Guduchi: A plant with diverse pharmacological activity
Guduchi botanically known as Tinospora cordifolia is a plant belonging to the Menispermaceae family and is a large, glabrous climber. Guduchi is native to hot areas of the Indian Continent. In Ayurvedic classical texts, it is mentioned in approximately 12 Samhita, 30 Nighantus, and 15 Rasa Granthas. Approximately 450 species in 70 genera are distributed in the family Menispermaceae. Tinospora cordifolia, Tinospora malabarica, and Tinospora crispa are used as botanical sources of Guduchi in different places in India. T. malabarica is abundantly seen in Southeast India, especially in Karnataka, Kerala, Konkan, Bengal, etc. As per classical Ayurvedic literature pungent, bitter, and astringent in taste, sweet in post-digestive effect, tissue vitalizer, absorbent, hot in potency, light in action, strength-giving, and appetizer. It alleviates all three Dosas and Ama (undigested food, retained in the intestines) It cures thirst, burning sensation, and urinary diseases including glycosuria, cough, anemia, jaundice, skin diseases, and Vata Rakta. Guduci is popularly known as Bhisaga Priya. Approximate 2391 formulations contain Guduci as an ingredient. Recent research revealed that Guduci consists of various active ingredients like tinosporide, cordifolide, Neosporin, tinosporon, tinosporic acid, cordifol, heptacosanol B-sitosterol, and tinosporidine. Leaves yielded octacosanol, B-sitosterol, heptacosanol, cardifolone, magnoflorine & tembetarine which exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, antipyretic, diuretic, cardio-protective, anti-microbial activities, etc. Guduci gained wide popularity to reduce symptoms and improve health and immunity during the COVID- 19.
Basonym of Guduci
गुड़ति रक्षति रोगेभ्य इति |
Guduci protects from diseases.
Synonyms of Guduci
- According to habitat
काण्डोद्धवा- काण्डोद्धवा अस्या: |
Guduci can be propagated with the stem.
अमृत वल्लरी – न म्रीयते लता अस्या: |
If planted, Guduci never dies.
छिन्नरूहा- छिन्ना सती पुनः रोहति |
When cut, Guduci grows again.
- According to morphology
कुण्डली – कुण्डलाकारेण बर्धति |
Ascends circularly supporting the plant.
मण्डली- मण्डलाकारेण वर्धमाना |
Guduci climbs up the supporting plant in a circular manner.
तंत्रिका- रज्ज्वाकारा, विस्तृता च |
The stem of Guduci resembles a rope.
चक्रलक्षणिका- काण्डच्छेदे चक्रेण लक्ष्यते इति |
When cut transversely the stem shows a circular structure.
मधुपर्णी- मथुवद्रस युक्तानि पर्ण अन्य अस्य |
When crushed leaves give viscid juice like that of honey.
चन्द्रहासा – चन्द्राकाराणि शुभ्रबीजान्यस्या |
The seeds are semilunar shaped.
- According to properties and action
अमृता- अमृतवद् गुणकारिणी च |
Guduci is a very useful drug and possesses the qualities like that of nectar.
रसायनी- रसायन फल दात्री ।
Guduci has a rejuvenating quality.
जीवन्ती- जीवयतीति रसायनत्वात |
Guduci protects life because of its Rasayana (rejuvenating) properties.
वयस्या- वयसे आयुषे हिता,आयुष्येत्यर्थ: |
Guduci promotes longevity.
ज्वरनाशिनी- ज्वरे हितत्वात् |
A very efficacious drug in fever.
विशल्या- विगतं शल्यमस्याः |
Guduci protects by removing toxins.
सीमा- सोमप्रधाना |
Gives strength like that of Soma.
वत्सादनी- वत्सैरद्यते ।
Leaves of Guduchi are liked by calves.
Regional names of Guduchi
- Gulancha Tinospora, Moon seed, heart leaved (English)
- Giloe, Gurach (Hindi)
- Amrutaballi, Ugani Balli (Kannada)
- Amrita, Sittamrytu (Malayalam)
- Gulaveli Chittamrutu, Ambarvel, Gulavela (Marathi)
- Gulochi, Gulancha (Oriya)
- Giloe, Gulancha (Bengali)
- Tippa Teega (Telugu)
- Amrida Valli, Silam, Pattigai (Tamil)
- Gado, Gulo (Gujarati)
- Gurjo (Sikkim)
- Gulanch (Arab)
Scientific classification of Guduchi
Tinospora cordifolia Miers.
Tinospora – Plant stitches like a bow with curved seeds.
Cordifolia- Heart-shaped leaves and cordate base.
Family – Menispermaceae (Guduchi Kula)
Ayurveda reference for Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers.)
Classification of Guduchi as per Charaka and Sushruta
- Charaka: Tripti Ghana Mahakshaya, Stanya Shodhana Mahakshaya, Daha Prashmana Mahakshaya, Snehopaga Mahakshaya, Trishna Nigrehna Mahakshaya, Sandhaniya Mahakshaya, Vaya Sthapana Mahakshaya
- Sushruta: Guduchyadi Gana, Patoladi Gana, Aragwadhadi Gana, Kakolyadi Gana, Valli Panchmula.
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi
|C. S. Su. 2/ 11, 13||S. S. Su. 12/ 26||A. H. Su. 10/ 29|
|C. S. Su. 3/ 2, 21||S. S. Su. 25/ 21||A. H. Su. 14/ 22|
|C. S. Su. 4/ 11, 18, 29, 41||S. S. Su. 38/ 5, 28, 32, 48, 72||A. H. Su. 15/ 15, 16|
|C. S. Su. 21/ 21||S. S. Su. 42/ 18||A. H. Sa. 2/ 7|
|C. S. Su. 26/ 71||S. S. Su. 44/ 6||A. H. Chi. 1/ 46, 52, 66, 94, 154|
|C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, 150||S. S. Su. 46/ 262, 270||A. H. Chi. 3/ 3, 164|
|C. S. Sa. 8/ 87||S. S. Chi. 1/ 114||A. H. Chi. 6/ 14|
|C. S. Chi. 1. 3/ 30||S. S. Chi. 2/ 74||A. H. Chi. 7/ 25|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 198, 202, 211, 221, 246, 251, 266, 298||S. S. Chi. 5/ 8, 13||A. H. Chi. 11/ 12|
|C. S. Chi. 6/ 28||S. S. Chi. 6/ 13||A. H. Chi. 12/ 6|
|C. S. Chi. 7/ 123, 152||S. S. Chi. 9/ 7||A. H. Chi. 16/ 13, 43, 53|
|C. S. Chi. 8/ 71||S. S. Chi. 10/ 4||A. H. Chi. 18/ 6, 30|
|C. S. Chi. 12/ 24, 33||S. S. Chi. 11/ 8||A. H. Chi. 19/ 39. 86|
|C. S. Chi. 15/ 190||S. S. Chi. 15/ 44||A. H. Chi. 22/ 7, 15|
|C. S. Chi. 16/ 62, 133||S. S. Chi. 20/ 50||A. H. Ka. 4/ 1, 55|
|C. S. Chi. 17/ 93/ 101||S. S. Chi. 27/ 7||A. H. U. 9/ 27|
|C. S. Chi. 18/ 34/ 160||S. S. Chi. 37/ 34||A. H. U. 22/ 6, 68, 78, 97|
|C. S. Chi. 20/ 30||S. S. Chi. 38/ 42, 46||A. H. U. 34/ 28, 33|
|C. S. Chi. 21/ 57, 129||S. S. U. 19/ 13||A. H. U. 38/ 20|
|C. S. Chi. 24/ 144||S. S. U. 39/ 151, 168, 171, 172, 176, 184, 209, 217, 222, 239, 241||A. H. U. 39/ 44, 104|
|C. S. Chi. 26/ 56||S. S. U. 40/ 49, 51, 61||A. H. U. 40/ 50|
|C. S. Chi. 28/ 147, 156, 168||S. S. U. 44/ 36|
|C. S. Chi. 29/ 70, 102, 120||S. S. U. 49/ 24|
|C. S. Chi. 30/ 52, 56, 58, 97|
|C. S. Ka. 1/ 25|
|C. S. Ka. 2/ 8|
|C. S. Si. 3/ 12, 37|
|C. S. Si. 4/ 3|
|C. S. Si. 9/ 13|
|C. S. Si. 12/ 27, 31, 54|
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Amrita
|C. S. Su. 3/ 9||S. S. Su. 12/ 23||A. H. Su. 6/ 75|
|C. S. Su. 4/ 50||S. S. Su. 36/ 24||A. H. Su. 7/ 20|
|C. S. Su. 25/ 39||S. S. Chi. 2/ 39||A. H. Su. 10/ 35|
|C. S. Chi. 1- 1- 56, 61||S. S. Chi. 9/ 8||A. H. Su. 15/ 12, 17|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 201, 342||S. S. Chi. 18/ 5, 45||A. H. Su. 30/ 51|
|C. S. Chi. 6/ 29||S. S. Chi. 19/ 57||A. H. Chi. 1/ 50, 51, 61, 64, 139|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 69||S. S. Chi. 38/ 59, 70, 105||A. H. Chi. 3/ 58, 64, 133|
|C. S. Chi. 26/ 241, 279||S. S. Ka. 1/ 54||A. H. Chi. 4/ 22, 24|
|C. S. Chi. 28/ 170||S. S. Ka. 2/ 45||A. H. Chi. 5/ 61|
|C. S. Chi. 29/ 72, 83 (for Haritaki)||S. S. Ka. 7/ 29, 33||A. H. Chi. 8/ 49|
|C. S. Chi. 30/ 264, 276||S. S. U. 41/ 38||A. H. Chi. 12/ 8|
|C. S. Si. 3/ 59||S. S. U. 52/ 42||A. H. Chi. 13/ 4|
|C. S. Chi. 4/ 17||S. S. U. 57/ 11||A. H. Chi. 14/ 14|
|C. S. Chi. 9/ 92||A. H. Chi. 17/ 40|
|A. H. Chi. 19/ 2, 9, 18, 67|
|A. H. Chi. 21/ 58|
|A. H. Chi. 22/ 10|
|A. H. Ka. 4/ 37|
|A. H. Ka. 5/ 19|
|A. H. U. 1/ 44, 46|
|A. H. U. 2/ 13, 25|
|A. H. U. 13/ 12, 68|
|A. H. U. 22/ 67, 104|
|A. H. U. 28/ 38|
|A. H. U. 32/ 9|
|A. H. U. 35/ 21, 57|
|A. H. U. 38/ 26|
|A. H. U. 39/ 60, 159|
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Amrita Dvaya
By Amrita- Dvaya (two Amritas), Guduci and Haritaki are understood. One of the two Amirtas is undoubtedly Guduci and the other is Haritaki as is clear by comparing identical preparations (Yogas ) such as Chyavanaprasu Yogas in C. S., A. H., and also C. S. Ci. 29. 33 and A. H. Ci. 22. 12.
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 37/ 20
Vagbhata: A. H. U. 39/ 34
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Avyatha
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 49, C. S. Sa. 8/ 29, 89
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Kshodra Parni
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 7/ 123
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Chinna Ruha
Both Chinnaruha and Chinnodbhava have been accepted as synonyms of Guduci and in identical Yogas of the texts one has been substituted by the other (compare C. S. Si. 12. 29 and A. Sangraha Ka, 5. 21; S. S. Su. 38. 28 and A. H. Su. 15. 45). But the inclusion of Chinnaruha in Madhura Skandha by Caraka and in Kakolyadi Gana of S. S. which is substituted by Amrita in nearly identical Padmakudi Gana of A. H., does raise some doubt whether both Chinnaruha and Amrita can also be interpreted to mean another drug such as Asthisamhara which could also be called by these names. Bopadeya has given Amara as one of the synonyms of Asthisamhara.
Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 1/ 60
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Madhu Parnika or Madhu Parni
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 5, 21, C. S. Vi. 8/ 146, C. S. Chi. 26/ 69, C. S. Chi. 29/ 71, 91, 116
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 16/ 44, S. S. Su. 27/ 17, S. S. Sa. 10/ 61
Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 2/ 56, A. H. Chi. 19/ 91, A. H. Chi. 22/ 42
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Vatsadani
Vatsadani is usually supposed to be a synonym for Guduci. Dalhana (S. S. Su. 46, 254), however, differs and describes it as Vatsaputraka popularly known as Vatsavitaya. He may be referring to Vasanavela i.e. Cocculus hirsutus (Linn.) Diels.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 27/ 104
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 39/ 6, S. S. Su. 46/ 254
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Vyastha
This is interpreted differently to mean Amalaki, Guduchi, Brahmi, and Haritaki at different places by the commentators.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 48, C. S. Vi. 8/ 158, C. S. Sa. 8/ 93, C. S. Chi. 9/ 52, 63, C. S. Chi. 10/ 25, 46, C. S. Chi. 17/ 139, C. S. Chi. 26/ 82
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 32/ 4, S. S. U. 36/ 6, S. S. U. 60/ 46, 48
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Vishalya
This drug name is supposed to be used for several plants such as Langali, Indravaruni, Guduchi, etc. Dalhana has on the other hand identified it with Patala, Kastha Patala or Agnisikha Vriksha, all of which refer to Shweta Moksaka.
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Sa. 10/ 11, S. S. Chi. 18/ 48, S. S. Ka. 5/ 61, S. S. U. 55/ 49, S. S. U. 62/ 30
Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 28, A. H. Sa. 1/ 84, A. H. U. 6/ 39, A. H. U. 22/ 69
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Somavalli
Charaka supposed it to be Somalata while Dalhana thinks it to be Guduchi.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Vi. 8/ 146
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Ka. 1/ 54, S. S. U. 28/ 7
Guduci's description in Brihtrayi as Soma
It may be Somlata or Guduchi.
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Ka. 1/ 37
Guduci in various groups as reported in Samhita, Nighantu, and Rasa GranthaGuduci in various groups as reported in Samhita, Nighantu, and Rasa Grantha
|Based on number||Chatuspada Varga, Panchdasha Gana|
|Based on the first drug of the group||Aragvadadi Gana,Guduchiyadi Gana, Kiratadi Gana, Gokshuradi Gana, Padmakaadi Gana, Vidarikandadi Gana, Pipaliadi Varga, Abhyadi Varga, Murvadi Gana, Shatavariadi Gana, Brihatshatyadi Varga, Mustakadi Gana, Kakolyadi Gana, Patoladi Gana, Rasnaadi Gana, Shtyadi Gana, Shayamadi Gana, Triplhadi Gana, Madanadi Gana Varga|
|Based on habit||Valli Panchmool, Latavarga, Lata kand, Vrikshadi Varga, Valli Gana|
|Based on properties||Katu Skandh Dravya, Madhur Skandh Dravya, Tikat Rasa Gana, Tikat Varga, Tikat Skandh|
|Based on Dosha Karma||Kapha Shanshamana Varga, Vata Shanshaman Varga, Tridoshghana Dravya, Kapha-Vata Ghana Varga|
|Based on use||Aushadhadi Varga|
|Based on Actions||Jvarahara Mahakshaya, Sndhaniya Mahakshaya, Stanya Shodhan Mahakshaya, Prajasthapan Mahakshaya, Snehopaga Mahakshaya, Triptighana Mahakshaya, Trishna Nigrehan Mahakshaya, Vyasthapan Mahakshaya, Daha Prashamana Mahakshaya, Hikka Prashmana Mahakshaya, Vamana Dravya Kalpa Sangreha|
|Based on the action given in Rasa Grantha||Dahaghan, Jvaraghan, Mutra Virechaniya, Sandhaniya, Stnyashodhana, Snehopaga, Triptighana, Trishnaghana, Vyasthapanagana|
Historical background of Guduci
Its antecedency dates back to very early times in Indian Medicine. Sayana delineated that Guduci is kept in every house to avoid snakes and scorpions (Sounakiya Atharvaveda 6/ 56) & (Panini Upadhi Bhojavrtta- 2/ 2/ 80). Giloye is one of the non-controversial and extensively used herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. Brhattrayi texts mentioned it several times with important indications. Charaka quoted it among the Agrya Dravyas (principal drugs) by attributing Grahi, Vata Hara, Dipaniya, Kapha- Rakta Hara, and Vibandhahara properties to it (C. S. Su. 25). He also identified it as one of the best Medhya Rasayanas (brain tonics). Sushruta highlighted the Pitta and Kapha hara properties of Guduchi while Vagbhata emphasized its utility in Vatarakta. Among the Laghu Trayi, Sarngdhara stressed the utility of Guduci fresh. Susruta, Vagbhata, and Bhavamisra described one complete Varga (group of drugs) in the name of Guducyadi Varga. He for the first time disclosed the mythological background/ origin of Guduci. According to him, Guduci’s story goes on like this: During the fearful war between Rama and Ravana, several monkey warriors were killed by the enemy forces. In the end, lord Indra sprinkled elixir (Amrta) on their dead bodies and provided rebirth to the monkeys. During the process wherever the elixir drops have fallen on the ground, Guduci plants originated. During the Nighantu period, the utility of Guduci reached its zenith and an extensive description of Guduci appears in all the Nighantus. Gradually Guduci therapeutics. Some of the Yoga Granthas have quoted that in the absence of Guduci Satva, fresh juice may be used. This concept is Viprita (diagonally opposite) to the Mula Siddhanta (general principles) laid down in the earlier texts. The leaves of Guduci are mostly described under the Saka Varga and Tikta Varga in the Ayurvedic texts.
External morphology of Tinospora Cordifolia
- Habit: Guduchi is a large deciduous climber with succulent, corky, grooved stems; branches sending down slender pendulous fleshy roots, terete, striate, with tubercle, pale, sometimes shining or glaucous bark.
- Leaves: Leaves of Guduchi are membranous, 7- 9- nerved, 5- 10 cm. or rarely 12 by 10 cm. roundish subdeltoid cordate with a broad sinus and large basal lobes, obtuse or cuspidate, reticulate veined with microscopic glistening glands, beneath; petiole 2.5-6cm. long.
- Inflorescence: Racemes rather lax, 5 cm. long, elongating, and finally often longer than the leaves, axillary, terminal, or form the old wood.
- Male flowers: Male flowers of Guduchi are clustered in the axils of small subulate bracts. Sepals the 3 outers very small, ovate-oblong, acute, the inner larger, membranous broadly elliptical concave, 3- 4 mm., yellow. Petals 6, equal, about 2 mm. long, broadly spathulate, each loosely embracing a stamen when young, claw cuneate, lamina triquetrous or sub trilobed, reflexed at the apex.
- Female flowers: Female flowers of Guduchi are usually solitary, similar to the male, but sepals green, margins not reflexed, staminodes, short, linear. Carpels 1- 3 widely separated on the short fleshy gynophore, dorsally convex, ventrally flat or nearly so, scarlet, size of a larger pea; style scar subterminal. Stone is broadly ellipsoid, with a slender dorsal ridge and a ventral depression, slightly muricate.
- Stem: The fresh stem of Guduchi has a green succulent bark, covered by a thin brown epidermis, which peels off in flakes. It is studded with warty prominences here and there, give of roots and branches bearing smooth, heart-shaped leaves and bunches of red berries; when dry it shrinks very much and the bark separates from the wood and becomes dull brown; the latter consists of several wedge-shaped bundles, the taste is very bitter; the odor not on any way peculiar. The pieces of stem in dried state form raw material for market drugs.
Flowering and Fruiting time
Summer to the winter season.
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External morphology of T. sinensis: (T. malabarica (Lam.) Miers).
It is a large climber with a 2 cm diameter stem, old branches are smooth and shining, more or less warty light-colored papery bark, and young parts are covered with whitish hairs. Leaves- membranous, sparingly pubescent above, broadly ovate-cordate, 7.5- 23 m long, petioles 6- 12 cm. long, striate. Flowers- arranged in pseudo racemes arising from the old branches, simple, pedunculate, yellowish green colored. Fruits- drupes 1-3, scarlet or orange colored.
Distribution of Guduchi
It is found throughout tropical India. Large climbers on trees, shrubs, and hedges occur mostly in tropical regions.
The useful part of Guduchi
The market sample consists of transversely cut pieces of dry, cylindrical, soft wooded stem, 5 mm to 2.5 cm in diameter. The outer surface is grayish brown to almost black, longitudinally wrinkled and warty, and covered with raised lenticels the bark peels off in the papery flakes. The transversely cut surface of the stem shows a soft pale yellow or a dirty white surface with a marked wedge-shaped structure brought about by radiating medullary rays. On breaking, the stem is fibrous and does not have any particular odor but has a very bitter taste.
Pharmacognostic studies of Guduchi
The commonest species with which T. cordifolia is likely to be substituted or adulterated are T. sinensis. (Lour.) Merrill. (Syn: T. malabarica (Mier.) and T. crispa (Linn.) Miers ex Hook. f. & Thomas. In northern India, both T. cordifolia and T. sinensis are met with and often confused with each other. The plant which is commonly met, and identified was, in reality, T. sinensis (Kanjilal, 1928) Kanjilal after giving the morphological description of T. sinensis mentioned this plant has long been taken for T. cordifolia. The plant observed by Namjoshi to which the same description holds good indicates what he came across was no other than T. sinensis. Probably that is the reason why different authors who investigated T. cordifolia for chemical constituents obtained different results (Pendse & Dutt, 1932; Joise, 1941; Kidwa et al; 1949; Sehgal & Majumdar, 1959 Qudrat-i-Khuda et al; 1964).
Distinguishing microscopic characters of Tinospora cordifolia and Tinospora sinensis
|Tissue||T. cordifolia||T. sinensis|
|Sclerenchymatous sheath||They disintegrated into scattered irregular patches in the cortical region.||Broken into areas capping the vascular bundle and remaining persistent even after further screening growth.|
|Crystal||Absent||A large crystal of calcium oxalate is present within the lumen of each cork cell.|
|Xylem||Well developed in each strip of the vascular strand.||Poorly developed|
|Pith||Very narrow and composed of thin-walled cells||–|
|Starch content||More||Comparatively poor.|
Important phytoconstituent of Guduchi
- A diterpenoid of columbin type- tinosporin is isolated from the plant (Sci. Cult. 26: p. 140, 1960; Chem. Abstr. 61: 12331 b, 1964). Tinosporide and cordifolide (Sci. Res. 1: 177, 1964). Tinosporidine and ß- sitosterol isolated stems; cordifol, heptacosanol, and octacosanol were reported from the leaves (Comp. Ind. Med. Plants vol. 2 p. 679).
- A new furanoid diterpene- tinosporide from stems (Ind. J. Chem; 16 B: 317, 1978 & Chem. Abstr. 93: 72009 c, 1980).
- 18-norclerodene glucoside- tinosporaside- from stem wood is reported (phytochemistry. 28: 273, 1989 & Chem. Abstr. 112: 211629; 1990)
- Five diterpene furan glycosides, viz., cordifolisides A-E and two phenyl propane glycosides are isolated from aq. Extracts (Gangan et al; 1994).
- Isocolumbin, tetrahydropalmatine, magnoflarine, and palmatine were isolated from roots (Sarma et al; 1998).
- ß-sitosterol, tetracosanoic acid and tinosporin are reported (Ind. J. Chem. 20 B: 834, 1981).
- Tinosporinone and S- allyloxy- 6, 7, 4- trimethoxyflavone (phytochemistry. 21: 2992, 1982).
- Synthesis of 1,1-dibenoylethane (Ind. J. Chem. 22 B: 183 Kokusaginine is reported (Planta Med. 51:529, 1985).
- Malabarolide is isolated from the stem and is a new bisnorditerpenoid (Tetrahedron Lett., 29: 4241, 1988).
- Magnoflorine, quercetin-3- 0- glucoside, kaempferol, and its 3- 0- glucoside from menispermicide are reported from stems (Phytochemistry. 31: 3155, 1992).
- New phenolic glycoside- tinosinen I is isolated from the fresh stems (Planta Med., 59:522, 1993).
- A clinical trial on 20 T.B. Patients (2 months study) revealed that T. cordifolia lowered clinical composite score earlier than placebo, produced higher weight gain, reduced sputum conversion time, hastened radiological recovery and offered a better quality of life in the early phase. Therefore, the use of T. cordifolia as an adjuvant to antitubercular chemotherapy is justified. (Rege D.A. et al; 2001).
- Water extract of T. cordifolia was clinically evaluated in 50 patients of Amavata and Sandhigata Vata. Out of these 48% got complete relief, 32% got partial relief and 20% showed some improvement (Mhaiskar V.B. et al; 1980). A clinical trial with a combination of Sunthi and Guduci showed encouraging results (Kishore et al; 1980).
- It has been observed that during the treatment with T. cordifolia, the frequency of asthmatic attacks has been considerably reduced in all asthmatics. There was also a reduction in the severity of symptoms, particularly cough and wheezing. Reducing the requirement of bronchodilators, including corticosteroids is noticed. Adjuvant treatment with T. cordifolia helps to maintain adequate pulmonary functioning in chronic asthmatics and maintain quality of life (Kulkarni, 1998).
- Guduchi Sattwa was administered in a dose of 500 mg three times a day to 40 patients suffering from fever; relatively long-term treatment of the patients was needed to get the best results (Kumar & Srivastava, 1995).
- In a clinical trial Gudu ci (powder 1-3gm t.d.s. and leaf juice 10 ml t.d.s.) was administered orally for 15 days in 20 patients suffering from jaundice. The results showed significant improvement (Shyamsunder, 1976). In other clinical trials its affection: Tvak Rogas i.e; skin disorders (Dwivedi, 1989); Pandu i.e.; anemia (Meena R.R., 1994), Vata Rakta i.e; arthritis (Balagangadhar, 1986 & Diwan, 1989); Medhya Rasayana effect i.e.; brain tonic (Mehta, 1994 & Khara, 1983), etc., were studied and reported.
Recent research on Tinospora cordifolia
- To evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of stem of (TC) on hyperalgesia in Tinospora cordifolia streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and in vitro aldose reductase inhibition. Tinospora cordifolia prevents hyperalgesia in experimental diabetic neuropathy. It has an aldose reductase inhibitory activity in-vitro which may contribute to the beneficial effects. Nadig PD, Revankar RR, Dethe SM, Narayanaswamy SB, Aliyar MA. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on experimental diabetic neuropathy. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012 Sep; 44 (Q580- 3. do 10. 4103/ 0253-7613. 10038C0
- The study aimed to isolate and characterize the immunomodulatory active compounds of Tinospora cordifolia. Chromatographic purification of this fraction led to the isolation of a mixture of two compounds 2, 3 isolated for the first time from a natural source and five known compounds 1, 4- 7 which were characterized as 11- hydroxyrmus take one (2 N- methyl- 2- pyrrolidone (3), N- formylannonain (1), cordifolioside A (4), magnoflorine (5), tinocordiside (6), syringin (7) by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) and comparing the spectral data with reported one. Cordifolioside A and syringing have been reported to possess immunomodulatory activity. Other five compounds showed significant enhancement in phagocytic activity and an increase in nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation at concentrations 0.1- 2.5 ug/ ml, Sharma U, Bala M, Kumar N, Singh B, Munshi K, Bhalerao S. Immunomodulatory active compounds from Tinospora cordifolia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jun 14; 141 (3) 918- 26. Epub 2012 Mar 26.
- The immunomodulatory activity of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) was tried. The confirmation of an immunomodulatory protein in the Guduchi stem showing lymphoproliferative and macrophage-activating properties reinforces the rationale for the use of Guduchi preparations in several Ayurvedic medicines for immunomodulation. Aranha 1, Clement F. Venkatesh P. Immunostimulatory properties of the major protein from the stem of the Ayurvedic medicinal herb Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia). J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Jan 31; 139 (2) 366- 72. Epub 2011 Nov 20
- This study assesses the antioxidant capacity of Tinospora cordifolia stems methanol extract in daily oral administration of 500 mg/ kg of body weight for 40 days in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. After treatment of methanol, Tinospora cordifolia stem extract is brought back to normal (P< 0.01) in the erythrocyte’s membrane and liver cell enzyme activities. Sivakumar V, Rajan MS. Antioxidant Effect of Tinospora cordifolia Extract in Alloxan induced Diabetic Rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010 Nov; 72 (6): 795- 8.
- It is found to be an effective anti-rheumatic and diuretic (Sisodia & Laxminarayan, 1966).
- Rai & Gupta (1966 carried out experiments on the lithotriptic activity of T. Cordifolia. In 22 rats the stone formation was induced by implanting zinc pellets into the bladder. The deposition of the secondary salts over the zinc pellets was inhibited by the aqueous extract of T. Cordifolia.
- The anti-inflammatory property is reported by Rai & Gupta (1966). Water extract showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in rats against the acute and chronic types of inflammation induced by carrageenan and adjuvant (Pendse et al; 1980 & 1981).
- It is reported to be one-fifth potent as analgesia when compared to sodium salicylate. The aqueous extract produced smooth muscle relaxation of intestines and uterus and inhibition of constrictor response of histamine and acetylcholine on smooth muscles (Gupta et al; 1967).
- Aqueous extract of the stem was found to antagonize the effects of various agonists like histamine, 5H-T, bradykinin, and prostaglandins E, & E, on the smooth muscles of guinea pigs and rats (Singh et al; 1975). Administration of aqueous extract (30 days) showed significant improvement in glucose tolerance in rats (Gupta et al; 1964).
- Oral administration of the aqueous and alcoholic extract of the plant significantly reduced FBS in rabbits and rats. The bitter fraction of aqueous extract produced a significant reduction in the blood sugar level, but it effectively inhibited the adrenaline-induced hyperglycemia significantly (Gupta et al; 1967).
- Its aqueous extract (stem) effectively reduced blood sugar levels in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats and rabbits at a dose of 400gm/ kg (Raghunathan & Sharma, 1968). The anti-hyperglycemic effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts, as well as lyophilized powder of T. cordifolia, was evaluated in diabetic animals using different doses of diabetogenic agents for the varying duration (21- 120 days) to assess their effect in mild (plasma suger< 180mg/ dl, duration 21 days), moderated (plasma sugar> 280mg/ dl, duration 120 days) and severe (plasma sugar> 280gm/ dl, duration 60 days) DM. In the pilot study (mild diabetes), a maximum reduction of 70.37% in glucose levels was seen in animals receiving 400mg/kg per day of aqueous extract after 3 and 15 weeks of treatment. The percentage reduction in glucose decreased significantly in moderate and severe diabetics i.e., 48.81% (Grover et al; 2000).
- Hepatoprotective activity was also reported. Conditions simulating viral hepatitis, fatty infiltration, and cirrhosis were induced in rats by using CCl4, in different doses and for variable durations and frequency. The acute liver damage was not prevented by T. cordifolia, but the chronic damage was effectively prevented. It prevented the fibrous changes and promoted regeneration by parenchymal tissue (Regi et al; 1984) Aqueous suspension of the alcoholic extract of the stem protected the liver from injurious effects of CCl4, in mice, rats, and rabbits. The protection is afforded also to the derangement induced by the chronic hepatotoxic effect of CCl4 Prevention of fibrosis by the plant might be by its action on the immune process (Singh B. et al; 1984 a). Kupffer cells are major determinants of the outcome of liver injury. Their activity was therefore studied in a model of chronic liver disease in rats (N=24). The hepatoprotective activity of T. cordifolia was evaluated on Kupffer cell function, by using the carbon clearance test as a parameter. The drug showed a significant improvement in kupffer cell function (Deepa et al; 1994). Hepatoprotective activity on CCl4– induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice is reported (Katewa & Arora, 2001).
- The antioxidant activity of root extract (2-5 & 5g/ kg for 6 weeks) is reported in alloxan diabetic rats (Prince P.S.M. et al; 1999). Oral administration of 2.5gm and 5g/kg body weight of aqueous extract of roots for 6 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and an increase in reduced glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in alloxan diabetic rats (Prince & Menon, 2001).
- Administration of aqueous extract of roots (2.5 & 5g/ kg for 6 weeks) significantly reduced the serum and tissue cholesterol. phospholipids and free fatty acids in alloxan diabetic rats. The root extract (5g/kg) showed the highest hypolipidemic effect (Prince et al; 1999).
- Its aqueous extract has a high phagocytic index. The active constituent in the drug was also found to inhibit in vitro the growths of M. tuberculosis (Annual Report- ICMR, 1968- 69; 1992 & anon; 1976).
- Ethanolic extract of stem and leaves exhibited significant antipyretic activity in experimental rats (Vedavathy & Rao, 1991).
- Antiallergic properties of an aqueous extract of T. cordifolia stem on histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs and experimental rats were evaluated. The extract significantly reduced the bronchospasm in guinea pigs, reduced the capillary permeability in mice, and reduced the number of disrupted mast cells in rats (Nayanpalli et al; 1986).
- T. cordifolia was found to be active against Leishmania donovani when administered to golden hamsters (Singha U.K. et al; 1992). The alcoholic extract is found to be effective against Esch. Coli (Gupta et al; 1967).
- The efficacy of T. cordifolia was evaluated against E. coli- induced peritonitis in mice. Pretreatment with T. cordifolia (100mg/ kg/ day for 15 days; orally), produced leukocytosis with 26% mortality at 16 hrs., as against 100% in controlled animals. These results are indicative of the immunomodulatory properties of the drugs (Thatte U. et al; 1987).
- The protective effect of pretreatment with T. cordifolia against mixed abdominal infection induced by cecal ligation was studied in rats. The drug (20mg; 40mg & 100 mg/ kg body wt.) effectively reduced the mortality rate in a dose-dependent manner. The results were comparable to that in the group given metronidazole and the infection and better sac formation. There was no increase in the peripheral neutrophil count and peritoneal macrophages which was associated with the increased phagocytic activity of macrophages (Dhanukar et al; 1988).
- The potentiality of T. cordifolia in cancer management is identified (Thatte U. et al; 1996). Administration of stem methanolic extract to BALB/C mice (200 mg/ kg, i.p. daily for 5 days) increased the total WBC count significantly (p< 0.001). It also increased bone-marrow cellularity and alpha-esterase positive cells in bone-marrow indicating increased malnutrition of stem cells. Administration of the extract also significantly raised humoral cells re- response, as seen from the increase in plaque-forming cells in the spleen and circulatory antibody tire, and produced an enhancement in macrophage activation. The extract decreased the solid tumor growth and synergistically acted with cyclophosphamide to reduce (83%) of the animal tumors. 15.60 rats of Charles Foster strain weighing 200- 250gm were used to study two formulations with T. cordifolia. There were 6 groups with 10 rats each. All animals fell for 15 days in prescribed doses after which they were subjected to cold immobilization stress. Subsequently, Evans Blue was injected, 15 minutes after injection animals were killed and stomachs removed. The quality of Evans Blue in the stomach was established. Pretreatment with all plant products (including T. cordifolia) significantly reduced gastric damage (Till, 1994).
- The alcoholic extract of roots was found to possess normalize the activity against stress-induced changes in norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5- hydroxytryptamine (5- HT), and 5- hydroxy indole acetic acid (5- HIA) levels in rats (Sarma D.N.K. et al; 1995). Both T. cordifolia and C. asiatica (ethanol extracts) exhibited significant antistress activity (Sarma D.N.K, 1996).
- T. cordifolia exhibited mild anti-ulcerogenic activity against gastric ulcers in rats (Biswas et al; 1993). The ethanolic extracts of the roots of I. cordifolia and Centella asiatica administered at a dose of 100mg/kg daily, were observed to induce a marked protective action against an 8-hour resistant stress-induced ulceration. The activity was found to be comparable to that of diazepam in experimental albino rats. The antiulcer activity has been reported as a part of the overall adaptogenic activity (Sharma, 1995).
- I.V. administration of water extract in doses of 5, 10, and 15mg/ kg produced a marked but transient fall in B.P. along with bradycardia in the anesthetized dogs. A decrease in the coronary outflow in the isolated preparation of rabbit heart and the above findings suggest that the basic action of the extract resembles the cholinomimetic drugs. It significantly de- creased blood urea levels in uremic dogs and patients (Singh et al. 1975).
Rasa Panchaka of Guduchi
|Rasa (Taste)||Tikta (bitter), Kashaya (astringent)|
|Guna (Virtue)||Guru (heavy), Snigdha (oily)|
|Virya (potency)||Ushna (hot potency)|
|Vipaka (post-digestion)||Madhura (sweet)|
Karma (Actions) of different parts used of Guduchi
Jwarahara, Rasayana, Sangrahi, Dipana, Amahara, Trishnahara, Dahaharo, Pramehaghna, Kasahara, Kusthaghna, Balya, Krimighna, Chardighana, Arsoghna, Medhya, Hridya, Caksusya, Vayasthapana.
Kanda Guduchi: Jwarahara, Vishghani, Bhutghani, Valli- Palit Nashini.
Dosha Karma of Guduchi
Tridosa Shamaka, Vata Shamaka because of Usna Virya and Madhura Vipaka, Pittahara due to Tikta, Kasaya Rasa and Madhura Vipaka. Kapha Shamaka due to its Usna Virya and Tikta, Kashaya Rasa.
Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Guduchi
Jvara, Jirna Jvara, Visama Jvara, Daha, Trishna, Chardi, Shrama, Kshaya, Dourbalya, Dhatu Kshaya, Vata Rakta, Ama Vata, Rakta Vikara, Mutra Kriccha, Mutra Daha, Puya Meha, Parmeha, Shukra Dourbalaya, Kasa, Shvasa, Kustha, Visarpa, kandu, Charma Roga, Phiranga, Hridd Dourbalya, Pandu, Kamala, Halimaka, Agnimamandya, Chardi, Shula, Arsha, Amla Pitta, Parvahika, grahani, Krimi Roga, Visha, Bhrama, Netra Roga, Timira, Plihodra, Pradara, Stanya Shuddhi, KesaRoga, Bali, Palita, Jara Vyadhi, Bhuta Graha Baddha.
Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Guduchi
- Kwath (Decoction) of the Hima (cold infusion) of Guduci should be taken. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39. 170)
- Giloye Swarasa (Juice of Guduci) and Shatavari Swarasa (juice of Shatavari) in Sama Matra (equal quantity) mixed with Sharkara (jaggery) alleviates fever caused by Vata. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra.39.174)
- Guduci juice alone checks the fever caused by Vata. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 70)
- The juice of Guduci mixed with Pippali powder removes fever. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 87, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 60).
- Hima (Cold infusion) of Guduci mixed with sugar alleviates fever caused by pitta. Similarly, Vasa removes the cough, intrinsic hemorrhage, and fever. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 1/ 357)
- Decoction of Guduci, Parpata, and Amalaki overcomes fever caused by pitta. (Harita Samhita. 3. 2. 71) Oil cooked with powder of Katuka or leaves of Guduci or Sahadevi juice alleviates fever. (Vaidya Manorma. 1/ 22)
- Visham Jwara (Irregular fever)
- Decoction of Triphala or juice of Guduci is useful. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 299)
- One should take a decoction of Guduci, Nimba and Amalak mixed with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39/ 213)
- Guduci- Modaka. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 757- 760)
Jeern Jwara (Chronic fever)
- Ghrta and oil cooked with juice and paste of Guduci, Triphala, Vasa, Draksha and Bala alleviate fever. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 2/ 22)
- Decoction of Guduci added with Pippali powder destroys chronic fever and Kapha. Similarly does that of Panchmula (Brihat). (Vaidya Manorma. 1. 207)
- Cold infusion of Guduci alleviates chronic fever. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 4. 6)
- One should use Guduci juice mixed with Pippali powder and honey. It destroys chronic fever, Kapha, spleen enlargement, cough, and anorexia. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 818, Vaidya Jeevana. 1. 47)
- In case of vomiting in fever, the cold decoction of Guduchi mixed with honey should be taken. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 852)
- The leaves of Guduchi should be used as a vegetable in fever. (Chakra Dutta. 1. 41)
Kamala, Halimaka (Jaundice)
- One suffering from jaundice should take buffalo’s ghee cooked with Guduci juice and milk, He should also take, after unction, Trivrita with Amalaki juice. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 134, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 16. 53, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 47)
- The patient with jaundice should take the cooled decoction of Triphala or Guduci or Daruharidra or Nimba mixed with honey in the morning. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 63)
- One suffering from jaundice should take paste of Guduci leaves with buttermilk. (Vanga Sena Pandu. 70)
- The syrup of Guduci removes thirst. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 22. 45)
- Cold infusion of Guduci mixed with honey is beneficial in all three types of thirst. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 49/ 24, Vaidya Manorma. 15. 14)
- In thirst caused by Vata, curd mixed with jaggery is useful. Similarly, are the bulk-promoting soups and the juice of Guduchi. (Vaidya Manorma. 16. 1)
- In case of vomiting, the decoction of Gavedhuka root or Guduci or sugarcane juice or milk should be taken. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 20. 31)
- Decoction of Guduci, Triphala, Nimba, and Patola mixed with honey and sugar alleviates vomiting and Amlapitta (acid gastritis). (Vaidya Manorma. 15/ 9)
- Vomiting is checked by a cooled decoction of Guduci or Bilva (bark) mixed with honey or Durva with rice water. (Raja Amrittanda. 20. 1)
- Cold infusion of Guduci mixed with honey checks even severe vomiting caused by three Dosas. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 17. 21)
- Amlapitta (Acid gastritis): Decoction of Guduci, Nimba, and Patola leaves mixed with honey alleviates varied forms of severe amla pitta. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 10. 16).
- Oil cooked with Guduci decoction and milk or Draksha decoction, or decoction of Madhuka and Kasmarya alleviates Vatarakta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 121)
- Amrtadya taila I (Charaka Samhita Chiktsa Sthana. 29. 103- 9)
- Amrtadya taila II (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29. 157- 64)
- Madhuparnyadi taila. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29. 91- 95)
- Decoction of Guduci. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5. 8)
- For Vatarakta, Guduci is the best remedy. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 40. 59)
- One should take Ghrta or milk cooked with Guduci decoction. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 7)
- In Vatarakta, Guggulu along with Guduci decoction is sufficient. (Chakra Dutta. 314).
- Guduci is useful in Vatarakta, filaria, vomiting, Halimaka, anemia, jaundice, and obesity. (Chakra Dutta. 319)
- Decoction prepared with 30 gm of Guduci, Sunthi, and Dhanyaka alleviates Vatarakta, Amavata, and all types of Kustha. (Vrinda Madhava. 23. 4, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 42)
- Guduci- Ghrta. (Vrinda Madhava. 23. 23- 24)
- By regular use of juice, paste, and powder of decoction of Guduci for a long time one is freed from Vatarakta. (Vrinda Madhava. 23. 10, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 29. 41)
- Guduci pacifies Vata and Pitta, dries up Kapha and Medas, alleviates Vatarakta, and destroys scabies and erysipelas. (Vrinda Madhava. 23. 9, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 29. 40)
- Guduci taken with ghee pacifies Vata, jaggery removes constipation, sugar pacifies pitta, honey pacifies Kapha, mixed with castor oil destroys Vatarakta, and Sunthi controls Aravata. (Vrinda Madhava. 23. 8, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 29. 49)
- Decoction of Guduci, Eranda, and vasa mixed with castor oil controls generalized Vatarakta. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2135)
- Amrtaghrta. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 9. 42)
Kustha (Skin disorder)
- The patient should take juice or decoction, or ghee cooked with that (Guduci) every morning. In the afternoon he should eat rice with Ghee and Amalaka soup. In this way, he becomes free from all types of Kustha. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 10. 64)
- By taking juice or decoction of Guduci and after it is digested, eating with ghee and soup one regains a handsome physique even if having necrosed body. (Vrinda Madhava. 51. 52, Gada Nigreha. 2. 36. 83)
- Vidriddhi (Eruptive boils): Decoction of Guduci and Nimba or Khadira and Indrayava destroys eruptive boils. (Vrinda Madhava. 55. 6)
Amavata: Guduci- Ghrita. (Vrinda Madhava. 25. 43- 44)
Hridya Gata Vata (Vata located in the heart): For this one should take Guduci and Marica pounded together with hot water in the morning. (Vanga Sena Vatavyadhi. 59)
Kasa (Cough): Guducyadi- Ghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18. 161- 62)
As Rasayana (rejuvenator)
- Juice of Mandukaparni, powder of Yastimadhu, juice of Guduci (With root and flowers), and paste of Sankhapuspi should be used with milk. They provide longevity, destroy diseases and promote strength, digestive power, luster, voice, and intellect. Sankhapuspiis the specific intellect promoting Rasayana. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 3. 30- 31)
- Fine powder of Guduci 4 kg mixed with jaggery, honey, and ghee each 640 gm should be taken according to digestive power, keeping of light and wholesome diet. Thus, one does not fall prey to diseases and senility. (Bhava Parkasha. 1. 758- 60)
Stanya Shodhana (For purifying breast milk): One should administer the decoction of Katuka or Guduci and Saptaparna (bark) with Sunthi for purifying breast milk. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 30. 261)
Arsha (Piles): Specific regimen of buttermilk with Guduci is beneficial. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6. 13)
Prameha (Diabetes): Juice of Guduci or Amalaka mixed with honey is useful. (Ashatanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 6, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 7)
Rakta Pradara (Meno-metrorrhagia): In this disease caused by Vata, juice of Vasa or Guduci is useful. (Gada Nigreha. 6. 1. 10)
Pleehodar (Splenomegaly): Intake of the root of Guduci with rice water alleviates splenomegaly. (Raja Amrittanda. 7. 5)
Shleepada (Filaria): Regular use of Guduci juice mixed with oil destroys filaria. (Chakra Dutta. 42. 16)
Netra Vikara (Eye disease)
- Decoction of Guduci and Triphala added with Pippali powder and honey alleviates all types of eye diseases. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 150)
- Guduci juice 10 gm, honey, and rocksalt 1 gm, should be rubbed together and used as collyrium. It alleviates dirt, pterygium, defects of vision, cataracts, itching, etc. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 13. 98- 99)
Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Guduchi
- Churna (powder): 1- 3grams
- Kwath (Decoction): 50- 100 ml
- Satva – 10- 30 grains
Benefits of Guduchi
- The herbal drug is an alternative, anthelmintic, anti-arthritic, anti-periodic, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, bitter tonic, blood purifier, general tonic, nutritive and stomachic. It is useful in bilious fever, chronic diseases of diarrhea and dysentery, fever, rheumatism and gout, skin affections, general debility, malarial fever, seminal weakness, splenic effect, and urinary affections.
- The fresh stem is more efficient than the dry one. It is recommended that the stem of this plant drug may preferably be used always in the green and fresh state and if storage is desired, the stems should be properly collected during the rainy season and then stored (packed in a suitable container) after drying in shade. This kind of raw drug material (dried stems) may be used in medicine till the dried herbal drug remains medicinally potent since old raw material becomes inert.
- The drug is commonly used in rheumatism, urinary diseases, dyspepsia, general debility, syphilis, fever skin diseases, biliousness, hemorrhoids, bronchitis, spermatorrhoea, impotency, jaundice, and morbidity of the liver.
- An infusion of the plant is given in (one to three ounces twice or thrice a day) for fever, blood impurities, malarial and periodic fevers, and various other ailments which are to be treated with this drug.
- The expressed juice of the fresh plant is given (in doses of two or four drachmas) with long pepper and honey, for gonorrhea, cough, and chronic fever. The Swarasa of the Guduchi (fresh juice) is administered with Dugdha (milk) as a general tonic.
- The Mula of the Giloy plant (Root) is used in medicine in the same way as the Kanda (stem). Leaves of the plant are also medicinally useful as they are useful in various diseases and especially their vegetable (Guduci Patrasaka) is therapeutically recommended.
- The watery extract (also known as Indian quinine) is very efficacious in Samanya Jwara (common fever) that is caused due to cold or indigestion.
- The facula prepared from the roots and stems, generally from the stems, is commonly known as Gilo Sat or Sat Giloy (Guduci Satva), it is a highly valued drug for intermittent fevers, Jeerna Atisara (chronic diarrhea), chronic dysentery, Daha (burning sensation), secondary syphilis, chronic gonorrhea, Pradara (leucorrhea), Kamala (jaundice), Aam Vata (rheumatism), urinary disorders, and some other ailments.
- A medicated garland of small pieces of the stem is usually worn in certain parts of the country with the claim to affect jaundice. In rural and tribal regions, the stems are used popularly as folk medicine.
- This herbal drug is one of the highly valuable and most common drugs in the Indian system of medicine which incorporates it is a potent classical drug; it is employed as an important ingredient in several formulations (yoga) in pharmaceutics and herbal drug industry, being an efficacious herbal drug, with abundant and easy availability and recognition during source plants collection for the genuine raw drug with good demand.
- The drug possessing restorative and alternative properties is a significant rejuvenation (Rasayana) drug that is recommended in certain diseases under the group, as a preventive as well as a curative herbal remedy.
- The oil prepared with stem (Guduci Siddhataila) is externally applied to leprosy, skin diseases, and particularly gout. If the decoction and other forms of preparations of the drug are specifically prescribed for the diseases of gout and rheumatism and allied also ailments.
- The stems decoction, infusion, and powder are used frequently for spleen and liver disorder, anemia, jaundice, biliary troubles, hyperacidity, colic, worms, phthisis, senile diseases, measles, poisoning, heart troubles, filariasis, and various other diseases.
Benefits of Guduchi on different systems of bodies
- External uses Antiseptic and analgesic. Guduchyadi Taila is used in Kustha and Vata Rakta (common skin conditions and gout).
- Digestive system: Controls emesis and thirst, appetizer, digestive, peristaltic, anthelmintic, and antacid.
- Circulatory system: Cardiotonic, hematopoietic, and acts specifically on Vata – Rakta. Raktavahasrotogami. Guduchi Satva is effective in cardiac debility, blood disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, splenomegaly, gout, and anemia.
- Respiratory system: Anti-inflammatory and anti-secretory action is observed. Useful for coughing.
- Reproductive system: Aphrodisiac.
- Urinary system: Anti-diabetic, promotive. Effective in Prameha, mainly in diabetes and disorders of the urinary bladder.
- Skin: Useful in several common skin infections (should be used along with Guggulu, Haridra, Neem, Khadir, and Amla). It is used in skin disorders like dermatoses and erysipelas etc. It is also useful in syphilitic ulcers.
- Temperature: Antipyretic, especially effective in chronic fevers.
- Satmikaran: It is known to be a good restorative – Tikta, Balya, Rasayani. Useful in weakness and phthisis and good Rasayan for all seven Dhatus.
Classical reference of Guduchi
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 6- 9
गुडूची मधुपर्णी स्यादमृता अमृतवल्लरी |
छिन्ना छिन्नरुहा छिन्नोद्धवा वत्सादनीति च ||
जीवन्ती तंत्रिका सोमा सोम वल्ली च कुण्डली |
चक्रलक्षणिका धीरा विशल्या च रसायनी ||
चन्द्रहासा वयस्था च मण्डली देवनिर्मिता |
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 8- 10
Properties and action
गुडूची कटुका तिक्ता स्वादुपाका रसायनी |
संग्राहिणी कषायोष्णा लघ्वी बल्या अग्निदीपिनी |
दोष त्रयामतृड्दाहमेहकासाश्च पाण्डु ताम |
प्रमेह श्वास कासार्शः कृच्छ हद्रोग वातनुत ।
Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 5- 7
Properties and action
गुडूची स्वरसे तिक्ता कषाय उष्ण गुरु स तथा |
त्रि दोष जंतु रक्त अर्श: कुष्ठज्वरहरा परा ||
गुडुच्या आयुष्य प्रदा मेध्या तिक्ता संग्रहिणी बला |
ज्वर तृट पाण्डु वात आस्रिक छर्दि मेहा त्रिदोष जित ||
गुडूची कफ वातघ्नी पित्तमेदोविशोषिणी ।
रक्त वात प्रशमनी कण्डु विसर्प नाशिनी ||
Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 8
कन्दोद्धवा गुडूची च कटु उष्ण संन्निपातहा |
विषघ्नी ज्वर भूतघ्नी वल्ली पलित नाशिनी ||
Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 9- 11
गुडूची मधुरा पाके कषाया कटुका लघु: |
तिक्ता संग्राहिणी हृद्या बल्योष्णी वन्हिकृज्जयेत ||
दोषकुष्ठकृमि च छर्दिदाह वातास्रपाण्डुता: |
ज्वरामकामलामेहतृष्णाकासान् रसायनी ||
त्रिदोषघ्न स्वादु पथ्य चक्षुष्य दीपनं लघु |
वयस: स्थापन॑ मेध्यममृताशाकमुच्यते |
Raja Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga, 17- 18
कन्दोद्धवी गुडूची च कटुष्ण सन्निपातहा |
विषघ्नी ज्वर भूतघ्नी वलीपलितनाशिनी ||
Priya Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga
गुडूची तु रसे तिक्ता सोष्णा बल्या रसायनी |
ज्वरे मेहे कामलायाम वात रक्त प्रशस्थते ||
तिक्तरसा अपि रसायन्येषा अपोहत्यशेष दोषात्थान |
व्याधीन् स्थैर्यं देहे बंध्नातिं दृढं रज्जुवलीयेम ||
Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 25
अमृता सांग्राहिक वातहर दीपनीयश्लेष्म शोणित विबन्धप्रशमनानाम् |
Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 46
गुडुची तिक्ता पित्तकफापहा |
पत्रे गुडूच्या: शाकार्थ ज्वरिताय प्रदापयेत |
कन्दोद्धवा गुदूची च कटु उष्ण सन्निपातहा |
विषघ्नी ज्वर भूतघ्नी बलीपलितनाशिनी ||
Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda
अमृताया; शतम चूर्णम वाससा परिशोधितम |
पृथक् षोडश भागा: स्यु: गुडमाक्षिक सर्पिषाम् ||
यथाग्नि भक्षयेदेतन्नरो हितमिताशन्र: |
नास्य कश्चिद् भवेद व्याधि: न जरा पलित न च ||
गुडूचीसत्त्वं सुस्वादु पथ्यं लघु च दीपनम् |
चक्षुष्य॑ धातुकृन्मेध्यं वय: स्थापनकारकम् ||
पत्रं गुडूच्या: शाकार्थ ज्वरिताय प्रदापयेत् |
श्लीपदघ्नो रसो अभ्यासात् गुडूच्यास्तैलसंयुत: |
Sharangdhara Samhita, Uttara Khanda, 13
गुडूचीस्वरस: कर्ष: क्षौद्रं स्यान्माषकोन्मितम् |
सैन्धवं क्षौद्रतुल्य॑ स्यात्सर्वमेकत्र मर्दयेद् ||
अज्येन्नयतं तेन पिल्लार्म तिमिरंजयेत् |
काचं कण्डूं लिंग नाशं शुक्लकृष्णातान्गदान् ||
Chakra Dutta, 55- 107
केशरोपणार्थ (खालित्ये) आदित्यपाकगुडूची तैलम्
Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 12
मधुयुतं गुडूच्या वारसम् |
हृदय स्थित वाते
हृदय अनिल नाशयगुडूचीं मरिचान्विताम् |
पिबेत प्रात: प्रयत्नेन सम्यगुष्णाम्धसा सह ||
Chakra Dutta, 50- 59, Shodhala, 359
छन्नाया: स्वरसं वापि सेवमानो यथाबलम् |
जीर्णे घृतेन भुञ्जित स्वल्पयूषोदकेन तु ||
अपि पूतिशरीरो अपि दिव्यरूपो भवेन्नर: |
Chakra Dutta, Masurika Chikitsa, 54/ 27, 31
मसूरिका रोग गुडूची योगा:
गुडुच्यादि क्वाथ: अमृतादि क्वाथः (विसर्प चिकित्सा उक्त )
Bhava Parkasha, Aam Vaat Adhikara, 26- 62
आमवाते अमृता आद्यचूर्णम्
अमृता नागर गोक्षुरमुण्डितिकावरुणकैः |
मस्त्वारनालपीत सामानिलनाशनं ख्यातम् |
Chakra Dutta, 23/ 51- 58
वातरक्ते अमृता गुग्गुलु: |
Chakra Dutta, 53- 20
Chakra Dutta, 53- 19
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 1
रसो गुड्च्यास्तु…. |
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 3
……गुडूच्या रसमेव वा |
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 20
……गुड्च्या वा रस…..|
शीत मधुयु्त प्रात: कामलार्त्त: पिबेन्नर: |
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 30
……गुडूच्या जलम्…… |
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 29
गुडूची रसदुग्ध्राभ्यां तैलं ……वातरक्तनुत् ।
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 30
अमृता सप्तपर्ण त्वक क्वाथश्चैव सनागरम् |
Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 39
श्रृतशीतकषायं वा गुडूच्या: पेय मेव तु |
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 39
पित्तप्रबले गुडूचीकषायं वा |
Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 6
एष एव…….गुडूचीषु तक्रकल्प: |
Chakra Dutta, 42- 16
श्लीपदे गुडूची रस प्रयोग:
श्लीपदगहनो रसो अभ्यासाद् गुड्च्यास्तैलसंयुत: |
Bhava Parkasha Nighantu, Shaka Varga, 41- 42
गुडूचीपत्रमाग्रेय सर्वज्वरहरं लघु |
कषायं कटुतिक्त च स्वादुपाक रसायनम् ||
बल्यमुष्णं च संग्राहि हन्याद्योषात्रयं तृषाम् |
दाहप्रमेहवाता सृक्कामला कुष्ठपाण्डुता: ||
Bhava Parkasha Nighantu, Shaka Varga, 41- 42
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 29/ 117- 118
मधुपर्ण्या: पल पिष्ट्वा तैलप्रस्थ॑ चतुर्गुणे |
क्षीरे साध्यं शतम कृत्वा तदेवं मधुकाच्छते ||
सिद्धं देय॑ त्रिदोषे स्याद्वातम्ने श्वासकासनुत् |
हत्पाण्डुरोग विसर्प कामला दाहनाशनम् ||
Chakra Dutta, 23- 19- 20
वात रक्त चिकित्सायां गुडूची तैलम्
गुडूचीक्वाथ कल्काभ्या पचेत् लिस्य च |
पयसां च समं पक्त्वा भिषग मंद वहिना ||
हन्ति वातम तथा रक्तं जयति दुस्तरं |
त्वग्दोष वर्ण विसर्प कण्डु दद्रु विनाशनम् ||
Bhava Parkasha, Paandu Roga Adhikara, 8- 47/ 48
अमृतलतारस कल्कं प्रसाधित॑ तुरगविद्धिष: सर्पि: |
क्षीर॑ चतुर्गुणमेतद्वितरेच्च हलीमकात्तेभ्य: ||
मधुरैन्नपानेस्त॑ वातपित्तहरैहरेत् |
कामला पाण्डु रोगकताम क्रिया चात्रोपयोजयेत् ||
Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 4
तृप्तिघ्न महाकषाय –
नागर चव्य चित्रक विडग मूर्वा गुडूची वचा मुस्तापिप्पलीपटोल इति दुश्मनी तृप्तिघ्नानि भान्ति।
सत्नयशोधन महाकषाय –
पाठा महौषध सुरदारुमुस्तमूर्वा गुडूची वत्सकफल किराततिक्त कटुरोहिणी सारिवा इति दशेमानि स्तन्यशोधमानि भवन्ति।
तृष्णानिग्रहण महाकषाय –
नागर धन्वयवासक मुस्त पर्पट चन्दन किराततिक्त गुडूचीहीवेर धान्यकपटोलानीति दशेमानि तृष्णानिग्रहणनि भवन्ति।
लाजा चन्दनकाश्मरयफल मधूक शर्करा नीलोत्पलोशीर सारिवा गुडूची हीवेराणीति दशेमानि दाहप्रशमनानि भवन्ति।
वयः स्थापन महाकषाय-
अमृता अभया धात्री मुक्ता श्वेता जीवन्यतिरसा मण्डुकपर्णि स्थिरा पुनर्वास इति दशेमानि वयःस्थापनानि भवन्ति।
पीत॑ भवेत्प्लीहा विनाशहेतु……छिन्न रूहाजटा वा |
Chakra Dutta, 53- 27
विपर्स रोगे कुण्डल्यादि क्वाथ: |
गुड्चीस्वरसे सर्पि: सक्षीर॑ माहिष॑ शृतं |
चतुर्गुणेन पयसा पाययेत्तद्धलीमके ||
Chakra Dutta, 58- 2
….पैतते गुडूच्या रसमेव च |
वासक स्वरसं वा अपि गुडूच्या रसमेव च |
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda, 4
अमृताया हिम: पेयों जीर्णज्वरहर: स्मृत: |
वासायाश्च हिम: कास रक्त पित्त ज्वर जयेत ||
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda, 4
क्वाथो जीर्ण ज्वरम हन्ति गुडूच्या: पिप्पलीयुत: |
पिम्पलीमधुसंयुक्त क्वाथ: छिन्नोद्भवा उद्भव: |
Bhava Parkasha Jwara Chikitsa
जीर्ण ज्वर कफ ऊध्वंसं |
Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda
गुड्ची पत्र कल्क वा पिबेत्त्रेण कामली |
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda, 2
अमृतैरण्डवासानां क्वाथ एरण्डतैलयुक् |
पीत: सर्वाज्ञसन्ध्वारि वातरक्त॑ जयेद् ध्रुवम ||
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda, 1
अमृताया रस: क्षौद्र युक्त: सर्वप्रमेहजित् |
Sharangdhara Samhita, Madhyama Khanda, 1
….रसो अथवा। …गुडूच्या वा पीतो जयति कामलाम् |
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 29/ 121, Chakra Dutta, 23- 35
वातशोणिते गुडूच्यादि तैलम्
गुडूची रसदुग्धाभ्यां तैल॑ द्राक्षारसेन वा |
सिद्ध॑ मधुकाश्मर्यरसैवां वातरक्तनुत् ||
Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 16- 21
गुडूच्या रचित॑ हन्ति हिम॑ मधु समन्वितम् |
दुर्निवारामपि च्छर्दि त्रिदोषजनितां बलात् ||
Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 29- 39/ 41
वातरक्ते गुडूच्यां: विविध प्रयोगाः
अमृता कफ वातघ्नी कफमेदो विशोषिणी |
वातरक्तप्रशमनी कण्डूवीसर्प नाशिनी ||
गुडुच्या: स्वरसं कल्क॑ चूर्ण वा क्वाथमेव च |
प्रभूतकालमासेव्य मुच्यते वात शोणितात |
घृतेन वातम संगुडा विबन्धं पित्त सिताढ्या मधुना कफञ्च |
वातासगुग्रं रुबु तैलमिश्रा शुण्ठयामलात शमयेद् गुड़ूचीं ||
तिस्त्रो अथ वा पंच्चगुडेन पथ्या जग्ध्वा पिबेद छिन्नरुहा कषायम् |
तद्वा रक्तं शमयत्युदीर्ण माजानुभिन्न॑ च्युतमप्यवश्यम् ||
Chakra Dutta, Vata Rakta Chikitsa, 23/ 71- 96
वातरक्ते बृहद् गुडूची तैलम्
Bhava Parkasha Vrana Sotha Adhikara, 47/ 98-99
व्रणचिकित्सायां अमृत्ता गुग्गुलु
Chakra Dutta, Vata Rakta Chikitsa, 23/ 3
वातरक्ते अमृतादि क्वाथ
Bhava Parkasha Vata Rakta Adhikara, 29- 109
गुडुची स्वरसे सर्पिज़ीवनीयैश्च साधितम |
कल्कै चतुर्गुणैः क्षीरि: सिद्ध वा अप्यस्रवातनुत् ||
Chakra Dutta, 25/ 58- 59
आमवाते अमृता घृतम
अमृताया: कषायेण कल्केन च महौषधात् |
मृद्ग्रिना घृतमप्रस्थं वातरक्तहरम परम् ||
आमवात ताड्यवातादीन् क्रिमि दुष्ट व्रणानि।
अर्श गुल्म श्च तथा नाशयत्याशु कटीग्रहम् ||
Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, Dwitya Bhaga Vata Rakta Adhikara, 29- 102/ 108, 110/ 117, 138/ 144, 132/ 137
Chakra Dutta, Kustha Chikitsa, 50- 59
कुष्ठे छिन्ना स्वरसः
छिन्नाया: स्वरसी वा अपि सेव्यमानो यथाबलम् |
जीर्णे घृतेन भुञ्जित स्वल्प॑ यूषोदकेन वा ||
Chakra Dutta, Chardi Chikitsa, 15 – 16
वमन चिकित्सायां गुडूची शीत कषायः यो
कृत गुडूच्या विधिवत् कष्ाय हिमसंज्ञितम् |
तिसृष्चपि भवेत् पथ्य॑ माक्षिकेण समायुतम् ||
Chakra Dutta, Vata Rakta Chikitsa, 23- 4
वातरक्ते वत्सादनी क्वाथ:
वत्सादन्युद्धव: क्वाथ: पीतो गुग्गुलु संयुतः |
समीरण समायुक्त॑ शोणित॑ सम्प्रसाधयेत् ||
Chakra Dutta, Vata Rakta Chikitsa. 23- 8
गुडूच्या: षट् प्रयोगा:
घृतेन वात॑ सगुडा विबन्ध॑ पित्त सिता आढ्यामधुना कफ |
वातासृगुग्र॑ रुबैतैलंमिश्रा शुण्ठया आमवात॑ शमयेद् गुडूची ||
Chakra Dutta, Vtaa Rakta Chikitsa, 23- 9
वातरक्ते गुडूच्याश्चत्वारो योगा::
गुडूच्या: स्वरसं कल्कं चूर्ण वा क्वाथमेव वा |
प्रभूताकालमासेव्य मुच्यते वातशोणितात् ||
Chakra Dutta, 32- 2
Specific Formulation of Guduchi
- Guduchyadi Kwath for Vataja Jwara
- Guduchyadi Ghrita for Vata Rakta and Kustha
- Guduchyadi Taila for Vata Rakta and Timira
- Guduchyadi Satva for Prameha
- Amritadya Taila for Galaganda
- Guduchyadi Churna for Pandu Roga and Yakrit Vriddhi
- Amrita Arishta for Sarva Jwara
- Amritadi Guggulu for Sthoulya
- Guduchyadi Modaka for Prameha and Rakta Pitta
- Kaishore Guggulu for Kustha and Vata Rakta
The process of Sattva (cold water extract) is not traceable in the Brhattrayi texts. It is mainly developed during the medieval period. The process involves crushing Guduci stems and extracting them in the cold water at room temperature (i.e., without heating). After repeated extractions, the cold- infusion is dried and the obtained solid powder is called Guduci Sattva. It has been in extensive use in India as a valuable tonic, alternative and antipyretic. It caught the notice of European physicians in India as a specific tonic, antiperiodic, and diuretic (Watt 1893; Pendse & Bhatt, 1932). The drug itself as well as a tincture prepared from it are now official in the Indian pharmacopeia. The solid starchy extract is known by the name Guduci Sattvam, Gilo Ka Sat, or Palo. Dr. Raghunathan K. thinks that the freshly prepared Guduci Satva is good in taste but the carelessly prepared one is bitter. The Sattwa obtained from the root is pure white, whereas that obtained from the stem may be slightly grayish to greenish. According to Deshmukh et al.; (1957), Guduci Satva is cream-colored, bitter to taste having- starch grains, crystal fibers, vessel portions, parenchyma, and cork cells. Guduci Satva is claimed to be a potent tonic and rejuvenator. It is useful in fevers, diarrhea, urinary tract infections, jaundice, skin diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, and defects of semen morphology & spermatogenesis.
Suggestive reading regarding Tinospora cordifolia
- Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Sarmukaddam S, Patwardhan B. Evaluating higher doses of Shunthi – Guduchi formulations for safety in the treatment of osteoarthritis knees: A Government of India NMITLI arthritis project. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2012 Jan; 3 (1): 38- 44. doi: 10. 4103/ 0975-9476. 93948. PMID: 22529679; PMCID: PMC3326794.
- Mittal, Jitendra. (2014). Tinospora cordifolia: a multipurpose medicinal plant- A review. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies. 2. 32- 47.
- L, Krishna & Jigar, Bhatt & Patel, Jagruti. (2009). Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia): Biological and Medicinal properties, a review. The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 6. 1- 12.
- Goel B, Pathak N, Nim DK, Singh SK, Dixit RK, Chaurasia R. Clinical evaluation of the analgesic activity of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) using an animal model. J Clin Diagn Res. 2014 Aug; 8 (8): HC01- 4. doi: 10. 7860/ JCDR/ 2014/ 9207. 4671. Epub 2014 Aug 20. PMID: 25302211; PMCID: PMC4190733.
- Sharma, Rohit & Amin, Hetal & Prajapati, Pradeep & Ruknuddin, Galib. (2014). THERAPEUTIC VISTAS OF GUDUCHI (Tinospora cordifolia): A MEDICO-HISTORICAL MEMOIR. The Journal of research and education in Indian medicine. XX. 113- 28.
- Philips CA, Abraham L; Mission for Ethics and Science in Health Care (MESH). Tinospora Cordifolia (Giloy) and Autoimmune-like Liver Injury – A Classic Case of Primum Non-Nocere, “First, Do No Harm”. J Clin Exp Hepatol. 2022 Jan-Feb;12 (1): 245- 246. doi: 10. 1016/j. jceh. 2021. 08. 026. Epub 2021 Sep 4. PMID: 34511809; PMCID: PMC8416289.
- Upadhyay, Kanica. (2021). A Review on Giloy: The Immunity Booster Herb. 2. 87-89.
- Varghese, Reenu & Bhaskaran, Arun & P Y, Ansary. (2016). GUDUCHI (TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA WILLD.MIERS EX HOOK.F): HEALING DROP OF NECTAR. 1. 26- 33.
- Jain, Harshita & Dhupper, Renu. (2020). A Review on Healing Properties of Tinospora Cordifolia (Indian Giloy). 10. 22214/ ijraset. 2021. 34467.
- Bharathi, C & Aswartha, Harinatha Reddy & Nageswari, G & Lakshmi, M & Soumya, D & Vanisri, B & Venkatappa, & Venkatappa, B. (2018). A Review on Medicinal Properties of Tinospora cordifolia Introduction.
- Balkrishna A, Khandrika L, Varshney A. Giloy Ghanvati (Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thomson) Reversed SARS-CoV-2 Viral Spike-Protein Induced Disease Phenotype in the Xenotransplant Model of Humanized Zebrafish. Front Pharmacol. 2021 Apr 19; 12: 635510. doi: 10. 3389/fphar. 2021. 635510. PMID: 33953674; PMCID: PMC8091047.
- Verma DK, G K, Kumar P, El-Shazly M. Unmasking the Many Faces of Giloy (Tinospora cordifolia L.): A Fresh Look on its Phytochemical and Medicinal Properties. Curr Pharm Des. 2021; 27 (22): 2571- 2581. doi: 10. 2174/ 1381612826666200625111530. PMID: 32586250.
- Gupta, Brij Mohan & Kk, Mueen. (2018). Global Research on Tinospora cordifolia (Medicinal Plant) with Special Reference to India: A Scientometric Assessment Publications Output during 2001- 2016 Int J Pharmacogn Chinese Med Global Research on Tinospora cordifolia (Medicinal Plant) with Special Reference to India: A Scientometric Assessment Publications Output.
- Mehta, Gunjan. (2021). COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA UNVEILING ITS HEALTH BENEFITS AND BIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL. PLANT ARCHIVES. 21. 10. 51470/ PLANT ARCHIVES. 2021. v21. no2. 031.
- Salve BA, Tripathi RK, Petare AU, Raut AA, Rege NN. Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on physical and cardiovascular performance induced by physical stress in healthy human volunteers. Ayu. 2015 Jul- Sep; 36 (3): 265- 70. doi: 10.4103/0974-8520. 182751. PMID: 27313412; PMCID: PMC4895752.
- Sharma V, Pandey D. Beneficial Effects of Tinospora cordifolia on Blood Profiles in Male Mice Exposed to Lead. Toxicology Int. 2010 Jan; 17 (1): 8- 11. doi: 10. 4103/ 0971- 6580. 68341. PMID: 21042466; PMCID: PMC2964740.
- Khan, Md & Haque, M & Chowdhury, Md. (2017). Medicinal use of the unique plant Tinospora Cordifolia: evidence from the traditional medicine and recent research. Asian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. 2. 508. 10. 3329/ ajmbr. v2i4. 30989.
- Rawat, Neha & Roushan, Rakesh. (2018). GUDUCHI; IS A POTENTIAL DRUG IN AYURVEDA. 7. 355- 361. 10. 20959/ wjpr201812- 12674.
- Jagetia GC, Rao SK. Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects of Dichloromethane Extract of Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers ex Hook F & THOMS) on Cultured HeLa Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):267-72. doi: 10.1093/ecam/nel011. Epub 2006 Apr 24. PMID: 16786058; PMCID: PMC1475936.
- Patgiri B, Umretia BL, Vaishnav PU, Prajapati PK, Shukla VJ, Ravishankar B. Anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of Tinospora Cordifolia Miers.). Ayu. 2014 Jan; 35(1): 108-10. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520.141958. PMID: 25364210; PMCID: PMC4213960.
- Dhama K, Sachan S, Khandia R, Munjal A, Iqbal HMN, Latheef SK, Karthik K, Samad HA, Tiwari R, Dadar M. Medicinal and Beneficial Health Applications of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi): A Miraculous Herb Countering Various Diseases/Disorders and its Immunomodulatory Effects. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2017; 10 (2): 96-111. doi: 10. 2174/ 1872214811666170301105101. PMID: 28260522.
- Dahiya, Dr.Devprakash & K.K.Srinivasan, & Subburaju, Thillainayagam & Gurav, Suhas & Singh, Sachin. (2011). Tinospora Cordifolia: -A Review On Its Ethnobotany, Phytochemical & Pharmacological Profile. Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 1. 306- 317.
- Arora, Akanksha. (2021). TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA: A MAGICAL WAND WITH IMMENSE MEDICINAL APPLICATIONS. PLANT ARCHIVES. 21. 10. 51470/ PLANTARCHIVES. 2021. v21. no2. 024.
- Bhalerao, Satish & Verma, Deepa & Didwana, Vinodkumar & Teli, Nikhil. (2016). Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers (Guduchi) – An Overview. International Journal of Green and Herbal Chemistry. 5. 1- 12.
- Upadhyay AK, Kumar K, Kumar A, Mishra HS. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) – validation of Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010 Apr; 1 (2): 112- 21. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 7788. 64405. PMID: 20814526; PMCID: PMC2924974.
- Saeed M, Naveed M, Leskovec J, Ali Kamboh A, Kakar I, Ullah K, Ahmad F, Sharif M, Javaid A, Rauf M, Abd El-Hack ME, Abdel-Latif MA, Chao S. Using Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) as an eco-friendly feed supplement in human and poultry nutrition. Poult Sci. 2020 Feb; 99 (2): 801- 811. doi: 10.1016/ j. psj. 2019. 10. 051. Epub 2019 Nov 29. PMID: 32029162; PMCID: PMC7587696.
- Savrikar SS, Dole V, Ravishankar B, Shukla VJ. A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of ‘Guduchi Ghrita’ for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010 Apr; 1 (2): 67- 72. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 7788. 64399. PMID: 20814518; PMCID: PMC2924986.
- Sinha, Kirti & Mishra, N. & Singh, J & Khanuja, Suman. (2004). Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi): A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: A review. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge F. & Thoms. 3. 257- 270.
- Saha, Soham & Ghosh, Shyamasree. (2012). Tinospora cordifolia: One plant, many roles. The ancient science of life. 31. 151- 9. 10. 4103/ 0257- 7941. 107344.
- Sharma R, Amin H, R G, Prajapati PK. Seasonal variations in physicochemical profiles of Guduchi Satva (a starchy substance from Tinospora cordifolia [Willd.] Miers). J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2013 Oct; 4 (4): 193- 7. doi: 10.4103/0975-9476. 123685. PMID: 24459384; PMCID: PMC3891173.
- Sharma P, Dwivedee BP, Bisht D, Dash AK, Kumar D. The chemical constituents and diverse pharmacological importance of Tinospora cordifolia. Heliyon. 2019 Sep 12; 5 (9): e02437. doi: 10.1016/ j. helicon. 2019. e02437. PMID: 31701036; PMCID: PMC6827274.
Contraindication and side effects of Guduchi
- Guduchi is safe to use when taken in the appropriate amount. It may result in nasal pain, headache, skin rashes, redness, and itching in a few people.
- Guduchi exhibits Hypoglycemic activity, so it may interfere with another anti-diabetic drug. So, monitor your sugar regularly if you are taking Guduchi with other sugar-controlling drugs.
- Guduchi is an immunomodulatory drug. Overuse of herbs may result in over-stimulation of the immune system which may increase symptoms of auto-immune diseases.
- Guduchi may lead to constipation and stomach irritation in a few people.
- Avoid the use of Guduchi during pregnancy and lactation.
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Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)