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    Ardraka (Zingiber officinale)

    Ardraka (Zingiber officinale) - Spice and Medicine

    Introduction

    Ardraka and Shunthi are widely used in ancient Ayurveda for various disorders. In Ayurvedic classical texts, various formulations are mentioned in which Ardraka and Shunthi are used as primary or secondary ingredients. Botanically both Adraka and Shunthi are known as Zingiber officinale, and it is a tropically flowering plant that is mainly native to Southeast Asia but now it is also grown throughout the world. The wet form of Zingiber officinale is known as Ardraka and its dry form is known as Shunthi both forms of Zingiber officinale are equally important and effectively used in treatment. In Ayurveda, Shunthi is considered Maha Aushadhi, as it is a very efficacious drug because of its strong actions. Ardraka exhibits various pharmacological activities like antioxidant, anti- osteoarthritis, hepato- protective, hypolipidemic and anti-diabetic, etc. Due to these properties, Ardraka is used to treat various disorders like dyspnea, anorexia, urticaria, ulcers, etc. 

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    Basonym of Ardraka - Shunthi

    शुण्ठति हन्ति कफ वात च इति अथवा, शुण्ठति शोषयति ।
    कफमाम च इति ,अथवा, स्वयमेव शुष्कत्वात्‌ शुण्ठीति प्रसिद्धा ॥

    Shunthi subsides Kapha and Vata Dosha, dries away Kapha and Ama. Sunthi itself is a dried product, hence the name Shunthi.

    Synonyms of Ardraka - Shunthi

    • According to availability:

    नागरम- नगरे प्राप्यम, वणिजमापणेषु बहुशो लभ्यते । 

    Ginger is available in shops.

     

    • According to Morphology:

    अवाक छत्रम- अवाक अधस्तले छत्राकाराणि पत्राण्यस्य ।

    Leaves spread out like an umbrella.

    अहिच्छत्र्कम – सर्पफणाकार पुष्पमस्या: । 

    Flowers are like cobra’s hood.

    शृंगवेरम – शृङ्गाकारो वेर: कन्दो अस्य। 

    Horn-shaped rhizomes.

     

    • According to actions and properties:

    कटुभद्रम- कटुभेषजेषु भद्रं हितकारि ।

    One of the best Katu Dravya.

    उत्कटम्‌ – तीक्ष्णम ।

    The rhizome is very strong.

    उष्णं – दाहकारि ।

    Rhizomes cause a burning sensation.

    महौषधम्‌- महत्व तदौषधम, प्रकृष्ट कर्मकर्तृत्वात्‌ ।

    Very efficacious drug because of its strong actions.

    विश्वभेषजम्‌- विश्वेषां व्याधीनां निवारकम अथवा प्रसिद्ध भेषजं सुलभ त्वात गुणकारित्वात। 

    Commonly used by the public because of its quality and easy availability.

    विश्वा- आशु प्रविशति शरीरम तैक्षण्यादिति ।

    Quickly enters circulation because of its strong potency.

    Regional names of Ardraka - Sunthi

    • Ginger (English)
    • Ardraka, Saunth (Hindi)
    • Sunthi (Kannada)
    • Chukka (Malayalam)
    • Sunt (Marathi)
    • Chukku, Inzi (Tamil)
    • Allaem/ Sunthi (Telugu)

    Scientific Classification of Ardraka - Sunthi

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Monocotyledons 
    Series Epigyne
    Family Zingiberaceae
    GenusZingiber
    Species officinale

    Botanical Name

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    Zingiber word is derived from Shrungber and officinale means sold in the shop or used as medicine.

    Family – Zingiberaceae (Haridra Kula)

    Ayurvedic Reference for Ardraka - Sunthi (Zingiber officinale)

    Classification of Ardraka - Sunthi as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Triptighana Mahakshaya, Arshoghana Mahakshaya, Deepaniya Mahakshaya, Shool Prashamana Mahakshaya, Sheet Prashmana Mahakshaya, Trishna Nigrehna Mahakshaya, Stnyashodhana Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Piplyadi Gana, Trikatu.

    Ardraka - Sunthi's Description as Shunthi in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 27/ 252S. S. Su. 44/ 19A. H. Su. 10/ 35
    C. S. Chi. 5/ 74S. S. Su. 46/ 365, 511A. H. Chi. 1/ 15, 26, 27, 45, 61, 62, 77, 109, 114
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 84, 88, 91S. S. Sa. 10/ 64, 65A. H. Chi. 2/ 40
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 24, 68S. S. Chi. 5/ 7A. H. Chi. 3/ 15, 16, 94, 115, 141, 145, 174
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 80, 103, 162S. S. Chi. 6/ 13A. H. Chi. 4/ 32
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 111, 113S. S. Chi. 12/ 7A. H. Chi. 5/ 45
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 58S. S. Chi. 15/ 19A. H. Chi. 6/ 8, 9, 28, 30, 31, 36, 48, 52
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 208S. S. Chi. 16/ 32A. H. Chi. 7/ 17, 34, 38
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 21, 221, 222, 224S. S. Chi. 19/ 57A. H. Chi. 8/ 15, 86, 102, 115
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 43S. S. Chi. 23/ 15A. H. Chi. 9/ 6, 7, 18, 43, 58, 59, 105
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 170S. S. Ka. 7/ 17A. H. Chi. 10/ 16
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 90, 264S. S. Ka. 8/ 45A. H. Chi. 14/ 36, 41, 48, 94
    C. S. Ka. 8 (Whole Chapter)S. S. U. 9/ 20A. H. Chi. 15/ 49, 71, 104, 128
    C. S. Si. 9/ 24S. S. U. 11/ 6A. H. Chi. 16/ 30
    S. S. U. 17/ 90A. H. Chi. 17/ 2, 30
    S. S. U. 40/ 36, 104, 131, 153, 154A. H. Chi. 21/ 37
    S. S. U. 43/ 12A. H. Ka. 3/ 15
    S. S. U. 44/ 30A. H. U. 2/ 25, 66
    S. S. U. 47/ 38A. H. U. 9/ 21
    S. S. U. 50/ 23A. H. U. 13/ 69
    S. S. U. 51/ 21A. H. U. 20/ 18
    S. S. U. 52/ 15, 18A. H. U. 22/ 31, 33, 53, 104
    S. S. U. 55/ 45A. H. U. 30/ 10
    S. S. U. 60/ 43A. H. U. 34/ 47
    A. H. U. 37/ 83, 84
    A. H. U. 39/ 104, 146

    Ardraka - Sunthi's Description as Ardraka in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Vi. 8/ 149S. S. Chi. 14/ 10A. H. Su. 6/ 162
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 59S. S. U. 12/ 46A. H. Chi. 7/ 13, 15, 38, 87
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 45, 47S. S. U. 21/ 17, 32A. H. Chi. 8/ 82, 146, 147
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 152S. S. U. 24/ 19A. H. Chi. 10/ 28
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 88S. S. U. 42/ 55, 59A. H. Chi. 15/ 41
    C. S. Chi. 24/ 125, 126, 127, 174S. S. U. 47/ 24, 80A. H. Chi. 17/ 6, 8
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 136S. S. U. 55/ 46A. H. U. 11/ 5
    A. H. U. 18/ 12
    A. H. U. 40/ 55

    Ardraka - Sunthi's Description as synonym Aushadha in Brihtrayi

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 5/ 55, A. H. Chi. 6/ 33, A.H. Chi. 10/ 70

    Ardraka- Sunthi's Description as an ingredient of Trikatu in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Chi. 5/ 78S. S. Su. 14/ 35A. H. Chi. 3/ 58
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 75S. S. Su. 36/ 12A. H. Chi. 8/ 109, 140, 146, 154
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 19S. S. Su. 38/ 57A. H. Chi. 10/ 61
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 107S. S. Su. 44/ 54, 75A. H. Chi. 14/ 20, 31, 35
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 137, 177, 189S. S. Su. 46/ 432A. H. Chi. 17/ 9, 15
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 79S. S. Chi. 5/ 28A. H. Chi. 19/ 19, 41, 43
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 112S. S. Chi. 7/ 21A. H. U. 5/ 19, 42, 46
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 172S. S. Chi. 8/ 38A. H. U. 13/ 70, 87
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 40, 215, 241S. S. Chi. 9/ 34, 55A. H. U. 20/ 3
    C. S. Ka. 10/ 12S. S. Chi. 10/ 6, 14A. H. U. 22/ 81
    C. S. Si. 7/ 18S. S. Chi. 12/ 11A. H. U. 35/ 22, 24
    S. S. Chi. 14/ 7, 10, 12A. H. U. 39/ 46
    S. S. Chi. 18/ 51
    S. S. Chi. 23/ 15
    S. S. Chi. 38/ 25
    S. S. Chi. 40/ 4, 61
    S. S. Ka. 2/ 46
    S. S. Ka. 5/ 62, 63, 78, 81, 82
    S. S. Ka. 6/ 18
    S. S. Ka. 7/ 38
    S. S. Sa. 10/ 22
    S. S. U. 12/ 25
    S. S. U. 15/ 12
    S. S. U. 17/ 27
    S. S. U. 39/ 185
    S. S. U. 40/ 144
    S. S. U. 41/ 39, 46, 50
    S. S. U. 42/ 49, 54, 111
    S. S. U. 52/ 28
    S. S. U. 56/ 16
    S. S. U. 57/ 10
    S. S. U. 60/ 49
    S. S. U. 61/ 31

    Ardraka- Sunthi's Description as Synonym Vishva in Brihtrayi

    Charaka: C. S. Su. 2/ 28, C. S. Chi. 3/ 250, C. S. Chi. 27/ 51

     

    Susruta: S. S. Chi. 37/ 20, S. S. U. 39/ 251, S. S. U. 47/ 42, S. S. U. 52/ 13, 17, 41

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 12/ 22, A. H. Chi. 19/ 81

    Ardraka - Sunthi's Description as Synonym Vishva Bhesaja in Brihtrayi

    Charaka: C. S. Su. 27/ 3, 163, 291, C. S. Chi. 1- 1. 24, 75, C. S. Chi. 2- 2, 20, C. S. Chi. 3/ 198, 201, C. S. Chi. 5/ 156, C. S. Chi. 13/ 146, C. S. Chi. 15/ 102, C. S. Chi. 18/ 76, 119, C. S. Chi. 19/ 111, 127, C. S. Chi. 28/ 166, C. S. Ka. 7/ 54

     

    Sushruta: S. S. Su. 44/ 49, S. S. U. 39/ 215

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 1/ 50, 52, A. H. Chi. 3/ 37, A. H. Chi. 9/ 35, 104, A. H. Chi. 15/ 42, A. H. Chi. 18/ 6, A. H. Ka. 2/ 24, A. H. U. 37/ 34

    Ardraka - Sunthi's Description as synonym Vishva Aushadha in Brihtrayi

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 3/ 120, A. H. Chi. 11/ 29

    Ardraka - Sunthi's Description as Synonym Maha Aushadha in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 4/ 18S. S. Su. 36/ 2A. H. Chi. 5/ 54
    C. S. Su. 24/ 48S. S. Su. 44/ 8A. H. Chi. 8/ 35, 61, 158
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 87S. S. Chi. 11/ 5A. H. Chi. 14/ 50
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 208S. S. Chi. 23/ 15A. H. Chi. 16/ 7
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 25, 41S. S. Chi. 34/ 10A. H. Chi. 17/ 39
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 87S. S. Ka. 1/ 83A. H. Chi. 21/ 57
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 60S. S. U. 9/ 23A. H. U. 11/ 9
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 84, 224S. S. U. 11/ 13A. H. U. 16/ 29
    S. S. U. 40/ 38, 44A. H. U. 18/ 26
    S. S. U. 47/ 25A. H. U. 22/ 56

    Ardraka - Sunthi's Description as Synonym Nagara in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 4, 17, 20, 21, 23S. S. Su. 44/ 5, 8, 9, 64, 66, 68A. H. Su. 6/ 163
    C. S. Su. 4/ 11, 12, 29S. S. Su. 46/ 226, 336, 341A. H. Su. 14/ 24
    C. S. Su. 21/ 22S. S. Chi. 6/ 13A. H. Su. 15/ 35
    C. S. Su. 26/ 73S. S. Chi. 7/ 18A. H. Su. 19/ 33
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 59, 70S. S. Chi. 19/ 54, 58A. H. Sa. 2/ 60
    C. S. Chi. 2- 1/ 43S. S. Chi. 22/ 11, 20A. H. Chi. 1/ 28, 31, 33, 46, 51, 66
    C. S. Chi. 2- 4/ 16S. S. Chi. 23/ 15A. H. Chi. 2/ 37
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 145, 180, 181, 183, 186, 188, 198, 212, 223, 236, 237S. S. Chi. 37/ 34, 36, 40, 122A. H. Chi. 3/ 12, 20, 35, 50, 149, 160, 162
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 45, 84, 86S. S. Chi. 38/ 60A. H. Chi. 4/ 34, 36, 42, 44, 47
    C. S. Chi. 5/ 91, 106, 144, 146, 165S. S. Ka. 6/ 13A. H. Chi. 5/ 10, 13, 50, 58
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 62, 85S. S. U. 9/ 15, 24A. H. Chi. 6/ 50
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 67, 70, 101, 114, 125, 127, 141, 145, 169S. S. U. 12/ 43A. H. Chi. 7/ 35
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 35, 67S. S. U. 17/ 17, 44A. H. Chi. 8/ 54, 60, 63, 70, 73, 131, 157, 159
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 22, 23, 25, 27, 40, 48, 72S. S. U. 39/ 109, 191, 196, 204, 218, 244A. H. Chi. 9/ 6, 7, 9, 23, 31, 34, 49, 63, 86, 90, 109, 109, 110, 116
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 79, 108, 110, 113, 140, 156S. S. U. 40/ 36, 44, 48, 55, 67, 91, 94, 114, 135A. H. Chi. 10/ 3, 8, 10, 12, 20, 39
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 69, 71, 93, 98, 99, 100, 101, 103, 104, 106, 111, 114, 126, 130, 154, 186, 187, 196, 201, 232, 236S. S. U. 42/ 42, 62, 72, 127A. H. Chi. 12/ 2
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 82, 98, 99, 100, 106, 129, 143, 169, 174S. S. U. 44/ 24A. H. Chi. 13/ 44
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 66, 72, 87, 100, 130S. S. U. 46/ 24A. H. Chi. 14/ 34, 54, 82
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 95, 102, 109, 110, 111, 123, 130, 136S. S. U. 52/ 15, 23, 24A. H. Chi. 15/ 5, 35, 88
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 36, 47, 49, 63, 74, 77, 99, 106, 115, 118, 122, 146, 159, 161, 163S. S. U. 56/ 18A. H. Chi. 16/ 16, 23
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 23, 29, 40, 43, 46, 59, 60, 113, 114, 115, 116S. S. U. 57/ 7A. H. Chi. 17/ 2, 5, 8, 36
    C. S. Chi. 20/ 24, 37S. S. U. 58/ 32A. H. Chi. 19/ 28, 42
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 55S. S. U. 59/ 19A. H. Chi. 21/ 56, 59
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 189, 204S. S. U. 62/ 31A. H. Ka. 2/ 7
    C. S. Chi. 24/ 129, 145, 165, 169, 173A. H. Ka. 4/ 63
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 83, 85, 97, 230, 237A. H. U. 1/ 46, 49
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 46A. H. U. 5/ 45
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 51A. H. U. 11/ 24, 39
    C. S. Ka. 12/ 23A. H. U. 16/ 3, 17, 30
    C. S. Si. 4/ 13, 42A. H. U. 18/ 16
    C. S. Si. 7/ 17A. H. U. 22/ 12, 28, 78
    A. H. U. 30/ 15
    A. H. U. 36/ 66
    A. H. U. 37/ 40
    A. H. U. 39/ 11, 151

    External Morphology of Ardraka - Sunthi

    • Habit: Perennial herb with elongated leafy stems and horizontal tuberous rootstocks.
    • Rhizome: Stout and tuberous.
    • Stem: Erect, Leafy stem, 0.6 to 1.2 meters high.
    • Leaves- Narrow, distinct, subsessile on the sheaths, linear-lanceolate, 1-2 cm wide, and glabrous.
    • Inflorescence- Spike
    • Flowers- Greenish with a small dark purple or purplish black.
    • Fruit- Dehiscent capsule and oblong.

    Flowering and Fruiting Time of Ardraka - Shunti

    From July to September.

    Different Varieties of Ardraka - Sunthi

    Though there are no varieties in Ardraka, Kaiyadeva described Ardra Nagaram and Ardrakam (Sunthi) separately. Their properties are also different according to him. The former is fresh ginger while the latter is dry ginger.

     

    According to Amarakosa Shuska Ardraka (dry ginger) is denoted by synonyms Nagara and Visvabhesaja etc. while describing Aadra Ardraka (fresh ginger) as Ardraka and Singabera etc.

    Distribution of Ardraka - Shunthi

    It is cultivated throughout India, more so in Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Gujrat, Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Himachal Pradesh, and Orissa. Ardraka is also cultivated in the new and old-world tropics. Most of the commercial ginger is said to be grown in Jamaica. In India, Calicut is famous for ginger cultivation.

    The Useful Part of Ardraka – Sunthi

    Rhizome

     

    Size of Rhizome – Rhizomes of ginger are about 1.5*1.5 to 6.5 cm.

     

    The shape of Rhizome – Rhizomes are laterally compressed, bearing short, flat, and oblique branches on the upper side, with bud at the apex.

     

    Color – Externally, it is buff-colored. The transversely cut surface shows well-marked endodermis and stele.

     

    Fracture – Short and fibrous.

     

    Odor – Agreeable and aromatic

     

    Taste – Agreeable and pungent.

    Important Phytoconstituent of Ardraka - Sunthi

    Alpha-curcumene, ß-D-curcumene, p-bourbornene, d-borneal, citral, d-camphene, citronellol, geraniol, gingerol, alpha- & beta- Zingiberenes, zingiberol, zingerone, gingerols, paradol, gingerenone A, ginger glycolipids A, B, & C, gingerdiol, gingerone B & C, etc.

    Recent Research on Ardraka - Sunthi

    • Ardraka has shown marked anti-inflammatory activity in rats which is comparable to prednisolone (Sharma & Singh, 1980).
    • In a clinical study the effect of Guduci & Sunthi Anupana while administering Simhanada Guggulu is reported (Babu, 1982).
    • Clinical efficacy of a combination of potent GI stimulants consisting of Sunthi and Guduci showed better results than with conventional drugs like Yogaraja Guggulu, Vata Gajankusa, and Maharasnädikvätha (Kishore et al., 1980).
    • Positive inotropic effects on the guinea pig isolated left atria is shown by crude methanol extract of rhizomes. This effect is found to be due to gingerols, the active principles in the rhizome (Shogi, 1982).
    • Albino rats were fed with 30% of Z. officinale and Sesamum indicum (Til) separately, to study its effect on blood sugar and serum cholesterol. Blood sugar levels increased while serum cholesterol levels were significantly reduced in both cases (Singhal, 1983).
    • Anti-apoptotic.
    • Antiemetic
    • Antihyperlipidemic.
    • Antioxidant
    • Anti- Cancer

    Rasa Panchaka of Ardraka - Shunthi

    Rasa-Panchaka (Properties) of Ardraka

     

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (pungent)
    Guna (Virtue)Theekshana (Sharp), Ruksha (Dry), Guru (Heavy) by Kaideva Nighantu
    Virya (Potency)Ushana (Hot Potency)  
    Vipaka (Post-Digestion)Madhura (Sweet)

     

    Rasa-Panchaka (Properties) of Shunthi

     

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (Pungent)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (Light), Snigdha (Oily)
    Virya (Potency)Ushana (Hot Potency) 
    Vipaka (Post-Digestion)Madhura (Sweet)

    Dosha Karma

    Vatahara because of Ushana Virya and Madhura Vipaka. Kapha Hara because of Ushana Virya and Katu Rasa.

    Karma (Actions) of Ardraka – Sunthi

    Ardraka:

     

    • Pachana
    • Bhedana
    • Swarya
    • Vrishya
    • Deepana
    • Rochana
    • Shool Hara
    • Jiwha Shodhana
    • Vivandh- Hara
    • Kanth Shodhak

     

    Shunthi:

     

    • Deepana
    • Kasahara
    • Vrishya Pachaka
    • Shoolhara
    • Grahi
    • Ruchya
    • Hridya
    • Vivandhhara
    • Swarya

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Ardraka - Sunthi

    • Ajirna
    • Agnimandya
    • Amavata
    • Chardi
    • Shoola
    • Swasa
    • Kasa
    • Hridroga
    • Shleepada
    • Shotha
    • Arsha
    • Anaha
    • Udara Roga
    • Vivandha

    Aamyik Prayog (Therapeutic Uses) of Ardraka

    Jvara (Fever): Ardraka juice mixed with rock salt and three pungents should be kept in the mouth touching the throat and then be spitted. This should be repeated time and again. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chiktsa Sthana. 1/ 554-57)

     

    Pratishaya (Coryza): In the acute stage one should use Ardraka with milk or products of sugarcane. It maturates the disease. (Sushruta Samhita Uttar Tantra. 24/ 19)

     

    Kasa, Swasha (Bronchial asthma and cough):

     

    • Ardraka juice mixed with honey should be taken in case of cough, bronchial asthma, coryza, and fever caused by Kapha. (Harita Samhita. 3. 12. 38)
    • One should administer the juice of Ardraka mixed with honey which alleviates bronchial asthma, cough, coryza, and Kapha. (Vrinda Madhava. 11. 10; also Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14. 31)

     

    Sthanatran Vyadhi (Disorder due to change of place): One becomes free from defects of water due to change of place after taking Ardraka and Yavaksara mixed with tepid water. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 838)

     

    Mandagni, Apachana (Deficient digestion):

     

    • In the deficiency of digestive power fresh ginger mixed with an equal quantity of vinegar is useful. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttar Tantra. 40/ 55)
    • Intake of salt and ginger at the beginning of the meal is always wholesome. It stimulates digestion, adds relish, and purifies the tongue and throat. (Vrinda Madhava. 6. 9)
    • The paste of Ardraka moistened with lemon juice, mixed with liquified sugar, and added with Trijata (Tvaka, Ela, Patra) promotes relish and digestion. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4. 260)

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea): A basin is formed around the umbilicus by the paste of Amalaki and is filled with Ardraka juice. It even checks for severe diarrhea. (Chakra Dutta. 3. 36- 37)

     

    Aruchi (Anorexia): In anorexia, one should keep in the mouth the tepid juice of Ardraka mixed with rock salt. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 1. 851)

     

    Arsha (Piles): In Kaphaja piles, Ardraka and Kulattha are useful. (Sushruta Samhita Chkitsa Sthana. 6. 16)

     

    Shotha (Oedema):

     

    • One should take Ardraka mixed with an equal quantity of jaggery (in the dose of 20 gm) increasing 20 gm per day up to 200 gm for a month. After the drug is digested, the diet of rice and soup (vegetable and meat) is given. This regimen alleviates Gulma, Udara, piles, edema, Premeha, bronchial asthma, coryza, indigestion, jaundice, consumption, mental disorder, cough, and other Kaphaja disorders. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 47- 48; also, in Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 6-7)
    • One should take the juice of Ardraka and after it is digested, the diet of rice with milk. It alleviates edema caused by three Dosas. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 49)
    • Ardraka with equal (quantity of) jaggery is taken. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 23. 12)
    • One suffering from edema, sneezing, Udara, and deficient digestion is freed from disease by taking ghee cooked with paste and juice of Ardraka. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 8)
    • Intake of Ardraka juice mixed with old jaggery along with a diet of goat’s milk alleviates all types of edema. (Vrinda Madhava. 39/ 7)
    • Jaggery mixed with Ardraka or Sunthi or Haritaki or Pippali should be taken (in the dose of 10 gm) increasing per day up to 120 gm. For a fortnight or a month. It alleviates edema, coryza, diseases of throat and mouth, bronchial asthma, cough, anorexia, chronic coryza, etc., chronic fever, piles, Grahani disorder, and other diseases caused by Kapha and Vata. (Vrinda Madhava. 39/ 13)

     

    Udara Roga (Gastro-intestinal disorder):

     

    • Intake of the juice of Ardraka mixed with equal (quantity of) milk is wholesome or oil cooked with ten times the same juice (is useful). (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 13/ 153)
    • Milk processed with the juice of Ardraka should be used. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 10)

     

    Murccha (fainting): 

     

    • In Murccha, one should use snuffing with Ardraka juice. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 849)
    • If one takes jaggery and Ardraka (mixed) in the morning for a week narcosis, fainting, jaundice, and insanity are alleviated. (Vanga Sena. Madatyaya.46)

     

    Vatavyadhi:

     

    • Oil or ghee mixed with the juice of Ardraka, Matulunga, Chukra, and jaggery should be taken. It alleviates pain in the waist, thigh, sides, and sacral region, sciatica, and upward movement of Vayu. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 52)
    • In scrotal pain, one should take Ardraka juice with the (proper) quantity of oil in the early morning. (Vanga Sena Vatavyadhi, 56)
    • Ardraka juice mixed with honey alleviates scrotal pain, dyspnea, cough, anorexia, and coryza. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 13)

     

    Udard (Urticaria): Ardraka juice mixed with old jaggery should be taken to alleviate urticaria and sluggish digestion. (Vanga Sena Udarda. 14)

     

    Karna Shool (Earache): In earache, one should instill warm juice of Ardraka mixed with oil, honey, and rock salt into the ear. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5. 24; also Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 21/ 18; Vrinda Madhava. 59. 2)

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Sunthi

    Jwara (Fever):

     

    • Milk cooked with Sunthi, Draksha, and Kharjura and added with ghee, honey, and sugar to allay thirst and fever. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 237)
    • One afflicted with fever associated with diarrhea or excess of Pitta should take liquid gruel of parched paddy cold and add it with Sunthi and honey. (Ashtanga Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 27)
    • Decoction of Sunthi 40 gm added with honey alleviates anorexia, loss of appetite, coryza, dyspnoea, and cough due to defects of water and generates luster, clarity of mind, and vision. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 831)
    • The paste of Sunthi, Jiraka, and Haritaki has taken regularly before meals to alleviate defects of water due to change of place. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 1/ 837)
    • Decoction of Mahabala root and Sunthi checks malarial fever with rigor and burning sensation in two or three days. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 750)
    • Sunthi, Jiraka, and jaggery pounded together and taken with hot water, old wine, or buttermilk to check fever with rigor. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 756)

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea):

     

    • One should take water processed with Vacha and Ativisha, Musta, Parpata, Hribera, and Sunthi for improving appetite and digestion. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa sthana. 19/ 22)
    • In diarrhea caused by Kapha and associated with Ama, the paste of Sunthi alone should be taken with tepid water. (Kalyana Karaka, 9. 94)
    • One who defecates frequently with or without a stool or with tenesmus should take Sunthi with Jaggery mixed with curd, oil, ghee, and milk. (Ashtanga Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana, 9/ 17)
    • Powder of Sunthi smeared with ghee is wrapped within Eranda leaves and cooked in Putapaka (closed heating) on mild fire. The powder is then taken out and mixed with an equal quantity of sugar. It is taken in the morning and thus pacifies all sorts of pain due to Amatisara. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 38-39)
    • Fried and unfried Sunthi mixed and pounded with Eranda juice alleviates pain due to Amatisara and stimulates digestion and appetite. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 2. 22)

     

    Aruchi, Apachan (Loss of appetite and indigestion):

     

    • Yavaksara and powdered Sunthi are taken together with ghee in the morning to promote appetite. This effect is obtained by Sunthi alone taken with warm water. (Chakra Dutta. 6. 3)
    • In case of Ama, indigestion, piles, and constipation one should use regularly Sunthi or Pippali or Haritaki or Dadima mixed with jaggery. (Vrinda Madhava. 6. 13)
    • If a person otherwise strong feels some doubt of indigestion at the time of the meal, he should take Haritaki mixed with Sunthi before taking food. (Vrinda Madhava. 6/ 24)
    • Sunthi and Haritaki with jaggery or salt are wholesome in case of loss of appetite. (Bhava Prakasha Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 34)
    • Decoction of Sunthi boiled in water 1/2 Adhaka (1.28 liters) remaining to one half stimulates digestive fire quickly and there is no need for other drugs for this purpose. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 35)
    • Decoction of Sunthi 40 ml. mixed with honey alleviates anorexia, loss of appetite, respiratory and abdominal disorders, and all defects of water and promotes health and luster. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 831)

     

    Grahani Roga (irritable bowel syndrome):

     

    • Nagaradya Churna. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 129-31)
    • Decoction or paste of Sunthi, Ativisha, and Mustaka digests Ama. Similarly Haritaki or Sunthi with hot water. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.15/ 98, also Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 10/ 8, Vrinda Madhava. 4/ 12)
    • Sunthi- Ghrita I, II. (Vrinda Madhava. 4. 36-37)
    • Sunthi taken with buttermilk checks diarrhea, promotes digestive power and alleviates Grahani, piles, Udara, edema, and poisoning. (Gada Nigreha. 2. 3. 66)
    • The paste of Sunthi and Bilva with lentil soup alleviates Grahani- Roga. Similarly acts like that of Brhati with buttermilk. (Saranghdhara Samhita. 2. 5. 28)

     

    Arsha (Piles): 

     

    • Water processed with Kantakari or Sunthi and Dhanyaka should be given as a post-meal drink. It acts as a carminative and laxative. (Charaka Samhita Chiktsa Sthana. 14. 129)
    • Chitraka and Sunthi mixed with vinegar should be used. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14. 68)
    • One who takes bolus prepared of Sunthi, Bhallataka, and Vriddhadaru gets rid of all types of piles and by this, even the old is rejuvenated. (Vrinda Madhava. 5. 47)
    • In Ama, Sunthi mixed with jaggery, in indigestion jaggery and Pippali, in dysuria Jiraka and jaggery, and in piles jaggery and Haritaki are useful. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 7. 24)
    • The powder of Pippali and Sunthi mixed with an equal quantity of Haritaki powder and taken with jaggery destroys piles caused by Kapha and Vata. (Vaidya Manorma. 5. 1)

     

    Amlapitta (Acidity): The decoction of Sunthi and Patola alleviates Kapha, Pitta, vomiting, itching, fever, eruptions, and burning sensation and improves digestion and appetite. (Vrinda Madhava. 53. 6)

     

    Abdominal pain (Udara Shool):

     

    • One should take a decoction of Sunthi and Eranda root added with Hingu and Sauvarcala. It removes pain instantaneously. (Vrinda Madhava. 26/ 7; also, Vangsena. Shool -16)
    • The patient who takes paste of Sunthi, Tila, and jaggery cooked in milk is relieved of pain during digestion within a week. (Vrinda Madhava. 27/ 4)
    • Decoction of Sunthi, Eranda, and Indrayava alleviates colic immediately. Similarly, the decoction of Indrayava is added with Hingu and Sauvarcala. (Vangsena, Shoola.17; also, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 99)
    • The paste of Sunthi, Tila, and jaggery should be taken with milk. It alleviates pain during digestion and Amavata. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 5. 18)
    • Decoction of Sunthi and Shigru removes colic within three days. Similarly does the decoction of the Agastya bark added with salt and Hingu. (Vaidya Manorma. 8 .21)

     

    Hridya Roga (heart disease):  Hot decoction of Sunthi should be taken. It promotes digestion and alleviates cough, asthma, Vata, colic, and heart disease. (Vrinda Madhava. 31. 4)

     

    Gulma (Abdominal tumor):

     

    • One should take either Trivit with Sunthi or Haritaki with jaggery. (Shusruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra. 42. 62)
    • Sunthi 20 gm, Tila 80 gm, and jaggery 40 gm-all pounded together should be taken with hot milk. It alleviates Vata Gulma, Udavartta, and pain in female genitals. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5. 91- 92)

     

    Udararoga (GIT Disorder): Nagaradya Yamaka. (Vrinda Madhava. 37. 27- 30)

     

    Shotha (Oedema): Sunthi mixed with an equal quantity of jaggery should be taken with the decoction of Punarnava. (Ashtanga Samgreha Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 3; also, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 42. 43).

     

    Hikka, Swasha (Hiccough and bronchial asthma):

     

    • Sauvarcala, Sunthi, and Bharngi with double the quantity of sugar should be taken with hot water. It alleviates hiccoughs and bronchial asthma. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17. 109)
    • Likewise goat’s milk is processed with the decoction of Sunthi and added with sugar. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 50/ 22; also, Chakra Dutta. 12/ 7)
    • One should take it internally or as snuff (the powder of) Sunthi mixed with an equal quantity of jaggery. (Ashtanga Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 46)
    • Madhuka mixed with honey, Pippali with sugar, and Sunthi with jaggery-these three snuffs alleviate hiccoughs. (Chakra Dutta. 12. 4)
    • Decoction of Sunthi, Pippali, Sarkara, and Amalaki mixed with honey checks hiccough, similarly acts like the ash of a peacock’s feather with honey. (Vaidya Manorma. 3. 25)

     

    Kasa (Cough):

     

    • One should take jaggery mixed with Sunthi and Pippali or Draksha with ghee and honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 52/ 17)
    • Sunthi mixed with Pippali or bhärgi should be taken with old jaggery and oil. (Ashtanga Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 15)

     

    Madatya (Alcoholism): Boiled and cooled water processed with Bala or Prishniparni or Kantkari combined with Sunthi should be given to drink in all cases of alcoholism. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 166- 67)

     

    Vatavyadhi:

     

    • Payasa (rice-milk) made with pounded Sunthi and castor seeds should be eaten in cases of lumbago and sciatica. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 54; also Vanga Sena Vatavyadhi, 592)
    • Powder of Sunthi, Indrayava, and Chitraka was taken with warm water and is useful in the wind in bowels. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa sthana. 24/ 249)
    • Sunthi, Pippali, Maricha, Yavani, and rocksalt- these powdered, singly or jointly, are beneficial in lockjaw. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa sthana. 24. 21)
    • Ghee, oil, jaggery, vinegar, and Sunthi- these taken together alleviate lumbago. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26. 59)

     

    Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis):

     

    • Decoction of Sunthi and Goksura used regularly in the morning alleviates Amavata, lumbago, and pain and stimulates digestion. The same mixed with Yavaksara removes dysuria. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 7)
    • One should take the decoction of Sunthi and Guduchi added with Pippali (powder) in Amavata, particularly lumbago with intense pain. (Vrinda Madhava. 25. 9; also, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 56)
    • Sunthi powder 10 gm. should be taken with sour gruel. It pacifies Amavata and is a good remedy for Kapha and Vata. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 12; also, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 48)
    • Sunthi-Ghrta I- II (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 41-42, 48; also, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Samhita. 26/ 80-83)
    • The paste of Sunthi impregnated with the juice or (decoction) of Eranda root should be heated in Putapaka (closed heating). Its juice mixed with honey allays even the severe pain of Amavata. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 40)

     

    Shleepada (Filaria): One should take food with milk cooked with Sunthi. (Vanga Sena. Shleepada.11)

     

    Ashmari (Calculus): Decoction of Sunthi, Varuna, Goksura, Pashanabheda, and Kapotavanka mixed with jaggery and Yavakshara if taken regularly destroys even severe calculus. (Vrinda Madhava. 34. 23)

     

    Mukha Roga (Disease of mouth):  In disease of the mouth, gargling is prescribed with the decoction of Sunthi mixed with Svarjiksara and honey or with the paste of Guduchi and Nimba mixed with honey and oil. (Ashtanga Hridaya UttaraTantra. 22/ 78)

     

    Badhirya, Karna Ksveda (Disease of ear – deafness, and tinnitus): In both these conditions snuffing with the decoction of Sunthi mixed with jaggery should be used. (Vrinda Madhava. 59/ 27)

     

    Akshi Roga (Eye diseases): Warm paste of Sunthi and Nimba leaves mixed with a little salt should be applied to the eyes. It removes swelling, itching, and pain. (Vrinda Madhava. 61. 24)

     

    Shiro Roga (Diseases of the head): 

     

    • Snuffing with milk mixed with paste of Sunthi alleviates severe headaches. (Chakra Dutta. 60/ 23)
    • Snuffing with Sunthi mixed with jaggery or Pippali mixed with rock salt is beneficial in stiffness of arms etc., and all supraclavicular diseases. (Vrinda Madhava. 62. 33)
    • Snuffing with the paste of Sunthi mixed with jaggery removes headache. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 62 .33)

     

    Satnaya Shodhana (For purifying breast milk): For purifying breast milk, one should take one of the following three decoctions (1) decoction of Katuki (2) decoction of Guduchi and Saptaparna (bark) mixed with Sunthi and (3) decoction of Kiratatikta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 30. 261- 62)

     

    Kshatksheena (Emaciation due to injury):  The use of Sunthi and Madhuka may also be made like that of Nagabala. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 92)

     

    Kamala (Jaundice): Trivrit mixed with sugar and Indrayava or Sunthi mixed with jaggery are beneficial in jaundice. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 30)

     

    Visuchika (Cholera):  Decoction of Bilva and Sunthi alleviates vomiting and Visucika.  (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6. 112)

     

    Vrishika Visha (Scorpion-poisoning): Snuffing with Sunthi rubbed with water destroys the poison of the scorpion. (Gada Nigreha. 7. 5. 6)

    Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Ardraka- Sunthi

    • Swarasa- 3- 10 ml
    • Churna- 1- 2 gram

    Classical Reference of Ardraka - Sunthi

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Haritkyadi Varga, 49

    Ardraka Synonyms

    आर्द्रकमं श्रृंग्वेरम स्यात्कटुभद्र तथा अर्द्रिका ।

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 49- 51

    Properties 

    आद्रिका भेदिनी गुर्वी तीक्ष्णोष्णा दीपनी मता ।

    कटुका मधुरापाके रुक्षा  वातकफापहा ।

    ये गुणा: कथिता; शुण्ठ्यास्ते अपि सन्त्यादृकिअखिला:।।

    भोजन अग्रे सदा पथ्यं लवणा आर्द्रकभक्षणम ।

    अग्नि संदीपनं रूच्यं जिव्हा कंठ विशोधनं। 

    Dhanwantri Nighantu, Shatpushpa Varga, 84

    कफानिलहर स्वर्यं विबन्धाध्मानाहशूलजित्‌ । 

    कटु उष्णं रोचनं वृष्यं हृदयँ चैवा आर्द्रकम  स्मृतम्‌ ।।

    Kaideva Nighantu, Aushadhi Varga, 1155- 1161

    ततुल्य्म आर्द्रकम विद्यात सुतीक्ष्णं भेदनम गुरु।  

    पाचन रोचन॑ वृष्य॑ कटु उष्णं वन्हिदीपनम्‌ ।।

    कफानिलहरं_ स्वयं _ विबन्याध्मानशूलजितू

    अंकुर शृंगवेरस्य रक्तजित श्लेष्मवातहा ।।

    अव्यक्तरसवीर्यत्वात्‌ परम॑ तु कफापहम्‌ ।

    काश्चिक आद्रम सलवणं दीपन॑ पाचन परम्‌ ।।

    वातश्लेषमविबन्धघ्न॑ विशेषादामवातनुत्‌ ।

    रोचन॑ दीपन॑ चापि शोफदोषहरं परम्‌ ।।

    वातप्रकोपशमन हर्षणं लवणार्द्रकम्‌ । 

    भक्षणं लवणास्य हृदयं  वन्हिप्रदीपनम्‌ ।।

    भोजना अग्रे सदापथ्य॑ जिव्हाकण्ठ विशोधनम्‌ ।

    वात श्लेमहर रूच्यं दीपनं पचंम परम्‌ ।।

    निम्बुकस्य रसे क्षिप्तमा आर्द्रक मुखशोधनम्‌ ।

    Raja Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga. 29

    कटु उष्णं आर्द्रकम हृदयं विपाके शीतल लघु ।। 

    दीपनं रुचिदं शोफ-कफकण्ठामयापहम्‌ ।।

    Priya Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga, 7- 8

    आर्द्रक। न को अपि दृष्टस्वतुलितो अन्यो मया दयार्द्र तर: । 

    संपिष्टो अपि शिलायां ज्वरतप्तान विरुजी कुरुषे।।  

    आर्द्रक स्वरस: क्षुद्र युक्तो वृषण वात नुत। 

    श्वासकासारुचीहन्ति प्रतिश्यायम व्यपोहति ।।

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 52

    Contraindications       

    कुष्ठपाण्डवामये कृच्छे रक्त पित्ते वर्णे  ज्वरे। 

    दाहनिदाघशरदोनैव पूजितमार्दकम्‌।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 44

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 554- 557

    सन्निपातज्वरे

    आर्द्रकनिष्ठीवनम्‌

    आर्द्रकस्वरसोपेतं सैंधव कटुकत्रयम्‌।

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 24/ 19

    आकण्ठाद्‌ धारयेदास्ये निष्ठी वेच्च पुनः पुनः।। 

    प्रतिश्याये

    निषेव्यमाणं पयसा आदरकम  वा संपाचयेदिक्षुबिकारयोगै:।। 

    Haarita Samhita/. 3/ 12. 38

    श्वासे कासे च

    आर्द्रकस्य रसं नीत्वा मधुना च पिबेत्‌ सुधी: ।

    कासे श्वासे प्रतिश्याये ज्वरे शलेष्मसमुद्भवे।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 31, Vrinda Madhava. 11/ 10

    स्वरसं श्रृंगबेरस्य माक्षिकेण समन्वितम्‌।

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 838

    जलदोषे

    सह आद्रक यव क्षारो   पीत्वा कोष्णेन वारिणा।

    न्नानादेशसमुदभूतं वारिदोषमपोहति।।

    Ashtanga Hridaya Uttara tantra. 40/ 55

    अग्नि मांद्य 

    समशुक्तार्द्कमात्रा मंदे वहनौ।

    Vrinda Madhava. 6/ 9

    भोजनाग्रे सदा पथ्यं लवणार्द्रकभक्षणम्‌।

    अग्नि संदीपनं हद्य॑ जिह्लाकण्ठविशोधनम्‌।। 

    Siddha Bhaijya. 4/ 260

    निम्बूकनीरादर महौषधस्य कल्क: सितातन्तुलिकाप्रणीत: ।

    त्रिजातकक्षेपविशेषह्द्यो रोचिष्णुर अग्नि द्विगुणीकरोति।। 

    Chakra Dutta. 3. 36- 37

    अतिसारे

    कृत्वालवाल॑ सुदुढं पिष्टीवामलकैर्भिषक्‌ ।

    आर्द्रक स्वरसेनाशु पूरयेन्नाभिमण्डलम्‌ ।। 

    नदीवेगोपमं घोरमतीसारं निरोधयेत। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 851

    अरुचि 

    अरुची तु श्रृंगवरेजरसकै: सोष्णै: स सिंधुजे: कवल: । 

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 16

    अर्शसि

    कफजेषु श्रृंगबेर कुलत्थोपयोग: । 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 47, 48, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 17, 6- 7

    शोथे

    प्रयोजयेदार्द्रकनागर वा तुल्यं गुडेनार्धपलाभिवृद्ध्या ।

    मात्रा पर पञ्च पलानि मांसं जीर्णे पयो यूषरसाश्च भक्तम्‌।। 

    गुल्मोदरार्श: श्वयथुप्रमेहान श्वासप्रतिश्यालसकाविपाकान्‌।

    सकामलाशोषमनोविकारान्‌ कासे कफ़ं चैव जयेत्‌ प्रयोग:।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 49

    रसस्तथैवार्द्रकनागरस्य पेयो अथ जीर्णे पयसा अन्नरमद्यात्‌।।

    हन्यात्‌ त्रिदोष शवयथु प्रसहय।। 

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 23/ 12

    तुल्य गुडं श्रृंगबेर वा।

    Ashtanga Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 8

    आर्द्रकघृतम्‌-

    घृतमार्दकनागरस्य कल्कस्वरसाभ्यां पयसा च साधयित्वा।

    शवयथु क्षवथु उदराग्निसादैरभिभूतो अपि पिबन्‌ भवत्यरोग: ।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 39/ 7

    आर्द्रकस्य रस: पीतः: पुराणगुडमिश्रित: ।

    अजाक्षीराशिन: शीघ्र सर्वशोथहरो भवेत्‌।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 39/ 13

    गुडा आर्द्रक वा गुडनागर वा गुडाभयां वा गुडपिप्पलीं वा।

    कर्षाभिवृद्धया त्रिपलप्रमाणं खादन्नर: पक्षमथापि मासम्‌।। 

    शोथप्रतिश्यायगलास्यरोगान्‌ सश्वासकासारुचिपीनसादीन्‌।

    जीर्णज्वरा अर्शो ग्रहणीविकारान्‌ हन्यात्तधाअन्यान्‌ कफवातरोगान्‌।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 13. 153

    उदरे

    श्रृंगबेरद्रकरस: पाने क्षीरसमो हितः ।

    तैलं रसेन तेनैव सिद्ध दशगुणेन वा।। 

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 10

    श्रृंगबेर रससलिपक्वं क्षीरमासेवेत। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 849

    मूर्च्छायाम

    आर्द्रकस्य रसैर्नस्य॑ मूर्छायामाचरेन्नर । 

    Vang Sena, Madatya. 46

    सप्ताहात्‌ पथ्यभुजो मदमूर्च्छाकामलोन्मादान्‌।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 52

    वातविकारे

    तैल घृतं वार्द्कमातुलुंग्यो: रसं सचुक्रे सगुडं पिबेद्‌ वा।

    कट्यूरुपृष्ठत्रिकशूलगुल्मगृध्स्युदावर्तहर: प्रदिष्ठ: ।। 

    Vang Sena, Vaat Vyadhi, 56

    प्रातरुत्थाय यलेन तैलमात्रासमन्वितम्‌।

    पिबेद्‌ वृषणवातध्नमार्द्कस्वरसं बुध: ।। 

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 13

    आर्द्रकस्वरस: क्षौद्रयुक्तो वृषणवातनुत्‌।

    शवासकासारुचीहन्ति प्रतिश्यायं व्यपोहति।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 55/ 11

    शीतपित्ते

    आर्द्रकस्य रस: पेय: पुराणगुडसंयुतः ।

    शीतपित्तापह: श्रेष्ठो वह्निमान्दविनाशन: ।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 55/ 16- 21

    आर्द्रकखण्डम्‌।। 

    Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 24

    कर्णशूले

    कर्णशूले तु शुंगबेररसं तैलमधुसंसृष्टे सैन्थवोपहितं सुखोष्ण कर्ण दद्यात्‌।

    Shusruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 21/ 18, Vrinda Madhava. 59/ 2

    श्रृंग्वेर रस: क्षौद्रं सैन्थवं तैलमेव च।

    कदुष्ण कर्णयोर्देयमेतद्‌ वा वेदनापहम्‌।। 

    Classical Reference of Shunthi

    Shunthi synonyms

    शुण्ठी विश्वा च विश्वच्च नागरं विश्वभेषजम्‌ ।

    उष्णं कटु भद्रच्च शृंगवेरम महौषधम ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 38- 45

    शुण्ठी रुच्यामवातघ्नी पाचनी कटुका लघु: ।

    स्निग्थोष्ण मधुरा पाके कफवात विबन्धनुत्‌ ।।

    वृष्य स्वर्य वमि  श्वाश शूल कास हृद आमयान। 

    हन्ति श्लीपद शोथा  अर्श आनाह उदर मारुतां।  

    आग्र्य गुण भूयिष्ठात तोयांश परिशोषी यात। 

    सगृहणाति मल तनु ग्राहि शुण्व्यादयो यथा ।।

    विबन्ध भेदिनी या तु सा कथ ग्राहिणी भवेत्‌ ।

    शक्तिर्विबन्ध भेदे स्याद्यतो न मलपातनो ।।

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpuspadi varga, 83

    सिग्धोष्णा कटुका शुंठी वृष्या शोफकफारुचीन। । 

    हन्ति वात उदर श्वास पाण्डु श्लीपद नाशिनी। 

    Kaideva Nighantu, Aushadhi Varga, 1151- 1153

    नागरम मधुरं पाके स्निग्ध उष्णं कटुकं लघु। 

    रुच्यम मलानाम संग्राही हृदयं वायोर्विवन्ध नुत। 

    दीपन पाचनं वृष्यं स्वर्यं वात कफापहम। 

    निहन्ति शूलहदोगशोकार्श: श्लीपदोदरम्‌।। 

    आनाह श्वास कास वमि आध्मानपित्तलम्‌। 

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi varga, 26

    शुण्ठीकटुष्णा स्निग्धा च कफशोफानिलापहा ।

    शूलबद्धोदराध्मान श्वास  श्लीपदहारिणी ।। 

    Priya Nighantu, Pipplyadi varga, 6

    शुण्ठीति शुष्का कथिता महौषध॑ विश्वा च नैकेषु गदेषु साधनम्‌ ।

    वातानुलौम्याय हिता अग्नि दीपनी संपाचनी शूलकफानिलापहा ।।

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 237

    ज्वरे

    सनागरं समृद्वीकं सघृत क्षौद्रशर्करम्‌।

    शृतं पय: सखर्जूरं पिपासाज्वरनाशनम्।। 

    Ashtanga Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 27

    सृष्टविट्‌ बहुपित्तो वा सशुण्ठी माक्षिकाम हिमाम्‌।

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 831

    जल दोष ज्वरे 

    अरुचिमनलमांद्य  मान्दयं पीनस सश्वाश  कास उदरं उदक दोष नाशु  हन्यादशेषान्‌।

    जनयति तनु  कान्तिं चित्तनेत्रप्रसादं पलपरिमितशुण्ठीक्षौद्रसिद्ध: कषाय:।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 837

    भोजनाग्रे नरै भुक्त शुण्ठ्यजाज्यभयोत्थितम्‌ ।

    क्लकम तु सेवितं नित्यं नानादेशोदभवं जलम्‌।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 750

    विषम ज्वरे 

    महाबलामूलमहौषधाभ्याम क्वाथो  निहन्याद्‌ विषमज्वरं हि।

    शीत सकम्पं परिदाहयुक्त विनाशयेद्‌ द्वित्रिदिनप्रयोगात।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 756

    शुण्ठ्यजाजी गुड पिष्टं पीतमुष्णेन वारिणा।

    जीर्णमद्येन तक्रेण तीव्रम शीतज्वरं जयेत। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 22

    अतिसारे

     वचा प्रतिविषाभ्यां वा मुस्तपर्पटकेन वा।

     ह्यइबेर श्रृंगबेरभ्यां पक्‍वं वा पाययेज्जलम्‌।। 

    Kalyaan Kaarak. 9/ 94

    कलकं पिबेदशिशिरेण जलेन शुण्ठीमेकां तथा कफकृतामयुतातिसारे।

    Ashtanga Hridaya Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 17

    अल्पाल्पमल्पं समलं निर्विड्वा सप्रवाहिकम्‌।

    दघितैलघृतक्षीरै: स शुण्ठीं सगुडां पिबेत्‌।। 

    Sharangdhara Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 2. 1. 38- 39

    चूर्ण किंचिद्द घृताभ्यक्ते शुण्ठ्या एरण्डजैर्दलै: ।

    वेष्टितं पुटपाकेन विपचेन्‌ मन्दवहिना॥।

    तत उददृत्य तच्चूर्ण ग्राह्यं प्रात: सितासमम्‌।

    तेन यान्ति शमं पीडा आमातीसारसंभवा: ।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 2/ 22

    एरण्डरससंपिष्ठं पक्व आमंच्च नागरम्‌ ।

    आमातिसारशूलघ्नम पाचन दीपनं परम्‌।। 

    Chakradutta. 6/ 3

    अग्निमांद्य अजीर्णे च

    समयवशूकमहौषधचूर्ण लीढं घृतेन गो  सर्गे। 

    कुरुते क्षुधां सुखोदकपीत॑ विश्वौषधज्चैकम्‌।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 6/ 13

    गुडेन शुण्ठीमथव वोपकुल्यां पथ्यां तृतीयामथ दाडिमं वा।

    आमेष्वजीर्णेषु गुदामयेषु वर्चोविबन्धेषु च नित्यमद्यात्‌।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 6/ 24

    भवेदजीर्ण प्रति यस्य शंका स्निग्धस्य जन्तो बलिनो अन्नकाले।

    पूर्व सशुण्टीमभयामशंको भुज्जीत संप्राश्य हित॑ हिताशी।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 34

    हरीतकी तथा शुण्ठी भक्ष्यमाणा गुडेन च।

    सैन्धवेन युता वा स्यात्‌ सातत्येना अग्नि दीपनी।। 

    Vaidya Manorma . 6/ 35

    अर्धावशिष्टं जलम्राढकार्थ महौषधं केवलमेव पीतम्‌।

    प्रदीपयेज्जाठरपावकं द्राक्‌ तददीपिकृद्धि: किमुतान्यभेषजै: ।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 831

    अरुचिमनलमान्दयं पीनसश्वासकासानुदरमुदकदोषानाशु हन्घादशेषान्‌।

    जनयति तनुकान्तिं चित्तनेत्रप्रसादं पलपरिमितशुण्ठीक्षौद्रसिद्ध: कघाय: ।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 129- 131

    ग्रहणीविकारे

    नागराद्यं चूर्णम्‌। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 129- 131, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 10/ 8, Vrinda Madhava. 4/ 12

    नागरातिविषामुस्ताक्वाथ: स्यादामपाचन: ।

    मुस्तान्तकल्कः, पथ्या बा नागरं चोष्णाबारिणा ॥

    Vrinda Madhava. 4/ 36- 37

    शुण्ठीघृतम्‌। 

    Gada Nigreha. 2. 3. 66

    अतिसारसंहरणमस्निहित ग्रहणी विकार गुदकीलहरम्‌।

    जठरा अर्ति शोफगररुकशमनं सुमहौषध॑ जयति तक्र युतमू।। 

    Sharangdhara Samhita 2. 5. 28

    पीतो मसूरयूषेण कल्कः शुण्ठीशलादुज: ।

    जयेत्‌ संग्रहणीं तद्वत्‌ तक्रेण बृहतीभव: ।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 129

    अर्शसि

    कण्टकार्या श्रृत॑ वापि श्रृत॑ नागरधान्यकै: ।

    अनुपानं भिषग्‌ दद्याद्‌ वात वर्चो अनुलोम्नं।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 68

    सनागर॑ चित्रकं वा शीधुयुक्त प्रयोजयेत्‌। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 4/ 47

    सनागरारुष्करवृद्धदारकं गुडेन यो मोदकमत्त्युदारकम्‌।

    अशेष दुर्नामकरोगदारकं करोति वृद्ध सहसैव दारकम्‌।। 

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 7. 24

    आमेषु सगुडां शुण्ठीमजीर्णे गुडपिप्पलीम्‌।

    कृच्छे जीरगुडं दद्यादर्श:सु सगुडाभयाम्‌।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 5/ 1

    सितासिता विश्व भवौ चूर्णी पथ्यारज:समौ।

    गुडावलीढौ गुदजान्‌ हत: शेष्समरुदभवान्‌।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 53/ 6

    अम्लपित्ते

    कफपित्तवमीकण्डूज्वरविस्फोटदाहहा।

    पाचनो दीपन: क्वाथः शृङ्गवेर पटोलयो: ।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 26/ 7, Vang Sena. Shool, 16

    शूले

    विश्वमेरण्डजं मूल॑ क्वाथयित्वा जलं पिबेत्‌।

    हिंगुसौवर्चलोपेत॑ सद्य: शूलनिवारणम्‌।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 27/ 4

    नागरतिलगुडकल्क पयसा संसाध्य य: पुमानद्यात्‌।

    उग्र परिणतिशूलं तस्यापैतीह सप्तरात्रेण।। 

    Vang Sena. Shool, 17, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 99

    विश्वैरण्डयवक्वाथ: सद्य:  शूलनिवारण: ।

    तवददिन्द्रय क्वाथों हिंगु सौवर्चलान्वित: ।।

     Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 5. 18

    शुण्ठीतिलगुडै: कल्क॑ दुग्धेन सह योजयेत्‌।

    परिणामभव॑ शूलमामवातं च नाशयेत्‌।। 

    नागरशोभाज्जनयो: क्वाथ: शूलं विनाशयेत्‌ त्रि दिनात्‌।

    मुनितरुवल्क क्वाथ स्तद्वत्‌ पटुरामठप्रतीवाप: ।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 31/ 4

    हृदरोगे

    नागर वा पिबेद उष्णं कषायं च अग्नि वर्ध्नम।  

    कासश्वासानिलहरं शूलहद्रोगनाशनम्‌।। 

    Shusruta Samhita Uttar Tantra. 42/ 62

    गुल्मे

    पिबेत्‌ त्रिवृन्नागरं बा सगुडां वा हरीतकीम। 

    नागरार अर्ध पलं पिष्द्वा दे पले लुञ्चित्स्य च।

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 91- 92

    तिलस्य एकम गुडपल॑ क्षीरणोष्णेन ना पिबेत्‌॥।

    बातगुल्मम उदावर्त योनिशूल॑ च नाशयेत्। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 37/ 29- 30

    उदरे

    नागराद्यं यमकम्‌। 

    Ashtanga Sangreha Chiktsa sthana. 19/ 3

    शोथे

    तुल्य गुडम शुण्ठीं पुनर्नवा कषायानुपानाम्‌। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 109

    हिक्काश्वासयो:

    सौवर्चलं नागरें च भार्गी द्विशर्करायुताम्‌।

    उष्णाम्बुना पिबेदेतद्‌ हिक्काश्वासविकारतुत्‌।। 

    Shusruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 50/ 22

    शुण्ठीतोये साथित॑ क्षीरमा्ज तद्वत्‌ पीत॑ शर्करासंयुतं वा। 

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 46

    तुल्यं गुडं नागरज्च भक्षयेत्नावयेत वा।

    Chakra Dutta, Hikka Swasa. 4

    मधुकं मधुसंयुक्त॑ पिप्पली शर्करान्विता।

    नागर गुडसंयुक्त॑ हिक्काघ्न नावनत्रयम्‌।। 

    Vaidyab Jeevan. 3/ 25

    शुण्ठीभार्गीकृत: क्वाथ:  कसनश्वसनाहिराट । 

    Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 25

    शुण्ठीकणासिताधात्रीरेणु: क्षौद्रेण मिश्रित: ।

    हिक्कां हन्ति समालीढ: सक्षौद्रं पिच्छभस्म वा।। 

    Shusruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 52/ 17

    कासे

    खादेद्‌ गुडं नागरपिप्पलीभ्यां द्राक्षां च सर्पिर्मधुना अवलिह्यात्‌। 

    Ashtanga Hridaya Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 15

    पुराणगुडतैलाभ्यां चूर्णितान्यवलेहयेत्‌।

    तद्वत्‌ सकृष्णां शुण्ठीज्च सभार्गी तद्वदेव च।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 166- 167

    मदात्यये

    सनागराभि: सर्वाभिरजलं वा श्रृतशीतलम। 

    एत देव च पानीयं सर्व त्रापि मदात्यये।। 

    Vrind Madhvo. 22/ 54, Vang Sena, Vaat Vyadhi. 592

    वातव्याधौ 

    शुण्ठीगन्धर्वबीजाभ्यां पिष्टाभ्यां पायसं कृतम्‌।

    भक्षितं कटिशूल॑ च गृधसी हन्त्यसंशयम्‌।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 249

    शुण्ठीकुटजबीजाम्निचूर्ण कोष्ण अम्बु कुक्षिगे। 

    शुण्ठी पिप्पल्यूषणं दीप्यकज्च सिन्धूद्भूत॑ चेति सर्वे पृथग्‌ वा।

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 21

    तद्रूप॑ वा सूक्ष्मचूर्णीकृतं वा जूम्भारम्भस्तम्भकृत्‌ स्यात्तदेव।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 59

    सर्पिस्तैल॑ गुडं शुक्त॑ पंचमं  विश्वभेषजम्‌।

    पीतमेतत्‌ भवेत्‌ सद्दस्तर्पण कटिशूलनुत्‌।। 

    न हि चैतत्समं किश्विन्निरामे कटिमारुते।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 7

    आमवाते

    शुण्ठीगोक्षुरकक्काथ: प्रातः प्रातर्निषेवित: ।

    सामे वाते कटीशूले पाचनो रुग्विनाशन: ।। 

    यवक्षारसमायुक्तो मूत्र कृच्छ नाशन: । 

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 9, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 56

    महौषधगुड्च्योस्तु क्वाथं पिप्पलिसंयुतम्‌।

    पिबेदामे सरुक्‌शूले कटीशूले विशेषतः।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 12, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 48

    कर्ष नागरचूर्णस्य काज्जिकेन पिबेत्‌ सदा।

    आमवातप्रशमनं कफवातहरं परम्‌।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 41- 42, 48, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 80- 83

    शुण्ठीघृतम्‌। 

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 40

    शुण्ठीकल्कं विनिक्षिप्य रसैरेण्डमूलजै: ।

    विपचेत्‌ पुटपाकेन तद्रस: क्षौद्रसयुतः।। 

    आमवातसमुद्भूतां पीडां जयति दुस्तराम।। 

    रास्नाकषायपरिपीतमथ शव दंष्ट्रा क्वाथेन वा अमृतलताक्वथनेन वापि। 

    विश्वौषधं हरति पादकटीविभागादासक्धिजानुजघनस्थलजा: रुजश्व।

    Vang Sena Shleepada, 11

    श्लीपदे 

    महौषधविपक्वेन पयसा चान्नमादिशेत्‌। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 34/ 23

    अश्मर्याम

    नागरवरुणकगोक्षुरपाषाणभेदकपोत वंकज: क्वाथ: ।

    गुडयावशूकमिश्र: पीतो हन्त्यश्मरीमुग्राम्।।  

    Ashtanga Hridaya Uttaratantra. 22/ 78

    मुखरोगे

    स्वर्जिकानागरक्षौद्रै: क्लाथो गण्डूष इष्यते।

    गुडुची निम्ब कलकोमधुतैलसमन्वित: ।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 59/ 27

    कर्ण रोगे         

    गुडनागरतोयेन नस्यं स्यादुभयोरपि।

     Vrinda Madhava. 61/ 24

    नेत्ररोगे

    शुण्ठीनिम्बदलै: पिण्ड: सुखोष्णै: स्वल्पसैन्धवै: ।

    धार्यश्चक्षुषि संक्षेपाच्छोफकण्डू व्यथा पह: ।। 

    Chakra Dutta. 60/ 23

    शिरोरोगे

    नागरकल्कविमिश्र क्षीर॑ नस्येन योजित॑ पुंसाम्‌।

    नानादोषोद्भूतां शिरोरुजां हन्ति तीव्रतराम।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 62/ 33

    नावनं सगुडं विश्व॑ पिप्पली वा ससैन्धवा।

    भुजस्तम्भादिरोगेषु सर्वेषु ऊर्ध्वग गदेषु च। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 62/ 33

    गुडनागरकल्कस्य नस्यं मस्तकशूलनुत्‌। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 30/ 262- 262

    स्तन्यशोधने

    पाययेताथवा स्तन्यशुद्धये रोहिणी शृतं।  

    अमृतासप्तपर्णत्वक क्वाथं  चैव सनागरम्‌।। 

    किराततिक्तकक्वा्थ श्लोकपादेरितान्‌ पिबेत्‌।

    त्रीनेतान्‌ स्तन्यशुद्धर्थमिति सामान्यमेषजम्‌।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 12

    क्षतक्षीणे

    कल्पो अयं शुण्ठीमधुकयोस्तथा।

    Shusrita Samhita Utara Tantra. 44/ 30

    कामलायाम

    सशर्करा कामलिनां त्रि भण्डी हिता गवाक्षी सगुडा च शुण्ठी। 

    बिल्वनागरनि: क्वाथो हन्याच्छ्दि विसूचिकाम्‌।

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 112

    वृश्चिकविषे

    नागरं वारिणा घृष्टे नराणां नस्यकर्मणि।

    विषं वृश्चिकदष्नां हरेदेके प्रभावत: ।। 

    Specific Formulation of Ardraka - Shunthi

    • Shunthi Kshaya for Agni Mandya, Kasa, Shool
    • Nagaradi Churna for Grahani Dosha, Arsha
    • Nagaradi taila for Mukha Roga
    • Shunthi Ghrita for Grahani, Pandu, Jwara
    • Shunthi Khanda for Amalpitta, Shoola, Aamvaata
    • Shunthi Rasnadi kshaya for Vataja Swarabheda
    • Ardraka Khanda
    • Saubhagya Sunthi
    • Nagaradi kwath
    • Shunthyadi Churna

    Contraindication and Side Effects of Ardraka - Shunthi

    • In a few people Ardraka- Sunthi may result in allergic reactions like rash, itching, dizziness, burning feeling in the mouth, abdominal pain, etc.
    • During pregnancy and breastfeeding use Ardraka and Shunthi under medical supervision and only when needed.
    • Ardraka is contraindicated in Kustha (skin disorder), Paandu (Anemia), Rakt Pitta (internal bleeding), Vran (wound), Jvara (fever), and Daha (burning sensation).

    Suggestive Reading Regarding Ardraka - Sunthi

    • Jahan R, Paul AK, Bondhon TA, et al. Zingiber officinale: Ayurvedic Uses of the Plant and In Silico Binding Studies of Selected Phytochemicals With M pro of SARS-CoV-2. Natural Product Communications. October 2021. doi:10.1177/1934578X211031766
    • https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2017.1367779
    • Shukla K, Dwivedi M, Kumar N. Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: A herbal remedy for puerperal women. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010;1(1):25-29. doi:10.4103/0974-7788.59940
    • Kumar KM, Asish GR, Sabu M, Balachandran I. Significance of gingers (Zingiberaceae) in the Indian System of Medicine – Ayurveda: An overview. Anc Sci Life. 2013;32(4):253-261. doi:10.4103/0257-7941.131989
    • Dissanayake, K.G.C. & Liyanage, R. & Waliwita, W. A. L. Chandrasiri. (2020). A REVIEW ON THE PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF GINGER (Zingiber officinale). 10. 142-148.
    • Ayse N, Duygu AT, Hakký AI, Tansel OY, Ýsmet DG, Ismail  K,  Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of  Zingiber officinale extracts, FABAD J Pharm Sci,  2008, 33(2), 77-86.
    • Akhani SP, Vishwakarma  SL,  Goyal  RK, Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type  I  diabetic rats, J Pharm Pharmacol, 2004, 56(1), 101-105.
    • Abdullah N, Saat NZM, Hasan HA, Budin SB, Kamaralzaman  S,  Protective effect of the ethanol extract of  Zingiber officinale Roscoe on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats,  Jurnal  Sains Kesihatan Malaysia, 2004, 2(2), 85-95.
    • Aboubakar HA, Nauertz A, Luong NT, Agrawal S, El-Sohaimy SAA, Youssef MM, Goyal SM.  In vitro antiviral activity of clove and ginger aqueous extracts against feline calicivirus,  a  surrogate for human norovirus. J Food Prot. 2016, 79(6), 1001-1012.  
    • Schnitzler P, Koch C, Reichling  J. Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical Herpes simplex virus type  1 strain to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007.
    • Sourbini, & Kadibagil, dr. (2016). Ardraka & Shunti -Mahoushadhis of Ayurveda.
    • NAYANA, N. N., & KRISHNAMURTHY, D. M. K. (2021). PHARMACEUTICAL STUDY OF ARDRAKA PAKA – A HERBAL COMPOUND FORMULATION. Journal of Ayurveda and Holistic Medicine (JAHM),9(2).Retrieved from- http://jahm.co.in/index.php/jahm/article/view/290
    • Pujari.S.International journal of research in  AYUSH  and  Allied sciences.Role of  Dhumapana and pana with Ardraka Arka in the management of Tamaka Swasa, 1(1):2014
    • Ghayur MN, Gilani AH, Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels.  J. Cardiovasc.  Pharmacol, 45:  74–80, (2005).
    • Ghayur MN, Gilani AH, Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels.  J. Cardiovasc.  Pharmacol, 45:  74–80, (2005).
    • Thomson M. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.)  as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acid, 67: 475–478, (2002).
    • S.  Banerjee, H.  I.  Mullick and J. Banerjee International  Journal  of  Pharma and  Bio  SciencesZingiber  officinale:  a natural gold Jan-March 2011; 2(1)

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: BhavaPrakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Priya Nighnatu by P. V. Sharma, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chwkhamba Krishnadas Academy.
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyagunavigyana, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidayaprabhahindi commentary by indradevatripathi, chaukambha sankritasansthan, varanai 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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