Kapha can be treated with turmeric. Inhalation of turmeric smoke reduces Kapha.
    • Urinary system: Turmeric is a good antidiuretic, but this action is carried out by digestion of Ama, Kapha, and Meda. Turmeric should be used in the form of decoction or powder in Prameha. Bhasma of tin triturated with turmeric is an effective remedy for Prameha.
    • Reproductive system: Haridra Khanda Pak is administered in the postpartum period because of its purifying effect on the uterus and breast milk. Turmeric is also useful in Shukrameha.
    • Skin: Turmeric is used in several skin diseases. It improves skin complexion. Itching and skin eruptions due to Sheeta Pitta can be treated with turmeric. It is also useful in Kandu (pruritus) and Udarda (urticaria).
    • Temperature: Because of its Pitta Shamak and Amapachak properties, turmeric is useful for high fever.
    • Satmikaran: Turmeric reduces and helps in treating weakness.

    Benefits of Daru Haridra on different systems of bodies

    • External use on skin: Shothaghna reduces inflammation or edema, removes pain, cures and heals ulcers, also used for eye diseases. Hence in severe conjunctivitis, the paste is applied around the eyes, and 250 mg Rasanjan mixed with 20 ml. of rosewater is used as eyedrops (Or can be applied on eyelids). This fluid can also be applied to the ears in earache or ear discharge. In Mukha Roga and Kantha Roga  (diseases of the mouth and throat), Rasanjan is used for gargling. Rasanjan can be used to wash wounds, or its paste can be applied to ulcers. Chancroid ulcers, goiter, fistula, erysipelas, and other diseases are treated by the application of the paste. Vaginal discharges are treated by the douche prepared from berberis. Puerperal diseases are treated by the application of Rasanjan on perianal wounds.
    • Digestive system: Appetizer, liver stimulant, cholagogue but astringent. A larger dose is a laxative. The fruit is very tasty. Because of these actions, Daruharidra is an Uttam Aushadha in Agnimandya, Atisara (dysentery), Kamala (jaundice), and other Yakrit Vikara (liver disorders). The tablet of Rasanjan prepared in radish juice is useful in bleeding piles. It is also effective in preventing diarrhea. It is also very effective to cure cholera.
    • Circulatory system: Blood purifier and hemostatic agent. Daruharidra decoction is given in syphilis and other sexual diseases. Hematemesis, Malena, and menorrhagia respond only to Rasanjan or coagulant preparations + rasanjan. Reduces pus. Daruharidra acts on Rakta dhatu. Because of Daruharidra, the inactive forms of malarial parasites in the spleen come out in the bloodstream and this is very useful for the diagnostic test for malarial parasites by peripheral smear.
    • Respiratory system: It is useful in the treatment of cough being Kaphaghna.
    • Reproductive system: Useful in Garbhashya Shotha and Pradara (uterine inflammations and vaginal discharges).
    • Skin: Diaphoretic, useful in diseases of the skin like pruritus, boils, etc. Daru Haridra decoction is useful in cleansing wounds. Rasanjan + honey is used externally in puerperal diseases. It is especially useful for ulcers. The Kwatha of Daru Haridra (decoction) is used for gargling in Mukha Paka (stomatitis).
    • Temperature: Febrifuge and diaphoretic and is a prophylactic treatment for typhoid, hence it is useful in common fever and also in chronic fever. It causes sweating, is antipyretic and is useful in recurrent malaria. When malarial parasites hide in the liver, quinine is not effective, but Daruharidra is very effective. After administering a mild laxative, 1 gm. of Rasanjan is dissolved in water and given 3 to 4 times a day. Then the patient is covered with thick clothes and blankets and made to sleep. After a while, the patient will feel thirsty but should not be given water. After an hour there will be sweating. The sweat should be wiped clean. Ushana Ksheera (Warm milk) or sage kheer should be given orally. This preserves and increases the patient’s strength. The ever is reduced and there is a reduction in hepatosplenomegaly.
    • Satmikaran: It is bitter and strengthening, hence useful in general debility blankets and made to sleep. After a while, the patient will feel thirsty but should not be given water. After an hour there will be sweating. The sweat should be wiped clean. Warm milk or sage kheer should be given orally. This preserves and increases the patient’s strength. The ever is reduced and there is a reduction in hepatosplenomegaly.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Haridra

    • Churna (powder): 2- 4 grams
    • Kwath (Decoction): 50- 100 ml
    • Swarasa (juice): 10- 20 ml

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Daru Haridra

    • Rasanjana- 0.5 to 1 gram
    • Kwath (Decoction): 50- 100 ml

    Classical reference of Haridra

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 196

    Synonyms

    हरिद्रा काश्चनी पीता निशा आख्या वरवर्णिनी |

    कृमिष्नी हलदी योषित प्रिय हट्ट विलासनी ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 197

    Properties and action

    हरिद्रा कटुका तिक्ता रूक्षोष्णा कफपित्तनुत |

    वर्ण्या त्वग्दोषमेहास्र शोथपाण्डू व्रणापहा ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 197

    आम्र गन्धी हरिद्रा

    आम्र गन्धी हरिद्रा या सा शीता वातला मता |

    पित्तहन्मधुरा तिक्ता सर्वकण्डूविनाशिनी ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 55- 56

    वनहरिद्रा:

    अरण्यहलदीकन्द: कुष्ठ वातस्त्र नाशन: |

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 5- 7

    Properties and action

    हरिद्रा स्वरसे तिक्ता रूक्षोष्णा विषमेहनुत्‌ |

    कण्डूकुष्ठ व्रव्णान्हन्ति देहवर्णविधायिनी ||

    विशोधनी कृमिहरा पीनसारूचिनाशिनी |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1115

    निशा तिक्का कटुरूक्षा वर्ण्योष्णा कफपित्तहा |

    पाण्डु व्रणापचीमेहत्वग्दोष विषशोथजित् ||

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga, 199

    हरिद्रा कटु तिक्तोष्णा कफवातास्रकुष्ठनुत |

    मेहकण्डू व्रणान्‌ हन्ति देहवर्णविधायिनी ||

    Priya Nighnatu Shatpushpadi varga, 170

    सतिक्तोष्णावीर्या हरेच्छीतपित्त त्वचां रोगमास्रविमेहाभिधातान्‌ |

    Priya Nighnatu Shatpushpadi varga, 170

    आर्द्रहरिद्रा

    आद्रहिरिद्रा स्वरसो मधुना क्षिप्त॑ प्रमेहहारि स्यात्‌ |

    अथवा मधुना चूर्ण तस्या: लिह्यान्नरो मेही ||

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli Vaat Vyadhi Chikitsa, 447

    हरिद्रा शुद्धि

    गोमूत्रे चालम्बुषके पक्‍त्वा पश्चदलोदके |

    पुनः सुरभितोयेन वाष्यस्वेदेन स्वेदयेत |

    गंधग्रा शुद्यते होव॑ रजनी च विशेषतः ||

    Bhava Parkasha, Arsha Roga Adhikara, 5- 55

    अर्शःसु रजनीलेपम्‌

    लेप॑ रजनी चूर्णन सुधा दुग्ध युतेन च |

    अर्शो रोगनिवृत्यर्थ कारयेत्तु चिकित्सक: ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 16/ 53

    पाण्डुरोगे हरिद्राघृतम्‌ 

    हरिद्वा त्रिफला निम्बबलामधुकसाधितम्‌ |

    सक्षीरं माहिष॑ सर्पि: कामलाहरमुत्तमम ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 52

    अर्श हरिद्रा- स्नुही प्रलेपनम्‌

    हरिद्राचूर्ण संयुक्त सुधाक्षीरं प्रलेपनम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 6/ 26

    प्रमेहरोगे हरिद्रायोग 

    क्षोद्रेंण युक्तामथवा हरिद्रां पिबेद्रसेनामलकी फलानाम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 6/ 27

    कफज प्रमेहे हरिद्रा कषाय 

    उभे हरिद्रे तगर॑ विडड्म |

    Chkra Dutta, 55/ 55- 57

    मुखकान्तिकर हरिद्राद तैलम्‌

    Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 3/ 14, Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 17/ 77- 78, Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 25/ 88

    हरिद्रादियोग 

    Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana, 10/ 23

    हरिद्रादि बस्ति 

    Bhava Parkasha, Arsha Roga Adhikara, 5- 57

    अर्श हरिद्रादि लेपम्‌ 

    हरिद्राजालिनी चूर्ण कटुतैलं समन्वितम्‌ |

    एष लेपो वर: प्रोक्तो हय अर्श सामंत कारक: ||

    Bhava Parkasha, Ashmari Roga Adhikara, 37/ 48, Vanga Sena, Ashmari, 48

    शर्करा अश्मरी विकारे मूत्ररोगे 

    य: पिबेद रजनीं सम्यक सगुड़ा तुष् वारिणा |  

    तस्याशु चिररूढ़ापि यात्यस्तं मेढ्र शर्करा ||

    Bhava Parkasha, Sthoulya Roga Adhikara, 39- 72

    देह दौर्गन्ध्ये मेदोरोगे 

    दग्धहरिद्र उद्वर्तन मचिराच्चिरदेह दौर्गन्ध्यम्‌ |

    Bhava Parkasha, Bhagandra Roga Adhikara, 50- 31, Chakra Dutta, Bhagandra Chikitsa, 46- 26

    भगंदर चिकित्सायाम निशा आद्यं तैलं 

    Bhava Parkasha, Kshudra Roga Adhikara, 61- 75, Vrinda Madhava, 27- 18

    चिप्प कुनखे 

    स्वरसेन हरिद्राया: पात्रे कृत्वा आयस अभयान्‌ |

    घृष्ट्वा तज्जेन कल्केन लिम्पेच्चिष्य॑ पुन: पुन: ||

    Bhava Parkasha, Yoni Roga Adhikara, 70- 174

    स्तनपीडायाम्‌

    निशाकनककल्काभ्यां लेप: प्रोक्त: स्तन आर्तिहा |

    Chakra Dutta Pandu Roga Chikitsa, 8- 2

    पाण्डुचिकित्सायां रजनी घृत प्रयोग:

    पिबेद्‌ घृत॑ वा रजनी विपक्वं सत्रैफल॑ तैलकमेव चापि |

    विरेचनद्रव्यकृतान्‌ पिबेद्वा योगांश्र वैरेचनिकान्‌ घृतेन ||

    Chakra Dutta, Kshudra Roga Chikitsa, 55- 139, Vrinda Madhava, 57- 97

    विसर्पशूकर दंष्ट्र कोपचरार्थ रजन्यादि लेप: 

    रजनीमार्कवमूल॑ पिष्टम शीतेन वारिणा तुल्यम्‌ |

    हन्ति विसर्प लेपाद॑ वराहदशनाह्वयं रोगान्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14- 52

    अर्श 

    हरिद्रा चूर्ण संयुक्तं सुधाक्षीरं प्रलेपनम |

    गोपित्तपिष्टा: पिप्पल्यः सहरिद्रा प्रलेपनम्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, Gala Ganda Chikitsa, 41- 61

    मेदजन्या अर्बुद शमनाय हरिद्रादि लेप: 

    हरिद्रालोध्र पतंग गृह धूममन: शिला: |

    मधुप्रगाढ़ो लेपो अयं मेदो अर्बुदहर: पर: ||

    Bhava Parkasha, Chikitsa, 45- 14, Chakra Dutta, Shleepada Roga Chikitsa, 42/ 12, Vrinda Madhava, 42- 14

    चिर (एकवर्षजनित ) एलीपदे ( सदद्रु कुष्ठ ) रजनीगुड़ प्रयोग:

    रजनीं गुडसंयुक्तां गोमूत्रेण पिबेन्नर: 

    वर्षोत्थ॑ हन्ति दद्रु कुष्ठ्म विशेषत: ||

    Chakra Dutta, Kushta Chikitsa, 55- 44

    कुष्ठ चिकित्सायों- कच्छूयामा शमनार्थं – हरिद्रा कल्क प्रयोग: 

    हरिद्राकल्कसंयुक्त गोमूत्रस्य पल दवयं |

    पिबेन्नर: कामचारी कच्छूपामाविनाशनम्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, Kustha Roga Chikitsa, 55- 47

    कुष्ठ चिकित्सायां- पामादि चर्म विकारे  निशाद्य उद्वर्तनं 

    निशासुधा आरग्वध काकमाची पत्रै: सदार्वीप्रपुनाडबीजै: |

    तक्रेण पिष्ट: कटु तैल मिश्रे: पामादि उद्वर्तनमेतदि्ष्टम ||

    Vaidya Manorma, 1- 16

    देश परिवर्तन जनित विकार प्रतिषेधार्थं 

    कल्कितामारनालेन स्वच्छन्दं रजनीं पिबेत्‌ |

    न तु देशान्तरगतां बाध्यतें शीतकादिभि: ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 17- 77

    श्वास 

    हरिद्रादिधूमवर्ति: |

    Rasa Ratna Samuuchya, 24- 45

    व्यंग 

    महिषीक्षीर समपिष्टम रजनीरक्तचन्दनम |

    कृतलेप निहन्त्याशु श्यामिकां: गण्डयो: स्थितम्‌ ||

    Vaidya Manorma, 12- 2- 25

    वात व्याधि 

    तैलं लिप्त्वा रोगोपशान्त्यै यामद ऊर्ध्वं शर्बरी मूल सूक्ष्म चूर्णम |

    लिप्त उद्वर्तयो उद्वर्त्तयं तैलं हरेद प्रागयामद ऊर्ध्वं तत पुनर्हन्ति वातं | 

     Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala, 375- 376

    श्वासकास- हिक्कापहारार्थम्‌

    व्युषिता पटुपयसि निशा भ्रष्ट भृष्टा मुखाम्बुजे धार्या |

    हिकाकास श्वास श्लेष्म विकारापहाराय ||

    Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala, 4/ 375

    अर्धदग्ध॑ हरिद्रां द्राक पिद्धीत शरावत: |

    तत्‌ कोकिलरज: क्षोद्रे अर्द्व माष॑ श्वासकासजित्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 44- 17

    पाण्डुरोगे

    लिहेद्‌ हरिद्रां त्रिफलान्वितां वा |

    सर्पि मधुम्याम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 16/ 53

    कामलायाम्‌

    हरिद्रादिघृतम्‌ |

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 16- 44

    निशा गैरिक धात्रीभि: कामलापहम अंजनम | 

    Vrinda Madhava, 68- 98

    विषे

    रजनीक्षौद्रसैन्धवसंयुक्त घृतमुत्तमम्‌ |

    पान॑ मूलविषार्तस्य दिग्धबिद्धस्य चेष्यते ||

    Gada Nigreha, 6- 3- 11

    हरिद्रेतु हिते ख्याते ताभ्यांनास्ति सम: क्वचित |

    अगदस्तु विषारतानां प्रलेपादि प्रयोजित: ||

    Chakra Dutta, 54- 9

    मसूरिकायाम्‌

    निशाचिश्लाच्छदे शांतवारिपीते तथैव तु |

    Vrinda Madhava, 51- 41

    कच्छू रोगे

    हरिद्राकल्क संयुक्त गोमूत्रस्य पल द्वयं |

    पिबेन्नर कामचारी कच्छूपामा विनाशनम्‌ ||

    Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala, 4/ 507

    शूल 

    क्षपा अक्षमाना यवसा समाना पटुस्त्रिमाष: कुरु चूर्णमेषाम्‌ |

    पलप्रमाणेन घृतेन पक्‍त्वा कोष्ण॑ महाशूलरुजासु देहि ||

    Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala, 4/ 333

    कासे 

    सिंहास्यरससंसिद्ध हरिद्राखण्ड चूर्णकम् |

    दुग्धसन्तानिकालीढं शुष्ककास निबर्हणं ||

    Bhel Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 6- 56

    कुष्ठ 

    गोमूत्रेणहरिद्रातु रसांजनमथापि वा |

    प्रयोगेण पिबेत्‌ कुष्ठी तथा रोगान्‌ प्रमुच्यते ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 9- 45

    पीत्वा मासं वा पलाशं हरिद्रामूत्रेणान्त पापरोगस्य गच्छेत्‌ |

    एवं पेयश्चित्रक: श्लक्ष्णपिष्ट: पिप्पल्‍यो वा पूर्ववन्‌ मूत्र युक्ता ||

    Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana, 8- 81, Ashtanga Hridya, Chikitsa Sthana, 6- 42

    कफज तृष्णायाम्‌ 

    जल पिबेत्‌ रजन्या वा सिद्ध सक्षौद्रशर्करम्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 6/ 17- 20

    असाध्या नातिवर्तन्ते प्रमेहा रजनी यथा |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 6/ 26

    क्षौद्रेण युक्तामथवा हरिद्रां पिबेद्‌ रसेनामलकी फलानाम्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 11/ 9

    पिष्टमेहिनं हरिद्रादारहरिद्राकषायम्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 11/ 8

    तत: शुद्धदेहमालकरसेन हरिद्रां मधुसंयुक्त पाययेत |

    Amragandhi Haridra and Aranya Haridra

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 198

    Synonyms

    दार्वीभेदा आम्रगन्धा च सुरभीदारु दारू च |

    कर्पूरा पद्म पत्रा स्यात्सुरीमत्सुरतारका ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 199

    Properties and action

    आम्रगन्धि हरिद्रा या सा शीता वातला मता |

    पित्तहन्मधुरा तिक्ता सर्व कण्डू विनाशिनी ||

    Kaideva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 1118

    आम्र गन्धा हरिद्रा तु शीतला वातला तथा |

    पित्तह्रत स्वादु तिक्ता च वृष्या स्यात्सन्निपातजित्‌ ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 200

    वनहरिद्रा

    अरण्यहलदी कन्द: कुष्ठ वातास्ननाशन: |

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga, 88- 90

    अरण्य- वनहरिद्रा- तवक्षीर:

    तवक्षीरं पय: क्षीरं यवजं गवयोदूभलम्‌ ।

    अन्यद्गोधूमजं चान्यत्पिष्टिका तण्डलोदभवम्‌ ||

    अन्यंच्च तालसम्भूत तालक्षीरादिनामक्म |

    वनगोक्षीरजं श्रेष्ठमंभावे अन्यदुदीरितम्‌ ॥

    तवक्षीर गुणाः 

    तवक्षीर तु मधुर शिशिरं दाहपित्तनुत्‌ |

    क्षयकासकफश्चासनाशनं चा अस्रदोषनुत्‌ ||

    Classical reference of Daru Haridra

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 201- 202

    Synonyms

    दार्वी दारुहरिद्रा च पर्जन्या पर्जनीति च |

    कटड्कटेरी पीता च भवेत्सैव  पचम्पचा ||

    सैव कालीयक; प्रोक्तस्तथा कालेयको अपि च |

    पीतद्रुश्च हरिद्रश्च पीत दारु च पीतकम्‌ ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 202

    Properties and action

    दार्वी निशागुणा किन्तु नेत्र कर्णस्यरोगनुत्‌ ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 59

    Properties and action

    तिक्ता दारूहरिद्रा स्याद रूक्षोष्णा व्रण मेहजित्‌ |

    कर्ण नेत्र मुखोद्धतां रूजां कण्डूं च नाशयेत ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 117

    तद्वद दार्वी विशेषेण कर्ण नेत्रास्य रोगजित्‌ |

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi varga, 202

    तिक्ता दारूहरिद्रा तु कटुष्णा व्रणमेहनुत्‌ |

    कण्डूविसर्पत्वग्दोष विषकर्णाक्षिदोषहा ||

    Priya Nighantu Shatpushpadi varga, 174

    दार्वी दारुहरिद्रा स्यातिक्तोष्णा कफपित्तनुत्‌ |

    यक्रद्वोगे प्रमेहे च रक्तदोषे व्रणे हिता ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 203- 205

    रसांजन 

    दार्वीक्वाथसमं क्षीरं पाद॑ पक्त्वा  यदा घनम्‌ |

    तदा रसांजनाख्य॑ तन्नेत्रयो: परम॑ हितम ||

    रसंजनम तार्क्षशैल॑ रसगर्भश्च ताक्षर्यजम्‌ |

    रसंजनम कटु शलेष्म विष नेत्र विकारनुत्‌ ||

    उष्ण॑ रसायन तिक्तम छेदनं व्रणदोषहत्‌ |

    Priya Nighantu Shatpushpadi varga, 174

    रसाज्जन॑ कृत दार्वीक्वाथेन क्षीरसंमितम्‌ |

    तिक्तमुष्ण॑ व्रणा स्त्रावहरं नेत्र्यं परम् मतम || 

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga, 117

    सैवकालीयक: प्रोक्तस्तथा कालीयको अपि च |

    तदव दार्वी विशेषेण कर्णनेत्रास्य रोगजित्‌ ||

    Bhava Parkasha

    दार्वी कुटजवत्पत्रै: अंकोलो सदृशो गिरौ |

    क्षीरिणी सा भवेत्‌ तस्या: क्वाथेन स्याद्रसांजनम्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta Unmada Chikitsa, 20- 46

    उन्मादे दार्व्यादि गुटिका |

    दार्वीमधुभ्यां पुष्यायां कृतञ्च गुडिका अंजनम | 

    Bhava Parkasha Stri Roga Adhikara, 68- 18

    प्रदर दार्व्यादि क्वाथं  

    दार्वी रसांजनं किरातवृषाब्द बिल्व सक्षौद्र चन्ददिनेशभव प्रसूनै: |

    क्वाथ: कृत मधुयुतो विधिना निपीतों रक्त सितच्न सरुजं प्रदरं निहन्ति ||

    Chakra Dutta Bhagandra Chikitsa, 46- 6

    नाडी व्रण चिकित्सायां रसांजनादि कल्कः

    Raja Vallabha Nighantu

    नेत्राभिष्यन्दे 

    दार्वी विशेषेण कफाभिष्यन्दनाशिनी |

    Chakra Dutta 55- 25

    अहिपूतनकोपचारार्थ रसांजन प्रयोग:

    रसांजनं विशेषेण पानालेपनभयोर्हितम |

    Chakra Dutta Karna Roga Chikitsa, 57- 51

    पूतिकर्णोपचारार्थ रसांजनादि पूरणम्‌

    घृष्टं रसांजनं नार्या: क्षीरिण क्षौद्रसंयु्तम्‌ |

    प्रशस्यते चिरोत्थे अपिसास्रावे पूति कर्णके ||

    Chakra Dutta Bala Roga Chikitsa, 64- 44

    शिशौ गुदपाक शमनाय रसांजन प्रयोग:

    गुदपाके तु बालानां पित्तघ्नी कारयेत्‌ क्रियाम्‌ |

    रसांजनं विशेषण पानालेपनमोर्हितम्‌ ||

    Vaidya Manorma, 7- 20

    प्रमेहे

    ग्रहान गजेन्द्रो विष्णो प्रसादेन यथा तथा |

    तद्वत्‌ क्षौद्रान्विता दार्वी पीतश्वामलकी रसः ||

    Raja Amrittanda

    ग्रह उपशमनार्थं

    कुष्माण्डोफल सलिलेन पुष्य संज्ञे नक्षत्रेमसृणतर प्रपिष्य दार्वीम्‌ |

    कर्तव्य॑ नयनयुगे अंजनम प्रशस्तनि: शेष ग्रह रजनीचरोपशान्त्यै ||

    Vrinda Madhava, 63- 6

    असृग्दरे 

    दार्व्यादिक्वाथ: |

    Shodhala Nighnatu, Pradara Adhikara, 6- 1- 24

    श्वेत प्रदरे

    पिबेदारहरिद्राया: क्वाथं वा मधु संयुतम |

    पाण्डु प्रदर शान्त्यर्थ पाययेत्तण्डुलाम्बुना ||

    Shodhala Nighnatu, Gada Nigreha, 7- 3- 11

    सर्पविषे

    हरिद्रे तु हिते ख्याते ताभ्यां नास्ति सम क्वचित | 

    अगदस्तु विषार्तानां प्रलेपादिप्रयोजित: ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita, 3- 11- 107

    उपदंशे

    रसांजन शिरीषेण पथ्यया च समन्वितम्‌ |

    सक्षौद्र॑ लेपन॑ योज्यमुपदंशगदापहम्‌ ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita, 3- 13- 85

    नक्त आंध्ये      

    रसांजन हरिद्रे द्वे मालती निम्ब पल्लवा: |

    गोशकृद्रसंयुक्ता वर्ति नक्तान्ध्य नाशिनी ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 16- 17

    पाण्डुरोगे दार्व्यादिलेहम्‌

    Sharangdhara Samhita

    नेत्ररोगे

    रसांजनं व्योषयुतं सपिष्टें वटकी कृतम्‌ |

    कण्डूपाकान्विता हन्ति लेपादज्जनामिकाम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 13, 25- 93

    व्रण रोपणार्थम्‌

    दार्वीत्वचश्च कल्केन प्रधान व्रणरोपणम्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 13, 11- 9

    पिष्टमेहे

    पिष्टमेहिनम्‌ हरिद्राया दारुदरिद्रा कषायम |  

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 53

    मूत्रकृच्छे 

    दार्वी तथैवामलकी रसेन समाक्षिकं पित्त कृते तु कृच्छे |

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 13- 33, Vrinda Madhava, 40- 5

    श्लेष्मिक वृद्धौ

    गो मूत्रेण पिबेत्कल्क॑ श्लैष्मिके पीतदारुकम्‌ |

     Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 16

    सर्वदोषप्रकुषिते नेत्रे 

    षोडशभि: सलिलपलै: पल तत्रैक॑ कण्टकण्टयो सिद्धम्‌ |

    सेको अष्ट भागावशिष्ट: क्षौद्रयुक्त: सर्वदोष प्रकुपिते नेत्रे ||

    Chkra Dutta, 47- 9

    सर्व लिङ्ग विकार – उपदंश- चिकित्सायां रजाज्जनादि कल्क:

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 7/ 61

    कुष्ठ 

    दार्वी रसांजन वा गोमूत्रेण प्रबाधते कुष्ठम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 7/ 97- 98

    कुष्ठ नाशक कषाय

    दार्वी रसांजनस्य च | 

    इतिषट्‌ कषाययोग: कुष्ठ्घ्न …|

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 202, Chakra Dutta, 56- 34

    मुखरोगादया: दार्वीक्वाथम्‌

    स्वरस: क्वथितो दार्व्या घनीभूतो रसक्रिया |

    सक्षौद्रा मुखरोगासृग्दोष नाडीव्रणापहा ||

    Sushruta Samhita Sharira Sthana, 10/ 47, Vrinda Madhava, 66- 21

    बालरोगे (गुदपाके)

    गुदपाके तु बालानां पित्तघ्नी कारयेत्‌ क्रियान्‌ |

    रसांजन विशेषेण पानालेपनयोहिर्ततम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 7/ 94

    कुष्ठ नाशक लेप:

    श्वेतकरवीमूल॑ कुंटजकरज्यो: फल त्वचो दार्व्या: |

    सुमन प्रवाल युक्तो लेप कुष्ठापहा:  |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 30/ 96, 97

    योनिस्त्रावे-प्रदरोगे 

    तण्डलीयकमूल तु स क्षौद्रं तण्डुलाम्बुना ||

    रसांजनं च लाक्षा च च्छागेन पयसा पिबेत्‌ ||

    Bhava Parkasha Updansha Adhikara, 51- 32

    सर्वांग व्याप्तोपदंशो उपचारार्थ रसांजनं लेप 

    रसांजन शिरीषेण पथ्ययो वा समन्वितम्‌ |

    सक्षौद्रं लेपनं योज्यं सर्वाज़गदापहम्‌ ||

    Bhava Parkasha Updansha Adhikara, 51/ 17- 18

    उपदंशे दार्व्यादिलेपम्‌ 

    त्वचो दारुहरिद्राया: शंख नाभी रसांजनं ||

    लाक्षा गोमय निर्यासतैलं क्षौद्रं घृत॑ पय: ||

    एभिस्तु पिष्टेस्तुल्यांशैरुपदंशं प्रलेपयेत्‌ |

    व्रणाश्च तेन शमयन्ति श्वयथुदाह एष च ||

    Bhava Parkasha Shuka Dosha Adhikra, 53- 22

    शूकदोषे दार्वी तैलम्‌

    दार्वी सुरस यष्टया हैरगृहधूमानिलायुतै: |

    संपकवं तैलमभ्यड्ञामेढ्रो रोगं  हि नाशयेत्‌ ||

    Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, Shuka Dosha Adhikara, 53- 23

    शूकदोषे रसांजनं लेपम्‌

    रसांजनं साह्ययमेकमेव प्रलेपमात्रेण नयेत्प्रशान्तिम्‌।

    सपूति पूयव्रण शोथकण्डूशूलान्वित॑ सर्वमन अंगरोगान्‌ ||

    साह्यमित्यन अंग रोगस्य विशेषेणम्‌ |

    अन अंग रोगस्य नामापि दूरीकरोतीत्यर्थ: ||

    Bhava Parkasha Mukha Roga Adhikara, 66- 161

    सम्पूर्ण मुखरोगे (नाड़ी व्रणादि )

    स्वरस: कथितो दार्व्या घनीभूतो रसक्रिया।

    सक्षौद्र मुखरागासृग्दोषनाडी व्रणापहा ||

    Bhava Parkasha Stri Roga Adhikara, 68- 13

    सर्व प्रदरे रसांजनं 

    रसांजनं तण्डुलकस्य मूल क्षौद्रान्वित॑ तण्डलतोयपीतम्‌ |

    असुग्दरं सर्वभवं निहन्ति श्वासञ्च भार्गी सह नागरेण ||

    Specific Formulation of Haridra

    • Haridra Khanda for Sheeta Pitta, Kandu
    • Haridradi Churna for Swasa
    • Haridradi Varti for Naktandhya, Timir
    • Haridradi Ghrita for Kamala, Pandu
    • Haridradi Lepa for Arshas
    • Haridradi Kwath for Kaphaja Jwara
    • Nisadya Tailam
    • Punarnava Mandoor
    • Sudarshan Churna
    • Rajani Lepam
    • Haridradi Basti

    Specific Formulation of Daru Haridra

    • Darvyadi Kwatha for Pradara
    • Darvyadi Leha for Pandu, Kamala
    • Rasanjana Lepa for Updansha
    • Rasanjanadi Varti for Akshi Roga
    • Darvyadi Gutikanjana for Unmada (as Anjana)
    • Darvyadi Taila for Shuka, Updansha.
    • Rasanjanadi Churna
    • Khadirarishta
    • Punarnava Mandura
    • ChandraPrabha Vati
    • Chandanadi Vati
    • Vishgarbha Taila
    • Phalatrikadi Kwatha

    Contraindication and side effects of Haridra

    • Haridra does not exhibit any side effects if taken in the prescribed dosage for a particular period. Haridra formulation or products that provide 8 grams of curcumin per day is safe to use for up to 2 months. Consumption of 3 grams of Haridra daily for up to 3 months seems to be safe. Haridra more than 3 grams daily may result in abnormal heart rhythm. Haridra is likely safe but in higher dosage, or due to long duration use or in few people, it may result in nausea, diarrhea, stomach upset, etc.
    • Haridra is safe to use in pregnancy and during lactation in the amount that is used for the preparation of foods but if taken in a medicinal amount, it may risk pregnancy as it may stimulate the uterus and might promote the menstrual period. So, it is advised to avoid the use of Haridra as medicine during pregnancy.
    • It is advised to avoid Haridra if the patient is suffering from bile duct obstruction or gall stone. As Haridra worsens the gall bladder problems.
    • Haridra may worsen the problem of GERD, so use it under medical supervision to avoid such problems.
    • Haridra if taken in overdosage may result in male infertility as it might lower the testosterone level and decrease sperm movement.
    • A high intake of Haridra might interfere with the absorption of iron. So should be used with caution in a patient having iron deficiency.
    • Haridra also slows blood clotting time. So if you are going through planned surgery stop using Haridra at least 2 weeks before surgery.
    • Haridra exhibits anti-diabetic properties due to the curcumin active ingredient present in it. So, if you are suffering from diabetes and taking any anti-diabetic medicine then use Haridra with caution because it might decrease your blood glucose level.

    Contraindication and side effects of Daru Haridra

    Daru Haridra does not exhibit any side effects if taken in the prescribed dosage. Overdosage and use for a longer duration may exhibit side effects like vomiting, excessive sweating, and diarrhea. For safety, avoid the use of Daru Haridra during pregnancy and the lactation period.

    Suggestive reading regarding Curcuma longa

    • Ahmad, Wasim & Hasan, Azhar & Abdullah, Ansari & Tarannum, Tahera. (2010). Curcuma longa, Linn – A Review. Hippocratic Journal of Unani Medicine. 5. 179- 190.
    • Akram, Muhammad & Afzal, Arslan & Khan, U. & Abdul, H. & Mohiuddin, Ejaz & Asif, Muhammad. (2010). Curcuma longa and Curcumin: A review article. Rom. J. Biol-Plant Biol. 55. 65- 70.
    • Kerubo Omosa, Leonidah & Midiwo, Jacob & Kuete, Victor. (2017). Curcuma longa. 10. 1016/ B978- 0- 12- 809286- 6. 00019- 4.
    • Reddy, A. & Suresh, Joghee & Yadav, H.K.S. & Singh, A (2012). A review on curcuma longa. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 5. 158-165.
    • Rezvanirad, A. & Mardani, Mahnaz & Shirzad, H. & Ahmadzadeh, S.M. & Asgary, S. & Naimi, A. & Mahmoudi, GA. (2016). Curcuma longa: A review of therapeutic effects in traditional and modern medical references. 9. 3438-3448.
    • Labban, Louay. (2014). Medicinal and pharmacological properties of Turmeric (Curcuma longa): A review. Int J Pharm Biomed Sci. 5. 17- 23.
    • Hewlings SJ, Kalman DS. Curcumin: A Review of Its Effects on Human Health. Foods. 2017 Oct 22; 6 (10): 92. doi: 10. 3390/ foods 6100092. PMID: 29065496; PMCID: PMC5664031.
    • Gupta SC, Patchva S, Koh W, Aggarwal BB. Discovery of curcumin, a component of golden spice, and its miraculous biological activities. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2012 Mar; 39 (3): 283- 99. doi: 10. 1111/ j. 1440-1681. 2011. 05648. x. PMID: 22118895; PMCID: PMC3288651.
    • Stohs SJ, Chen O, Ray SD, Ji J, Bucci LR, Preuss HG. Highly Bioavailable Forms of Curcumin and Promising Avenues for Curcumin-Based Research and Application: A Review. Molecules. 2020 Mar 19; 25 (6): 1397. doi: 10. 3390/ molecules 25061397. PMID: 32204372; PMCID: PMC7144558.
    • Rahmani AH, Alsahli MA, Aly SM, Khan MA, Aldebasi YH. Role of Curcumin in Disease Prevention and Treatment. Adv Biomed Res. 2018 Feb 28; 7: 38. doi: 10. 4103/ abr. abr_147_16. PMID: 29629341; PMCID: PMC 5852989.
    • Khalid, Sidra & Rizwan, Bahisht & Aslam, Mahwish & Sharmeen, Zainab & Zubair, Raheela & Arif, Amara & Mahmood, Sana & Fatima, Mahum. (2020). Therapeutic potential of Curcumin in Curcuma Longa: A Review. 5. 32- 41. 10. 5281/ zenodo. 4058892.
    • Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: a review of preclinical and clinical research. Altern Med Rev. 2009 Jun; 14 (2): 141- 53. Erratum in: Altern Med Rev. 2009 Sep; 14 (3): 277. PMID: 19594223.
    • Sharifi-Rad J, Rayess YE, Rizk AA, Sadaka C, Zgheib R, Zam W, Sestito S, Rapposelli S, Neffe-Skocińska K, Zielińska D, Salehi B, Setzer WN, Dosoky NS, Taheri Y, El Beyrouthy M, Martorell M, Ostrander EA, Suleria HAR, Cho WC, Maroyi A, Martins N. Turmeric and Its Major Compound Curcumin on Health: Bioactive Effects and Safety Profiles for Food, Pharmaceutical, Biotechnological and Medicinal Applications. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Sep 15; 11: 01021. doi: 10. 3389/ fphar. 2020. 01021. PMID: 33041781; PMCID: PMC7522354.
    • Bhat, Suman & Amin, Tawheed & Nazir, S. (2015). Biological Activities of Turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) -An Overview. 1- 5.
    • Srinivas C, Prabhakaran VK. Haridra (Curcuma longa) and its effect on Abhisayanda (conjunctivitis). Ancient Science Life. 1989 Jan; 8 (3- 4): 279- 82. PMID: 22557662; PMCID: PMC3336727.
    • Thakkar SJ. TLC PROFILE AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS of HARIDRA KHANDA – An AYURVEDIC FORMULATION. Anc Sci Life. 2006 Jan;25 (3- 4): 104- 9. PMID: 22557215; PMCID: PMC3335213.
    • Pulido-Moran M, Moreno-Fernandez J, Ramirez-Tortosa C, Ramirez-Tortosa M. Curcumin and Health. Molecules. 2016 Feb 25; 21 (3): 264. doi: 10. 3390/molecules 21030264. PMID: 26927041; PMCID: PMC 6273481.
    • Singh A, Singh AK, Narayan G, Singh TB, Shukla VK. Effect of Neem oil and Haridra on non-healing wounds. Ayu. 2014 Oct-Dec; 35 (4): 398- 403. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 158998. PMID: 26195902; PMCID: PMC4492024.
    • Hatcher H, Planal R, Cho J, Torti FM, Torti SV. Curcumin: from ancient medicine to current clinical trials. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008 Jun; 65 (11): 1631-52. doi: 10. 1007 /s00018- 008- 7452- 4. PMID: 18324353; PMCID: PMC 4686230.
    • Gupta SC, Patchva S, Aggarwal BB. Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials. AAPS J. 2013 Jan; 15 (1): 195- 218. doi: 10. 1208/ s12248- 012- 9432- 8. Epub 2012 Nov 10. PMID: 23143785; PMCID: PMC3535097.
    • Vaughn AR, Branum A, Sivamani RK. Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) on Skin Health: A Systematic Review of the Clinical Evidence. Phytother Res. 2016 Aug; 30 (8): 1243- 64. doi: 10. 1002/ ptr. 5640. Epub 2016 May 23. PMID: 27213821.
    • Prasad, Ajv & Manikyam, A & Lakshmi, Achant. (2020). ANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF HARIDRA.
    • Pandey, Narayan & Sharma, Anita & Gautam, Shankar. (2021). Vishaghna Property of Haridra (Curcuma longa): A Review.
    • Srinivas, C & Prabhakaran, K.V.S. (1989). Haridra (Curcuma longa) and its effect on Abhisayanda (conjunctivitis). The ancient science of life. 8. 279- 82.
    • Manisha, Soni & Patil, Shilpa & Laxmi, Gupta & Assistant, Narayan & Narayan, Gupta. (2019). Standardization study of a sample of Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn.).
    • Buch, ZankhanaM & Joshi, Jayashree & Vaidya, Ashok & Amonkar, Ashok. (2012). Interventional role of Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn) in cancer. Clinical Cancer Investigation Journal. 1. 45. 10. 4103/ 2278- 0513. 99556.
    • Promod, Debbarma. (2018). Haridra (Curcuma Longa Linn.) A Classical Review. International Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine. 10. 18535/ jam/ v7i6. 07.
    • Kotecha, Mita & Choudhary, Dr & Dudi, Dr & Ram, Sukha & Sharma, Dr. (2020). HARIDRA (CURCUMA LONGA LINN.) -A PHYTO -PHARMACOGNOSTIC ANALYSIS. 1. 1-10.
    • Swagata Chakraborty, Aparajita Das. A CLASSICAL AYURVEDA REVIEW ON HARIDRA. Ayush. 2020 Nov.30 [cited 2022 Aug.16]; 7 (Supply1): 47- 55.
    • Ammon HP, Wahl MA. Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Med. 1991 Feb; 57 (1): 1-7. doi: 10. 1055/ s- 2006- 960004. PMID: 2062949.
    • Dr. Jai Prakash Pandey. (2017). Classical uses of Haridra (Curcuma longa). Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences2(06), 117-119. 
    • Singh, Anjali & Shekhar, Chandra & Singh, & Ramachandra Reddy, Konduru. (2017). TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) AN ADAPTABLE DRUG IN AYURVEDA: A REVIEW. Indian Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences. 3. 78- 84.
    • Chakraborty, Swagata & Das, Aparajita. (2021). A CLASSICAL AYURVEDA REVIEW ON HARIDRA. AYUSHDHARA. 10. 47070/ Ayushdhara. v7iSupply1. 579.
    • Rout KK, Parida S, Mishra SK. Standardization of the ayurvedic formulation Haridra Khanda using high-performance thin-layer chromatography-densitometry. J AOAC Int. 2008 Sep-Oct; 91 (5): 1162- 8. PMID: 18980135.
    • Wilken R, Veena MS, Wang MB, Srivatsan ES. Curcumin: A review of anti-cancer properties and therapeutic activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Mol Cancer. 2011 Feb 7; 10: 12. doi: 10. 1186/ 1476- 4598- 10-12. PMID: 21299897; PMCID: PMC3055228.
    • Zhang DW, Fu M, Gao SH, Liu JL. Curcumin and diabetes: a systematic review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 636053. doi: 10. 1155/ 2013/ 636053. Epub 2013 Nov 24. PMID: 24348712; PMCID: PMC 3857752.
    • Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally & Jagan, L. & Rao, L. & Sakariah, K.S. (2005). Chemistry and biological activities of Curcuma longa. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 20. 1-16.
    • Vollono L, Falconi M, Gaziano R, Iacovelli F, Dika E, Terracciano C, Bianchi L, Campione E. Potential of Curcumin in Skin Disorders. Nutrients. 2019 Sep 10; 11 (9): 2169. doi: 10. 3390/ nu11092169. PMID: 31509968; PMCID: PMC 6770633.

    Suggestive reading regarding Berberis aristata

    • Komal, Sharma & Ranjan, Bairwa & Neelam, Chauhan & Birendra, Shrivastava & Saini, Neeraj. (2011). Berberis aristata: A Review. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy.
    • Choudhary, Shailja & Kaurav, Hemlata & S., Madhusudan & Chaudhary, Gitika. (2021). Daruharidra (Berberis aristata): Review based upon its Ayurvedic Properties. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 8. 98- 106. 10. 31033/ ijrasb. 8. 2. 12.
    • Salehi B, Selamoglu Z, Sener B, Kilic M, Kumar Jugran A, de Tommasi N, Sinisgalli C, Milella L, Rajkovic J, Flaviana B Morais-Braga M, F Bezerra C, E Rocha J, D M Coutinho H, Oluwaseun Ademiluyi A, Khan Shinwari Z, Ahmad Jan S, Erol E, Ali Z, Adrian Ostrander E, Sharifi-Rad J, de la Luz Cádiz-Gurrea M, Taheri Y, Martorell M, Segura-Carretero A, Cho WC. Berberis Plants-Drifting from Farm to Food Applications, Phytotherapy, and Phytopharmacology. Foods. 2019 Oct 22; 8 (10): 522. doi: 10. 3390/ foods 8100522. PMID: 31652576; PMCID: PMC 6836240.
    • Rathi, B. & Sahu, J. & Koul, Sameksha & Khosa, R.L. (2013). Salient features of Berberis aristata and Berberis asiatica: A comparative pharmacognostical study. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 5. 40- 42.
    • Tiwari, Umeshkumar. (2014). Genus Berberis (Daru Haridra): An Important Medicinal Plant group. Heritage Amruth. 10. 37- 38.
    • Utkar, Drsonesh & Bhor, Dr. (2015). A review article on controversy of Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC.). Ayurved Patrika. July. 30.
    • Bano, Mehnaz & Ahmed, Bilal. (2017). Berberis aristata DC. An updated review of its botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacology along with its ethnomedicinal uses. International Journal of Research. 4. 3936- 3949.
    • Potdar, Dipti & Hirwani, Rajkumar & Dhulap, Sivakami. (2012). Phyto-chemical and pharmacological applications of Berberis aristata. Fitoterapia. 83. 817- 30. 10. 1016/ j. fitote. 2012. 04. 012.
    • Ahamad, Javed & Mir, Showkat R. & Ali, Faraat. (2020). A Critical Review on the Unexplored Therapeutic Treasure of Himalayan Ayurvedic Drug Daruharidra (Berberis Aristata). Current Traditional Medicine. 06. 10. 2174/ 2215083806999201117160106.
    • Saravanakumar, Tamilselvi. (2014). A REVIEW ON THE PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF THE HERBALS TRADED AS ‘DARUHARIDRA’. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 5. 556 – 570.
    • Rathi B, Sahu J, Koul S, Kosha RL. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on Berberis aristata DC plant. Anc Sci Life. 2013 Apr; 32 (4): 234- 40. doi: 10. 4103/ 0257- 7941.131981. PMID: 24991073; PMCID: PMC 4078475.
    • Sood H, Kumar Y, Gupta VK, Arora DS. Scientific validation of the antimicrobial and antiproliferative potential of Berberis aristata DC root bark, its phytoconstituents, and their biosafety. AMB Express. 2019 Sep 11; 9 (1): 143. doi: 10. 1186/ s13568- 019- 0868- 4. PMID: 31512002; PMCID: PMC 6738363.
    • Neag MA, Mocan A, Echeverría J, Pop RM, Bocsan CI, Crişan G, Buzoianu AD. Berberine: Botanical Occurrence, Traditional Uses, Extraction Methods, and Relevance in Cardiovascular, Metabolic, Hepatic, and Renal Disorders. Front Pharmacol. 2018 Aug 21; 9: 557. doi: 10. 3389/ fphar. 2018. 00557. PMID: 30186157; PMCID: PMC 6111450.
    • Sangu, Pavan Kumar & Vidyasagar, Mulugu & Vasanth, P. (2010). Effect of Daruharidra Rasakriya on Pravahika (Amoebiasis). International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine. 1. 10. 47552/ ijam. v1i1.14.
    • Saravanakumar, Tamilselvi. (2014). A REVIEW ON THE PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF THE HERBALS TRADED AS ‘DARUHARIDRA’. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 5. 556 – 570.
    • Bhatnagar A, Saini R, Dagar P, Mishra A. Molecular modeling and in vitro studies of Daruharidra as a potent alpha-amylase inhibitor. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2022 Apr 12: 1-12. doi: 10. 1080/ 07391102. 2022. 2058093. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35412420.
    • Choudhary, S., Kaurav, H., S., M., & Chaudhary, G. (2021). Daruharidra (Berberis aristata): Review based upon its Ayurvedic Properties. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology8 (2), 98– 106.
    • Bhanu Malhotra, B. Malhotra, Giriraj T. Kulkarni, G. T. Kulkarni, Neerupma Dhiman, N. Dhiman, D.D. Joshi, D. Joshi, Subhash Chander, S. Chander, Amit Kharkwal, A. Kharkwal, Arun K. Sharma, A. K. Sharma, & Harsha Kharkwal, H. Kharkwal. (0000). Recent advances on Berberis aristata emphasize berberine alkaloids including phytochemistry, pharmacology, and drug delivery system. Journal of herbal medicine, 27, 100433. doi: 10. 1016/ j. harmed. 2021. 100433
    • Cossiga V, Lembo V, Guarino M, Tuccillo C, Morando F, Pontillo G, Fiorentino A, Caporaso N, Morisco F. Berberis aristataElaeis guineensis and Coffea canephora Extracts Modulate the Insulin Receptor Expression and Improve Hepatic Steatosis in NAFLD Patients: A Pilot Clinical Trial. Nutrients. 2019 Dec 16; 11 (12): 3070. doi: 10. 3390/ nu11123070. PMID: 31888241; PMCID: PMC 6950467.
    • Mazumder, Papiya & Das, Saumya & Das, Sanjita & Das, Manas. (2011). Phyto-pharmacology of Berberis aristata DC: A Review. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 1. 10. 22270/ jddt. v1i2. 34.
    • Potdar D, Hirwani RR, Dhulap S. Phyto-chemical and pharmacological applications of Berberis aristata. Fitoterapia. 2012 Jul; 83 (5): 817- 30. doi: 10. 1016/ j. fitote. 2012. 04. 012. PMID: 22808523.
    • Srivastava, Sharad & Rawat, Ajay. (2013). Quality Evaluation of Ayurvedic Crude Drug Daruharidra, Its Allied Species, and Commercial Samples from Herbal Drug Markets of India. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCAM. 2013. 472973. 10. 1155/ 2013/ 472973.
    • Pasrija A, Singh R, Katiyar CK. Validated HPLC-UV method for the determination of berberine in raw herb Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC), its extract, and in commercially marketed Ayurvedic dosage forms. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010 Oct; 1 (4): 243- 6. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 7788. 76789. PMID: 21455453; PMCID: PMC 3059448.
    • Derosa G, D’Angelo A, Romano D, Maffioli P. Effects of a Combination of Berberis aristata, Silybum marianum and Monacolin on Lipid Profile in Subjects at Low Cardiovascular Risk; A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Int J Mol Sci. 2017 Feb 7; 18 (2): 343. doi: 10. 3390/ ijms18020343. PMID: 28178209; PMCID: PMC 5343878.
    • Nimisha, Rizvi DA, Fatima Z, Neema, Kaur CD. Antipsoriatic and Anti-inflammatory Studies of Berberis aristata Extract Loaded Nano vesicular Gels. Pharmacognosy Mag. 2017 Oct; 13 (Suppl 3): S587- S594. doi: 10. 4103/ pm. pm_210_17. Epub 2017 Sep 8. PMID: 29142419; PMCID: PMC5669102.
    • Mos NS. IDENTIFICATION OF DARU-HARIDRA: (Coscinium fenestratum). Ancient Science Life. 1983 Jan; 2 (3): 135- 6. PMID: 22556968; PMCID: PMC 3336755.
    • Malhotra, Bhanu & Kulkarni, Giriraj & Dhiman, Neerupma & Kumar, Arun & London, Harsha Kharkwal. (2021). Recent advances on Berberis aristata emphasize berberine alkaloids including phytochemistry, pharmacology, and drug delivery system. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 27. 100433. 10. 1016/ j. harmed. 2021.100433.
    • Rathi B, Sahu J, Koul S, Kosha RL. Detailed pharmacogenetic studies on Berberis aristata DC plant. Ancient Science Life. 2013 Apr; 32 (4): 234- 40. Doi: 10. 4103/ 0257- 7941. 131981. PMID: 24991073; PMCID: PMC4078475.

    Reference

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Priya Nighantu by P. V. Sharma, Shatpushpadi Varga Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Vaidya Manorma, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Vrinda Madhava
    • Shodhala Nighantu, Gada Nigreha
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sanskrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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