Home Dravya (Herbs) Part B Aamra (Mangifera indica)

    Aamra (Mangifera indica)

    Aamra: The King of Fruits with Multifaceted Health Benefits

    Introduction

    Aamra or Mango botanically known as Mangifera indica belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. This fruit has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for over 4000 years. Aamra has been mentioned in Sacred Ramayana in different chapters. In Hinduism, the Pakwa Phala i.e the ripe fruit of mango represents the potential perfection of devotees and is a symbol of attainment and is often held by Lord Ganesha. The Flower of Aamra is used to worship Lord Shiva on the Shivratri. Aamra is the important tropical fruit of Asia. Aamra is the national fruit of India, the national tree of Bangladesh, and the national fruit of the Philippines. Aamra consists of active ingredients like polyphenols, flavonoids, triterpenoids, catechin, mangiferin, etc. Aamra exhibits various activities like hypotensive activity, anti-diabetic activity, anti- degenerative activity, anti-microbial, antiviral activity, etc. Irs Juice (Swarasa) is very famous for its use in heat stroke along with this it is also a perfect restorative tonic. In Ayurvedic classical texts, Pakwa Aamra (Ripe fruit) is Vata- Pitta Shamaka and Apakwa fruit (unripe fruit) is Tridoshakara. Aamra is mentioned in Bhrittrayi and its types are mentioned by Raja Nighantu and Shodhala Nighantu.

    Basonym of Aamra

    अम्यते इष्यते आम्र: अथवा आमं राति ददाति जनयतीत्यर्थ: आमयाति रुजत्यामावस्थायाम्‌ |

    Aamra is regarded as the king of fruits and liked by all, but if it is consumed in excessive amounts, it may cause indigestion.

    Synonyms of Aamra

    • According to morphology

    अतिसौरभ: – अतिशय सुगन्धि पुष्पमस्य |

    Flowers of Aamra have got aroma.

    चैत्रवृक्ष: – चैत्र मासे पुष्पितो वृक्ष: |

    Amra plant blossoms in the spring season.

     

    • According to properties and action

    रसाल: – रसेनालति शोभते |

    Mango fruit is full of juice.

    मधुफल: – मधूनि मधुराणि फलानि पकवान्य यस्य |

    On ripening Aamra fruit will have a sweet taste.

    अम्लफल: – आमावस्थायामम्लं फलमस्य |

    When the fruit of Aamra is Apakwa (Tender), it will have a sour taste.

    Regional Names of Aamra

    • Mango tree (English)
    • Aam, Ambi, Amia (Hindi)
    • Mavina Mara (Kannada)
    • Amarsm (Malayalam)
    • Aamba (Marathi)
    • Mamidi Chettu, Amarama (Telugu)
    • Mangas (Tamil)
    • Amno (Gujarati)
    • Amra (Bengali)
    • Mabaz (Arabic)
    • Amb (Pers.)
    • Amn (Punjabi)

    Scientific Classification of Aamra

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassPolypetalae
    Series Disciflorae 
    OrderSapindales
    Family Anacardiaceae
    GenusMangifera 
    Species indica

    Botanical Name

    Mangifera indica Linn.

    Mangifera word originated from the Malayalam name.

    Indica means Indian.

    Family – Anacardiaceae (Aamra Kula)

    Ayurveda Reference for Aamra (Mangifera indica Linn.)

    Classification of Aamra as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Hridya Mahakshaya, Mutra Sangrahniya Mahakshaya, Pureesh Sangrahniya Mahakshaya, Chardi Nigrehana Mahakshaya
    • Sushruta: Not included in Gana.

    Aamra's the Description in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 27S. S. Su. 38/ 47A. H. Su. 6/ 127
    C. S. Su. 4/ 10, 28, 31, 33S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Su. 7/ 44
    C. S. Su. 26/ 112S. S. Su. 46/ 139, 152A. H. Su. 10/ 26
    C. S. Su. 27/ 136, 277S. S. Chi. 11/ 9A. H. Su. 15/ 41
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 147, 151S. S. Chi. 17/ 35A. H. Chi. 2/ 49
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 98, 100S. S. Chi. 19/ 42A. H. Chi. 6/ 14
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 126S. S. Chi. 25/ 17, 19A. H. Chi. 7/ 14
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 61, 117S. S. Ka. 5/ 85A. H. Chi. 9/ 27, 66
    C. S. Chi. 20/ 29S. S. Ka. 6/ 3A. H. U. 3/ 49
    C. S. Chi. 24/ 181S. S. U. 17/ 8, 10A. H. U. 18/ 43, 46
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 115S. S. U. 19/ 12, 14A. H. U. 22/ 82, 88
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 268S. S. U. 21/ 45, 47A. H. U. 25/ 61
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 77, 89, 120S. S. U. 30/ 3A. H. U. 32/ 22
    C. S. Si. 8/ 35S. S. U. 39/ 304A. H. U. 34/ 2, 45, 51, 55
    S. S. U. 40/ 70, 96
    S. S. U. 45/ 23, 36
    S. S. U. 47/ 25

    Aamra's a Description in Brihtrayi as synonym Sahakara

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Ka. 7/ 30

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 45/ 127

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 3/ 21

    Historical Background of Aamra

    It is a tree growing to about 20 m in height bearing clusters of small yellow flowers. It grows all over India. In the therapeutics, the Amra Bija and Tvak are mainly used in all the primary texts and Nighantus for the astringent property. Sour fruits are considered to be Hridya. The ripened fruit is Brmhana in nature. Its leaves are mentioned under Pancha Pallava and are Chardighana.

    Varieties of Aamra

    A large number of kinds and varieties are produced under cultivation practices of mango fruit and are available in the market of different regions in the country. The kinds of Kalami, Biju, Dashhari, Langara and many other traditions are popular and many other types are known for their delicious fruits. Classical varieties are mentioned (Nighantus) as Amra and Raja Aamra along with specific consideration of various stages, parts, and modes of usage of mango fruits (including planting techniques-Vrikshayurveda).

     

    Raja Nighantu: Raja Nighantu described 4 varieties of Aamra:

     

    • Kosha Aamra
    • Raja Aamra
    • Maharaja Aamra
    • Badara Aamra

     

    Shodhala Nighantu: Shodhala Nighantu described three types of Aamra:

     

    • Aamra
    • Raja Aamra
    • Kosha Aamra

     

    Market varieties of Aamra:

     

    • Alphonso
    • Bangalore
    • Banganapalli
    • Bombay yellow 
    • Duschiri/ Dushheri
    • Fazli
    • Gulab Khas
    • Langra
    • Malda
    • Mulgoa
    • Neelum
    • Olour
    • Pairi
    • Rajapuri
    • Rumani
    • Safeda Lucknow
    • Agisbnigne
    • Safdar Pasand
    • Samara Behisht
    • Suvarnarekha
    • Vanaraj
    • Zardulu

    External morphology of Mangifera indica Linn.

    • Habit: Aamra is a large spreading evergreen tree that grows up to 50 feet in height.
    • Leaf: Leaves of Aamra are crowded at the ends of branches, coriaceous, simple, 12 to 25 cm long and 3 to 7 cm wide, oblong or oblong, lanceolate acute tip, shining, margins often undulate, the base is narrowed, petioles are 1 to 3 cm long.
    • Inflorescence: Panicle inflorescence
    • Flowers: Monoecious, 5 mm long, with a disagreeable odor.
    • Fruit: Fruit of Aamra is 2 to 20 cm long drupe type, fleshy, obliquely pyriform, or sub ovoid in shape.
    • Seed: Seeds of Aamra are compressed, fibrous, and very hard.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Spring to summer – rainy season.

    Distribution of Aamra

    Throughout India in warmer regions; especially in Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, Tamilnadu, and central India. It is widely cultivated in various areas in the country, as a common fruit-producing tree.

    The useful part of Aamra

    Mula (root), Twak (Bark), Patra (leaf), Pushpa (flowers), Phala (fruit), and Bija (seed).

    Important phytoconstituent of Aamra

    Mangiferin, Amino acids, Gallotannin, Gallic acid, Quercetin, and Beta-sitosterol are seen in various parts of Amra.

    Fruit contains Vitamins A, B, C, and D, especially Vitamin C is richer. Unripe fruit contains water 21, aqueous extract 61.5, cellulose 5, insoluble ash 1.5, and soluble ash 1.9 percent (including potash, tartaric, citric, and malic acid). Ripe fruit contains yellow coloring matter, chlorophyll, carbon di-sulfide, benzol, gallic acid, citric acid, and resin.

    Leaf presents with Citronellol, Diterpene, Geraniol, Limonene, Mangiferol, Mangiferone and Tannin.

    The bark contains tannin. The seed’s endosperm or kernel contains malic acid, sugars, resin, ash, and starch in good quantity.

    Recent research on Aamra

    • The study was done to assess the effects of Mangifera indica stem bark extract and mangiferin on pain-related acute behaviors in the formalin 5% test. Stem bark extract decreased licking/ biting and flinching behaviors only in phase Il and reduced the long-term formalin injury-induced secondary chronic mechano- hyperalgesia. The results could represent an important contribution to explaining the analgesic ethnobotanical effects recognized in Mangifera indica, and other species containing Mangiferin. Garrido-Suarez BB, Garrido G, Garcia ME, Delgado Hernandez R. “Anti- hyperalgesic effects of an aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica L. role of Mangiferin isolated from the extract. Phyto Res. 2014 Nov; 28 (11); 1646-53.
    • Mangiferin has cardiotonic and diuretic properties (Chem. Abstract 1968, 69, 3873 h).
    • Gallic acid (1mg/ ml) and quercetin (4 mg/ ml) showed marked anti-influenza virus activity (Chem. Abstract 1982, 97, 141655g.)
    • Mangiferin and iso- mangiferin showed antiviral activity against the type I Herpes simplex virus (Chinese Med. J. 1990, 103, 160).
    • Hypotensive activity
    • Anti-diabetic activity
    • Anti-inflammatory activity
    • Anti-cancer activity
    • Anti-parasitic activity
    • Anti-tumor activity
    • Hypolipidemic activity
    • Antimicrobial activity
    • Antifungal activity
    • Antispasmodic activity
    • Hepatoprotective activity

    Rasa Panchaka of Apakva Phala (Unripe fruit)

    Rasa (Taste)Amla (sour)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Amla (sour)

    Rasa Panchaka of Pakva Phala (Ripe fruit)

    Rasa (Taste)Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Guru (heavy), Snigdha (oily)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Rasa Panchaka of Tvaka (Bark)

    Rasa (Taste)Kashaya (astringent)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Aamra

    • Apakwa Phala (Unripe fruit)- Tridosha Karaka
    • Pakwa Phala (Ripen fruit)- Vata Pitta Shamaka, Vatahara due to Madura Vipaka and Rasa. Pitta Shamaka due to Sheeta Virrya, Madhura vipaka and Madhura Rasa.
    • Twak (Bark)- Kapha Pitta Samaka. Kapha Hara because of Katu Vipaka and Kashaya rasa. Pitta Shamaka due to Sheeta Virya, and Kashaya Rasa.

    Karma (Actions) of Aamra

    • Apakwa Aamra Phala (Unripe fruit)- Rucya
    • Pakwa Aamra Phala (Ripen fruit)- Vrisya, Balya, Hridya, Varnya, Rucya and Brihana.
    • Twak (Bark)- Prameha Hara, Yoni Roga Nashaka and Atisara Hara.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Aamra

    • Apakwa Aamra Phala (Unripe fruit)- Aruchi.
    • Pakwa Aamra Phala (Ripen fruit)- Dourbalya, Vaivarnya, Aruchi and Karsya.
    • Twak (Bark)- Prameha, Atisara and Yoni Roga.

     

    Aabhyantra Paryog (internal use indication):

     

    Aruci, Agnimandya, Chardi, Ajirna, Vibandha, Kosthagatarouksya, Atisara, Pravahika, Rakta Atisara, Krmi-roga, Plihodara, Raktapitta, Raktalpata, Hridroga, Charma Roga, Tvak Dosha, Kshudra Roga, Varna Dosha, Ansughata, Daha, Trishna, Prameha, Puuyameha, Dourbalya, Krishta, Dhatu Kshaya, Rakta Shweta Pradara, Shukral Paat, Vata- Pitta- Kaphaja Vikara, Sotha, Hikka, Madatyaya.

     

    Bahya Paryog (external use indication):

     

    Karna Roga, Putti Karna, Vrna, Daha, Mukha Paka, Rakta Strava, Daruna Roga, Charma Vikara.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Aamra

    Atisara (Diarrhea)

     

    • Seed-kernel of Jambu, Aamra, Bilva, Kapittha, and Sunthi- these should be taken with liquid gruel in case of Atisara (diarrhea). (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 127)
    • Decoction of Bilva and seed- the kernel of Aamra mixed with honey and sugar checks vomiting and diarrhea. (Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 30)
    • Tender leaves of Aamra and Kapittha fruit are pounded together and taken with rice water in case of Atisara (diarrhea). (Vanga Sena Atisara. 61)
    • The bark of Shallaki, Badari, Jambu, Priyala, Aamra, and arjuna mixed with honey and taken with milk checks hemorrhage (in diarrhea). (Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 41)
    • Decoction of the seed kernel of Aamra and Bilva is added with honey and sugar. It controls severe vomiting and diarrhea. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa 2/ 107)
    • Juice of Aamra bark extracted by Putapaka (closed heating) is added with oil and taken. It alleviates diarrhea with blood and mucus. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 7)

     

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage):

     

    • In intrinsic hemorrhage, one should take a cold infusion of Aamra, Jambu and Arjuna added with honey. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 4. 2, Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 45/ 23)
    • In epistaxis, the juice of mango seed is instilled into nostrils. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 99)

     

    Chardi (Vomiting)

     

    • Avaleha is made of mango seed-kernel (Aamra Beeja Majja), parched paddy, and rock salt with honey checkered vomiting. (Vrinda Madhava. 66/ 11)
    • Leaves and roots (separately) of Bijapur, Aamra, and Jambu are cooked by closed heating. Intake of the juice obtained is taken with honey. It alleviates severe vomiting. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 32. 33)

     

    Trishna (Thirst): Decoction of Aamra and Jambu added with honey alleviates all types of vomiting and thirst. (Vrinda Madhava. 16/ 10)

     

    Surya Santaap (Sunstroke): Roasted tender fruits of Aamra are added with water and mixed with Jiraka, salt, and Maricha. It should be taken in the proper dose by one afflicted with sunstroke. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4/ 38)

     

    Pleeha Vriddhi (Spleen enlargement): Juice of ripe mango added with honey is useful in the enlargement of the spleen. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 33/ 17, Vrinda Madhava. 37/ 50)

     

    Puyameha (gonorrhea): Bark of mango is pounded and added with milk and sugar. This is efficacious in gonorrhea if taken for a fortnight. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4/ 810)

     

    Kustha Roga (skin disease): Pulp of mango fruit mixed with rock salt is rubbed with water in a copper vessel. This is applied to the skin in psoriasis (Ek Kustha). (Vanga Sena. Kustha. 113)

     

    Darunaka (Dandruff):  Equal powders of mango seed (kernel) and Haritaki are pounded together with milk and applied to the scalp in the case of Darunaka (dandruff). (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 11. 20)

     

    Yoni Dosha (Slackness of the vagina): Paste is made of mango seed (kernel), honey, and camphor and applied to Yoni (vagina). It makes the vagina contracted and firm. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 11.111)

     

    Mukha Paka (Stomatitis): In the stomatitis of children, seed-kernel of mango, Lauha Bhasma, red ochre, and Rasanjana mixed with honey is efficacious. (Vanga Sena Balaroga. 108)

     

    Ajirna (Indigestion): In indigestion caused by eating fish and meat, unripe fruit and the seed of mango are useful respectively. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6/ 139)

     

    Sotha (Oedema): Ghee cooked with the decoction of Punarnava leaves and Aamra root alleviates all types of edema, Vata Balasaka, Gulma, Udara, Pleeha Vriddhi (splenomegaly), Arsha (piles) and Amlapitta (dyspepsia). (Vanga Sena. Sotha. 93-94)

     

    Aaswad (Loss of relish): Aamra Panaka (Kshema Kutuhala. 11. 21, 12. 52- 55)

     

    Jwara (Fever): Hot infusion prepared of tender leaves of Aamra and Jambu, leaf buds, and hanging roots of Vata and Ushira mixed with honey allay the fever. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 3. 6)

    Benefits of mango:

    • It is useful as an antiscorbutic, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, appetizer, stomachic, astringent, cardiac stimulant, demulcent, diuretic, fattening, invigorative, tonic, refrigerant, and laxative in different forms and modes of usage regarding fruits and other parts of the plant potent for medicine.
    • It has uses in burning sensation, sunstroke, bleeding, piles or hemorrhoids, hemorrhage, epistaxis, debility, and irritability of the stomach, uterine complaints hemorrhage, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, bleeding from lungs and intestinal origin, ophthalmia and eruption, scabies and cutaneous affections. It is used in dysentery, diarrhea, edema, debility, urinary anomalies, constipation, abdominal disorders, and seminal troubles.
    • The unripe fruit is fried (or boiled) and pulp is macerated for preparing a recipe with sugar and spices as usual, and this domestic regimen of fruit pulp is specifically given in cases of sunstroke and also effectively used during the summers for countering excessive heat stroke and other complications, in addition to its home uses of food item with stomachic, tasteful, appetizer and digestive properties. It is used as Chatani as a household dietetic item commonly and the dried powder of unripe fruit pulp is one of the common spices and it is a major source of herbal acidic or sour powder of food utility, as the powder as well as dried off slices- pieces of pulps are used for various purposes (Amchur, Chatani, Achar, etc. and pickles)
    • Unripe fruit is acidic, antiscorbutic, and astringent. Sun-dried slices of unripe fruit are an effective remedy for scurvy. 
    • The fried skin of the unripe fruit is given with sugar in cases of menorrhagia. The skin of unripe fruit is used as an astringent and a stimulating tonic. Its Churna (powder) is given with milk and honey for Raktaja Atisara (bleeding dysentery), and as a tonic for the digestive organs.
    • Ripe fruit is used against the diseases caused due to Vata- Pitta Dosha, two body humor is useful in constipation and as an intestinal demulcent.
    • Ripe fruit is used as a cardiac tonic, blood coagulant, and useful in hemorrhagic disorders. It is given in cardiac troubles, anemia, and hemorrhage of different origins. 
    • Ripe fruit is used in seminal abnormalities. In general debility, consumption (Kshaya Roga), and discoloration or complexion abnormalities. 
    • Ripe fruit is used in spleen and liver complaints
    • The fruit juice mixed with honey is recommended for liver disorders.
    • The ripe fruits are the most favorite and delicious edible mango fruits, and they are widely used variously as food articles. The chemical profile renders fruits of high nutritive value. Various other parts of the tree are of medicinal value and they are used for different ailments for treatment.
    • The bark is useful as an astringent and has a marked action on mucous membranes. Bark powder or decoction is given to female subjects in cases of leucorrhea and menorrhagia, and also mucopurulent, discharges from the uterus. 
    • The bark is used in bowel complaints, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding diarrhea, intestinal hemorrhage, and also from lungs. 
    • The juice of fresh bark is internally given with the addition of suitable adjuvants, and it enters in various recipes administered for these ailments.
    • Juice of fresh bark is with lime water or other suitable drugs and forms are given in gonorrhea.
    •  Juice of bark is used in skin diseases for internal use, and the decoction of the bark is also used in skin complaints. 
    • The fluid extract, infusion, or decoction of the bark is used as a mouthwash and local application including gargling fluid in conditions of stomatitis and ailing mucous membranes. It is also administered in leucorrhea, prolapse of the rectum, vaginal prolapse, and complaints, in proper mode (Such as local wash, injection, and enema)
    • The powder of tender leaves are used in diarrhea and diabetes. The smoke from the burning of leaves is inhaled for relieving hiccup, catarrhal, and throat affections. 
    • The ash of leaves is obtained by burning them and it is used as a dusting powder over burns, scalds, and other similar complaints.
    • Leaves powder is locally applied to cuts, ulcers, and bruises, and for styptic purposes.
    • The leaves are considered useful for toning up the gums by masticating them. The midrib is of a calcined and is used to remove warts on eyelids. An infusion of leaves and bark is used as an astringent and it is applied as a mouth wash for toothache, sore gums, sore throat, and similar affections.
    • The juice of leaves is internally given for checking nausea and vomiting as the leaves are anti-emetic. Leaves are topically applied to ulcers and wounds. Leaves are recommended against Kapha- Pitta disorders.
    • The resinous gum exuded and obtained from the tree trunk is used medicinally, the gum is applied as a dressing material for scabies and other parasitic skin complaints.
    • Resinous gum is powdered finely and mixed with oil, and the ointment is externally applied (also adding citrus juice suitably) to scabies, itchy, and other epidermal affections.
    • The seeds and kernels are used medicinally in various ailments. The decorticated seeds contain a large quantity of gallic acid and also fat and calcium, and other contents.
    • Seeds are used as potent astringent and they are used in dysentery, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, leucorrhea, menorrhagia, hemorrhages, and other complaints. 
    • Seeds powder is a good anthelmintic and internally given against roundworm affection, in adults and children under prescribed dosage. 
    • The kernels are powdered and fried, and the same is given in pregnant females in case of diarrhea and dysentery with curd or suitably.
    • The seeds kernel is orally given in urinary anomalies and is useful in gonorrhea. The seed kernel is useful for uterine inflammation. 
    • The juice of seeds kernel is recommended as snuff or nasal drop in the condition of epistaxis or bleeding nose. Besides medicinal uses of seeds kernel, the flour is prepared from dried kernels and is of use as a food article (being richer in fat and calcium, but poorer in protein content in comparison to wheat flour).
    • The flowers have medicinal utility and use in different ailments. Dried flowers are astringent and recommended for diseases caused by Kapha- Pitta body humor.
    • Flowers powder is locally applied over cuts and wounds and hemorrhages. Flowers are given in diarrhea and dysentery. They are used in the catarrh of bladder and gleet, Dried flowers are fried in cooking oil and used sometimes as medicated vegetable like flowers are also appetizer and stomachic along with other medicinal properties including blood purifier.
    • The medicinal utility or different parts of the plant and uses a drug as well as edible fruit, coupled with products and preparations including intake or consumption and its practices, are given due place specifically in classical texts for multipurpose and proper usage.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Aamra

    • Swarasa (juice): 10- 20 ml
    • Kwatha (decoction): 50- 100 ml
    • Churna (powder): 3 to 6 grams

    Classical reference of Aamra

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 1

    Synonym

    आम्रश्चुतो रसालश्च सहकारो अति सौरभ: |

    कमांगो मधु दूतश्च माकन्द: पित्त वल्लभ: ||

    The above shloka explains the synonyms, properties, and actions of the herb Aamra. The synonyms of Aamra are Chuta, Rasala, Sahakara, Atisaurabha, Kamanga, madhuduta, Makanda, and Pitta Vallabha.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 2

    Properties and action

    आम्र पुष्प 

    आम्रपुष्पमतीसार कफ पित्त प्रमेहनुत्‌ |

    असृग्दुष्टिहरं शीत रुचिकृद्‌ ग्राहि वातलम्‌ ||

    The flower of the mango tree is cold in potency and controls diarrhea, diseases of Kapha and Pitta, problems related to the urinary system including glycosuria, and diseases caused by vitiation of Rakta. The flowers promote taste perception, absorb water and enhance Vata.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 3

    आम्रफल

    आमं बालं कषायाम्लं रुच्यं मारुत पित्तकृत्‌ |

    तरुण तु तदत्यम्लं रुक्षं दोष त्रयास्रकृत्‌ ||

    The immature mango fruit is astringent and sour, promotes taste, and is tasty and vitiates Vata and Pitta. Well-grown but not ripened mango is very much sour, drying, and vitiates all the three Dosas and Rakta.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 4

    शुष्काम्रफल

    आम्रमामंत्वचाहीनमातपे अतिविशोषितम्‌ |

    अम्लम स्वादु कषायं स्याद्व भेदनं कफ वाताजित्‌ ||

    When grown-up mango is peeled and its cut pieces are dried under the heat of the sun, then its taste is sour, sweet, and astringent, softening the hard feces and controlling Kapha and Vata.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 5

    पक्व आम्र फल 

    पक्वं तु मधुरं वृष्यं स्निग्धं बल सुखप्रदम |

    गुरुवातहरं हृद्यं वर्ण्य शीतम पित्तलम्‌ |

    कषायानुरसं वन्हि श्लेष्म शुक्र विवर्धनम्‌ ||

    Well, ripen mango fruit is sweet followed by astringency, aphrodisiac, demulcent, general tonic, benefits comfort, heavy, controls Vata, cordial, enhances complexion, cold in potency, doesn’t aggravate Pitta, and promotes appetite, Kapha, and semen.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 6

    वृक्ष पक्व आम्र फल

    तदेव वृक्षसम्पक्वं गुरु वात हरं परम |

    मधुरराम्ल रसं किव्छिद्धवेत्यिपित्त प्रकोपणम |

    The mango fruit ripen on its own while on a tree is heavy, sweet and sour, reduces Vata and increases Pitta.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 7, 8

    कृत्रिम पक्व चूषित आम्र फल 

    आम्र्म कृत्रिम पक्वञ्च तद्धवे पित्त नाशनम |

    रसस्याम्लस्य हीनस्तु माधुर्याच्य विशेषत: |

    चूषितं तत्पर रुच्यम बलवीर्यकरं लघु ।

    शीतल शीघ्र पाकि स्याद्वातपित्त हरं सरम्‌ ||

    The mango fruit made ripen artificially after plucking it out from the tree reduces Pitta. It is devoid of much sourness and is full of sweetness. When sucked, it is tasty, increases strength and potency, light in action, cold in potency, digests very easily, laxatives and controls, Vata and Pitta.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 9

    गालित आम्र रस

    तद्रसो गालितो बल्यो गुरु वात हर: सरः |

    अहद्यस्तर्पणो अतीव बृंहण कफवर्द्धन: ||

    Mango juice taken and filtered in a vessel is a tonic, heavy, laxative and reduces Vata. It is not cordial but is satisfying, nourishing, and increases Kapha.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 10

    आम्रखण्ड

    तस्य खण्डं गुरुपरं रोचनं चिरपाकि च |

    मधुरं बृंहणम बल्यं शीतलं वातनाशनम्‌ ||

    The cut pieces of mango fruit are heavy, very tasty, difficult to digest, very sweet, nourishing, cold in potency, and reduce Vata.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 11

    दुग्धयुक्त आम्र  

    वात पित्तहरं रुच्यं बृंहणं बल वर्द्धनम्‌ ।

    वृष्यं वर्णकरं स्वादु दुग्धाम्रं गुरु शीतलम्‌ ||

    If mango fruit is used along with milk, it is tasty, nourishing, acts as a tonic, reduces Vata and Pitta, is aphrodisiac, palatable, promotes complexion, heavy, and cooling.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 12, 13

    आम्रातियोगो

    मन्दानलत्वं विषम ज्वरं च रक्त आमयं बद्धगुदोदरं च |

    आम्रतियोगो नयनामयं वा करोतिं तस्मांदिति तानि नाद्यात्‌ ||

    रातदम्लाम्रविषयं मधुराम्ल परम् न तु |

    मधुरस्य परम् नेत्रहितत्वाद्या गुणा यतः ||

    If mango fruit is taken in excess, it diminishes digestive power, aggravates Visama Jwara (alternate fevers) diseases of Rakta, and obstructed intestines. It may cause diseases of the eye and hence consumption in excess may be avoided. These restrictions are applicable for sour fruits only but not for sweet or sweet and sour fruits as sweetness is beneficial for the eyes.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 14

    आम्राति योग निवृत्युपाय

    शुण्ठ्यम्भंसो अनुपानं स्यादाम्राणामति भक्षणे |

    जीरकं वा प्रयोक्तव्यं सह सौवर्चलेन च ||

    To relieve such unwanted symptoms of excess intake, decoction of Sunthi or Jiraka along with Sauvarcala is advised.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 15, 16

    आम्रावर्त:

    पक्वस्य सहकारस्य परे विस्तारितो रस: |

    घर्मशुष्को मुहुर्दत्त आम्रावर्त इति स्मृतः ||

    आम्रावर्तस्तृषाच्छर्दि वात पित्तहर: सरः |

    रुच्य: सूर्याशुभि: पाकाल्लघुश्च स हि कीर्तित: ||

    Ripe mango juice, when dried in sun heat, after spreading it on a cloth, it is known as Amravarta. Amravarta relieves thirst, vomiting, vitiated Vata, and Pitta acts as a laxative and taste promoter. It is light in action because of its exposure to sunlight.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 17

    आम्रबीज:

    आम्रबीजं कषायं स्यात छर्दि अतीसार नाशनम्‌ |

    ईषमम्लञ्च मधुरं तथा हृदयदाहनुत ||

    The seed kernel of mango is astringent sour and sweet and pacifies vomiting, diarrhea, and heartburn.

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 18

    आम्र पल्लव

    आम्रस्य पल्लवो रुच्यः कफ पित्त विनाशन: |

    Its leaf promotes taste and alleviates Kapha and Pitta.

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 4- 7

    आम्रगुणा:

    बालं कषायं कट्वम्लम रुक्षं वातास्रपित्तकृत्‌ |

    सम्पूर्णमाम्लं च रक्त पित्त कफप्रदम्‌ |

    हृद्यं वर्णकरं रूच्यं रक्तमांस बलप्रदम्‌ |

    कषायानुरसं स्वादु वातघ्नं बृंहणं गुरु ||

    पित्ताविरोधि संपक्व आम्रं शुक्र विवर्धनम्‌ |

    मधुरं बृंहणं बल्यं गुरु विष्टम्भय अजीर्ण कृत ||

    सहकाररसो हृद्य: सुरभि: स्निग्धरोचन: |

    त्वड्मूलपल्लवं ग्राही कषायं कफ पित्तजित्‌ ||

    Kaideva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 337

    रसालस्तुवरो रुक्षो रक्त पित्तकफ व्रणान्‌ |

    योनि दोषमतीसारं प्रमेहं सन्नियच्छति ||

    Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga- 12

    आम्रः कषायाम्ल रस: सुगन्धि: कण्ठामयघ्नो अग्निकरञ्च बाल: |

    पित्त प्रकोपानिलरक्तदोषप्रद: पटुत्वादि रुचिप्रदश्च ||

    Chakra Dutta, 16- 16

    तृष्णावमने आम्रादिकषाय:

    आम्र जम्बू कषायं वा पिवेन्माक्षिक्संयुतम्‌ |

    छर्दि सर्वा प्रणुदति तृष्णां चैवापकर्षति ||

    Bhava Prakasha Kusth Roga Adhikara, 54- 131

    चर्मदले

    गलिते चाम्रपेशी तु किश्चित्सैन्धवसंयुता |

    ताम्रपात्रे विनिघृस्ता लेपाच्चर्मदलापहा ||

    Bhava Prakasha Yoni Roga Adhikara, 70- 67

    गर्भावसथा ग्रहिणीविकारे

    आम्रजम्बूत्वचः क्वाथेलेहयेलाज्ज शक्तुकम | 

    अनेना लीढ मात्रेण गर्भिणी ग्रहणीं जयेत्‌ |

    Bhava Prakasha Atisara Roga Adhikara, 2- 107

    छदर्यतिसारे आम्रादिक्वाथ: 

    आम्र अस्थिमध्य मालूर फल क्वाथ: समाक्षिक: |

    शर्करा सहितो हन्या च छर्दि अतिसारमुल्बणम्‌ ||

    Bhava Prakasha Pleeha Roga Adhikara, 33- 17

    प्लीहारोगे आम्रस्वरसम्‌

    सुपक्व सहकारस्य रस: क्षौदरसमन्वित: |

    पीतः प्रशमयत्येवप्लीहानं नेह संशय: ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 4/ 97

    घ्राणत्प्रवृति रक्ते

    नस्यं तथाम्रास्थिरस: |

    Vrinda Madhava Atisara Adhikara

    रक्तातिसारे

    …..आम्रार्जुनत्वच: ।

    पीता: क्षीरेण मध्व आढय पृथक्‌ शोणितवारणा: ||

    Vrinda Madhava Pleeha Chikitsa Adhikara

    प्लीहोदरे 

    प्लीहव्यपरमो योग: पक्काम्रसो अभया समधु: |

    Bhava Prakasha

    मत्स्यभक्षणाजीर्णे

    आम्रमाम्रफल मात्स्यै |

    Bhava Prakasha

    मांसभोजनाजीर्णे

    तबीजं पिशितें हितम्‌ |

    Bhava Prakasha Atisaar Rogadhikara

    अतिसारे 

    तथा मध्य त्वगआम्रजा:|

    अतिसारम व्यथा दाहं हन्त्येदाशु न संशय: ||

    Vanga Sena, Bala Roga Adhikara

    बालान मुखपाके 

    मुख पाके तु बालानामाग्रसारयोरज: |

    गैरकं क्षौद्र संयुक्तभेजजंस रसांजनं || 

    Vanga Sena

    पक्कातिसारे

    नवचुतस्य पर्णानि कपित्थफलमेव च ।

    पिष्ट्वा तण्डुल तोयेनपक्व अतिसार शान्तये ||

    Vanga Sena, Shotha Chikitsa

    शोथे

    पुर्नवासपत्ररसालमूलं संक्षुद्य तोयान्मैणशेषसिद्धम्‌ |

    चतुर्थभागेन घृतम विपक्वं प्रत्यन्तु सकल्कपलाष्टकेन ||

    संसेवितं वात बलास रोगान्‌ सर्वाश्च शोथनपि दुस्तरश्च |

    गुल्मोदरप्लीहगुदादभ्रशांश्च निहन्ति वहिं कुरुते हि पुंसाम्‌ ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita

    दारुणरोगे

    आम्रबीजस्य चूर्ण: तु शिवांचूर्णसमं द्वयं | 

    दुग्धपिष्ट: प्रलेपो अयं दारुणं हन्ति दारुणम्‌ ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita

    छर्दि 

    बीजपूराम्रजम्बूनां पल्ल्वानि पृथक: | 

    विपचेत्‌ पुटपाकेन क्षौद्रयुक्तश्च तद्रस: ||

    छर्दि निवारयेद घोरं सर्व दोषम उद्भ्यां |

    Sharangdhara Samhita

    ज्वरे

    आम्रजम्बूकिसलयै: वट शुङ्ग प्ररोहकै: |

    उशीरेण कृत: फाण्ट: सक्षौद्रो ज्वरनाशन: ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita

    रक्तपित्ते

    आम्रजम्बू च ककुभं चूर्णीकृत्य जले क्षिपेत्‌ |

    हिमं तस्य पिवेत प्रात: सक्षौद्रं रक्तपित्तजित्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu

    आम्रत्वचा- मूल- पुष्पगुणा:

    आम्रत्वचा कषाया च मूलं सौगन्धि तादृशम्‌ |

    रुच्यं संग्राहि शिशर: पुष्मं तु रुचदीपनम्‌ ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu

    बाल आम्र गुण:

    आमं बालं कषायाम्लं रूच्यं मारुत पित्तकृत्‌ |

    तरुणं तु तदत्यम्लं रुक्षं दोष त्रयास्रकृत्‌ ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu

    आम्रपेशिका गुणा:

    आम्रमामं त्वचाहीनमातपे अतिविशोषितम्‌ |

    अम्लं स्वादु कषायं स्याद भेदनम कफ वातजित्‌ ||

    Nighantu Ratnakaram

    आम्रास्थितैलगुण:

    आम्रतैल तु तुवरं स्वादु रुक्षं च पित्तलम्‌।

    सुगन्धि मुखरोगस्य नाशने कफवातनुत्‌ ||

    Nighantu ratnakara

    आम्रान्तस्त्वग्गुणाः

    आम्रन्तस्त्वग्‌ ग्राहिणी तु तुवरा दाहकारिणी |

    पित्तमेह कफानाहनाशिनी योनिशुद्धिकृत्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu

    आम्रत्वग्गुणाः 

    आम्रत्वचा कषाया च मूलं सौगन्धि ताहशम |

    रूच्यं संग्राही शिशिरं पुष्पं रोचनदीपनम्‌ ||

    Nighantu Ratnakaram

    आम्रमूलगुणा:

    आम्रमूलन्तु तुवरं ग्राही शीतं रूचिप्रदम |

    सुगन्धि कफ वातानां नाशनम परिकीर्तितं ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu

    पक्व आम्र्म 

    पक्ववन्तु मधुरं वृष्यं स्निग्धाम बाल सुखप्रदम |

    गुरु वातहरम हृद्यं वर्ण्यं शीतं पित्तलम ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu

    आम्रखण्डगुणा:

    आम्रखण्डं गुरु पर रोचनं चिरपाकि च|

    मधुरं बृंहणं वल्यं शीतलं वातनाशनम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu

    क्षुद्र आम्र गुण:

    कोशाम्रमम्लमनिलापहरं कफार्त्ति पित्तप्रद गुरुविदाहविशोफकारि |

    पक्वं भवेन्मधुरमीषदपारमम्लं पट्वादियुक्तरुचि दीपनपुष्टिवल्यम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu

    राजाम्र गुणा:

    राजाम्रा: कोमला: सर्वे कट्वम्ला: पित्तदाहदा: |

    सुपक्वा: स्वादु माधुर्या: पुष्टि वीर्य वलप्रदा: ॥

    Kshemkotuhalam

    आम्रपानकम्‌

    सुपक्वमाम्रस्य फल सुमुष्टिनां समहित शर्करया समन्वितम्‌ ।

    एलालवंगमार्द्रकवांसवासितं वर्णान्वितं  कस्य च रोचकद्रदम्‌ ||

    पानकं त्वाम्रसम्भूतं स्यादम्लं गुरु पित्तजित्‌ |

    सुह्नद् श्लेष्मकृदवलयं वर्ण्यं वृष्यं रुचिप्रदम ||

    Specific Formulation of Aamra

    • Aamradi Kshaya for Chardi and Trishna
    • Aamra Palavadi Kashayam for Aruchi
    • Aamrasthyadi Leha for Chardi
    • Pushyanuga Churna for Pradara, Arshas

    Contraindication and side effects of Aamra

    Mango is safe to use even during pregnancy and breastfeeding but avoid overeating Mango fruit because natural sugar works like regular sugar and can spike your blood glucose level.  Mango oil or pulp is good for the skin on local application but if your skin is hypersensitive use it under medical supervision. Mangoes are low in fibers and high in sugar and may result in weight gain.

    Suggestive reading regarding Mangifera indica

    • Shah, K. A., Patel, M. B., Patel, R. J., & Parmar, P. K. (2010). Mangifera indica (mango). Pharmacognosy Reviews, 4(7), 42–48. https://doi.org/10. 4103/ 0973-7847. 65325.
    • Carvalho AC, Guedes MM, De Souza AL, Trevisan MT, Lima AF, Santos FA, et al. Gastroprotective effect of mangiferin: A xanthonoid from Mangifera indica, against gastric injury induced by ethanol and indomethacin in rodents. Planta Med. 2007; 73: 1372– 6. 
    • Ganeriwala, *Baby, Gudaganatti, K. S., & Bolmal, U. B. (2016). MANGIFERA INDICA (AMRA) AND ITS SEED KERNEL – AN USEFUL DRUG. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research, 4(11). 
    • Kalita, Pallab. (2014). An Overview on Mangifera Indica: Importance and Its Various Pharmacological Action. 2.
    • Joona K, Sowmia C., Dhanya KP., Divya MJ.; Preliminary Phytochemical Investigation of Mangifera indica leaves and screening of Antioxidant and Anticancer activity; RJPBCS; 2013; 4 (1); 1112- 1118.
    • Dineshkumar B., Mitra A., Anjunatha M.; Studies on the anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic potentials of mangiferin (Xanthone Glucoside) in streptozotocin-induced Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic model rats; International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences; 2010; 1; 75- 85.
    • Ashifat A. A., Omotubga S. K., Kehinde A. S., Olayinka O. O., Edugbola G. O.; proximate evaluation of the nutritional value of mango (Mangifera indica); Int. J. Res. Chem. Environ; 2012; 2 (4); 244- 245.
    • USDA National Nutrient DataBase 9. Doughari, J. H., Manzara S.; In vitro antibacterial activity of crude leaf extracts of Mangifera indica Linn; African Journal of Microbiology Research, 2008; 2; 067-072.
    • Latha K.P., Latha M. S., Vagdevi H. M., Virupaxappa. S. B.; Anti-inflammatory activity of Mangifera indica L. var. Rasapuri Root extract Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research; 2012; 4(1); 333- 336.
    • Khan, Nazma & Khushtar, Mohammad & Ahmad, Nesar & Hasan, Noorul & Khan, Zafar & Idris, Sahar & Ahmad, Aijaz & Zishan, Mohd. (2017). NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF MANGIFERA INDICA. WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES. 6. 258-273. 10.20959/wjpps20175-8974.
    • Khandare M S, Mangifera indica (Mangifera indica Linn) A medicinal and holly plant, Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies, 2016; 4(4): 44-46.
    • Bally S. E. Mangifera indica (Mangifera indica) Anacardiaceae (cashew family). Journal of Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry, April 2006; 1- 25.  
    • Shashi Kant Singh, Vijay Kumar Sharma, Yatendra  Kumar, Shanmugam Sadish  Kumar, Saurabh Kumar Sinha, Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations on mangiferin, 2009; 55(1).
    • Bojappa KM, Singh RN.  Root activity of Mangifera indica by radiotracer technique. Indian Journal of Agricultural Science, 1974; 44: 32-35.
    • Jayanti Ghuniyal et.al, Ethnomedical, Chemical, Pharmacological, Toxicological Properties of Mangifera indica: A Review International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, Oct 2015; 4(10): 51-64. 
    • Kittiphoom S., Utilization of Mangifera indica seed, International Food Research Journal, 2012; 19(4): 1325-1335.
    • Anupriya, Patgiri B.J, Prajapati P.K. Micro-morphological and micro-metric evaluation of Mangifera indica Linn leaf.  Global journal research medicinal plants & indigenous medicine.t August 2013; 2(8): 576–581.
    • Nunez-Selles, A.J.; Delgado-Hernández, R.; Garrido-Garrido, G.; González-Rivera, D.; Guevara-Garcia, M.; Pardo-Andreu, G.L.  The paradox of natural products as a pharmaceutical.  Experimental evidence of a Mangifera indica stem bark extract. Pharmacol. Res., 2007; 55: 351-358.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Aamradi Phala Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Aamradi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Aamradi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sankrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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