Karkatshringi - A Crab’s Claw for Kasa (Cough)
Karkatshringi is a deciduous tree, botanically known as Pistacia integerrima, and belongs to the Anacardiaceae family. Karkatshringi is a horn-shaped gall that is found in North- West Himalayas at an altitude of 500 to 2500m. In the Sanskrit language, this plant is known as Shikari, Chandraspada, and Chakra. The Galls on the tree of Karkatshringi are formed by the typical type of insect Dasia aedifactor by sucking the juice from the leaves of the tree. In the Pakistan region, the galls of the Karkashringi are used to treat liver disorder and hepatitis. In Ayurvedic classical texts, both Acharaya Charaka and Acharya Sushruta considered the tree as a poison of a vegetable origin. This plant has a controversy with Meshashringi, Ajashringi, and Uttaramani. Its toxic symptoms are documented by Sushruta Samhita. It is the ingredient of various famous formulations like Brihat Talishadi Churna, Bala Chaturbhadra Churna, Dashamula Arishta, Chyavanprasha, etc. This drug is astringent, bitter in taste, and heat-generating. This drug cures Kapha, Vata, wasting diseases, fevers, dyspnea, obstructed respiration, thirst, cough, Hiccough, loss of taste, and vomiting. In recent research, various secondary metabolites are found in Karkatshringi like tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids, etc due to which it exhibits anti- pyretic, anti-microbial, anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory activity, carminative, etc.
Basonym of Karkatshringi
कर्कट इव श्रृंगम यस्या: सा ।
Karkatshringi gall resembles projections of Karkata (Crab).
Synonyms of Kapikacchu
- According to morphology
अज श्रृंगी – अज श्रृंगवत् शृङ्गानि अस्या इति ।
The galls of Karkatshringi resemble the horn of a goat.
वक्रा- वक्र॑ श्रृंगम अस्य इति अथवा वक्रम अंगमस्या ।
The galls are curved.
विषाणिकां- Galls resembles a horn.
कुलीरविषाणं-कुलीर इव विषाणं यस्या: सा ।
The galls resemble the shape of a grab horn.
- According to properties and actions
श्रृंगी – शृणोति गदम ।
It cures many diseases like Kasa, Shwasa, Balaroga, etc.
Regional names of Karkatshringi
- Crab’s claw (English)
- Kakra singi (Hindi)
- Kakda singi (Kannada)
- Karkata Shringi (Malayalam)
- Kakad shringi (Marathi)
- Kankrhasringi (Bengali)
- Kankrhasringi (Tamil)
- Karkat shringi (Telegu)
Scientific classification of Karkatshringi
Botanical Name of Karkatshringi
Pistacia integerrima stewart. / Rhus succedanea Linn.
Rhus is the name of the plant used by Theopharatus. Succedenea means used as a substitute.
Family – Anacardiacea (Amra Kula)
Ayurveda reference for Karkatshringi (Pistacia integerrima Stewart.)
Classification of Karkatshringi as per Charaka and Sushruta
Charaka: Hikka Nigrehana Mahakshaya, Kasa Hara Mahakshaya.
Sushruta: Haritkyadi Gana
Karkatshringi's description in Brihtrayi as Kulir Shringi
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 30
Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 4/ 24, A. H. Chi. 8/ 23, A. H. U. 40/ 29
Karkatshringi's description in Brihtrayi as Kulir
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 21/ 45
Karkatshringi's description in Brihtrayi as Mesha Shringi
A large number about two dozen) of the drug names have been mentioned in the texts which appear to be closely linked together on account of the partial or nearly parallel clinical efficacy of (at least 3-5) a few drugs or drug plant species implied by them. The drug names are either the original names and their synonyms of the names and synonyms of other drug plants which might have been of the original substituted later on in place of the original drugs. The commentators and the Nighantu writers have made such a mess of these names and synonyms that it is not possible to botanically specify the original drugs and their substitutes if any. It is felt, therefore, that an appeal to the texts themselves may prove helpful in the matter. On the etymological basis, the drug names can be divided into a few name groups such as the Mesha shringi group, Karkata Shringi group, Ajashringi group, and the Mixed group. Mesha Shringi group which includes Mesha, Meshashringi, Mesha Vishanama, and Mesavisani. It may be presumed that all these drug names should refer to only one plant species and the information regarding the botanical nature, pharmacological actions and clinical uses revealed in the texts under the names of this group should refer to this plant alone and, therefore, they have been summarized as here under:
- Meshasrigi, in virtue of its inclusion in the Salasaradi Gana of Susruta (S. S. Su. 38. 12), Asanadi Gana of Vagbhata (A. H. Su. 15. 19) and repeated reference to the use of its bark and flowers, should be a tree species contrary to the general belief in favor of a climber Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.
- The names Mesa and Meshashringi etc. appear to be given in allusion to the fruits (or galls) resembling the paired horns of rams which are usually elongated and curved.
- As regards its medicinal properties, its bark is hemostatic ( S. S. Su. 14. 37) and sternutatory (Sirovirecaka, S. S. Su, 39. 6). It is included among the Vata samaka (sedative) (S. S. Su. 39. 7) and Usnavirya drug groups (C. S. Ci. 3. 266) and is considered to be the remover of Kapha and Meda (like the other drugs of the Salsaraidi and Varunad Ganas together with its clinical efficacy in Kusha, Meha, Pandu and Antahvidradhi, etc.
- As regards the actual clinical uses in the texts, its mention in the Vata and Kapha dominated Kusha, Vatarakta, or Maha Vata Vyadhi, and widespread uses of its flowers in eyE diseases may be noted. Besides these, the stomachic and laxative qualities of the drug may also be inferred.
- Lastly, the more liberal uses of Meshashringi (bark and wood) and its flowers (eyes diseases) by Sushruta, against a scarce mention in Caraka Samhita may be noted as the fact may have a historical bearing on the development of Meshashringi as an important therapeutic agent by Sushruta.
- The position of Meshashringi vis-a-vis some of the other drug names of other groups may also be noted. Our conclusions regarding the mutual relations between the drug names are based on our basic assumption that one name should stand for one and one drug only, a notable departure to be discussed later on.
- Ajashringi and Mesashringi should be two different drug plants although both belong to Varunadi Gana of Susruta and should, therefore, possess similar medicinal qualities mentioned for all the drug plants of this Gana (group). It may also be noted that Vagbhata in his description of this Gana has replaced both of these with Vishanika.
- The names Visanika and Ajasrigi should also stand for two different drugs (C. S, Ci. 30. 270).
- The inclusion of Ajay Shringi in the Valli-pancamula group (S. S. Su. 38. 72) should indicate that it is a twiner climber and not a tree species like Meshashringi.
- Meshshringi and Vrishchalika should also be treated as different entities (S. S. Su. 39. 7).
- Now, coming to the botanical specification of Meshashringi are inclined to believe that it may be the tree species recognized as Dolichandrone falcata Seem. and popularly known as Medhasingi M., and Havar H. It has curved and elongated horn-like fruits which are reported to be medicinally used. Its bark is also used as a fish poison dues probably, to saponin contents which also might impart it Sirovirecana properties claimed for it in S. S. Su. 39/. While upholding our faith in the prospect of this tree being the Susruta’s Meshashringi, we cannot ignore the opinion of the great field explorer and medico-botanist Dalhana who has identified Meshashringi with Karkatashringi which, at present, is believed to be another tree species Pistacia integerrima Stew. ex Brandis. It may not be advisable to choose between these two as the source of the Mesasrigi of Salasaradi Gana unless a thorough comparative study of both is made.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 3/ 266, C. S. Ka. 9/ 6
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 14/ 37, S. S. Su. 38/ 8, 12, S. S. Su. 39/ 6, 7, S. S. Chi. 2/ 64, S. S. Chi. 5/ 7 (2), S. S. Ka. 1/ 70, 71, S. S. Ka. 8/ 50, S. S. U. 9/ 20, S. S. U. 17/ 40, 96, S. S. U. 18/ 94, S. S. U. 26/ 21, S. S. U. 40/ 40, 84
Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 19, A. H. Chi. 19/ 2, A. H. U. 13/ 80
Karkatshringi’s description in Brihtrayi as Shringi
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 36, C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 61, C. S. Chi. 3/ 210, 212, C. S. Chi. 8/ 99, C. S. Chi. 18/ 53, 111, 126
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 37/ 24, S. S. U. 31/ 3, S. S. U. 51/ 21, S. S. U. 52/ 13, 14, 30, S. S. U. 60/ 48
Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 12, A. H. Chi. 3/ 50, 53, 62, 64, A. H. U. 2/ 51, 57, A. H. U. 5/ 3, A. H. U. 13/ 66, A. H. U. 39/ 33
Karkatshringi’s description in Brihtrayi
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Vi. 8/ 146, C. S. Chi. 17/ 100, C. S. Chi. 18/ 49, 114, 158, C. S. Chi. 20/ 37
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 38/ 35, S. S. Chi. 40/ 4
Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 3/ 14, 160
Karkatshringi’s description in Brihtrayi as Karkatahva
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 17/ 93, C. S. Chi. 18/ 117, 172, 176, C. S. Chi. 28/ 159, C. S. Si. 4/ 9
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 2/ 39, S. S. U. 51/ 32, 39
Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 3/ 49, A. H. Chi. 4/ 44, A. H. Chi. 16/ 25, A. H. Ka. 4/ 60
Karkatshringi’s description in Brihtrayi as Karkatahvaya
All drug names from Karkataki to Karhatahvaya listed above and also mentioned below are generally accepted as synonyms for Karkatashringi which is a more commonly used name. Confusion arises, however, when it is found that Karkatasgrigi or Sringi is also included in the Kakoladi or Padmakadi Ganas of Susruta and Vagabhata respectively, and Madhuraskandha of Charaka where the drugs are considered to increase Kapha and are an aphrodisiac. A similar confusion is created by the comments of Dalhana on Meshashringi etc. when he equates it with Karkatashringi. These facts may lead to the irresistible conclusion that Shringi and all other allied names may also have been used for some plants of the Asclepiadaceae family which are comparable to Jivanti in properties (Madhura, aphrodisiac and nourishing). This idea will further be supported if the etymology of the word is considered. It indicates its similarity to the Shringi or paired head appendages or feelers of crab (Lopez) which are slender and straight, or to its flesh which is aphrodisiac and roborant. The bent horn-like galls of Pistacia integerrima Stew. ex Brandis, which are predominantly astringent in Rasa does not match with the supposed etymology of the name.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 17/ 100, C. S. Ka. 7/ 17
Vagbhata: A. H. U. 24/ 51
Karkatshringi’s description in Brihtrayi as Karkatki
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 18/ 51, 152
Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 3/ 14, 154
Karkatshringi’s description in Brihtrayi as Karkaatikaa
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 19/ 111
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Ka. 5/ 69
Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 8/ 110
Historical background and controversy of Karkatshringi
An herb Karkatika is described in Kesave Paddhati (25/ 23). However, its identity with P. integerrima is doubtful. Mesasrigi is mentioned in Visnu Dharma Sutra (61/ 5). Ajashringi quoted in the Vedic literature is an important herb but it is a climber according to P.V. Sharmaji and others. Therefore, its identity appears controversial from early times. Both Charaka and Sushruta have delineated Karkata or Karkataka visa as a poison of vegetable origin. Karkata is the name of the tree-producing Sringi (gall). People consider this tree dreadful. It is important to note that Sushruta classified it as a kanda visa (poisonous tuber). Similar confusion is apparent in the context of Gunja which is categorized under Mula visa (root poison). The scientific evaluation of these is necessary. Karkataka is the synonym of Trapusa (cucumber) as well. Charaka interpreted it as the small variety of Amalaka (C. S. Ci. 14/ 90). Thakurji thinks that its identity is not impossible since the toxic symptoms of this plant are documented by Susruta (S. S. Ka. 2/ 17). Therefore, correct identity is possible. All the names related to Karkatika, Karktahvaya, Karkatakhya, etc., are generally accepted for Karkatasrigi. Confusion arises, however, when it is found in Kakolyadi and Padmakadi ganas of Susruta and Madhura skandha of Caraka. In the above contexts, the drug is described as kapha vardhaka and vrsya respectively. Similarly, Dalhana’s comments add more confusion over its identity since Meshashringi, Ajashringi, and Uttamarni are equated to Karkatasrngi. Probably some other members of the Asclepiadaceae family may also be used with the same synonyms e.g., Jivanti.
Though it is generally accepted that P. integerrima is Karkatasrngi, the bent horn-like galls are kashaya (astringent) in taste and do not match the etymology of the name.
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External morphology of Karkatshringi (Pistacia integerrima)
Habit: Karkatshringi is a medium-sized deciduous tree with rough, grey, bark. Sapwood: Sapwood of Karkatshrringi is white, heartwood mottled with yellow and green streaks. It is very hard and durable, valued for ornamental timber, and weighs 54 lbs. per c.ft.
Leaves: Leaves of Karkatshringi are alternate, pair or imparipinnate, 6- 9 in. long. Leaflets 4- 6 pairs, subopposite, minutely petiolate, 3- 6 by 1- 1.7 in., lanceolate, long-acuminate, entire, hard, coriaceous, glabrous; main lateral nerves about 20 pairs, slender, base oblique.
Inflorescence: Inflorescence of Karkatshringi is a lateral panicle. Flowers are small apetalous and dioecious.
Male flowers: Panicles 2-4 in. long, compact, pubescent; calyx gamosepalous, 3-5- fid. Stamens 5-7 on a small disk. Anthers are large and red.
Female flowers: Panicles 6- 10 in. long, lax, thyrsoid; sepals 4, free, linear, deciduous; ovary sessile, 1-celled; styles 3, cohering only near the base.
Fruit: Drupe, 25 in. diam., oblique, broader than long, glabrous, rugose.
Galls: Galls in Karkatshringi are produced by a Hemipterous insect, galls in the shape of a horn attaining 3- 6 in. length, dull red, galls produced on branches. Galls are used as the drug Karkatshringi.
Flowering and fruiting time
New foliage appears along with flowers during the period from spring to summer seasons, and the plant becomes in the fruiting stage during the period from June to October.
Distribution of Karkatshringi
The plant occurs in the western Himalayas and Indus valley to the Kumaon region. It is found wild in Uttar Pradesh’s hilly region at 3,000-6,000 ft. altitude.
The useful part of Karkatshringi
Galls are curved or horn-shaped, hollow, up to 15 cm long, and 3 cm broad. The outer surface is rough, pinkish purple, or dark brown, having a fimbriated appearance. The inner surface is reddish brown, bearing deposits of dust-like particles, which represent dried insects and their excrementitious matter. On breaking becomes uneven short pieces, having a characteristic odor and astringent taste.
Important phytoconstituent of Karkatshringi
Galls- Essential oils, resin, pistacienoic acids A & B, B-sitosterol, aromadendrene, camphene, caprylic acid, cineol, a-pinene, etc.
Leaves & bark- Tannins.
Seeds- Amino acids, dihydromalvic acid, proteins, sterols, triterpenoids, etc.
Drupe-oil- Pistacin, pistacinin, dihydroquercetin etc
Recent research on Pistacia integerrima
- This study was planned to evaluate the possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Pistacia integerrima extracts. These results demonstrate that Pistacia integerrima extracts have antinociceptive and analgesic effects and no apparent acute toxicity on oral administration. Ahmad NS, Waheed A, Farman, M, Qayyum A. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Pistacia integerrima extracts in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2010 May 27; 129 (2): 250- 3. Doi.10. 1016/ j. jep. 2010. 03. 017. Epub 2010 Mar 30.
- Pistacides A and B (1-2), two new flavonoid glycosides, have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Pistacia integerrima, along with 2′ hydroxytisooriention (3), echioidinin 2-0.-bera-D- (6″. O-acetyl) glucopyranoside (4), chrysoeriol (5) and diandraflavone A (6), reported for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated by spec-macroscopic analysis including 2D NMR, FAB-MS, and acidic hydrolysis. Ullah Z, Mehmood R, Imran M, Malik, A, Afzal RA. Flavonoid constituents of Pistacia integerrima. Nat Prod Commun. 2012 Aug: 7 (8): 1011- 4.
- Ahmad, Shamim & Ali, M. & Ansari, Shahid & Ahmed, Faheem. (2010). Phytoconstituents from the galls of Pistacia integerrima Stewart. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 14. 409- 412. 10. 1016/ j. jscs. 2010. 05. 003. Phytochemical investigation of the galls of Pistacia integerrima Stewart (Pistacia) yielded three new phytoconstituents characterized as n- decan- 3′- ol- yl- n-eicosanoate, n- octadecan- 9, 11- diol- 7- one and 3- oxo- 9β-lanost- 1, 20 (22)- Dien- 26- oic acid along with the known compound β-sitosterol. The structures of these phytoconstituents have been elucidated based on spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.
- Deregulated expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on vascular endothelium aggravates the inflammatory condition in various chronic diseases. This work, it is aimed to identify the active constituent from the leaf gall of Pistacia integerrima Linn. using CAMs expression assay in activity-guided purification, followed by determining the molecular mechanism of action. Results suggest that EG could be useful as a lead molecule for developing therapeutic agents for various inflammatory diseases. Mehla K, Balwani S, Kulshreshtha A, Nandi D, Jaisankar P, Ghosh B. Ethyl gallate isolated from Pistacia integerrima Linn. inhibits cell adhesion molecules by blocking AP-1 transcription factor. J. Ethnopharmacology 2011 Oct 11; 137 (3): 1345- 52. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2011. 07. 068. Epub 2011 Aug 5.
- Bibi, Yamin & Zia, Muhammad & Qayyum, Abdul. (2015). An overview of Pistacia integerrima, a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities, and phytochemistry. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 28. 1009- 1013. Pistacia integerrima with the common name crab’s claw is an ethnobotanical important tree native to Asia. Traditionally plant parts, particularly its galls have been Utilized for the treatment of cough, asthma, dysentery, liver disorders, and snake bite. The plant mainly contains alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and sterols in different parts including leaf, stem, bark, galls, and fruit. A number of terpenoids, sterols, and phenolic compounds have been isolated from Pistacia integerrima extracts. The plant has many biological activities including anti-microbial, antioxidant, analgesic, cytotoxicity, and phytotoxicity due to its chemical constituents.
- The present study was designed to investigate the whole plant of Pistacia integerrima Stewart to examine the pharmacological basis of the use of the plant in folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and disorders. Pistagremic acid showed significant leishmanicidal activity (IC (50): 6. 71 ‡0.09 (M) against Leishmania major (DESTO) promastigotes in comparison to standard compound I amphotericin B (IC (50): 0.21‡ 0.06 MM). Uddin G. Rauf A, Arfan M, Waliullah, Khan, I, Ali M, Taimur M, ur-Rehman I, Samiullah. Pistagremic acid a new leishmanicidal triterpene isolated from Pistacia integerrima Stewart. J. Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2012 Oct; 27 (5): 646- 8. doi: 10. 3109/ 14756366. 2011. 604853. Epub 2011 Aug 18.
- Ullah, Zia & Mehmood, Rashad & Imran, Muhammad & Malikb, Abdul & Ifzal, Rehana. (2012). Flavonoid Constituents of Pistacia integerrima. Natural product communications. 7. 1011- 4. 10. 1177/ 1934578X1200700813. Pistacides A and B (1-2), two new flavonoid glycosides, have been isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Pistacia integerrima, along with 2′-hydroxyisoorientin (3), echioidinin 2′-O- beta- D- (6″-O- acetyl) glucopyranoside (4), chrysoeriol (5), and diandraflavone A (6) reported for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D NMR, FAB-MS, and acidic hydrolysis.
- Rauf, Abdur & Uddin, Ghias & Khan, Haroon & Roohullah,. (2014). The preliminary antioxidant profile of Pistacia integerrima Stewart. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 27. 855- 858. To explore the free radical scavenging properties of crude ethanolic extract of galls, bark, leaves, roots of Pistacia integerrima and its subsequent solvent fractions viz., n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol against 1, 1- diphenyl- 2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable. In vitro DPPH- based free radical was employed using quercetin as the standard antioxidant while methanol was the negative control. Different parts of P. integerrima showed marked scavenging on DPPH in a concentration-dependent manner. The ethanolic extract exhibited 60. 51 88.51% scavenging effect on DPPH which differentiated upon fractionation. Of the part used, leaves of the plant were the least effective while n-hexane was the least dominant fraction. However, the rest of the parts and fractions demonstrated profound scavenging potential. This in-vitro study revealed an outstanding free radical scavenging potential of various solvent fractions of different parts of the whole plant P. integerrima.
- Uddin, Ghias & Rauf, Abdur & Siddiqui, Bina & Khan, Haroon. (2013). Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts/Fractions of Various Parts of Pistacia Integerrima Stewart. Translational Medicine. 03. 10. 4172/ 2161- 1025. 1000118. The present study aimed to scrutinize the cytotoxic activity of extracts/fractions of various parts of Pistacia integerrima Stewart in an established in-vitro brine shrimp cytotoxic assay. The extracts/fractions of different parts of the plant demonstrated a profound cytotoxic effect against Artemia salina (Leach) shrimp larvae. Of the various parts of the plant tested, galls accumulated the most cytotoxic agents. Among the tested extracts/fractions, hexane was the least cytotoxic and therefore indicated a more polar nature of cytotoxic constituents. In conclusion, extracts/fractions of various parts of P. integerrima exhibited a marked cytotoxic profile of a more polar nature.
- Rahman, Shafiq & Ismail, Muhammad & Muhammad, Naveed & Khan, Farhat & Chishti, Ahmad & Imran, Muhammad. (2011). Evaluation of the stem bark of Pistacia integerrima Stew ex Brandis for its antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 5. The antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities of the crude methanolic extract and its subsequent solvent fractions of Pistacia integerrima bark were investigated. The outstanding activity was shown by the ethyl acetate fraction followed by aqueous fraction against Staphylococcus aureus having a zone of inhibition 19 and 15 mm respectively. The ethyl acetate fraction was also effective, with hoteus vulgaris having a zone of inhibition of 15 mm. The outstanding minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was observed against Staphylococcus aureus by ethyl acetate (0.31 mg/ml) and Salmonella typhi by hexane fraction (0.37 mg/ml). The crude methanolic extract and subsequent solvent fractions were also tested against two fungal strains, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus Niger no outstanding antifungal activity was found. All the fractions are good herbicide and weedicide at high concentrations, however, considerable activity was shown by ethyl acetate (90% growth inhibition) followed by chloroform (70% growth inhibition) and methanol (60% growth inhibition) at a concentration of 500 ppm. The ability of crude methanol extract and its subsequent solvent fractions, especially the ethyl acetate fraction, to inhibit the growth of microorganisms and plant Lemma minor L is an indication of its antimicrobial and phytotoxic potential. This provides a baseline for the isolation and identification of new antimicrobial and phytotoxic compounds in the world of medicine.
- Uddin, Ghias & Rauf, Abdur. (2012). In vitro Antimicrobial Profile of Pistacia integerrima Galls Stewart. Middle East Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 1. 36- 40. 10. 5829/ idosi. mejmpr.2011. 1. 2. 1109. The objective of the present investigation was to explore the antimicrobial properties of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and methanol fractions Pistacia integerrima and its phytochemical profiling. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial profile were performed before bulk extractions for identification of chemical constituents using standard procedures. The results showed that the various fractions of P. integerrima give positive results for alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, reducing sugar, soluble starch, combined reducing sugars, and tannins. The chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of galls showed significant activity against two Gram-negative and one Gram-positive bacterial stains and thus displayed the highest inhibitory zone of (28:0 mm) at the tested concentration (22 mg/ml). The current investigation suggests that P. integerrima used as a folk medicine for the treatment of hepatitis and liver disorders contains a potential secondary metabolite that needs to be explored.
- Ismail, Muhammad & Shafiq-ur-Rahman, & Muhammad, Naveed & Mohani, Nadeem & Khan, Muhammad & Ullah, Barkat & Hussain, Javid. (2011). Pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Pistacia integerrima Stew ex Brandis. Journal of medicinal plant research. 5. 3891-3895. Pistacia integerrima is a well-known plant among Pakistani indigenous medicinal plants and is used very commonly in the management of various diseases. In this research work the pharmacognostic profile and phytochemical and physicochemical parameters of the P. integerrima bark were carried out for standardization, quality, purity, and sample identification. Macroscopic and microscopic characteristics as well as a transverse section of the bark were studied. The bark contains various secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, etc. The crude methanolic extract and its subsequent solvent fractions were tested for their phytochemical contents and physicochemical parameters such as ash values, moisture contents, and extractive values. These pharmacognostic findings will help establish parameters for the standardization, prevention of adulteration, and identification of P. integerrima Stew ex Brandis bark used commonly in traditional medicine.
- Bawazeer, Sami & Rauf, Abdur & Mabkhot, Yahia & Al-Showiman, Salim & Patel, Seema & Gul, Somia & Raza, M. & Molnar, Joseph ( Jozsef in Hungarian) & Szabo, Diana & Csonka, Akos & Rehman, Mujeeb & Mubarak, Mohammad & Zengin, Gokhan & Hassanien, Mohamed. (2021). Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Pistacia integerrima with Promising Effects on Reverse Cancer Multidrug Resistance. Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry. 47. 10. 1134/ S1068162021050204. Pistacia integerrima grows in some areas of Pakistan and some other south Asian countries such as Afghanistan, India, Nepal, and Myanmar. It is an important medicinal plant that has been traditionally used for the treatment of asthma, cough, and dysentery. In the present study, we intend to re-isolate bioactive compounds (I– III) from P. integerrima galls extracts. The chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatography that afforded three reported chemical constituents, 7- methoxy naringenin (I), 7-methoxy 3, 5, 7, 4′- tetra- hydroxy flavanone (II), and β- sitosterol (III). Compounds (I–III) were evaluated for multidrug resistance (MDR) reversing effect by assessing their activity on various genes including transfected mouse gene, human model gene, and transfected mouse T-lymphoma cell lines (L5178 and L5178Y). Compounds (I–III) exhibit significant dose-dependent MDR reversing effect against the T-lymphoma (mouse cell line). in-silico molecular docking investigations performed on compounds (I–III) showed a common binding site for these compounds and Rhodamine 123. Our findings indicated that the relative docking scores correlate satisfactorily with in vitro activities. It could be concluded that the inhibitory activity of compounds (I– III) is largely due to their interactions with the P-glycoprotein (P- gp).
- Rani, Wajeeha & Maqbool, Farhana & Bhatti, Zulfiqar & Iqbal, Jamshed & Siddiqui, Muhammad & Pervez, Sidra & Kalsoom, Umm-e & Khan, Ibrar. (2021). Antibacterial and Anticancer Efficacy of Different Parts of Pistacia Integerrima Plant Extracts. 10. 21203/ rs. 3. rs- 396639/ v1. This study explored the antibacterial efficacy of Pistacia integerrima gall, leaf, and bark in different solvents. Extracts of these parts are prepared in ethanol, methanol, and distilled water by using a rotary evaporator. To check the antibacterial potential of this plant, minimal inhibitory concentrations of each extract were analyzed by agar well diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. For anticancer activity, hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate fractions of P. integerrima gall, leaf, and bark were used against human cervical cancer (HeLa) and baby hamster kidney (BHK–21) cell lines. Results showed that the maximum zone of inhibition of 25mm formed with ethanolic gall extract in 200µL concentration against B. subtilis. P. vulgaris shows resistance to methanol and aqueous extracts but is inhibited with ethanolic leaf extract. Among different parts of P. integerrima, n-hexane leaf fraction was shown to be most effective against HeLa cell lines with IC 50 of 7.45 µg/ mL. In the case of BHK-21, the highest cell inhibition of 46.8% was observed with crude leaf extract than with ethyl-acetate bark extract (44.9%) of P. integerrima. It is concluded that the effective inhibitor was hexane leaf fraction against HeLa cell lines in which Heneicosane was found (39.7%) which might be responsible for anticancer activity.
- Ansari, S. & Ali, M. & Qadry, J. (2008). Essential Oils of Pistacia integerrima Galls and Their Effect on the Central Nervous System. Pharmaceutical Biology. 31. 89-95. 10.3109/13880209309082924. Steam-distilled oil derived from the galls of Pistacia integerrima was analyzed by chromatographic and spectral techniques. The oil was found rich in αpinene (21.8% βpinene (16.2% αphellandrene (15.5% and δ3-care (11.1% The other main constituents characterized were βphellandrene, γ- terpene, α, and βterpineol as well as α and β- ocimene. A biological study reveals that the oil possesses CNS-depressant activity.
Rasa Panchaka of Karkatshringi
|Rasa (Taste)||Kashaya (astringent), Tikta (bitter)|
|Guna (Virtue)||Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry), [Guru (heavy) (R. Ni, Pr. Ni)]|
|Virya (potency)||Ushana (hot potency)|
|Vipaka (post-digestion)||Katu (pungent)|
Dosha Karma of Karkatshringi
Kapha- Vata Shamaka.
Vata Shamaka because of Ushana Virya. Kapha Hara because of Ushana Virya, Katu Vipaka, Kashaya, and Tikta Rasa.
Karma (Actions) of Karkatshringi
Swasa Hara, Hikka Nigrehana, Kasa Hara, Chardi Ghana, Rochaka, Atisarjita, Dipana, Vatanulomana, Grahi, Garbhasayasotha, Sravarodhaka, Jvaraghna, Katupoustika.
Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Karkatshringi
Shwasa Roga, Kasa- Hikka- Galasotha, Ksaya- Rajayaksma, Dantamula Raktasrava Vikara, Vrana ksata, Agnimandya, Udavarta, Aruci, Chardi, Atisara, Pravahika, Balaroga, Dantodbheda JanyaVvikara, Pradara, Puyameha, Jvara, Vataslaismikajvara.
Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Karkatshringi
- (The powder of) Karkatasingi should be licked with oil in Vatika’s cough. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 50)
- The same should be licked with ghee, sugar, and honey followed by an intake of milk. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 32)
Shwasa and Hikka (Asthma and hiccoughs)
- Gruel cooked with karkatasrgi is beneficial for those suffering from asthma and hiccough. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 101)
- Powder of karkatarngi and seeds of radish mixed with honey and ghee alleviates asthma in children. (Vanga Sena. balaroga. 62)
Chardi (Vomiting): To check vomiting caused by kapha one should take Powder of jambu and badara (fruits) or karkatargi mixed with musta or durba with honey. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 20/ 38)
Vajikarana (As aphrodisiac): One who takes a paste of karkatarngi dissolved in milk keeping on a diet of cereals with sugar, ghee, and milk performs like a bull in a woman. (Ashtanga Sangreha Uttara Tantra. 50/ 44)
Benefits of Karkatshringi
- The drug Karkatasrngi is quite effective medicine for diseases of the respiratory system. It is an important plant drug for cough, hiccough, asthma, and allied diseases. The drug is also useful in children’s diseases particularly cough, diarrhea, hiccough, teething troubles (danta bheda janya vikara), and similar ailments.
- Karkatasrngi is useful in yaksma (tuberculosis), parsvasula (chest pain), vomiting, excessive thirst, diarrhea, loss of appetite, leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, influenza, and throat complaints (gala shotha- gala roga). It is also useful in garbhasaya sotha, sotha, and rakta save.
- The drug is useful as an aphrodisiac (Vajkarna). The paste of Karkatarngi galls dissolved in milk is orally given to a person (keeping him on a diet of cereals with sugar, ghee, and milk) for attaining strong sexual power (sambhoga shakti) as prescribed in medical text.
- The powder drug Karkatasrngi (galls powder) is used for cough, asthma, hiccough, vata kapha jvara, throat and chest complaints, and vomiting.
- The powder is given orally with honey or lukewarm water (sukhosna jala) and any other suitable vehicle or adjutant.
- The gruel cooked with Karkatasrngi is useful for giving to those suffering from asthma and hiccough as recommended in medical texts of indigenous medicine.
- The powder of Karkatasingi and seeds of radish are mixed with honey and ghee and this recipe is prescribed in children for alleviating asthma.
- The powder of Karkatasrngi is licked with oil for alleviating vataja kasa (cough caused by vata). It is leha (in licking mode of administration) prayoga of Karkatasrngi.
- The powder of Karkatasrngi is mixed with ghee, sugar, and honey, and the same is licked by the patient of cough, by following intake of milk.
- The powder of Karkatasrngi mixed with mustaka (the root of Cyperus rotundus) is used for checking for vomit caused by kapha.
Benefits of Karkatshringi on Different Systems of Bodies
External use: It is applied to swelling (edema). In pyorrhea, gargles of the decoction are useful. The powder is applied on both fresh and chronic wounds.
Digestive system: Being ushna, it is an appetizer, carminative, and astringent, thus useful and effective in anorexia, dyspepsia, and diarrhea, dysentery. Mainly effective in children’s diseases.
Respiratory system: Because of its bitter and pungent taste it is an expectorant and kaphaghna. Helps with hiccoughs, coughs, and dyspnea. It acts as an expectorant and prevents further productive cough and strengthens the respiratory membrane (inner lining of the surface). It is also effective in pharyngitis and sore throat.
Reproductive system: It alleviates endometritis and also reduces uterine exudates. Thus, helps in healing. It also alleviates gonorrhea-induced inflammation and discharges.
Temperature: Being a febrifuge and Vata- Kapha Ghana, it is used in a fever induced by vata and kapha.
Satmikaran: Being bitter and hot, it is a bitter tonic rasayan. Useful as rasayan in tuberculosis. In Kashmir, the fruits are also used as rasayan.
Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Karkatshringi
- Churna (powder)- 1- 3 grams
Classical Reference of Karkatshringi
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 178
श्रृंगी कर्कटशृंगि च स्यात्कुलीर विषाणिका ।
अजश्रृंगी चक्रा च कर्कटाख्या च कीर्तिता।।
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 179
Properties and actions
श्रृंगी कषाया तिक्तोष्णा कफवातक्षयज्वरान् ।
श्वासोर्ध्ववाततृट कासहिक्का अरुचिर्वमीन्हरेत ।
Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 84
Properties and actions
तिक्ता कर्कटश्रृंगी च गुरुश्च ऊर्ध्व समीरजित् ।
कासा श्वासर्ति यक्ष्मगनी वान्तितृष्णारूचीर्जयेत ।
Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 86
Properties and actions
अजश्रृंगी हिमा स्वादुः शोफतृष्णा वमीर्जयेत ।
चक्षुष्या श्वास हद्रोग विषकासर्ति कुष्ठनुत् ।।
Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1133
श्रृंगी तिक्ता कषायोष्णा कफवात क्षयज्वरान् ।
श्वासोद्धर्ववाततृट कास हिध्मारुचिवमीर्जयेत् ।।
Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga, 157
तिक्ता कर्कट श्रृंगी तु गुरुरुष्णा अनिलापाहा ।
हिक्कातीसारकासघ्नी श्वासपित्तास्रनाशनी ।।
Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 147
श्रृंगी कषाया तिक्तोष्णा कफवात विनाशिनी ।
ज्वरे कासे क्षये श्वासे छर्दि हिक्कासु शस्यते ।।
Shodhala Nighantu, Gada Nigreha
कर्कटस्य च श्रृंगी स्यात् तिक्तोष्णा तुवरा गुरु: ।
वातहिक्वा अतिसारघ्नो बालानां च हिता वहा।
कासं श्वासं रक्तदोष॑ पित्त॑ जूर्तिकफं क्षयम्।
वान्ति हिष्मां च उर्ध्व वात कृमितृष्णाक्षतक्षयम्।।।
अरुचिं नाशयत्येव ऋषभी: परिकीर्त्तिता।।
Vanga Sena, Blaa Roga Chikitsa, 62
कुलीर श्रृंगी चूर्णञ्च फल तथा।
युक्तो अयं मधुसर्पिम्यां लेहः श्वास पह: शिशोः।।
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 18/ 50
लिह्यात् कर्कट श्रृंगी च कासे तैलेन वातजे।
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 20/ 36
………मुस्तायुतां कर्कटस्य शृंगीम।
Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 40
कुलीर श्रृंगी चूर्णञ्चमूलकस्य फलं तथा।
युक्तो अयं कुलीर श्रृंग्य यः कल्कमालोड्य पयसा पिबेत् ।
सिताधृतपयो अन्नशी स नारीषु वृषायते।।
Chakra Dutta Mukha Roga (Danta Roga) Chikitsa, 56/ 6
दन्तशब्दरोगे (दन्तरोगे) कर्कटश्रृंगी (घृत) प्रयोग:
कर्कटश्रृंगी क्षीर पक्व घृता अभ्यंगें नश्यति।
दन्तशब्द: कर्कटाडिख्रिलेपाद्वा दन्तयोजितात्।।
Chakra Dutta Mukha Roga (Danta Roga) Chikitsa, 56/ 6
(केचित् कर्कटाडिख्रिलेपाद्वा शब्दे कर्कटपादम् इत्यर्थ:)
Ashtanga Sangreha Uttara Tantra, 50/ 44
कुलीर श्रृंग्य: य: कल्कमालोड्य पयसा पिबेत् ।
सिताधृतपयो अन्नाशी स नारीषु वृषायते।।
Specific Formulation of Karkatshringi
- Shringyadi Churna for Hikka and Shwasa
- Sringi Guda for Shwasa
- Bala Chaturbhadra Churna for Bala Roga
Contraindication and Side Effects of Karkatshringi
Karkatshringi does not exhibit any potential side effects, but it may show some milk irritant effects on the skin. As no scientific study has been done on Karkatshringi to find out its effect on pregnant and lactating mothers, so it is better to avoid its use during pregnancy and lactation.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Pistacia integerrima
- Bibi, Yamin & Zia, Muhammad & Qayyum, Abdul. (2015). An overview of Pistacia integerrima, a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities, and phytochemistry. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 28. 1009- 1013.
- Jeet, Kamal & Baldi, Ashish. (2018). A Comprehensive Review on Pistacia integerrima. Current Traditional Medicine. 05. 10. 2174/ 2215083805666181213154344.
- Shuaib, Muhammad & Ali, Kawsar & Zeb, Umar & Hussain, Firasat & Zeb, Muhammad & Hussain, Saddam & Hussain, Fida. (2017). Evaluation of Pistacia integerrima; an important plant. International Journal of Biosciences (IJB). Vol. 11. 412- 420. 10. 12692/ ijb/ 11. 5. 412- 420.
- Grover, Manish. (2021). Pistacia integerrima (Shringi)- A Plant With Significant Pharmacological Activities. The Journal of Phytopharmacology. 10. 323- 330. 10. 31254/ phyto. 2021. 10508.
- Ahmad, Shamim & Ali, M. & Ansari, Shahid & Ahmed, Faheem. (2010). Phytoconstituents from the galls of Pistacia integerrima Stewart. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 14. 409- 412. 10. 1016/ j. jscs. 2010. 05. 003.
- Ullah, Zia & Mehmood, Rashad & Imran, Muhammad & Malikb, Abdul & Ifzal, Rehana. (2012). Flavonoid Constituents of Pistacia integerrima. Natural product communications. 7. 1011- 4. 10. 1177/ 1934578X1200700813.
- Rauf, Abdur & Uddin, Ghias & Khan, Haroon & Roohullah,. (2014). The preliminary antioxidant profile of Pistacia integerrima Stewart. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 27. 855- 858.
- Rahman, Shafiq & Ismail, Muhammad & Muhammad, Naveed & Khan, Farhat & Chishti, Ahmad & Imran, Muhammad. (2011). Evaluation of the stem bark of Pistacia integerrima Stew ex Brandis for its antimicrobial and phytotoxic activities. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.
- Uddin, Ghias & Rauf, Abdur. (2012). In vitro Antimicrobial Profile of Pistacia integerrima Galls Stewart. Middle East Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 1. 36- 40. 10. 5829/ idosi. member. 2011. 1. 2. 1109.
- Ismail, Muhammad & Shafiq-ur-Rahman, & Muhammad, Naveed & Mohani, Nadeem & Khan, Muhammad & Ullah, Barkat & Hussain, Javid. (2011). Pharmacognostic and phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Pistacia integerrima Stew ex Brandis. Journal of medicinal plant research. 5. 3891-3895.
- Verma, Preeti & Shah, Mamta. (2021). Pistacia integerrima: An important source of nutraceutical and phytomedicine. WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES. 10. 10. 20959/ wjpps20214- 18771.
- Sher, Hassan & Jan, Hammad & Abbasi, Arshad & Rahman, Ikram & Bussmann, Rainer & Zambrana, Narel. (2021). Pistacia atlantica Desf. Pistacia integerrima Stewart ex Brandis Pistacia khinjuk Stocks Anacardiaceae. 10. 1007/ 978- 3- 030- 57408- 6_187.
- Bawazeer, Sami & Rauf, Abdur & Mabkhot, Yahia & Al-Showiman, Salim & Patel, Seema & Gul, Somia & Raza, M. & Molnar, Joseph ( Jozsef in Hungarian) & Szabo, Diana & Csonka, Akos & Rehman, Mujeeb & Mubarak, Mohammad & Zengin, Gokhan & Hassanien, Mohamed. (2021). Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Pistacia integerrima with Promising Effects on Reverse Cancer Multidrug Resistance. Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry. 47. 10. 1134/ S1068162021050204.
- Rani, Wajeeha & Maqbool, Farhana & Bhatti, Zulfiqar & Iqbal, Jamshed & Siddiqui, Muhammad & Pervez, Sidra & Kalsoom, Umm-e & Khan, Ibrar. (2021). Antibacterial and Anticancer Efficacy of Different Parts of Pistacia Integerrima Plant Extracts. 10. 21203/ rs. 3. rs- 396639/ v1.
- Uttara, P. & Mishra, s.H.. (2008). Evaluation of aqueous and methanol extracts of Pistacia integerrima galls as a potential immunomodulator. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 4. 126- 131.
- Ansari, S. & Ali, M. & Qadry, J.. (2008). Essential Oils of Pistacia integerrima Galls and Their Effect on the Central Nervous System. Pharmaceutical Biology. 31. 89- 95. 10. 3109/ 13880209309082924.
- Ahmad, Naseem & Waheed, Akbar & Farman, Muhammad & Qayyum, Aisha. (2010). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Pistacia integerrima extracts in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 129. 250- 3. 10. 1016 / j. jep. 2010. 03. 017.
- Ahmad NS, Farman M, Najmi MH, Mian KB, Hasan A. Pharmacological basis for use of Pistacia integerrima leaves in hyperuricemia and gout. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 May 22;117(3):478-82. doi: 101016/ j. jep. 2008. 02. 031. Epub 2008 Mar 4. PMID: 18420362.
- Islam, Nazar Ul & Jalil, Kamran & Shahid, Muhammad & Muhammad, Naveed & Rauf, Abdur. (2015). Pistacia integerrima gall extract mediated green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their biological activities. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 117. 10. 1016/ j. Arabic. 2015. 02. 014.
- Uddin, Ghias & Rauf, Abdur & Siddiqui, Bina & Khan, Haroon. (2013). Cytotoxic Activity of Extracts/Fractions of Various Parts of Pistacia Integerrima Stewart. Translational Medicine. 03. 10. 4172/ 2161- 1025. 1000118.
- Bibi Y, Nisa S, Zia M, Waheed A, Ahmed S, Chaudhary MF. The Study of Anticancer and Antifungal Activities of Pistacia integerrima Extract in vitro. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2012 Jul; 74 (4): 375- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 107085. PMID: 23626397; PMCID: PMC 3630737.
- Rauf A, Saleem M, Uddin G, Siddiqui BS, Khan H, Raza M, Hamid SZ, Khan A, Maione F, Mascolo N, De Feo V. Phosphodiesterase-1 Inhibitory Activity of Two Flavonoids Isolated from Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart Galls. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 506564. doi: 10. 1155/ 2015/ 506564. Epub 2015 Apr 5. PMID: 25945110; PMCID: PMC 4402172.
- Sharwan G, Jain P, Pandey R, Shukla SS. Toxicity and Safety Profiles of Methanolic Extract of Pistacia integerrima J. L. Stewart ex Brandis (PI) for Wistar Rats. J Pharmacopuncture. 2016 Sep; 19 (3): 253- 258. doi: 10. 3831/ KPI. 2016. 19. 027. PMID: 27695635; PMCID: PMC 5043090.
- Bibi Y, Zia M, Qayyum A. Review-An overview of Pistacia integerrima a medicinal plant species: Ethnobotany, biological activities, and phytochemistry. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2015 May; 28 (3):1009-13. PMID: 26004708.
- Kumar Paul G, Mahmud S, Aldahish AA, Afroze M, Biswas S, Briti Ray Gupta S, Hasan Razu M, Zaman S, Salah Uddin M, Nahari MH, Merae Alshahrani M, Abdul Rahman Alshahrani M, Khan M, Abu Saleh M. Computational screening and biochemical analysis of Pistacia integerrima and Pandanus odoriferous plants to find effective inhibitors against Receptor-Binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS- Cov- 2. Arab J Chem. 2022 Feb; 15 (2):103600. doi: 10.1016/ j. Arabic. 2021.103600. Epub 2021 Dec 1. PMID: 34909068; PMCID: PMC 8632739.
- Uppinakudru, Shailaja & GR, Arun & Rao, Prasanna & Chougule, Rahul. (2013). Effect of Shvasahara Avaleha in the Management of Tamaka Shvasa in children. E-Journal of Indian Association of Ayurvedic Pediatrics. 1. 7.
- Joshi, Abhishek & Rajagopala, Shrikrishna & S., Patel. (2019). A Critical Review on Balachaturbhadra Churna: An Effective Ayurveda Formulation for the Pediatric Age. International Journal of Interreligious and Intercultural Studies. 2. 1-10. 10. 32795/ ijiis. vol2. Issue 1. 2019. 306.
- Choudhary, Kuldeep & Thrigulla, Saketh Ram & Gundeti, Manohar & Koulgi, Shruti & Jani, Vinod & Uppuladinne, Mallikarjunachari & Sonavane, Uddhavesh & Joshi, Rajendra & Penchala Prasad, Goli & Reddy, Govind & Srikanth, Narayanam. (2022). Balchaturbhadra churna as a potential medicine for SARS-Cov2 infection in pediatric setting An In-Silico study. 10. 31219/ osf. io/ md57f.
- Nariya MB, Parmar P, Shukla VJ, Ravishankar B. Toxicological study of Balacaturbhadrika churna. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2011 Apr; 2 (2): 79- 84. doi: 10. 4103/ 0975- 9476. 82526. PMID: 21760693; PMCID: PMC 3131776.
- Parle M, Bansal N. Antiamnesic activity of an ayurvedic formulation chyawanprash in mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011; 2011: 898593. doi: 10.1093/ ecam/ neq021. Epub 2011 Jun 5. PMID: 21789046; PMCID: PMC 3137779.
- Balkrishna A, Mulay VP, Verma S, Srivastava J, Lochab S, Varshney A. Penta-O-Galloyl-β-D-Glucose in Pistacia integerrima Targets AMPK-ULK1 and ERK/STAT3 Signaling Axes to Induce ROS-Independent Autophagic Cell Death in Human Lung Cancer Cells. Front Pharmacol. 2022 Jul 19; 13: 889335. doi: 10. 3389/ fphar. 2022. 889335. PMID: 35928273; PMCID: PMC 9343872.
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Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)