Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Kutaja (Holarrhena Antidysentrica) – Part-2

Kutaja (Holarrhena Antidysentrica) - Part-2

Kutaja - The Best Anti-Dysenteric Drug

Ayurveda Reference for Kutaja Beeja (Seeds of Holarrhena anti-dysentrica Wall.)

Rasa Panchaka of Kutaja Twaka (Bark)

Rasa (Taste) Tikta (bitter), Kashaya (astringent)
Guna (Virtue) Ruksha (dry), Laghu (light)
Virya (potency) Sheeta (cold potency) 
Vipaka (post-digestion) Katu (pungent)

Rasa Panchaka of Kutaja Bija (Seed)

Rasa (Taste) Tikta (bitter), Katu  (pungent)
Guna (Virtue) Ruksha (dry), Laghu (light)
Virya (potency) Sheeta (cold potency) {Ushana by Raja Nighantu}
Vipaka (post-digestion) Katu (pungent)

Rasa Panchaka of Kutaja Pushpa (Flower)

Rasa (Taste) Tikta (bitter), Kashaya (astringent)
Guna (Virtue) Laghu (light)
Virya (potency) Sheeta (cold potency) 
Vipaka (post-digestion) Katu (pungent)

Dosha Karma of Kutaja Twaka (Bark)

Pitta Kapha Shamaka. Pitta Hara due to Sheeta Virya and Tikta, Kashaya Rasa. Kapha Shamaka because of Katu Vipaka and tikta Kashaya Rasa.

Dosha Karma of Kutaja Pushpa (Flower)

Pitta Kapha Shamaka. Pitta Hara due to Sheeta Virya and Tikta, Kashaya Rasa. Kapha Shamaka because of Katu Vipaka and tikta Kashaya Rasa.

Dosha Karma of Kutaja Beeja (Seed)

Raja Nighnatu refers to the seed of Kutaja i.e. Indrayava as Tridosha Shamaka. Vatahara because of Ushna Virya, Pitta Shamaka due to Tikta Rasa and kapha Shamaak due to Ushana Virya, Katu Vipaka and Katu Tikta Rasa.

Karma (Actions) of Kutaja Twaka (Bark)

Stambhana, Atshoghana, Deepana, Trishna Nigrehana, Kusthaghana, Krimighana, Amapachaka.

Karma (Actions) of Kutaja Beeja (Seed)

Vamaka, Jwaraghana, Atisarahara, Kusthaghana, Shulahara, Deepana, Pachana.

Karma (Actions) of Kutaja Pushpa (Flower)

Atisarahara, Deepana, Kusthaghana.

Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Kutaja Twaka (Bark)

Atisara, Pravahika, Arsha, Raktapitta, Kustha, Amadosha, Trishna, Krimi, Twaka Vikara.

Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Kutaja Beeja (Seed)

Atisara, Jwara Atisara, Rakta Arsha, Visarpa, Kustha, Vata Rakta, Shula, Rakta Pitta, Jwara.

Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Kutaja Pushpa (Flower)

Atisara, Kustha, Krimi.

Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Kutaja

Jwara (Fever): Decoction of Indra Yava and Kutuka in rice water or that of Yastimadhu alleviates fever caused by pitta. (Harita Samhita. 3. 2. 66)


Atisar (Diarrohea): 


  • Kutaja is the best drug for diarrhea. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 40/ 49)
  • To check blood coming with stool one should take ghee cooked with indrayava with barley- scum followed by intake of liquid gruel. (Charaka Samhita. Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 79)
  • Seeds and bark of Kutaja should be pounded with honey and Ativisa and taken with rice water. It checks the diarrhea caused by pitta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 51)
  • One who takes Indra yava 40 gm decocted in the water kept on a diet of meat soup overcomes diarrhea caused by pitta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 19. 85, Vrinda Madhava. 3. 27.
  • The linctus of Kutaja mixed with drugs of Ambasthadi and Pippalyadi groups and honey destroys chronic diarrhea having profuse mucus, blood, and atony. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 89- 90, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 76)
  • Kutaja seeds alone are capable of checking diarrhea. (Ashtanga hRidya Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 17)
  • Linctus of Kutaja bark checks matures diarrhea. (Chakra Dutta. 130, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 94- 95)
  • Linctus prepared from the decoction of kutaja bark and mixed with Ativisa alleviates all types of diarrheas. (Vrinda Madhava. 3. 36)
  • Decoction of kutaja bark and seeds and musta added with sugar and honey checks diarrhea. (Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 29, Vanga Sena. Atisara. 173)
  • Kutaja- Putapaka. (Vrinda Madhava. 3. 46- 48, Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 2/ 90- 93)
  • Kutaja, Ativisa, Bilva, Blaka, and musta- decoction of these is useful in even chronic diarrhea having severe pain and blood. (Vrinda Madhava. 3. 43, Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 66)
  • Decoction of indrayava, Dhanyaka, and patola mixed with honey and sugar should be used in all types of diarrhea. Similarly acts that of bilva and amra (seed-kernel). (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 75)
  • Decoction of syonaka and kutaja bark alleviate all types of diarrhea. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 12)
  • Kutajarista. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 10. 44- 46)
  • Kutaja- ksira. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 59- 60)
  • Kuksivata (wind in bowels): Powder of indrayava mixed with sunthi and chitraka taken in the morning with warm water removes the wind in the bowels. (Vanga Sena Vata. 55)


Rakta Arsha (Bleeding piles): 


  • Kutajadi rasakriya. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 14. 188- 92)
  • Decoction of kutaja bark with sunthi checks mucus and blood. Similarly acts as the seed of pomegranate fruit and extracts of sandal mixed with Sunthi. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 13)
  • Bhallataka and kutaja are the best remedies for dry and bleeding piles respectively. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 8. 162, Vrinda Madhava. 5. 99)
  • One should take kutaja bark 40 gm, rasanjana, and ativisa mixed or paste of apamarga with rice-water. (Ashtanga hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 8. 103)


Shvitra and Kustha (Leprosy and skin diseases)


  • In leprosy and skin diseases, external application of the paste of lodhra, dhataki, indrayava, Karanja, and jati is useful. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Samhita. 7. 95, 97-99)
  • Decoction of kutaja destroys all skin diseases. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 36)
  • In eruptive boils, the paste of indrayava pounded with rice water should be applied externally. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 58/ 23)


Kasa (Cough): Marica mixed with tender leaves of kutaja and one-fourth bark of nakuli taken for three days checks all types of cough. (Vaidya Manorma. 3. 1)


Ashmari and Sharkara (Calculus and gravels): Kutaja bark taken with curd along with a wholesome diet expels gravel through the urethra. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 37/ 49)


Vrana (Wound):  Decoction of karavira, arka, and kutaja promotes the healing of wounds. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 87)


Prameha (Diabetes): Paste of the flowers of kutaja, kapittha, rohitaka, bibhitaka and saptaparna is useful in prameha. (Susruta Samhita Chikitsa. 11/ 8)

Benefits of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysentrica) - Pum Kutaja

  • Malaria: The leaves of Kutaja in equal amounts with Mustaka are grounded to make Churna (powder). One tablespoon of this Churna consumed daily will help to cure Vishama Jwara (Malaria).
  • Intestinal worms (Krimi Roga): The Swarasa of the leaves of the kutaja is taken orally to remove intestinal worms. This activity by the drug is due to its anti-helminthic properties.
  • Chronic colitis: In the case of chronic colitis, the Ksheera Paka prepared from the Kutaja gives marvelous results.
  • Kustha (Skin disorder): In Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 7. 56, it was mentioned that if you are suffering from a Vyadhi where skin lesions are anesthetic or numb or absence of Kandu (itching) and Sweda (sweating) then the brush is made from the stem of the Kutaja and is rubbed over that affected area. This type of treatment is mentioned under RaktaMokshana therapy to treat Kustha (skin disorders).

Benefits of Kutaja (Wrightia tinctoria) - Stri Kutaja

  • The leaves of Asita or Madhura Kutaja (Wrightia tinctoria R. Br.) yield an Indigo dye which is used by the natives of Southern India. Seeds (madhura Indrayava or meetha indrajou) are eaten. 
  • The bark of the stem and roots of another species is used as Asita or Madhura Kutaja Wrightia tomentosa Roem. & Sch., known as Dudhi and Indrajou) is regarded as an antidote to snake bites and scorpion stings. In addition to medicinal utility, the woods of both Wrightis species mentioned are of economic use.
  • The drug Madhura Kutaja (Wrightia tinctoria R. Br.) is medically useful and recommended for certain ailments. It has a specific utility in skin diseases. The leaves of Wrightia tinctoria R. Br, known as Vetapalai elai in Southern India and the Siddha system of medicine, are employed for preparing oil with an equal quantity of coconut oil (Narikela tail). This oil is used in the Siddha system of medicine as an external application to psoriasis (Kalanjaga padai in the Siddha system) and the remedy has been proven effective in psoriasis (Kitibha Kustha).
  • Vrana Ropaka (wound healer): Stri Kutaja i.e. Wrightia tinctoria exhibits excellent wound healing properties. In Ayurvedic treatment, the poultice and decoction of Stri Kutaja are used to clean wounds. Stri Kutaja increases the collagen content because of the presence of triterpenoids in it, which promotes its Vrana Ropaka Property.
  • Anti-Viral: Stri Kutaja has various alkaloids and flavonoids. Research shows that due to the presence of indole derivatives like isatine and indirubin, it possesses promising anti-viral activity and can be used to clear various viral symptoms.

Benefits of Kustha on Different Systems of Bodies

External use: Stem, bark, and indrayava (bitter seeds) are optimum for healing ulcers. A decoction of these helps in ulcer treatment. A poultice made of bark is used on boils. On exuding ulcers, a dressing of indrayava is used.


Digestive system: Vatashaman, deepan, an inhibitor of inflammation, (cures) loss of appetite, pitta sarak, and parasiticidal. Useful in diarrhea and dysentery. Scientists feel that it is of great use in amoebiasis without the long-term side effects of emetine. The total alkaloids of the tender pods and leaves are useful in worm infection in children. The bark is the most effective in jaundice.


Circulatory system: Useful in bleeding disorders.


Reproductive system: Removes muscular weakness and tones up vaginal tissues after delivery.


Fevers: Antipyretic, especially in fevers of lymphatic or blood origin. Therapeutic in typhoid, when given as decoction with Kalinga.


Satmikarana: Due to the tissue healing properties of the Kutaja, it is useful in the weakness.

Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Kutaja

  • Beeja Churna (Seed powder): 500 mg to 1.5 mg
  • Twak Kwath (Decoction of Bark): 500 mg to 1.5 mg

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Classical Reference of Kutaja

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 116- 117


कुटज: कुटज: कौटो वत्सको गिररिमल्लिका ।

कालिङ्ग  शक्रशाखी च मल्लिकापुष्प इत्यापि ।

इन्द्रो  यवफल: प्रोक्तो वृक्षक: पाण्डुर द्रुम ||

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 118

Properties and action

कुटज:  कटुको रूक्षो दीपनस्तुवरो हिम: ।

अर्शो अतिसार पित्तस्त्र कफतृष्णा आम कुष्ठनुत ||

Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi Varga- 14

Properties and action

कुटज: कटुकस्तिक्त: कषायो रूक्षशीतल: ।

कुष्ठातीसार पित्तास्रगुदजानि  विनाशयेत्‌  ।।

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 894- 895

कुटज:  शीतलो रूक्ष: कषायो दीपन: कटु: |

कफ पित्तास्रतट्कुष्ठ जन्त्वाम अर्शो अतिसारहा ||

Raja Nighantu Prabhadradi Varga- 54

कुटज: कटु टिकट उष्ण: कषायश्च अतिसारजित्‌ |

तत्र असितो अस्त्र पित्तघ्नस्त्वगदोषोनिकृन्तन: ||

कुटजस्त तुवरो तिक्त: कफ पित्त उपशोषण: |

संग्राही दीपन: प्रोक्त: कृमिघ्न त्वाम पाचन: |

आमातिसार रक्तार्श: कफ पित्तामय प्रणुत |

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 158- 159

 इन्द्रयव (कुटजबीज)- 

उक्तं कुटज बीजतु एवं इंद्रयवम तथा | 

कलिङ्गम चापि कलिङ्गम तथा भद्र यवा अपि |

क्वचिद इन्द्रस्य नामेव भवेत्तद अभिधायकम | 

फलानि इन्द्रयव स तस्य तथा भद्रा यवा अपि |

इन्द्रयवं त्रिदोषघ्नं संग्राहि कटु  शीतलम्‌ |

ज्वरातीसार रक्तार्शो वमिवीसर्पकुष्ठनुत ||

दीपनं गुदकीलास्रवातास्रश्लेष्मशूलजित्‌ |

Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi varga, 16

शक्राव्हा: कटु तिक्तो उष्णा त्रिदोशघ्नश्च  दीपना: ।

रक्त अर्शस्यातिसारं च घन्ति शूलवमीस्तथा ||

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 896- 897

फल तिक्तरसं ग्राहि कट्वनुष्ण॑ त्रिदोषनुत्‌ |

दीपन॑ पाचन कुष्ठज्वरविसर्पशूलनुत्‌ |

गुदकीलकवातास्त्र श्र्म लोहितनाशनम्‌ ||

Raja Nighantu Prabhadradi Varga- 57

इंद्रयवा कटुस्तिक्ता शीता कफवात रक्तपित्तहरा ।

दाह अतिसरा शमनी नाना ज्वर दोष शूलघ्नी ||

Priya Nighantu Haritkyadi varga, 62

तद्गुणं स्याद इन्द्रयव तद बीजं यव सन्निभम |

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 895- 896

कुटज पुष्प- तात पुष्पम शीतलम तिक्तम कषायं लघु दीपनं |

वाटलं कफ पित्तस्त्र कुष्ठ अतिसार जंतुजित |

Madanpala Nighantu

इन्द्रयवस्त्रिदोषघन संग्राही शीतल: कटु: |

ज्वरातिसाररक्तार्श: कृमि वीसर्प कुष्ठनुत्‌ ||

Chakradutta, 3/ 54- 55

सर्व अतिसार कुटज क्वाथ 

कुटज त्वक्‌कृत: क्वाथो  घनीभूत: सुशीतल: |

लेहितो अतिविषायुक्त: सर्वातीसारनुद्धवेत्‌ ||

वदन्त्यत्रष्टमांशेन क्वाथादति विषारज: |

प्रक्षेप्यत्वात्‌ पादिकन्द लेहादिति च नो मति: ||

Dhanwantri Nighantu

शक्राह्ना: कटु तिक्तोष्णास्त्रिदोषघ्नाश्वदीपना: |

रक्तार्शस्यतिसारं च घ्रनि शूलवमी तथा ||

Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 5

स्त्री पुं कुटजञ्च 

बृहत् फल स्वेतपुष्प: स्निग्धपत्र: पुमान्‌ भवेत्‌ ।

श्यामा चरुणा  पुष्पी स्त्री फल युग्स्तैस्तथाणुशि: ||

Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 25/ 63

कुटज त्वक गुणा

कुटजत्वक श्लेष्मा पित्त रक्त संग्राहिको पशोषणानाम्‌ |

Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 46/ 284

कुटज पुष्प गुणा:

कपित्तहर पुष्प कुष्ठघ्न॑ कुटजस्य च |

Madanpala Nighantu

तत्पुष्प॑ शीतलं तिक्तं  कषायं लघु दीपनम्‌ ।

वातलं कफ पित्तस्त्र कुष्ठ अतिसार जंतुजित |

Dhanwantri Nighantu


कुटज: कटुकः तिकः कषायो रूक्ष शीतल: |

कुष्ठातिसार पिंत्तास्रगुदजानि विनाशयेत्‌ ||

Madanpala Nighantu

कुटज: कटुको  रूक्षो दोषनस्तुवरो लघु: |

अर्शो अतिसार पित्तासरकफ तृष्णामपित्तनुत्‌ ||

Madanpala Nighantu

कुटज शिम्बीशाकम्‌

तस्य भवं शाकं व्यञ्जनं चामवातजित्‌ |

रुच्यं कफघ्नं रक्तातिसरम कुष्ठ कृमिन जयेत्‌ ||

Sharangdhara Samhita, 3- 2- 66


क्वथितं तंडुल पयसा शकराहवीं कटुकरोहिणीस हितम |

क्वाथं यष्टि मधूनां विनाशनम पित्त ज्वारणानु |

Gada Nigreha


विस्फोट व्याधि नाशाय तांदुला अम्बु प्रपेशिते |

बीजे: कुटज वृक्षस्य लेप: कार्यो विजानता ||

Bhava Parkasha

शुक्र  अश्मरी 

पिबत: कुटजं दध्ना पथ्यं अन्नम च खादत्त: |

निपतंत्य चिरा तस्य  नियतं मेढ्र शर्करा ||

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 13

सर्व अर्श 

कुटज वंदाक मुलम कलकं वा तक्रेण भक्षयेत |

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 13

अम्ल पित्त अनुबंध रक्तजेषु अर्श 

कुटज मूल त्वक फणितं वा भक्षयेत |

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 8


कुटज: …….पुष्पकल्कं वा |

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 40- 90

बहु श्लेषमणि सरक्ते अतिसारे

बहुश्लेष्मसरक्तञ्च  मंदवातं चिरोत्थितम्‌ |

कौटजं फाणित॑ वापि हन्त्यतीसार मोजसा ||

Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 8- 162

आद्र अर्शःशु

भैषज्यमाद्रेषु तु वत्सक त्वक्‌ |

Bhava Parkasha Atisara Adhikaram, 2- 59- 60

अतिसारे कुटज क्षीरम्‌

नि क्वाथाय  मूलकमले गिरि मल्लिकाया: सम्यक्‌ पलद्वितयमम्बुचतु: शरावे |

त्त्पादशेषसलिलं खलु शोषणीयं क्षीरे पलद्रयमिते कुशलैर जाया: ||

प्रक्षिप्य माषका नष्टी मधुनस्तत्र शीतले रक्तातीसारीतत्पीत्वा नेरुज्यं क्षिप्रमाप्रुयात्‌ ||

Bhava Parkasha Atisara Adhikaram, 2- 50- 5

रक्त अतिसार कुटज दाड़िम क्वाथं 

वत्स टीवी दाड़िम तरु शालातु फल सम्भवा त्वक च |

तवांग युगलम पलमानं विपचेड़ अष्टांश समिन्ते तोये |

अष्ट भागम शेषं क्वाथं मधुना पिबेत पुरुष: |

रक्त अतिसारम लवणं अतिषयित्म नाश्येन्नियतम |

Bhava Parkasha Atisara Adhikaram, 2- 94- 95

सन्निपात अतिसार कुटज अवलेहम 

कुटज त्वक कृत: क्वाथो वस्त्र पूतो हिमीकृत |

स लीडो अति विशायुक्त: स्यात त्रिदोष अतिसारनुत ||

ईच्चन्ति अन्त्य अष्ट मांशेन क्वाथाति विषा रज: |

प्रक्षेप चतुर्थो अर्श मिति के चविदन्ति हि ||

Bhava Parkasha Atisara Adhikaram, 2- 55

अतिसार वत्सकादि क्वाथं 

स्वत्सक: सातिविष: सबिल्व: सौदीच्य मुस्तकश्च कृत कषाय: |

साम सशूलेश  सह शोणित च चिर प्रविते अपि हितो अतिसार |

Bhava Parkasha Vishphot Adhikaram, 58- 23

विस्फोटके इन्द्रयव:

विस्फोट व्याधि नाशाय तण्डलाम्बुप्रपेषितै: |

बीजै: कुटज वृक्षस्य लेप: कार्यों विजानत: ||

Sharangdhara Samhita, Khanda 2, 24- 28

अतिसारे कुटज पुटपाकम्‌

तत्काला कृष्टकुटज  त्वचं तण्डुलवारिणा |

पिष्ट्वा  चतुष्पलमितां जम्बूपल्लव वेष्टिताम ||

सूत्रेण बद्धवा गोधूमपिष्टेन परिवेष्टिताम्‌ |

लिप्तां च धन पंकें गोमयै: वहिना दहेत्‌ |

अंगार  वर्ण च मृदं दृष्वा वाह्ने समुद्धरेत्‌ |

ततसं गृहीत्वा च शीतं क्षौद्रयुतं: पिबेत्‌ ||

जयेत्सर्वानतीसारान्‌ दुस्तरान्‌ सुचिरोत्थितान्‌ |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 10- 86


कुटजस्य फलानि च |

एतै: घृत सिद्ध जयेच्छीघ्रमतिसारम्‌ |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 7


वतस्क बीजस्य कलकं कुष्टेषु उद्वर्तन लेप: |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14- 185

रक्त स्त्रुतो अर्श 

कुटज त्वंग निर्युह दह: स नागर: स्निग्ध रक्त संग्रहणं |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 10- 91, Chakra Dutta, 3/ 39

पित्त अतिसार 

पलं वत्सक बीजस्य श्रपयित्व रसं पिबेत |

यो रसाशी जायज शीघ्रम स पीतम जाठर आम्या |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 8/ 122

यक्षमिण अतिसार 

स नागर निन्द्रीवां पिबेद्वा तंडुल अम्बुनाम |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 13/ 85- 88

व्रण रोपणे

करवीर अर्क कुटज: कषाय: रोपणा: मता |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 79

रक्त अतिसार  कुटज फलपेया

घृतं यवागू मण्डेन कुटजस्य फलै: श्रृतम्‌ |

पेयं तस्याम्बु पातव्या पेया रक्तोपशान्तये ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 197

अर्श स शूल कुटजाफलादिघृतम्‌

कुटज फल वल्कल केशर उतपल लोध्र धातकी  कल्कै: |

सिद्ध घृत॑ विधेय॑ शूले रक्तअर्श  भिषज ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 23/ 187- 188

मांस गते विषे

…..मांसगते पिबेत्‌ ।

सक्षौद्र खदिरारिष्ट॑ कौटजं मूलम्भसा ।

Bhava Parkasha, 37- 49

शर्करा ( अश्मरी ) विकारे

पिबत: कुटजं दध्ना पाठ्यम अन्नञ्च खादत: |

निपतन्यचिरात्तस्य नियत मेढ्रशर्करा ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 7/ 95, 97- 99

कुष्ठ  त्वग विकारे

लोध्रस्य धांतकीनां वत्सकबीजस्य नक्तमालस्य ।

कल्कश्च  मालतीनां कुष्ठेषून्मर्दनालेपौ |

Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 36

हन्ति वृक्षकनिर्मूह: पानात्‌ सर्वास्त्वगामयान्‌ |

Vaidya Manorma, 3/ 1


इंद्र यव पल्ल्व युतं मरिच्म खादेद  दिन त्र्यं |

कासां जयति स मुलां नाकुल्य: पादवललमिता: |

Vanga Sena Vata Vyadhi, 55

कुक्षि वात

पिबेत कुष्ठ बीजाणाम चूर्णम प्रात: सुखाम्बुनाम |

शुंठी चित्रक युक्तानां कुक्षि वात निवारणं ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 188- 192

रक्त अर्श 

कुटजादि रस क्रिया |

Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 8- 162, Vrinda Madhava, 5- 99

शुष्कार्शषु- शुष्कार्द्रोशासि

शुष्केषु भल्लातक मग्रयमुक्त॑ भैषज्यमाद्रेषु तु वत्सकत्वक्‌ |

Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 8- 103

रक्त अर्श 

कुटज त्वक पलं माक्षिकम घुन वल्लभाम |

पिबेत तंडुल तोयँ कलकितम वा मयूरकम ||

Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 40- 49

कुटज अतिसारे |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 51


सक्षौद्रातिविष॑ पिष्ट्वा वत्सकस्य फल त्वचम्‌ |

पिबेतू  पित्तातिसारघ्न॑ तण्डुलोदकं संयुतम्‌ ||

Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana 5

In Charaka Samhita Kutaja is quited among Vamana Dravyas and total 18 Yoga of Vatsaka (Kutaja) are mentioned in Kalpa Sthana.

अथ वत्सकनामानि भेदं स्त्रीपुंसयोस्तथा |

कल्पं चास्य प्रवक्ष्यामि विस्तरेण यथातथम् ||

वत्सकः कुटजः शक्रो वृक्षको गिरिमल्लिका |

बीजानीन्द्रयवास्तस्य तथोच्यन्ते कलिङ्गकाः ||

बृहत्फलः श्वेतपुष्पः स्निग्धपत्रः पुमान् भवेत् |

श्यामा चारुणपुष्पा स्त्री फलवृन्तैस्तथाऽणुभिः ||

रक्तपित्तकफघ्नस्तु सुकुमारेष्वनत्ययः |

हृद्रोगज्वरवातासृग्वीसर्पादिषु शस्यते ||

(वत्सकनामानि व्यवहारार्थं स्त्रीपुरुषभेदं चाह- अथेत्यादि| अत्र वत्सकस्त्रीपुरुषभेदेन यद्यपि गुणभेदः प्रयोगभेदो वा न प्रतिपादितः, तथाऽपि स्त्रीरूपवत्सकेऽपुष्पफलत्वादिविशिष्टलक्षणयुक्तेऽप्यविशेषेणोभाभ्यामेवामयनिवृत्तिः स्यादित्येतदर्थमुभयोरपि समानगुणता ज्ञातव्या ||)

काले फलानि सङ्गृह्या तयोः शुष्काणि निक्षिपेत् |

तेषामन्तर्नखं मुष्टिं जर्जरीकृत्य भावयेत् ||

मधुकस्य कषायेण कोविदारादिभिस्तथा

निशि स्थितं विमृद्यैतल्लवणक्षौद्रसंयुतम्||

पिबेत्तद्वमनं श्रेष्ठं पित्तश्लेष्मनिबर्हणम् |

(काले इति उचिते काले| शुष्काणीति पक्वशुष्काणि| तेषामन्तर्नखमित्यादिना कषायैर्नवयोगानाह| क्षौद्रसैन्धवयोगो यद्यपि सर्ववमनेष्वेव सामान्येन विहितः, तथाऽपीह ‘लवणक्षौद्रसंयुतम्’ इति वचनादुत्कर्षो लवणसैन्धवयोरभिधीयते ||)

अष्टाहं पयसाऽऽर्केण तेषां चूर्णानि भावयेत्||

जीवकस्य कषायेण ततः पाणितलं पिबेत्|

फलजीमूतकेक्ष्वाकुजीवन्तीनां पृथक् तथा||

सर्षपाणां मधूकानां लवणस्याथवाऽम्बुना|

कृशरेणाथवा युक्तं विदध्याद्वमनं भिषक्||

तत्र श्लोकः

कषायैर्नव चूर्णैश्च पञ्चोक्ताः सलिलैस्त्रयः|

एकश्च कृशरायां स्याद्योगास्तेऽष्टादश स्मृताः||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 9/ 5

सक्षौद्रातिविषं पिष्ट्वा वत्सकस्य फलत्वचम्|

पिबेत् पित्तातिसारघ्नं तण्डुलोदकसंयुतम्||

किराततिक्तको मुस्तं वत्सकः सरसाञ्जनः|

बिल्वं दारुहरिद्रा त्वक् ह्रीबेरं सदुरालभम्||

चन्दनं च मृणालं च नागरं लोध्रमुत्पलम्|

तिला मोचरसो लोध्रं समङ्गा कमलोत्पलम्||

उत्पलं धातकीपुष्पं दाडिमत्वङ्महौषधम्|

कट्फलं नागरं पाठा जम्ब्वाम्रास्थिदुरालभाः||

योगाः षडेते सक्षौद्रास्तण्डुलोदकसंयुताः|

पेयाः पित्तातिसारघ्नाः श्लोकार्धेन निदर्शिताः||

जीर्णोषधानां शस्यन्ते यथायोगं प्रकल्पितैः|

रसैः साङ्ग्राहिकैर्युक्ताः पुराणा रक्तशालयः||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 7/ 95

Vatsak Beeja Lepa 

एला कुष्ठं दार्वी शतपुष्पा चित्रको विडङ्गश्च|

कुष्ठालेपनमिष्टं रसाञ्जनं चाभया चैव||

चित्रकमेलां बिम्बीं  वृषकं त्रिवृदर्कनागरकम्|

चूर्णीकृतमष्टाहं भावयितव्यं पलाशस्य||

क्षारेण गवां मूत्रस्रुतेन तेनास्य मण्डलान्याशु|

भिद्यन्ते विलयन्ति च लिप्तान्यर्काभितप्तानि||

मांसी मरिचं लवणं रजनी तगरं सुधा गृहाद्धूमः|

मूत्रं पित्तं क्षारः पालाशः कुष्ठहा लेपः||

त्रपु सीसमयश्चूर्णं मण्डलनुत् फल्गुचित्रकौ बृहती|

गोधारसः सलवणो दारु च मूत्रं च मण्डलनुत्||

कदलीपलाशपाटलिनिचुलक्षाराम्भसा प्रसन्नेन|

मांसेषु तोयकार्यं कार्यं पिष्टे च किण्वे च||

तैर्मेदकः सुजातः किण्वैर्जनितं प्रलेपनं शस्तम्|

मण्डलकुष्ठविनाशनमातपसंस्थं कृमिघ्नं च||

मुस्तं मदनं त्रिफला करञ्ज आरग्वधकलिङ्गयवाः|

दार्वी ससप्तपर्णा स्नानं सिद्धार्थकं नाम||

एष कषायो वमनं विरेचनं वर्णकस्तथोद्घर्षः|

त्वग्दोषकुष्ठशोफप्रबाधनः पाण्डुरोगघ्नः||

कुष्ठं करञ्जबीजान्येडगजः कुष्ठसूदनो लेपः|


श्वेतकरवीरमूलं कुटजकरञ्जयोः फलं त्वचो दार्व्याः|

सुमनःप्रवालयुक्तो लेपः कुष्ठापहः सिद्धः||

लोध्रस्य धातकीनां वत्सकबीजस्य नक्तमालस्य|

कल्कश्च मालतीनां कुष्ठेषून्मर्दनालेपौ||

शैरीषी त्वक् पुष्पं कार्पास्या राजवृक्षपत्राणि|

पिष्टा च काकमाची चतुर्विधः कुष्ठनुल्लेपः||

इति लेपाः|

Vishista Yoga (Name of Important Formulation)

Yoga of Vatsaka mentioned in the 5th chapter of the Kalpa Sthana of Charaka Samhita are as follows:


  • Kwatha – 9 Yogas
  • Churna – 5 yogas
  • With Jala (water) – 3 yogas
  • With Krishra – 1 Yoga


A total of 18 Yoga are mentioned in Kalpa Sthana of Charaka Samhita.


  • Kutajadya Arishta for Atisara and Grahani
  • Kutaja Avleha for Atisara and Grehani
  • Kutajadi Kshaya for Atisara and Amaja Shula
  • Kutaja Rasa Kriya for Rakta Atisara
  • Kutajadya Ghrita for Rakta Arsha 
  • Kutaja Ashtaka for Atisara and Arsha
  • Kutaja Ghna Vati

Contraindication and Side Effects of Kutaja

  • As Kutaja is Tikata (bitter) in taste so it may result in nausea or vomiting tendency in some people otherwise it does not report any serious side effects.
  • Kutaja can be used in pregnant women and lactating mothers under medical supervision.
  • As Kutaja possesses anti-diabetic activity, so if you are a patient of Diabetes and taking any anti-diabetic drug then it may interact with your medicine and may result in hypoglycemia. So, use Kutaja with caution or after consulting with your doctor if you are diabetic.

N. CHATURVEDI AND K. P. SINGH Department of Kayachikitsa, Institute of Medical Sciences, Varanasi Hindu University, Varanasi reported the following side effects in their article- 


  • Conessine, an important alkaloid of Kutaj, has been reported to produce neuropsychiatric manifestations like restlessness, tremors, vertigo, and gastrointestinal upsets in doses of more than 500 mg a day. 
  • Side effects of conessine viz., vertigo, insomnia, agitation, delirium, and psychotic manifestations, occur in susceptible cases.
  • Persistent hypotensive effects of even small doses of total alkaloids of H. antidysenterica, without any change in frequency and intensity of heartbeat following an IV administration, is reported in the Cat. Clinically the acute hypotensive effect of Kutaja bark in this series on a 6.0 g daily dose. A gradual decline in B.P. was also observed in one case of this series.

Suggestive Reading Regarding Holarrhena anti-dysentrica (Pum-Kutaja)

  • SR, Anagha & Padyana, Subrahmanya & Rao, Ravi & M U, Anjali. (2021). A REVIEW ON KUTAJA: A CLASSICAL POTENT MEDICINAL PLANT. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. 12. 99- 103. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4343. 1205155.
  • Pal, Ombeer & Nayak, Shraddha & Gupta, Rajkumar. (2020). PRELIMINARY CLINICAL STUDY OF KUTAJA (HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA LINN. (BARK AND SEED) ON MEDODUSHTI W.S.R TO HYPERLIPIDEMIA. 8. 1242- 1247. 10. 20959/ wjpr 201913-16319.
  • Vandana, Kumari & Singh, Brij & Kumar, Ashok & Singh, Girish. (2017). Assessment of the effect of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica, Wall) in different Doshika Atisara in Infants: A Clinical Study. Journal of Research and Education in Indian Medicine (Est.1982). 1. 10. 5455/ JREIM. 82-1501302642.
  • Pal, Atanu & Sharma, P & Mukherjee, P. (2009). A Clinical Study of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall) on Shonitarsha. Ayu. 30.
  • Bansal, Nitin & Sharma, Mrinal. (2016). Antiamnesic Activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica Extract in Streptozotocin- Induced Memory Deficient Rats. 317- 325. 10. 21276/saj. 2016. 5. 8. 2.
  • Chaughule, Ramesh, Kalpana Dabhade, Suhas Pednekar, and Rajesh Barve. “Homeopathy: As Seen through Plant Nanotechnology.”
  • Sharma DK, Gupta VK, Kumar S, Joshi V, Mandal RS, Prakash AG, Singh M. Evaluation of antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds in rats. Vet World. 2015 Dec;8(12):1392-5. doi 10. 14202/ vet world. 2015. 1392- 1395. Epub 2015 Dec 11. PMID: 27047049; PMCID: PMC 4774815.
  • Bhusal A, Jamarkattel N, Shrestha A, Lamsal NK, Shakya S, Rajbhandari S. Evaluation of antioxidative and antidiabetic activity of bark of Holarrhena pubescens wall. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Sep; 8 (9): HC05- 8. doi: 10. 7860 / JCDR/ 2014/ 7803. 4863. Epub 2014 Sep 20. PMID: 25386454; PMCID: PMC 4225906.
  • Zahara K, Panda SK, Swain SS, Luyten W. Metabolic Diversity and Therapeutic Potential of Holarrhena pubescens: An Important Ethnomedicinal Plant. Biomolecules. 2020 Sep 18; 10 (9): 1341. doi 10. 3390/ biom 10091341. PMID: 32962166; PMCID: PMC 7565871.
  • Yoon H, Park J, Park KK, Kim J, Bandara NC, Bandara BMR, Tilakaratne WM, Chung WY. Methanol Extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica Inhibits the Growth of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells and Osteoclastogenesis of Bone Marrow Macrophages. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017; 2017: 7272947. doi 10. 1155/ 2017/ 7272947. Epub 2017 Nov 22. PMID: 29358968; PMCID: PMC 5735661.
  • Jamadagni PS, Pawar SD, Jamadagni SB, Chougule S, Gaidhani SN, Murthy SN. Review of Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Wall. ex A. DC.: Pharmacognostic, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Perspective. Pharmacogn Rev. 2017 Jul- Dec; 11 (22): 141- 144. doi 10. 4103/ phrev. Phrev 31 16. PMID: 28989249; PMCID: PMC 5628520.
  • Anand, Uttpal, Champa Keeya Tudu, Samapika  Nandy, Kumari Sunita, Vijay Tripathi, Gary J. Loake, Abhijit Dey, and Jarosław Proćków. “Ethnodermatological use of medicinal plants in India: From ayurvedic formulations to clinical perspectives–A review.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 284 (2022): 114744.
  • Balasubramanian, D. “Organic Chemists of Pre-Independence India: With Special Focus on Natural Products.” Indian Journal of History of Science 53, no. 4 (2018).
  • Shah, SM Ali, Khan Usmanghani, Naveed Akhtar, H. M. Asif, M. Akram, Khalil Ahmed, Ghazala Shaheen, et al. “Monograph of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Linn.) Wall.” International Journal of Phytomedicine 2, no. 4 (2010).
  • Nisa, Shahista, Karen M. Scanlon, and Michael S. Donnenberg. “Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.” In Escherichia coli, pp. 75-119. Academic Press, 2013.
  • Kavitha, D., and S. Niranjali. “Inhibition of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion on host epithelial cells by Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) WALL.” Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives 23, no. 9 (2009): 1229- 1236.
  • Akbar, Shahid, and Shahid Akbar. “Holarrhena pubescens Wall. ex G. Don. (Apocynaceae) (Syn.: H. antidysenterica (Roth) Wall. ex A. DC.).” Handbook of 200 Medicinal Plants: A Comprehensive Review of Their Traditional Medical Uses and Scientific Justifications (2020): 1015- 1022.
  • Phatthalung, Pinanong Na, Sasitorn Chusri, and Supayang P. Voravuthikunchai. “Thai ethnomedicinal plants as resistant modifying agents for combating Acinetobacter baumannii infections.” BMC Complementary and alternative medicine 12 (2012): 1- 8.
  • Niraj, Srivastava, and Saxena Varsha. “Antibacterial Activity of Kutaj (Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn.) in childhood diarrhea:-In vitro study.” The Pharma Innovation 4, no. 4, Part B (2015): 97.
  • Kavitha, D & Shilpa, P & Devaraj, Niranjali. (2004). Antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects of alkaloids of Holarrhena antidysenterica WALL. Indian Journal of experimental biology. 42. 589-94.
  • Supriya, Mana, Singhal Sachin, Neeraj K. Sharma, and Singh Dharmendra. “Hypoglycemic effect of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.” International Journal of PharmTech Research 2, no. 2 (2010): 1325- 1329.
  • Khan, Aslam, Saeed R. Khan, and Anwar H. Gilani. “Studies on the in vitro and in vivo anti urolithic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica.” Urological research 40 (2012): 671- 681.
  • Verma, Gaurav, Virendra K. Dua, Dau Dayal Agarwal, and Pravin Kumar Atul. “Anti-malarial activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Viola canescens, plants traditionally used against malaria in the Garhwal region of north-west Himalaya.” Malaria Journal 10 (2011): 1-5.
  • Keshri, Umashanker PD. “antidiabetic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats  influence on certain biochemical parameters.” Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 2, no. 4 (2012).
  • Kavitha, D., P. N. Shilpa, and S. Niranjali Devaraj. “Antibacterial and antidiarrhoeal effects of alkaloids of Holarrhena antidysenterica WALL.” (2004).
  • Khan, Aslam, Samra Bashir, and Anwar Hassan Gilani. “An in vivo study on the diuretic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica.” African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6, no. 7 (2012): 454.
  • Basharat, Sumaira, Rabia Rehman, Tariq Mahmud, Sara Basharat, and Liviu Mitu. “Tartaric acid-modified Holarrhena antidysenterica and Citrullus colocynthis biowaste for efficient eradication of crystal violet dye from water.” Journal of Chemistry 2020 (2020): 1-18.
  • Dua, Virendra K., Gaurav Verma, Bikram Singh, Aswathy Rajan, Upma Bagai, Dau Dayal Agarwal, N. C. Gupta, Sandeep Kumar, and Ayushi Rastogi. “Anti-malarial property of steroidal alkaloid conessine isolated from the bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica.” Malaria Journal 12, no. 1 (2013): 1-6.
  • Daswani, Poonam G., Tannaz J. Birdi, D. S. Antarkar, and N. H. Antia. “Investigation Of The Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Holarrhena Antidysenterica.” Indian Journal of pharmaceutical sciences 64, no. 2 (2002): 164.
  • Sinha, Snehadri, Aishwarya Sharma, P. Hemalatha Reddy, Brijesh Rathi, N. V. S. R. K. Prasad, and Amit Vashishtha. “Evaluation of phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Wall.): A comprehensive review.” Journal of Pharmacy Research 6, no. 4 (2013): 488-492.
  • Daswani, Poonam G., Tannaz J. Birdi, D. S. Antarkar, and N. H. Antia. “Investigation Of The Antidiarrhoeal Activity Of Holarrhena Antidysenterica.” Indian Journal of pharmaceutical sciences 64, no. 2 (2002): 164.
  • Gopinath, G., M. Thirumal, and P. R. Kumar. “Holarrhena antidysenterica Linn. – A Review.” Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 13, no. 4 (2020): 2013- 2018.
  • Ganapathy, Sujan & Ramachandra, Y L & Rai, Padmalatha. (2011). In vitro antioxidant activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. Methanolic leaf extract. Journal of Basic and clinical pharmacy. 2. 175- 8.
  • Pathak A, Yashawanth BN; From the proceedings of Insight Ayurveda 2013, Coimbatore. 24th and 25th May 2013. OA03.02. The effect of kutaja pratisaraniya kshara in the management of Ardra arshas. Anc Sci Life. 2013 Jan; 32 (Suppl 2): S25. doi 10. 4103/ 0257- 7941. 123839. PMCID: PMC 4147494.
  • Rais A, Negi DS, Yadav A, Arya H, Verma R, Galib R, Ahmad A, Kumar Yadav M, Ahirwar PN. A randomized open-label parallel group pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of Ayurveda interventions in the management of asymptomatic and mild COVID-19 patients-experiences of a Lucknow-based level 2 hospital of Uttar Pradesh, India. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2022 Apr-Jun: 13 (2): 100393. doi 10. 1016/ j. jaim. 2020. 12. 013. Epub 2021 Feb 2. PMID: 33897204; PMCID: PMC 8054441.
  • Anandakumar A, Rajendran V, Balasubramaniam M, Muralidharan R. Kutaja bija – its pharmacognosy. Anc Sci Life. 1984 Apr; 3 (4): 203- 6. PMID: 22557406; PMCID: PMC 3331573.
  • Patel MV, Patel KB, Gupta SN. Effects of Ayurvedic treatment on forty-three patients of ulcerative colitis. Ayu. 2010 Oct; 31 (4) 478- 81. doi 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 82046. PMID: 22048543; PMCID: PMC  3202252.
  • Philips CA, Ahamed R, Rajesh S, George T, Mohanan M, Augustine P. Comprehensive review of hepatotoxicity associated with traditional Indian Ayurvedic herbs. World J Hepatol. 2020 Sep 27; 12 (9): 574- 595. doi 10. 4254/ wjh. v12. i9. 574. PMID: 33033566; PMCID: PMC 7522561.
  • Khan A, Khan SR, Gilani AH. Studies on the in vitro and in vivo anti-urolithic activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica. Urol Res. 2012 Dec; 40 (6): 671- 81. doi 10. 1007/ s00240- 012- 0483- 1. Epub 2012 May 24. PMID: 22622371; PMCID: PMC 3666572.
  • Samy RP, Pushparaj PN, Gopalakrishnakone P. A compilation of bioactive compounds from Ayurveda. Bioinformation. 2008; 3 (3): 100- 10. doi 10. 6026/ 97320630003100. Epub 2008 Nov 2. PMID: 19238245; PMCID: PMC 2639691.
  • Tambekar DH, Dahikar SB. Antibacterial activity of some Indian Ayurvedic preparations against enteric bacterial pathogens. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2011 Jan; 2 (1): 24- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 2231- 4040. 79801. PMID: 22171288; PMCID: PMC 3217688.
  • Pooja BA, Bhatted S. Ayurvedic management of Pravahika – A case report. Ayu. 2015 Oct-Dec; 36 (4): 410- 412. doi 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 190701. PMID: 27833369; PMCID: PMC 5041389.
  • Pandey MM, Rastogi S, Rawat AK. Indian traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine and nutritional supplementation. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013; 2013: 376327. doi 10. 1155/ 2013/ 376327. Epub 2013 Jun 23. PMID: 23864888; PMCID: PMC 3705899.
  • Gilani AH, Khan A, Khan AU, Bashir S, Rehman NU, Mandukhail SU. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Holarrhena antidysenterica in gut motility disorders. Pharm Biol. 2010 Nov; 48 (11): 1240- 6. doi: 10. 3109/ 13880201003727960. Epub 2010 Sep 7. PMID: 20822397.
  • Chopra RN, Gupta JC, David JC, Ghosh S. Observations on the Pharmacological Action of Conessine, the Alkaloid of Holarrhena Antidysenterica. Ind Med Gaz. 1927 Mar; 62 (3): 132- 140. PMID: 29010704; PMCID: PMC 5197781.
  • Johari S, Gandhi T. A Randomized Single Blind Parallel Group Study Comparing Monoherbal Formulation Containing Holarrhena Antidysenterica Extract with Mesalamine in Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Patients. Anc Sci Life. 2016 Jul- Sep; 36 (1): 19- 27. doi 10. 4103/ 0257-7941.195409. PMID: 28182023; PMCID: PMC5255966.
  • Rout, Jyoti & Sahoo, Subhalaxmi & Kanungo, Satyajit & Das, Ritarani & Sahoo, Santi. (2008). Antifungal Activities of Extracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. and Plumbago zeylanica Linn. against Aspergillus species. Plant Science Research. 30. 61- 64.
  • Bhattacharyya N, Pujar MP, Chaturvedi A, Kumar MA, Lohith BA, Kumar KN. A Clinico-analytical Study on Seed of Wrightia antidysenterica Linn. as a Therapeutic Emetic Agent (Vamaka Yoga) in the Management of Psoriasis. Pharmacognosy Res. 2016 Mar; 8 (Suppl 1): S19- 25. doi 10. 4103/ 0974-8490. 178641. PMID: 27114687; PMCID: PMC 4821102.
  • Verma G, Dua VK, Agarwal DD, Atul PK. Anti-malarial activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Viola canescens, plants traditionally used against malaria in the Garhwal region of north-west Himalaya. Malar J. 2011 Feb 2; 10: 20. doi 10. 1186/ 1475- 2875- 10- 20. PMID: 21288335; PMCID: PMC 3042422.
  • Ganapathy, Sujan & Ramachandra, Y L & Hegde, Sudeep & Bellamakondi, Pavan & Achar, Somashekhara & Rai, Padmalatha. (2009). Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Evaluation of Holarrhena antidysenterica Wall. The Asian and Australasian Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology. Asian & Australasian J. Plant Sci. Biotech. Issue 1.
  • Khan, Shayni & Viquar, Uzma & Alam, Md Aftab & Moin, Md Sanaul & Khatoon, Faiza & Minhajuddin, Ahmed. (2021). International Journal of Botany Studies www.botanyjournals.com Ethno-pharmacology of Holarrhena antidysenterica wall. ex g. don. (Tewaj) in light of the unani system of medicine.
  • Sinha, Snehadri & Sharma, Aishwarya & Reddy, P. & Rathi, Brijesh & Prasad, N.V.S.R.K. & Vashishtha, Amit. (2013). Evaluation of phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Wall.): A comprehensive review. Journal of Pharmacy Research. 6. 488– 492. 10. 1016/ j. job. 2013. 04. 004.
  • Ali Shah, Dr. Syed & Usmanghani, Khan & Naveed, Akhtar & Asif, Muhammad & Akram, Muhammad & Nazish, Khalil & Shaheen, Dr & Shamim, Tahira & Ur Rehman, Muhammad & Ahmad, Ashfaq & Sumreen, Laila & Muhammad, Syed & Shah, Ali. (2010). Monograph of Holarrhena Antidysenterica (linn.) Wall. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2. 10. 5138/jam. 2010. 0975. 0185. 02048.
  • Islam, Baharul & Khan, Md. Arif & Rahman, Taufiq & Rahmatullah, Mohammed. (2018). Holarrhena antidysenterica (Linn.) Wall. (Apocynaceae)-A Plant for Gastrointestinal Disorders. 5.
  • N, Anagha & C, Mythrey & Hegde, Gajanana. (2013). Clinical study on the efficacy of amritadi ghrita and kutaja sooryapaka tail in the management of vicharchika vis-à-vis eczema. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy. 4. 820- 824. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4343. 04608.
  • Anandakumar, A & Rajendran, V & Balasubramaniam, M & Muralidharan, R. (1984). Kutaja bija – Its pharmacognosy. The ancient science of life. 3. 203-6.

Suggestive Reading Regarding Wrightia tinctoria (Stri Kutaja)

  • Srivastava R. A review on phytochemical, pharmacological, and pharmacognostical profile of Wrightia tinctoria: Adulterant of kurchi. Pharmacogn Rev. 2014 Jan; 8 (15): 36- 44. doi 10. 4103/ 0973- 7847. 125528. PMID: 24600194; PMCID: PMC 3931199.
  • Mahadevan N, Moorthy K, Perumal P, Raju SV. Pharmacognosy of leaves of wrightia tinctoria R. Br. Anc Sci Life. 1998 Jul; 18(1):78-83. PMID: 22556873; PMCID: PMC3331058.
  • Khan N, Ali A, Qadir A, Ali A, Warsi MH, Tahir A, Ali A. GC-MS Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. Leaf Extract. J AOAC Int. 2021 Sep 27;104(5):1415-1419. doi: 10.1093/ jaoacint/ qsab054. PMID: 33825845.
  • Jannat T, Hossain MJ, El-Shehawi AM, Kuddus MR, Rashid MA, Albogami S, Jafri I, El-Shazly M, Haque MR. Chemical and Pharmacological Profiling of Wrightia coccinea (Roxb. Ex Hornem.) Sims Focusing Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, Antidiarrheal, Hypoglycemic, and Analgesic Properties. Molecules. 2022 Jun 22; 27 (13): 4024. doi 10. 3390/ molecules 27134024. PMID: 35807270; PMCID: PMC 9268577.
  • Fatima N, Ahmad MK, Ansari JA, Ali Z, Khan AR, Mahdi AA. Anticancer, antioxidant potential and profiling of polyphenolic compounds of Wrightia tinctoria Roxb. (R.Br.) bark. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2016 Oct-Dec; 7 (4): 159- 165. doi 10. 4103/ 2231- 4040. 191428. PMID: 27833897; PMCID: PMC 5052944.
  • Siddiqi HS, Majeed A, Gilani AH. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Wrightia tinctoria in hypertension and dyslipidemia. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2014 Aug; 64 (2): 151- 63. doi 10. 1097/ FJC. 0000000000000100. PMID: 24681893.
  • Chaudhary S, Devkar RA, Bhere D, Setty MM, Pai KS. Selective Cytotoxicity and Pro-apoptotic Activity of Stem Bark of Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. in Cancerous Cells. Pharmacogn Mag. 2015 Oct; 11 (Suppl 3): S481- 7. doi: 10. 4103/ 0973- 1296. 168976. PMID: 26929585; PMCID: PMC 4745221.
  • Shenoy, Sushma, and Ashok Kumar BN. “Pharmaceutical and Therapeutical Study of Stree Kutaja Taila With Special Reference to Autoimmune Skin Disorders.” Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 9, no. 1 (2020): 7-10.
  • Ramchandra, P., M. Basheermiya, G. L. D. Krupadanam, and G. Srimannarayana. “Wrightial, a new terpene from Wrightia tinctoria.” Journal of Natural Products 56, no. 10 (1993): 1811-  1812.
  • Tomar, Ritu, Reetesh Kumar, and M. V. Jagannadham. “A stable serine protease, wrightin, from the latex of the plant Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br.: purification and biochemical properties.” Journal of Agricultural and food chemistry 56, no. 4 (2008): 1479-1487.
  • Al-Zaqri, Nabil, A. Muthuvel, M. Jothibas, Ali Alsalme, Fahad A. Alharthi, and V. Mohana. “Biosynthesis of zirconium oxide nanoparticles using Wrightia tinctoria leaf extract: characterization, photocatalytic degradation, and antibacterial activities.” Inorganic Chemistry Communications 127 (2021): 108507.
  • Subramanian, K., P. Senthil Kumar, P. Jeyapal, and N. Venkatesh. “Characterization of lignocellulosic seed fiber from Wrightia Tinctoria plant for textile applications—an exploratory investigation.” European Polymer Journal 41, no. 4 (2005): 853- 861.
  • Khyade, Mahendra S., and N. P. Vaikos. “Comparative phytochemical and antibacterial studies on the bark of Wrightia tinctoria and Wrightia arborea.” Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2, no. 1 (2011): 176- 181.
  • Reddy, Y. S. R., Sama Venkatesh, T. Ravichandran, Thillainayagam Subburaju, and B. Suresh. “Pharmacognostical studies on Wrightia tinctoria bark.” Pharmaceutical biology 37, no. 4 (1999): 291- 295.
  • Manokari, Lakshmi. (2017). A Study on the Extraction Process of Wrightia Tinctoria and Evaluation of Its Antimicrobial Activity. International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology. V. 1308- 1316. 10.  22214/ ijraset. 2017. 9188.
  • Reddy, Y. S. R., Sama Venkatesh, T. Ravichandran, Thillainayagam Subburaju, and B. Suresh. “Pharmacognostical studies on Wrightia tinctoria bark.” Pharmaceutical biology 37, no. 4 (1999): 291- 295.
  • Anand, Uttpal, Champa Keeya Tudu, Samapika Nandy, Kumari Sunita, Vijay Tripathi, Gary J. Loake, Abhijit Dey, and Jarosław Prockow. “Ethnodermatological use of medicinal plants in India: From ayurvedic formulations to clinical perspectives–A review.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 284 (2022): 114744.
  • Dodiya, Tanvi. “Herbal armamentarium for the culprit dandruff.” INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHYTOPHARMACY RESEARCH. https:// www. researchgate. net/ publication/ 301899530/. Published January (2013).
  • KhandekarU.S, & Ghongade, Rahul & MankarM.S,. (2013). Phytochemical Investigation on Wrightia tinctoria Fruit. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 5.
  • Deventhiran, M & Wyson, John & Marimuthu, S & Padmanabhan, Anantha & Periyasamy, Saravanan & Rajarajan, S & D, Anand. (2016). Phytochemical Analysis of Leaf Extracts from Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. and its Antidermatophytic Activity. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 40. 24- 27.
  • Khyade, Mahendra. (2009). Pharmacognostical and Physiochemical Standardization of Leaves of Wrightia tinctoria R.Br. International Journal of Pharma Research and Development. 8. 1- 11.
  • Muruganandam, Ariputhri & Bhattacharya, S.K. & Ghosal, S. (2000). Indole and flavanoid constituents of Wrightia tinctoria, W. tomentosa and W. coccinea. Indian Journal of Chemistry – Section B Organic and Medicinal Chemistry. 39. 125- 131.
  • Khyade, Mahendra. (2014). Wrightia tinctoria R. Br.-a review on its ethnobotany, pharmacognosy, and pharmacological profile. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 2. 826-40.
  • A. Elumalai & Chinnaeswaraiah, & Anusha, Voruganti & Kiranmai, Kolli. (2012). PHYTO PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF WRIGHTA TINCTORIA. International Journal of Institutional Pharmacy and Life Sciences. 2. 169- 173.
  • Manoharan, Sharanya. (2015). Phytochemical and pharmacological assessment of Wrightia tinctoria R. BR. A review. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 4. 1992- 2015.
  • Selvam P, Murugesh N, Witvrouw M, Keyaerts E, Neyts J. Studies of Antiviral Activity and Cytotoxicity of Wrightia tinctoria and Morinda citrifolia. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009 Nov; 71 (6): 670- 2. doi: 10. 4103/ 0250-474X. 59550. PMID: 20376221; PMCID: PMC 2846473.
  • Ganga Rao, Battu & Rajeswari, Dodda & Devarakonda, Ramadevi & Battu, Heera. (2019). PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES ON WRIGHTIA TINCTORIA. WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES. 10. 20959/ wjpps 20184- 11336.
  • Khyade, Mahendra & Vaikos, Nityanand & Malpani, D. (2014). Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. A review on its ethnobotany, pharmacognosy, and pharmacological profile. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 2. 10. 12980/ JCLM. 2. 2014C1221.
  • Khan, Nausheen, Amena Ali, Abdul Qadir, Athar Ali, Musarrat Husain Warsi, Abu Tahir, and Abuzer Ali. “GC-MS analysis and antioxidant activity of Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. leaf extract.” Journal of AOAC International 104, no. 5 (2021): 1415- 1419.
  • Siddiqi, Hasan Salman, Amara Majeed, and Anwarul Hassan Gilani. “Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Wrightia tinctoria in hypertension and dyslipidemia.” Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 64, no. 2 (2014): 151- 163.
  • Akbar, Shahid, and Shahid Akbar. “Wrightia tinctoria R. Br. (Apocynaceae) (Syns.: W. laciniata A. DC; W. timorensis Miq.).” Handbook of 200 Medicinal Plants: A Comprehensive Review of Their Traditional Medical Uses and Scientific Justifications (2020): 1951-  1956.
  • Mitra, S. K., S. J. Seshadri, M. V. Venkataranganna, and S. Gopumadhavan. “Reversal of parakeratosis, a feature of psoriasis by Wrightia tinctoria (in the emulsion)-histological evaluation based on mouse tail test.” Indian Journal of Dermatology 43, no. 03 (1998): 102.
  • Chaudhary, Shilpee, Raviraj Anand Devkar, Deepak Bhere, Manganahalli Manjunath Setty, and Karkala Sreedhara Ranganath Pai. “Selective cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic activity of stem bark of Wrightia tinctoria (Roxb.) R. Br. in cancerous cells.” Pharmacognosy magazine 11, no. Suppl 3 (2015): S 481.
  • Selvam, P., N. Murugesh, Myriam Witvrouw, Els Keyaerts, and Johan Neyts. “Studies of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity of Wrightia tinctoria and Morinda citrifolia.” Indian Journal of pharmaceutical sciences 71, no. 6 (2009): 670.
  • Jegadeeshwari A, Seelam NR, Myneni VR. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Anticancer Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Plant Extracts of Wrightia tinctoria and Acacia chundra. Int J Anal Chem. 2023 Mar 20; 2023: 6352503. doi 10. 1155/ 2023/ 6352503. PMID: 36992867; PMCID: PMC 10042639.
  • Bhattacharyya N, Pujar MP, Chaturvedi A, Kumar MA, Lohith BA, Kumar KN. A Clinico-analytical Study on Seed of Wrightia antidysenterica Linn. as a Therapeutic Emetic Agent (Vamaka Yoga) in the Management of Psoriasis. Pharmacognosy Res. 2016 Mar; 8 (Suppl 1): S19- 25. doi 10. 4103/ 0974-8490. 178641. PMID: 27114687; PMCID: PMC 4821102.

Suggestive Reading Regarding Wrightia tomentosa

  • De Los Reyes MM, Oyong GG, S Ng VA, Shen CC, Ragasa CY. Cytotoxic Compounds from Wrightia pubescens (R.Br.). Pharmacognosy Res. 2018 Jan- Mar; 10 (1): 9- 15. doi 10. 4103/ pr. Pr. 45. 17. PMID: 29568181; PMCID: PMC 5855380.
  • Kaneria M, Baravalia Y, Vaghasiya Y, Chanda S. Determination of antibacterial and antioxidant potential of some medicinal plants from Saurashtra region, India. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009 Jul; 71 (4): 406- 12. doi 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 57289. PMID: 20502546; PMCID: PMC 2865812.
  • Bugayong, Maria Lorraine & Jacinto, Sonia. (2017). In-vitro Cytotoxicity of Wrightia pubescens (Blanco) Merr., Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) Parker, and Platymitra arborea (Blanco) against selected human cancer cell lines. International Journal of Biosciences. 11. 2017. 10. 12692/ ijb/ 11. 5. 204- 213.
  • Rajput, Minakshi, and Navneet Kumar. “Medicinal plants: A potential source of novel bioactive compounds showing antimicrobial efficacy against pathogens infecting hair and scalp,” Gene Reports 21 (2020): 100879.
  • Atre, Nitin M., Ritika Aggarwal, and Dinesh D. Khedkar. “Review on Herbal Remedies for Dysentery and Diarrhea from the Melghat Region of Maharashtra State, India.” European Journal of Medicinal Plants 33, no. 12 (2022): 48- 72.
  • Ragasa, Consolacion & Ng, Vincent Antonio & De Los Reyes, Mariquit & Mandia, Emelina & Shen, chien-chang. (2015). An isoflavone from Wrightia pubescens. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 7. 353- 355.
  • Middleton, David. (2007). A new species of Wrightia (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae) from Thailand. Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 35. 80- 85.
  • Middleton, David & Santisuk, THAWATCHAI. (2001). A new species of Wrightia (Apocynaceae: Apocynoideae) from Thailand. Thai Forest Bull., Bot. 1- 9.
  • De Los Reyes, Mariquit & Oyong, Glenn & Ng, Vincent Antonio & Shen, chien-chang & Ragasa, Consolacion. (2018). Cytotoxic Compounds from Wrightia pubescens (R.Br.). Pharmacognosy Research. 10. 10. 4103/ pr. pr_ 45_ 17.
  • Chauhan NS, Sharma V, Dixit VK, Thakur M. A review on plants used for the improvement of sexual performance and virility. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 868062. doi 10. 1155/ 2014/ 868062. Epub 2014 Aug 18. PMID: 25215296; PMCID: PMC 4151601.
  • De Los Reyes MM, Oyong GG, S Ng VA, Shen CC, Ragasa CY. Cytotoxic Compounds from Wrightia pubescens (R.Br.). Pharmacognosy Res. 2018 Jan- Mar;10 (1): 9- 15. doi 10. 4103/ pr. pr_ 45_ 17. PMID: 29568181; PMCID: PMC 5855380.
  • Gowthami R, Sharma N, Pandey R, Agrawal A. Status and consolidated list of threatened medicinal plants of India. Genet Resour Crop Evol. 2021; 68 (6): 2235- 2263. doi 10. 1007/ s10722- 021- 01199- 0. Epub 2021 May 25. PMID: 34054223; PMCID: PMC 8148398.


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Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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