Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Dadima – Punica granatum Linn.

    Dadima – Punica granatum Linn.

    Dadima

    Introduction

    There is a quote that “Ek Anaar so Bimar”, which clarifies that Anaar is beneficial in curing various diseases. Dadima or Anar botanically known as Punica granatum is a member of the monogeneric family i.e Punicaceae. Dadima is native to Iran, Afghanistan, Persia, and Baluchistan and is a deciduous shrub. Dadima fruit is used but its fruit rind, bark, etc also have marvelous medicinal properties. Dadima consists of active ingredients like maltose, starch, oxalic acid, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, Vitamin C, pectin, amino acids, citric acid, tannin, punicic acid, etc due to which it exhibits activities like cardioprotective, nephron- protective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, etc. As per Ayurvedic classical texts, Dadima is of three types sweet, sour, sweet-sour (Swadu, Amla, Swadu- Amla), Tridosha Shamaka in nature, and is described under Phala Varga. As per Ayurvedic literature, Dadima is included in approximately 634 formulations out of which 102 are Aahara Kalpana. Shatavari Ghrita is one famous formulation used for constipation, bleeding disorders, etc and Punica granatum flowers are one of its important ingredients.

    Basonym

    दाल्यते विदार्यते रसावाप्त्यर्थमिति |

    When fruit is cut open juice spills over.

    Synonyms of Bilva

    • According to morphology

    दन्तबीज: – दन्तसदृशानि बीजान्यस्य ।

    Seeds resemble teeth.

    मणिबीज: – मणि: स्फटिकः माणिक्यं वा, तदवद बीजान्यस्य |

    The seeds are like quartz and ruby.

    रक्तबीज: – रक्तवर्णानि बीजान्यस्य ।

    The seeds are red.

    लोहितपुष्पकः – लोहित॑ रक्तवर्ण पुष्पमस्य ।

    The flowers are red.

    वृत्त फल: – वृत्ते फलमस्य ।

    Fruits are round-shaped.

    वल्कफल: – वल्कलावृत फलमस्य ।

    The fruit is covered by the leathery rind.

    रसालक: – रसपूर्ण: ।

    The fruit is juicy.

     

    • According to properties and action

    स्वादअम्लम – मधुरमम्लञ्च रसे |

    The fruit of Dadima has a sweet and sour taste.

    पथ्यकारी – हितकर: |

    Dadima is conducive to health.

    करक: – कृणोति हिनस्ति रोगनिति |

    Dadima is very useful in so many diseases. 

    Regional names of Dadima

    • Pomegranate (English)
    • Anar (Hindi)
    • Dadimb(Bengali)
    • Dalimbe (Kannada)
    • Matalam (Malayalam)
    • Dalimb (Marathi)
    • Madalai Chetti(Tamil)
    • Danimma (Telugu)
    • Anar (Persian)
    • Rumman (Arabic)

    Scientific classification of the Dadima

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassPolypetalae
    Series Calyciflorae
    OrderMyrtales
    Family Punicaceae
    GenusPunica 
    Species granatum

    Ayurveda reference of Dadima

    Dadima's description in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 18, 19, 21S. S. Su. 19/ 34A. H. Su. 6/ 117
    C. S. Su. 4/ 10, 28, 40S. S. Su. 20/ 5A. H. Su. 8/ 43
    C. S. Su. 13/ 84S. S. Su. 38/ 43A. H. Su. 10/ 26, 34
    C. S. Su. 23/ 37S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Su. 15/ 13
    C. S. Su. 26/ 112S. S. Su. 44/ 20A. H. Su. 29/ 36
    C. S. Su. 27/ 3, 147S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 141, 334, 336, 362, 368, 370, 374, 377, 432A. H. Sa. 1/ 13
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 144S. S. Chi. 5/ 24, 28A. H. Chi. 1/ 27, 76, 134
    C. S. Chi. 1. 4/ 12, 15S. S. Chi. 10/ 4A. H. Chi. 2/ 15, 49
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 156, 180S. S. Chi. 11/ 9A. H. Chi. 3/ 51, 52, 60, 142, 145, 165
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 35, 95, 100S. S. Chi. 25/ 43A. H. Chi. 4/ 27
    C. S. Chi. 5/ 68, 69, 72, 74, 77, 80, 85, 87, 134, 143, 168S. S. Ka. 5/ 77A. H. Chi. 5/ 11, 55
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 67, 125, 130, 131, 133, 141S. S. Ka. 6/ 9A. H. Chi. 6/ 8, 9, 30
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 43, 61S. S. Ka. 7/ 29A. H. Chi. 7/ 12, 16, 20, 22, 28, 31, 37, 102
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 85, 88S. S. Sa. 2/ 8A. H. Chi. 8/ 60, 73, 82, 103, 109, 117, 146
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 54S. S. U. 12/ 21, 42A. H. Chi. 9/ 12, 14, 19, 24, 26, 30, 34, 50, 63, 65, 66, 111, 114, 115
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 128, 133S. S. U. 39/ 137, 183, 225, 232, 291, 297, 298A. H. Chi. 10/ 9, 15, 28
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 100, 107, 125, 186, 199, 201S. S. U. 40/ 41, 56, 69, 79, 92, 113, 135, 154A. H. Chi. 14/ 9, 12, 16, 18, 23, 26, 29, 31, 40, 75, 79, 111
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 89, 97, 100, 115, 116, 125S. S. U. 42/ 25, 27, 29, 32, 98A. H. Chi. 15/ 19, 23
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 44, 90S. S. U. 45/ 17A. H. Chi. 16/ 2, 26
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 63, 126, 165S. S. U. 46/ 16, 19A. H. Chi. 17/ 11
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 31, 36, 39, 43, 47, 60S. S. U. 47/ 25, 34, 39, 41A. H. Chi. 18/ 28
    C. S. Chi. 20/ 24, 25S. S. U. 48/ 16A. H. Chi. 21/ 37
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 108, 111, 112, 127S. S. U. 58/ 32A. H. Ka. 2/ 62
    C. S. Chi. 22/ 36, 49S. S. U. 62/ 22A. H. Ka. 3/ 15
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 225A. H. U. 6/ 27
    C. S. Chi. 24/ 121, 127, 129, 136, 139, 150, 151, 178A. H. U. 16/ 63
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 216, 218A. H. U. 20/ 3
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 131A. H. U. 22/ 12
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 79A. H. U. 34/ 52
    C. S. Ka. 7/ 29, 53, 73A. H. U. 36/ 62
    C. S. Ka. 11/ 6
    C. S. Si. 3/ 41
    C. S. Si. 6/ 64
    C. S. Si. 9/ 24

    Dadima's description in Brihtrayi as Amla Phala

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 11/ 80
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 47/ 38, S. S. U. 49/ 20
    • Vagbhatta: Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 7

    Historical background of Dadima

    We come across the description of Dadima in the Patanjali’s Mahabhashya (1/ 1/ 1 & 1/ 2/ 54), Panini’s Gana Patha (2/ 4/ 31), and Sankha Likhita Dharma Sutra (22 sutras). It is one of the extensively used vegetable drugs (Phala Varga Dravya) in the therapeutics by Brhattrayi. The seeds (with pulp) are used as Hridya while the fruit rind is specially used in the treatment of Grahani, Atisara & Pravahika. Fresh juice of its flowers will be used as nasal drops in the management of epistaxis (Nasagata Raktapitta).

    External morphology of Punica granatum

    • Habit- Dadima is a large deciduous shrub or small tree.
    • Bark- Bark of Dadima is smooth, grey, and thin, often armed with small axillary or terminal thorns.
    • Leaves- Opposite, 2.5- 6 cm long, oblong-lanceolate, oblong-elliptic or oblanceolate, glabrous, entire, shining above, bright green beneath. The base of the leaf of Dadima narrowed into a short petiole.
    • Flower: Flowers of Dadima are 3.8- 5 cm. long and as much across. Mostly the flowers of Dadima are solitary, sometimes 3-4 together, sometimes apparently axillary, sessile, or nearly so. Calyx- tube campanulate, adnate to and produced beyond the ovary, Coriaceous, lobes 5- 7, valvate. Petals 5- 7, obovate, scarlet, wrinkle, inserted between the calyx lobes. Stamens are very numerous inserted on the calyx below the petals at various leaves; anthers elliptic, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary inferior, many-celled, the cells arranged in 2 concentric circles; style long, bent; stigmas capitate. Carpels in the flowers of Dadima are arranged into 2 tiers, 3 in the lower and 5-9 in the upper.
    • Fruit: Fruit of Dadima is 3.8- 7.5 cm. diam; globose, tipped with the calyx- limb, rind coriaceous, woody the interior septate with the membranous wall of the carpels each carpel containing numerous seeds angular from mutual pressure. 
    • Seeds: Seeds of the calyx with a watery outer coat containing pink juice. Fruits are astringent in taste and odorless.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Spring or summers to rainy or autumn season and onwards. Wild and cultivated or planted trees may vary for seasons in different regions or the occurrence and growth of plants.

    Distribution of Dadima

    It is found in the wild state in the Salt Range and the Himalayas from the elevation of 3,000 to 6,000 ft. Dadima is cultivated in various parts of India.

    Varieties of Dadima

    There are two or three varieties (Jati) of fruit (Dadima Phala) in texts of the materia medica (nighantu) viz.

     

    • Sweet (Svadu or Madhura Dadima)
    • Acid or sour (Amla Dadima)
    • Sweet-sour mixed (Svadvamla or Madhurama Dadima)

    Besides the varieties based on taste (rasa), several kinds of fruits are available known for their particular regions or localities of fruits production being one of the esteemed popularly edible market fruits. In addition, the wild and cultivated varieties of fruits are prevalent, as the forests in hilly regions also produce a smaller variety of fruits.

     

    According to Bhava Parkasha Nighantu: 3 Varieties

     

    • Swadu
    • Swädvamla
    • Amla

     

    According to Dhanwantri Nighantu: 2 Varieties

     

    • Madhura
    • Amla

     

    Commercial Varieties

     

    • Poona
    • Dholka
    • Muscat
    • Kabul
    • Alandi
    • Bedana
    • Kandahari
    • Paper shell
    • Spanish Ruby
    • Vellodu

    The useful part of Dadima

    Phala twak (Rind), Kanda Mula Twak (Stem & Root bark) Puspa (Flowers).

     

    Fruit rind- Irregularly broken, more or less curved pieces of the dry rind of the fruit, up to 3 mm in thickness. The outer surface is somewhat leathery and polished, brick red or tan, brown. Some of the pieces carry a crown of the toothed, tubular calyx. The inner surface is yellowish or light brown, showing a honeycomb structure with depressions left by the seed. It is brittle and breaking with a short corky fracture, without particular dour, and has a strong astringent taste.

    Important phytoconstituent of Dadima

    • Fruit: Fruit of Dadima contains Glucose, fructose, maltose, starch, oxalic acid, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinic acid, and Vitamin C, pectin, amino acids, citric acid, tannin, punicic acid.
    • The rind of fruit: The rind of Dadima fruit has Resin, Tannin, Wax, Mannitol, Non- crystallized sugars, gums, insulin, mucilage, gallic acid, ursolic acid, calcium oxalate, pectin, malvidin derivative, granatin B, ellagic acid, punicalagin & punicalin- crystalline tannins. 
    • Flowers: Flowers of Dadima yield Pelargonidin- 3, delphinidin glycosidic.
    • Bark: Bark of Dadima has friedelin, betulie acid, B-sitosterol, D. mannitol and alkaloid,like pelletierine, isopelletierine, pseudopelletierine & methyl pelletierine.
    • Leaves: Leaves of Dadima showed the presence of tannin. Beta- sitosterol,  ursolic acid, betulinic acid, canin, cyanidin, malvidin.

    Recent research on Dadima

    • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of pomegranate (Punica granatum) in inhibiting and reversing the nephrotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride. This potent oxidative stress inducer induces cellular kidney damage. The study suggested that pomegranate juice was able to elevate the antioxidant defense system, clean up free radicals, lessen oxidative damages and protect the kidney against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity, thus having a potential protective effect. Abdel Moneim AE, El-Khadagy MF. The potential effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on carbon tetra- chloride-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. J physiology Biochem. 2012 Nov 7.
    • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors in rats as an in vivo experimental model. The results suggest that PPE can partially inhibit the development of colonic premalignant lesions in an AOM-induced colorectal carcinogenesis model, by abrogating oxidative stress and improving the redox status of colonic cells. Waly ML Ali A, Guizani N, Al Rawahi AS, Farooq SA, Rahman Dig pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel Extract Efficacy as Dietary Antioxidant against Azoxymethane-Induced Ton Cancer in Rat. Asian Pac J Cancer Prey 2012; 13 (8): 4051- 5.
    • Two new ellagitannins containing a rare 3- OX0- 1, 3, 3a, 8%. tetrahydrofuor 3, 4- b] benzofuran moiety, namely Punica tannins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from pomegranate (Punica granatum) flowers. Punica tannin A shower potent inhibition of a-glucosidase and lipogenic gene expression. Org Lett. 2012 Oct 19; 14 (20): 5358- 61. doi: 10. 1021/ 01302548 c.
    • The present study aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. These findings suggest that MPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models. Jain V, Viswanatha GL, Manohar, D, Shivaprasad HN. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum. Evid Based Complement alternate Med. 2012; 2012: 147202. Epub 2012 Jul 31.
    • This study aimed at evaluating the anti-inflammatory properties of a pomegranate fruit husk polyphenolic extract, rich in punicalagin, using Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of the human intestinal epithelium. Data suggest that pomegranate husk could be an interesting natural source contributing to preventing intestinal chronic inflammation. Hollebeeck S, Winand J, Herent MF, During A, Leclerca J, Larondelle Y, Schneider XJ. Anti-inflammatory effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) husk ellagitannins in Caco-2 cells, an in vitro model of the human intestine. Food Function. 2012 Aug; 3(8):875-85. Epub 2012 Jun 26.
    • The peel extract moderately stimulated the spontaneous activity of isolated non-gravid rat uterus (Dhawan & Saxena, 1958).
    • Fruit skin has been given along with a diet for 4 weeks to rats and guinea pigs showed an antifertility effect. It did not affect the mating behavior but pseudopregnancies were observed in the treated animals (Gujral et al., 1960).
    • Antibacterial activity of fixed oil from seeds and stem bark extract is reported (Chopra et al., 1960 & Trivedi and Kazmi, 1979).
    • Antifungal activity of the extracts of bark, fruits, pulp, flowers, and leaves is reported (Charya et al., 1979).
    • The alcoholic extract showed anthelmintic activity (dose-dependent) through inhibition of transformation of eggs to filariform larvae of Haemonchus contortus (Vishwa Prakash et al., 1980) & Singhal, 1983).
    • The aqueous extract of fruit skin (0.4ml/day) was found to be highly toxic leading to mortality in all 6 male house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in 72 hours. The female sparrows, however, showed less mortality (2 out of 6). The extract appears to be neurotoxic (Singh & Lal, 1980).
    • Punica granatum extract in a dose of 1.0g/kg orally increased pentobarbitone sleeping time by 27.0% in rats. The extract (1&2g/kg orally) provided protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats. The relaxant effect was observed on isolated rabbit’s ileum and rat’s uterus (Annual Report, CCRAS, 1978- 79).

    Rasa Panchaka of Madhura Dadima (Sweet variety)

    Rasa (Taste)Madhura (sweet), Kashaya (astringent), Amla (sour)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Snigdha (oily)
    Virya (potency)Anushana (cold- hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Rasa Panchaka of Amla Dadima (Sour variety)

    Rasa (Taste)Amla (sour)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry) by Raja Nighantu
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency) by Raja Nighantu
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Amla (sour)

    Dosha Karma of Dadima

    • Madhura Dadima- Tridosha Shamaka, Vata Shamaka because of Madhura Vipaka and Madhura Rasa. Pitta Shamaka due to Madhura Vipaka & Madhura Kasaya Rasa, Kapha samaka due to Laghu Guna.

    Karma (Actions) of Dadima

    • Madhura Dadima- Dahahara, Jwarahara, Tarpana, Sukrala, Medhya, Balya, Hrdya
    • Madhuramla Dadima Phala- Dipana, Ruchya
    • Amla Dadima Phala- Ruchya, Dipana
    • Dadima Phala Twak- Grahi

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Dadima

    • Abhyantara Paryoga (Internal Uses): Hridroga, Raktapitta, Raktalpitta Urdhroga (Mukha- Ghrana), Rakta vikara, Mastiska Dourbalya, Mastiskavikara, Aruci, Agnimandya, Mukhavairasya, Amlapitta, Paittika Vikara, Atisara, Pravahika, Raktatisara, Krmiroga (Mulatvak), Sphita Krimi Tridosaja Vikara (Madhura Phala),Kapha- Vataja Vikara (Madhur- Amla, Amla Phala), Arsa- Raktarsa, Bala Kaphadhikya (Pushpa Kalika) Vata- Paittika Kasa (Phala), Mutrakrcchra, Sukradourbalya Jvara- Pathya (Phala-Bija), Dourbalya (phala).
    • Bahya Paryoga (External Uses): Mukha- Kanthavikara (Phala Tvak), Vrana, Upadarnsa (Tvacha), Stanavikrti (Kucavrddyartham).

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Dadima

    Jwara (Fever): In severe fever caused by Pitta one should take parched grain flour mixed with fruit juice of Dadima. (Vaidya Manorma. 1/ 11)

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea)

     

    • Decoction of the bark of Dadima and Kutaja mixed with honey checks severe diarrhea with blood immediately. (Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 39, Vaidya Jeevana. 2/ 13)
    • Dadimashtaka Churna. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 112- 113)
    • In case of dysentery, the patient should take a diet consisting of vegetables prescribed for constipation, meat soups with profuse fat and processed with curd and pomegranates, and säli rice cooked with sesamum, black gram, or green gram. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 19)
    • The ripe fruit of Dadima should be cooked in close heating. The juice so extracted checks all types of diarrhea. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 31)
    • Paste of the flower bud of Dadima mixed with honey checks diarrhea immediately. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4/ 147)

     

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage)

     

    • Juice of Dadima flowers of Amra or Durva should be administered and other drugs of Sita group in local application etc. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 2/ 41)
    • Snuffing with the juice of Dadima flowers or Durva or Amra (seed- kernel) or onion checks epistaxis. (Vrinda Madhava. 9/ 32)
    • Moreover, the juice of Dadima flowers mixed with goat’s milk and sugar is beneficial. (Vrinda Madhava. 9/ 33)
    • Epistaxis is checked by snuffing with the juice of Dadima flowers, breast milk, juice of mango flowers, and Durva. (Vaidya Manorma. 2/ 8)

     

    Rakta Arsha (Bleeding piles)

     

    • Fruit-rind of Dadima is used as a decoction. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 103)
    • Decoction of Kutaja bark and Mustaka checks to bleed. Similarly acts the fruit-rind of Dadima and Mustaka and also of Chandana. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 185)
    • Ghrita is cooked with pomegranate juice and Yavakshara checks bleeding and pain. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 198)

     

    Paandu (Anaemia): Dadimadya Ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 45-46)

     

    Trishna (Excessive thirst)

     

    • Linctus made of Dadima seeds, Jiraka and Nagakesara mixed with sugar and honey alleviate excessive thirst. (Vanga Sena Balaroga. 53)
    • The paste of Sarkara and Dadima or Draksa and Dadima should be kept in the mouth. It removes the dryness and tastelessness of the mouth. (Bhava Parkash Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 321)

     

    Madataya (Alcoholism): After food, wine-scum of Dadima juice or decoction of Panchamula or infusion of Dhanyaka and Sunthi should be given to quench thirst. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 129, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 7/ 16)

     

    Visarpa (Erysipelas):  After observing fast, churned drink rough, sweetened with honey and sugar, slightly soured with Dadima and Amalaka, and added with Parusaka, Mrdvik and Kharjura should be given along with boiled water. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 21/ 108- 109)

     

    Vyanga (Freckles etc.): Fresh rind of Dadima with goat’s milk should be applied. (Ashtanga Sangreha Uttara tantra. 37/ 24)

     

    Masurika (Pox):  In the case of anorexia, soups mixed with sour juice of Dadima are wholesome. (Vrinda Madhava. 56/ 29)

     

    Updansha (Gonorrhoea): Infusion of fruit-rind of Dadima mixed with sugar should be taken. In 160 ml. water; the rind be taken at 20 gm. and sugar at 40 gm. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4/ 811)

     

    Soft chancre: Scrotum should dust with the powder of the leaves of Bandhuka and bark of Dadima or the paste of Puga fruit should be applied. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 51/ 26)

    Benefits of Dadima

    • Dadima is a well-known fruit source, which is very effective in treating various disorders. The Swarasa of the Patra and Nava Phala (juice of the fresh leaves and young fruits) is given in dysentery. The juice of the leaves and flowers is a styptic.
    • The Dadima Patra Lepa (paste of the leaves) is locally applied in Abhishanda (conjunctivitis).
    • As an anthelmintic medicine with efficiency, the bark of the stem and roots are commonly used. The root bark is preferred for this purpose, as it contains an alkaloid medicine in greater quantity than the stem bark which comparatively yields a lesser chemical substance considered active anthelmintic being highly toxic to tapeworms.
    • The fresh bark is preferred then to bark in a dried state for its use in the treatment of worms and allied ailments. It is anthelmintic, astringent, cardiac and cooling, diuretic, expectorant, refrigerant, and suppurative.
    • It is useful in brain affections, cough, and cold, diarrhea and dysentery, dropsy, and heart tonic. The drug increases seminal flow and checks to bleed from the nose, as in nasal hemorrhage, the flowers are specifically useful. 
    • Dadima is specifically used for Krimi (worms), especially Sphit Krimi (tapeworms) affections. Suksha Phala Tvak of Dadima (the dried pericarp or rind of the fruit) possesses anthelmintic properties due to which it gives marvelous results in Krimi Roga.
    • The seeds obtained from the fruits, especially from wild sources (plant is occurring wild in warm valleys in many parts of the outer West Himalayas) are sold as Anardana (also Anardana from cultivated fruits of good quality).
    • Market drug Anardana, the dried seeds obtained from fruits, is employed in food items as well as medicinal preparations. Dadima Beeja is very commonly used as Amla Dravya in various dishes (commonly used as a souring agent)
    • For food or edible items such as chutney, pickle (sour dishes), syrups, and other similar refrigerant, tasty and food or dietetic recipes have domestic utility.
    • The fresh juice of the fruit (seeds are used) is used as an ingredient in cooling, refrigerant, and stomachic mixtures of some medicines for dyspepsia, loss of appetite, and other Aamshya Gata Vyadhi (stomach troubles). 
    • Vaidyas use Phala Tvaka and Dadima Pushpa combined with Sugandhit Dravya (aromatics), such as Cloves, Cinnamon, Coriander, Pepper, etc., as a bowel astringent for Atisara (diarrhea).
    • The seeds are considered to be stomachic, the pulp cardiac, and the stomachic.
    • The root of the plant drug is an external vermicide. Tvaka and Beeja (bark and seeds) are useful in Shvasa Roga (bronchitis). 
    • The flowers are useful in epistaxis. The unripe fruit is a good appetizer and tonic, astringent to the bowels, and aphrodisiac. They are helpful to cure biliousness, Tri-Dosha vitiation, thirst, burning sensation of the body, fever, heart disease, sore throat, and stomatitis.
    • The Phala Tvaka (rind of the fruit) is anthelmintic and anti- dysenteric. Therefore, it is used in Atisara (diarrhea and dysentery).
    • The bark of the plant is astringent; it strengthens the gums, and it is used in piles, prolapse, and colic. The flowers are styptic to the gums; they check for vomit, useful in biliousness, sore eyes, ulcers, sore throat; they are applied in hydrocele; they are vulnerable. 
    • The unripe fruit lessens inflammation, and the fruit is useful in keratitis.
    • The ripe fruit is sweet, tonic, laxative, diuretic, fattening, they enrich the blood; they allay thirst, they are used in sore throat, sore eyes, brain diseases, spleen complaints, chest troubles, scabies, bronchitis, and earache; the seeds are astringent to the bowels; enrich the blood, and they are used in vomiting, sore eyes, biliousness, scabies, liver and kidney disorders.
    • The pomegranate peel (Dadima Phala Tvak) combined with opium and an aromatic, such as cloves (Lavanga), is a most useful remedy for chronic dysentery and diarrhea. A decoction of the bark is followed by a purgative, and it acts as an anthelmintic. Shushak Tvaka of Dadima (dried bark) and the Mula of Dadima (roots) are also considered to have anthelmintic properties. 
    • The bark and fruit combined with other drugs are prescribed for the treatment of snakebite and bark is also prescribed for scorpion-sting.
    • A decoction of the dried rind of the fruit is drunk for the relief of stomach ache and dysentery, and its infusion is given in colitis.
    • The decoction of the bark (well-filtered) is applied to ulcers as a wash medicine. Fruits are useful in the ailments of brain and allied (mental) complaints. They are useful in anemia, general debility, fever, and allied complaints, especially fruit (seeds) juice is given for recovering the normalcy. 
    • The fruits are recommended as wholesome (Pathya) articles for patients with certain diseases.

    Benefits of Dadima on different systems of bodies

    • External uses:  Due to its astringent nature the decoction of the bark is used in throat disorders and oral disorders as a gargle and also in ulcers. In epistaxis, nasal drops of the juice of the fruit are very effective.
    • Nervous system: The fruit acts as a brain tonic. It acts on Mansika Dourbalya (mental debility) and various Manasika Vyadhi (associated disorders).
    • Digestive system: The fruit is an appetite stimulant, increases the desire for foods, inhibits thirst, and acts as an astringent. The juice of the fruit and decoction of the root bark is strong vermifuges (hookworm). It is also used on tapeworms. In a disinclination to eat, weak appetite, amoebiasis, dyspepsia, acid peptic disorder, and such pitta disorders, and also diarrhea, loose motions, it is extremely useful. In worm infestation, 10-20 ml. of the root bark decoction is given on an empty stomach followed by a laxative the next day. The worms, killed by the decoction, are expelled immediately (vermicide).
    • Circulatory system: The fruit is cardiotonic and hemostatic. Dadima is useful in Rakta Janya Vyadhi (blood disorders) like Pandu (anemia) and bleeding disorders. In nosebleeds, the decoction of the fruit rind should be given as a nasal insufflation (Nasya). Seeds should be used in acid peptic disease.
    • Respiratory system: Being astringent, the bud ameliorates Kapha. The fruit acts as an expectorant. In Shishu Kapha/ Bala Kapha (infantile Kapha disorders), Dadima Phala Leha is made with Aja Dugdha (the fruit is ground in goat’s milk) and is given as a licking agent. Dadima Pushpa is useful in Kasa (cough) induced by Vata and Pitta. It acts as a Kapha Nisaraka (expectorant) and reduces the Rukshta (dryness) in the Shvasa Vaha Pranali (respiratory tract). Nasya (Nasal insufflation) of ghee processed with Dadima Pushpa (pomegranate flowers), Kesar (saffron), and sugar is an effective remedy for Jeerna Pratishyaya (chronic rhinitis).
    • Urinary system: Dadima exhibits diuretic properties and is hence useful in various urinary disorders.
    • Reproductive system: As Dadima is Shukra Janya (it promotes semen), therefore used in various seminal debility. The decoction of fruit rind is used for Uttar Basti in vaginal discharges.
    • Temperature: Being an antipyretic, it is a useful diuretic food for fevers. It reduces the fever and its associated symptoms thus enhancing the strength of the patient.
    • Satmikaran: Pomegranate is a useful food even in health. Due to its strengthening (tonic) properties, pomegranate juice is used in all ordinary weaknesses.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Dadima

    • Phala Rasa (juice): 20- 50 ml
    • Phala Twaka Kwatha (decoction): 40- 80 ml

    Classical reference of Dadima

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Phala Varga- 101

    Synonyms

    दाडिम: करको दन्तबीजो लोहितपुष्पक: |

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Phala Varga- 101

    Varieties 

    तत्फलं त्रिविध स्वादु स्वादु अम्लम केवलाम्लकम्‌ |

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi Varga, 62

    द्विविधं तच्च विज्ञेय मधुर चाम्लमेव च।

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Phala Varga- 102- 104

    Properties and action

    तनु स्वादु त्रिदोषघ्न॑ तृड्दाह ज्वरनाशनम्‌ |

    हत्कण्ठमुखगन्धघनम तर्पणं शुक्ल लघु |

    कषायानुरसं ग्राहि स्निग्धं मेधाबलावहम |

    स्वादु अम्ल दीपनं रुच्यम किंच्चित पित्त करं लघु |

    अम्लन्तु पित्तजनकमामं वातकफापहम ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi Varga, 62

    स्निग्धोष्ण॑ दाडिम॑ हद्य॑ कफपित्त विरोधि च |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 307- 311

    मधुरं तु त्रिदोषघ्न॑ स्वादु अम्लम वातपित्तनुत्‌ |

    असृकपित्तकरं चाम्लं संग्राहि सर्वमुच्यते ||

    दाडिम॑ रोचनं हद्य॑ दीपनं नातिपित्तलम्‌ |

    मेध्य॑ कण्ठास्य रोगघ्न॑ तर्पण॑ कफवातजित्‌ |

    वर्चो विबन्धनस्निग्ध कषायानुरसं लघु |

    द्विविध॑ तनु विज्ञेय॑ मधुराम्ल विभेदत: ||

    अम्लं तु द्विविध॑ ज्ञेय॑ रूक्षाम्लं स्निग्धचुक्रकम्‌ |

    त्रिदोषतृडदाहज्वरहद्रोगनाशनम्‌ ||

    रूक्षाम्ल॑ दाडिमं यत्तु तत्पित्तानिलकोपनम्‌ |

    पित्ताविरोधिनात्युष्ण स्निग्धाम्ल कफवातनुत्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 75

    दाड़िमं मधुरमम्लकषायं कासवातकफपित्तविनाशि |

    ग्राहि दीपनकरञ्च लघूष्णं शीतल श्रमहरं रुचिदायि ||

    Priya Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, 236- 237

    दाड़िमस्य फल पकवं मधुर तुवरान्वितम्‌ |

    संग्राही तर्पण बल्य॑ तृष्णादाहज्वरापहम्‌ ||

    फल त्वक -पुष्पकलिके ग्राहिण्यौ तुवरे तथा |

    मूल त्वक कृमिरोगेषु भिष अग्निस्तु प्रयुज्यते |

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Phala Varga- 102, 103, 104

    दाडिमफलम्‌

    तत्फलं त्रिविधं स्वादु स्वादुमलं केवलाम्लकम्‌ |

    मधुरदाडिम 

    तत्तु स्वादु त्रिदोषघ्न॑ तृड्दाहज्वरनाशनम्‌ |

    हत्कण्ठमुखगन्धघनम तर्पणं शुक्रलं लघु: ||

    स्वाद्म्लं दीपनं रुच्य॑ किंच्चित पित्तकरं लघु |

    अम्लनतु पित्तजनकमामं वातकफापहम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighnatu, Aamradi Varga, 75

    दाड़िमं मधुरमम्लंकषाय कासवातकफपित्तविनाशी |

    याहि दीपनकरञ्च लघूष्ण॑ शीतल श्रमहरं रुचिदायि ||

    Raja Nighnatu, Aamradi Varga, 76

    मधुरदाड़िम भेद

    दाडिम द्विविधमीरित मार्वेरम्लमेकमपरं मधुरञ्च |

    तत्रवातकफहारि किलाम्लं तापहारि मधुरं लघुपथ्यम्‌ ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu

    द्विविध॑ तच्च विज्ञेय॑ सधुरं चाम्लमेव च |

    Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 27

    रूक्षाम्लं दाडिमं यत्तु यत्‌ पित्तानिल कोपनम्‌ |

    मधुरं पित्तनुत्तेषां तद्धि दाडिममुत्तमम्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 46

    कषायानुरसं तेषां दाडिमं नातिपित्तलम्‌ |

    दीपनीयं रुचिकरं हृद्यं वर्चो विबन्धतनम ||

    Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 46

    द्विविध तनु विज्ञेय मधुर चाम्लमेव च |

    त्रिदोषघ्नं तु मधुरमम्लं वातकफापहम्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tnatra, 37/ 24

    व्यंगे

    अजाक्षीरिण वार्द्रदाडिमत्वक्‌ |

    Raka Amrittanda

    कुच वृद्धयर्थं  

    विपाचित॑ दाडिमकल्कयुक्त॑ तैल॑ भवेत्सर्षपप सम्भवं यत |

    अभ्यज्नात्‌ कुरुते नितान्तमुच्चै: स्तनो-वृद्धियुत्ती च कर्णों |

    Bhava Parkasha Samhita Madhyama Khanda, 51- 26

    उपदंशे दाडिमत्वच: लेपम्‌

    बंधूकदलचूर्णन दाडिमत्वग्रजो अथवा |

    गुण्डनं वृषणे शस्त लेप: पूगफलेन वा ||

    Chakra Dutta, 14- 6

    आरोचकघ्न कवल ग्रह 

    आर्द्रदाडिम निर्यास शक अजाजी शर्करायुत्त: |

    Chakra Dutta, Arochaka Chikitsa, 14/ 13

    आरोचके 

    विट्चूर्णमधुसंयुक्तो रसो दाडिमसम्भव: |

    असाध्यमपि संहन्यादरुचि वक्त्र धारित: ||

    Chakra Dutta, 47/ 10

    उपदंशे 

    दाडिमसंम्भव: |

    गुण्डनं…. उपदंशहर परम ||

    Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana, 5/ 126

    बन्धूकदलचूर्णन दाडिमत्वगरजो अथवा |

    गुण्डनं वृषणे शस्तं लेप: पूगफलेन वा ||

    Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala, 4/ 811

    पूय मेहे 

    प्रात: पिबेद दाड़िम वल्क फॉन्टकम सौजाकवां कर्कर शर्करा सखम |

    निधेहि नीरे कुडवं द्वी कर्ष वल्कम प्रकुञ्च क्षिप्र शर्कराया: ||  

    कुडवं द्विकर्ष वल्कम शर्कराया: ||

    Harita Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 11

    मुखप्रवत्ते रुधिर 

    दाडिमस्यफलत्वग्वा चूर्ण लिह्यात्‌ सितायुतम्‌ |

    Harita Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 11

    चलितगर्भे

    पंच्चमेमासिचलिते गर्भ दाडिमी पंत्राणि, चंदन, दधि, मधु च पाययेत्‌ |

    Vanga Sena

    ज्वर कृते आस्यवैरस्ये दाडिमबीज:

    शर्करादाडिमाभूयाश्च द्राक्षादाडिमयोस्तथा |

    वैरस्ये धारयेत्कल्कं गण्डूष॑ च तथा हितम्‌ ||

    Bhava Parkasha

    आम अजीर्ण 

    आम अजीर्ण अथ दाडिमं वा |

    आमेष्वजीर्णषु गुदामयेषु वर्चो विबन्धेषु च नित्यमच्यात्‌ |

    Bhava Parkasha

    रक्त अतिसार 

    वत्सत्वग्दाडिममतरु शलाटू फलसंमभवा त्वक च |

    त्वयुगलं  पलमानं विपचेद्शशसंमिते तोये ||

    अष्टभागमवशेषं क्वाथंमधुनां पिबेत्पुरुष: |

    रक्तातीसारमुल्बणमतिशयित॑ नाशयेत्रियतम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 16/ 45, 46

    पाण्डु रोग 

    दाडिमाद्य घृतम्‌।

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 5

    घ्राण प्रवृत रुधिर 

    नस्यं तथा दाडिम पुष्पतोयम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 5

    रक्तार्श:सु

    स्निग्ध रक्तसंग्रहण: त्वग्दाडिमस्य तद्वत्‌ |

    Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, Chikitsa Prakarnama, 8, 16/ 16, 17

    अरोचके दाडिमादि चूर्णम्‌

    द्वे पले दाडिमाम्लस्य खण्डं दद्यात्पल त्र्यं | 

    त्रिसुगन्धि पल चैक चूर्णमेकत्र कारयेत्‌ ||

    तच्चूर्ण मात्रया भुक्तमरोचकहरं परम्‌ |

    दीपनं पाचन च स्यात्पीनस ज्वरकासजित्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 8/ 103

    रक्त अर्श 

    त्वचं वा दाडिमोद्धवाम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 98

    त्वग दाडिमस्य तदवत सनागरश्वन्दनरसश्च |

    सर्पिं: सदाडिमस्सं सस्यावशूक शृतं जयत्याशु: |

    रक्तं शूलं |

    Chakra Dutta, Masurika Chikitsa, 54- 34

    मसूरिकायामारोचके ‘दाडिमरस यूष प्रयोग: 

    दाडिमाम्लासैयुक्ता यूषा: स्युररुचौ हिता: |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 29/ 108- 109

    विसर्प 

    लंघितेभ्यो हितो मन्थो रूक्ष: सक्षौद्रशर्कर: |

    मधुर: किंच्चिद अम्लम वा दाडिमामलकान्वित: |

    सपरुषकमृद्दीक: सखर्जूर: श्रृताम्बुना ||

    Vaidya Manorma, 1/ 11

    पैत्तिक ज्वर 

    पक्वें दाडिमफलस्वरसेन यापि सक्तून पिबेत्‌ प्रबल पित्तमबज्वरात्त: |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 24/ 129

    मदात्य 

    भुक्ते तु वारुणी मण्डं दद्यात्‌ पातुं पिपासवे |

    दाडिमस्य सं वापि जल वा पंच्च मूलिकम्‌ ||

    धान्यनागरतोयञ्च |

    Vanga Sena Bala Roga, 53

    तृष्णा 

    दाडिमस्य तु बीजानि जीरकम नागकेशरम्‌ |

    चूर्ण: सशर्करा क्षौद्रो लेहस्तृष्णाविनाशन: ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 2/ 47

    रक्तपित्ते

    रसो दाडिमपुष्पाणामाम्रोत्थ: शादयम्लस्य वा |

    कल्पयेच्छीतवर्गञ्च प्रदेहाभ्यज्जनादिषु ||

    Vrinda Madhava, 9/ 32

    नस्यं दाडिमपुष्पोत्थो रसौ दूर्वाभवो अथवा |

    आम्रास्थित: पलाण्डो् तथ्म नासिकासुतरक्तजित्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava, 9/ 33

    सच्छागदुग्धश्च सशर्करश्चर सोहितो दाडिमपुष्पजश्च |

    Vaidya Manorma, 2/ 8

    दाड़िम कुसुमस्वरस: स्तन्य वां चूतकुसुमसलिल॑ वां |

    दूर्वाभ्यो वा नस्यान्नासारक्त स्त्रुतिम जयति ||

    Vrinda Madhava

    अतिसारे

    कषायो मधुना पीतस्वत्वचो दाडिम व्त्सकात्‌ |

    सच्यो जयेदतीसारं रक्तजं दुर्निवारकम्‌ ||

    Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala, 4/ 147

    दाडिमीकलिकाकल्कः प्रत्न माक्षिक माक्षिक: | 

    सक्र देव प्रयुक्तचेदतिसारस्य का कथा? ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita, 2- 1- 31

    पुटपाकेन विपचेत्‌ सुपक्वं दाडिमी फलम्‌ |

    तद्रसो मधुसंयुक्त: सर्वातीसारनाशन: ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 9/ 19

    क्षुधित॑ भोजयेदेन दधि दाडिमसाधितै: |

    शाल्योदनं तिलैर्माषिमुद्ररवासाधु साधितम्‌ 

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 9/ 112, 113

    दाडिमाष्टक चूर्णम्‌।

    Specific Formulation of Dadima

    • Dadimashtaka Churna for Grehani and Atisara
    • Dadimashtaka Ghrita for Prameha and Ashmari
    • Dadimadya Taila for Grehani and Parmeha
    • Dadimadi churna for Aruchi and Agnimandya
    • Shatvariadi Ghrita
    • Mehamudgara Vatika
    • Kumar Kalyana Ghrita
    • Chagaladya Ghrita
    • Jatiphalaadya Vatika
    • Lahsunadi Ghrita
    • Shat Pala Ghrita

    Contraindication and side effects of Dadima

    • Most people do not experience any kind of side effect after intake of Dadima orally. In a few cases, people can have an allergic reaction due to the use of Dadima Phala. Symptoms people may experience due to the use of Dadima fruit are a runny nose, difficult breathing, swelling, itchy nose, etc.
    • Stem, root, and peel of Dadima may result in harmful effects if taken in large amounts or without medical supervision.
    • As your medical history is best known by your doctor, it is better to use Dadima under medical supervision in case of pregnancy and lactation.

    Suggestive reading regarding Punica granatum

    • Sanjivani Shekokar, & Chanchal Thombare. (2019). A PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF DADIM-PUNICA GRANATUM LINN. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research, 7 (4), 21- 31.
    • Kumari I, Kaurav H, Chaudhary G. Punica granatum L. (Dadim) Punica granatum L. (Dadim), Therapeutic Importance of World’s Most Ancient Fruit Plant. JDDT [Internet]. 15 May 2021 [cited 18 Jul. 2022];11 (3): 113- 21. 
    • Pant, PK & Vishvakarma, Subhash C.R. & Majila, BS. (2013). Medicinal properties of pomegranate (Punica granatum L) and its uses in Ayurvedic and traditional medicines. 25. 19- 21.
    • Dr. Priyadharshini K, Nandan N, Sunil Raj, Kumar NC, Pooja BL, & Manjushree R. (2017). Punica Granatum L – A Nutraceutical functional food. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences2 (02), 122- 132.
    • Gandhi, Piyush & Ingole, Rajesh & Chatraguna, Lagad. (2018). COMPARATIVE ANALYTICAL STUDY OF JUICE) PREPARED BY TWO DIFFERENT METHODS.
    • Tm, Rashmi & hs, Sathish & Thirunavukkarasu, M S. (2020). TREND OF AYURVEDIC RESEARCH STUDIES ON PANDU ROGA AND FUTURE GUIDELINES.
    • Wijayanthamala, M & Kaur, Harpreet & Kumar, Harish & Gunarathne, K & Kumar, Sanjay. (2016). CRITICAL STUDY OF ANUPANA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MODE OF ACTION OF THE AYURVEDIC DRUGS. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy. 7. 42-45. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4343. 07126.
    • Narang, Ranjit & Herswani, Isha. (2018). AYURVEDA REVIEW ON “DADIMASHTAKA CHURNA” AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 8. 10. 22270/ jddt. v8i4. 1804.
    • Gohil, Kunal & Prajapati, Pradeep & Harisha, Channappa. (2015). Detailed Micromorphological and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Dadima Fruit (Punica Granatum).
    • PATEL, VIVEK & Acharya, Rabinarayan. (2021). A comprehensive review of the preventive and therapeutic profile of Dadima (Punica granatum L.) as an Aahara Kalpana (dietetic preparations) as depicted in Ayurveda. The Healer. 2. 69- 80. 10. 51649/ healer. 71.
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    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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