Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Kanchnar – Bauhinia variegate Linn.

    Kanchnar – Bauhinia variegate Linn.

    Kanchnara: The miraculous herb for Gandamala (Lymphadenopathy)

    Introduction

    Kanchnara botanically known as Bauhinia variegate is a famous Ayurvedic medicinal plant native to the tropical and temperate Indian sub-continent. It is famous for its English name mountain ebony. Various species of Bauhinia have been used as Kanchnara, in the Indian system of medicine like Rakta Kanchnara, Shweta Kanchnara, and Peeta Kanchnara. Kanchnara is a controversial drug, various drugs (like Ashmantaka, Shleshmatak, etc) are used in name of this due to its synonyms like Karbudara, Kovidara, and Udyalaka. But now its controversy has been resolved. In Ayurvedic classical texts Kanchnara has been mentioned as Sheeta Virya (cold in potency), absorbent, Kashaya (astringent) in taste, and reduce Kapha and Vata diseases and its various Karmas are also mentioned like Mehaghana, Rakta Pitta Shamaka, Gandamala Nashaka, Vrana Ropaka, etc. Recent research revealed that Kanchnara has active ingredients like Quercitroside, iso- quercetin, rutoside, naringenin, essential oils, Kaempferol glycosides, etc due to which it exhibits anti-diabetic, anti-ulcer, antioxidant, hepato- protective, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial activities, etc. In recent time Kanchnara is used for various gynecological disorders like PCOD, DUB, etc., and in which miraculous result has been found.

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    Basonym of Kanchnara

    कांञ्चनम तद वर्ण ऋच्छति पुष्पीः।

    The flowers of Kanchnara are golden yellow in color.

    Synonyms of Kanchnara

    • According to morphology

    युग्मपंत्रक: – यमलपत्रत्वात्‌ युगपत्रक: । युग युग्मे पत्रमस्य ।

    Leaf of Kanchnara is emarginate.

    चमरिक – चमरो अस्यास्तीति चमरिक: ।

    Kanchnara has smooth and beautiful bark.

    ताम्रपुष्प- ताम्रवर्ण पुष्प॑ अस्यास्तीति। 

    The flowers of Kanchnara are coppery red.

    स्वल्पकेसरी – स्वल्पे अल्पसंख्यानि केसराणि सन्त्यस्या: ।

    Flowers contain very few stamens.

    गण्डारी – गण्ड: गलगण्डमालादीनां रोगाणां अरि: इति ।

    Kanchnara is very useful in Galaganda and Gandamala.

    Regional names of Kanchnara

    • Mountain Ebony, Camel’s foot (English)
    • Kanchnar (Hindi)
    • Kempumandara (Kannada)
    • Chuvanna Mandarm (Malayalam)
    • Rakta Kanchan, Koral (Marathi)
    • Kachnal, Kularh (Punjabi)
    • Kancham (Bengali)
    • Kapakati (Gujarati)
    • Mandare (Tamil)
    • Devakanchanamu (Telugu)

    Scientific classification of Kanchnara

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    Sub- classPolypetalae
    Series Calyciflorae
    OrderRosales
    Family Fabaceae (Cesalpinaceae)
    GenusBauhinia
    Species variegata

    Botanical Name

    Karbudara (Kanchnara): Bauhinia variegata Linn.

    The Bauhinia word is derived from the name of the two famous French botanist brothers of the 16th century Johna and Caspar Bauhin.

    Variegata means variegated with patches of different colors.

    Kovidara: Bauhinia purpurea

    Family – Fabaceae (Caesalpinaceae), (Putikaranjadi Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Kanchnara (Bauhinia variegata)

    Classification of Kanchnara as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Vamnopaga Varga
    • Sushruta: Urdhwa Bhaga Hara Dravya

    Kanchnara's description in Brihtrayi as Karbudara

    There is some confusion about its identification. Dalhana has treated it variously as Kanchnara, a variety of it or Slesmataka. It has been often mentioned side by side and used as a separate drug with Kovidara and once (S. S. Su. 46. 249) with Shelu which is usually considered to be another name for Slesmataka. It has to be remembered that both the genera Bauhinia and Cordia have more than one species popularly known by one or other of the above names i.e. Kacanara, Koilara, Bahu, Bahubura, Lasoro, or Selu. Again the properties especially of the flowers or flower buds of all known in the texts as Slesmataka, Selu, Kovidara, and Karbudara are said to be similar. The confusion regarding the identification of Karbudara is therefore natural and it may be one of the species of either of the two genera preferably Bauhinia variegata Linn. But there is also another possibility. It may be an entirely different plant from any one of the above two genera. It has been pointed out that in the Vedas there is mention of Rajjudara which has been identified by the commentators with Karbudara and described as possessing a fruit resembling a penis in appearance. This plant, in my opinion, is one known as Olax scandens Roxb.

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 23, C. S. Su. 27/ 97, 102, C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, C. S. Chi. 14/ 203, C. S. Ka. 1/ 15, C. S. Si. 7/ 59, C. S. Si. 10/ 33
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 39/ 3, S. S. Su. 45/ 120, S. S. Su. 46/ 249, S. S. U. 47/ 46
    • Vagbhata: A. H. Ka. 1/ 7

    Kanchnara's description in Brihtrayi as Kovidaara

    This is, no doubt, a species of Bauhinia, probably the one known popularly as Koilara. In the three texts, there is no mention of Kancanara and Kovidara. Karbudara has usually been interpreted to be two varieties of what is now known as Kachnara, but there is some confusion as regards the identity of Karbudara. It is, therefore, suggested that any of the two species i.e. B. purpurea Linn, and B. variegata Linn. (preferably the former ) may be used for Kovidara and the other one for Karbudara.

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 23, C. S. Su. 27/ 97, 102, C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, C. S. Chi. 3/ 257, C. S. Chi. 4/ 38, 69, C. S. Chi. 14/ 204, C. S. Chi. 23/ 243, C. S. Ka. 1/ 15, 18, C. S. Ka. 5/ 7, C. S. Ka. 6/ 8, C. S. Si. 10/ 34
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 29/ 65, S. S. Su. 39/ 3, S. S. Su. 42/ 18, S. S. Su. 43/ 3, S. S. Su. 46/ 249, 281, S. S. Ka. 5/ 18, S. S. U. 45/ 19, 34
    • Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 8/ 31, A. H. Chi. 9/ 96, C. S. Ka. 1/ 7, 11

    Kanchnara's description in Brihtrayi as Shlesmataki as its synonym is Karbudaar (Controversy)

    Some other species of Cordia such as C. rotthii Roem. & Schult, and C. wallichii G. Don. may also be used in its place. Some varieties of Sleshmataka are also known as Gondi or Gondani. Sometimes it has been seen that this name is given to Priyangu. The acceptance of Aglaia roxburghiana Miq. as Priyangu may have come about due to the erroneous idea involved in the name of Gondani. It is quite likely that Priyagnu was originally called by a synonym Gundrabija which was wrongly understood to be Godani Bija and Aglaia (bearing fruits similar to those of Godani ie. Cordia) became accepted as Priyangu. It may be noted that the fruits of Typha, Callicarpa, and Setaria are more or less similar in appearance.

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 16, C. S. Su. 27/ 156, C. S. Chi. 2/ 89, C. S. Chi. 30/ 272
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 193, S. S. Chi. 5/ 10, S. S. Chi. 31/ 5, S. S. Ka. 5/ 75, S. S. Ka. 6/ 3, S. S. Ka. 8/ 120, S. S. U. 47/ 32
    • Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 6/ 120, A. H. Chi. 18/ 16, C. S. U. 37/ 70

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    Historical background of Kanchnara

    Kovidara is the original name of Kancanara during the Vedic and Samhita periods. Vedic literature considers its stems forbidden for rituals (Jai. Gr. 1/ 1, Kou. Sou. 21/ 3/ 20 & Pa. Ga. 4/ 2/ 80). Its utility was relatively less in the Brhattrayi period. Caraka considered it Vamanopaga while Sushruta described it as Vamana (Urdhvabhagahara). Sushruta also clarified that the root is the useful part of Kovidara etc (S. S. Su. 39/ 3), while the practice at present is to use the stem bark. Another important aspect of Kovidara is that it is described along with Karbudara i.e. white variety of Kovidara. The Shveta (white) variety of Kanchnara is identified as Bauhinia alba. Karbudara is described by Vagbhata only once in Ashtanga Hridya. Ka. 1/ 7. It is mainly known for its action on lymphadenitis. Hence the name Gandari.

    Controversy regarding Kanchnara

    There is some controversy about the identity of Karbudara since Dalhana treated it as a variety of Kancanara or as Slesmataka (Bahuvara). In one context it is described along with Selu (S. S. Su. 46/ 249). Selu is the synonym of Slesmataka. Thakurji consider it as B. variegata Linn. Since a plant Rajjudara described in the Vedic literature is identified by the commentators with Karbudara, Thakur Ji opines that it may be another plant. It is described as possessing a fruit resembling a penis (Sisna) in appearance. This plant may be Olax scandens Roxb. In general B. purpurea is less available when compared to B. variegata. The author believes that another species B. tomentosa possessing yellow flowers and yellowish bark is Kancanara since some Vaidyas traditionally use it. Different varieties- Kovidara and Karbudara are described in the Samhitas. Chakrapani quoted that the flowering of Kovidara and Karbudara occurs in Saradrtu and Vasanta Ritu respectively (C. S. Ka. 2). Bhavamisra described Kancanara and Kovidara as two varieties. But Dhanvantari and Rajanighantus mention the two names as synonymous. However, the Tamra puspa synonym is given to Kovidara by Bhavamisra. Nighantu Ratnakara explains three varieties viz., Pita, Rakta, and Sveta. In Sivadatta Kosa it is described that Kancanara possesses red flowers and grows to a limited height. On the other hand, Kovidara possesses white flowers, strong branches, and red sap. In Samhita Udyalaka has been mentioned with Shalmali, Dhanvana, etc herbs in Vamnopaga Prakana, as here it was mentioned with trees so it indicates that Udyalaka may also be the tree. Amrkosha first mentioned Udyalaka as a synonym for Shleshmataka. Udayalaka is also mentioned in Dhanya Prakarna (group of cereals) and it is also a type of honey (Madhu).

     

    Kovidaara, Kanchnara, and Udyalaka are the three main controversial drugs.

     

    • Kovidaar is considered as Bauhinia purpurea.
    • Karbudaar/ Kanchnara is considered as Bauhinia variegata. (Madhva of the 7th century in Prayaya Ratna Mala first mentioned Karbudaara as Kanchnara.
    • Udyalaka- It can be considered as Bauhinia Variegata due to comparison with flower color but in Dhanya Prakarna (group of cereals) it is considered as Vankodrav (Paspalum scrobiculatum Stapf.)

    Controversy regarding varieties of Bauhinia

    It is a huge tree with male and female flowers as hypanthodium. This tree is found in the hill regions of Punjab, north- India, western India, and Assam. Thakur Balvant Singh quoted that Asmantaka may be the name of two different drugs. One of them is a latex-containing tree (C. S. Su.1/ 112- 113) which is used as an emetic. This is the same drug mentioned under the Mutra Sangrahaniya group of drugs. The other appears to be a non-lactiferous, diuretic and Ushna Virya drug, a fiber-yielding plant of the genus Bauhinia. Dalhana denoted it with two names viz., Amlalotaka (Asanta) and Murva. The former is a tree while the latter is a climber. Dalhana, quoting others, mentions that the latter may be a climber having bilobed leaves like Kovidara. Therefore, the non-lactiferous Asmantaka is Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. or B. vahlii W & A, and the latex-bearing Ashmantaka is F. cordifolia Roxb or Ficus rumphii.

    Varieties of Kanchnara

    There are three varieties of Kancanara based on flower color i.e., White (Shveta), yellow (Pita), and red (Rakta). White and red varieties of Kancanara are of Kovidara which is botanically identified as Bauhinia purpurea Linn., commonly known as Koilar, and also Koliar and Peddare. Kovidara flowers in Sarada Ritu (autumn) and fruits in Sheeta Ritu (winter) while Kanchnara (Karbudara) flowers in spring (Basanta) as indicated in the classical de- description (Cakrapani annotating Caraka Samhita, Cikitsa Sthana, 4/ 70 and other texts) specifying two varieties of Kovidara. Morphologically the flowers are showy more than 3 mm. long generally in three species of Bauhinia i.e., B. racemosa Lamk., B. variegata L., and B. purpurea Linn. Besides other characteristic differences (stamens fertile 10 in Bauhinia racemosa Lamk. while into others fertile stamens 3- 5), mainly the characteristics of leaves and also flowers differentiate both species. Leaves cleft to about halfway down, hypanthium shorter than the calyx and fertile stamens three in Bauhinia purpurea Linn. while the leaves cleft to about one-third way down, hypanthium equaling the calyx and fertile stamens five in Bauhinia variegata Linn. Another kind of Kanchnara or Pita Kanchnara is botanically identified as Bauhinia tomentosa Linn. which bears yellow flowers, and it occurs in north-western India particularly and Sri Lanka.

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    External morphology of Kanchnara/ Karbudara (Bauhinia variegata)

    • Habit: Shrub or small to medium-sized trees with hairy branches.
    • Stem: The stem of Kanchnara is woody, aerial, erect, branched, solid, cylindrical, and rough.
    • Leaves: Leaves of Kanchnara are alternate, simple, 4.5- 15 cm. long, as broad as or broader than long, cleft one-fourth to one-third way down, 9-15- nerved, lobes obtuse base cordate.
    • Inflorescence: Flowers in lax corymbose racemes, from leafless axils or terminating lateral branches, bracts, and bracteoles deltoid. calyx 2- 2.7 cm. long, pubescent, spathaceous, 5. toothed at apex. Petals 1-5 cm. long, obovate oblong, clawed, the uppermost darker with purple veins. Stamens are fertile. staminodes absent. The ovary was pubescent.
    • Fruits: Pods or legumes, 15- 30 x 15- 25 cm. flat, glabrous.
    • Seeds: Seeds in pods of Kanchnara are numerous i.e., approx. 10- 15.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    September to March (flowers) and October to April (fruits). Almost leafless trees Bauhinia variegata Linn. flower during springs and become in the fruiting stage by the beginning of summers.

    External morphology of Kovidaar (Bauhinia purpurea)

    • Habit: Kovidaar medium-sized trees with greyish to dark brown bark and pink, red blaze. Young parts pubescent. 
    • Leaves: Leaves of Kovidaar are 7.5 x 20 cm. long, longer than broad, 9-11 nerved, and cleft about halfway down into two acute or rounded lobes.
    • Inflorescence: Flowers rose-purple, in a few-flowered terminal corymbose or paniculate tomentose racemes. Calyx 2-2.5 cm. long, oblanceolate with purple claves and mouth, stipulate. 
    • Fruits: Fruits are pods or legumes. Pods 15- 25 cm., flat slightly falcate.
    • Seeds: Seeds 12- 15mm., flattened, roundish, dark brown. 
    • Flowering and fruiting time: From October to march.

    External morphology of Bauhinia racemosa

    • Habit: Small trees with spreading crowns. 
    • Bark: The bark of Bauhinia racemosa is greyish-black with vertical cracks. 
    • Leaves: Leaves are broader than long, 2-5 x 2.5 cm., divided one-third to halfway down into two lobes, glabrous above, hairy below, usually cordate at base.
    • Inflorescence: Flowers white, in terminal or leaf opposed simple 5- 10 cm. long racemes. Calyx tube 6- 8 mm. long, spathaceous, reflexed. Petals about 1 cm. long oblanceolate, acute. Stamens 10, fertile; filaments hairy at base. Ovary hairy, stigma sessile.
    • Fruit: Pods 10- 25 cm. long, falcate.
    • Seeds: Seeds are 10- 20, oblong, compressed black.
    • Flowering and fruiting time: April to August

    Distribution of Kanchnara

    It occurs almost throughout India ascending to about 5000 ft. elevation.

    The useful part of Kanchnara

    Stem bark

     

    The stem bark is moderately hard, curved, and 4 to 8 mm in thickness. The external surface is rough, grayish brown, transversely fissured, or cracked with small elliptic warts of darker color. The inner surface is reddish brown and lamellated with the portion of bark coming out in thin strips. A transversely cut portion of bark shows a narrow cork followed by conspicuous tangential strands of fibers. The outer side breaks but is fibrous within and has got characteristic faint odor with an astringent state.

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    Important phytoconstituent of Kanchnara

    Stem bark yielded hentriacontane, octacosanol, beta -Sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The stem contains lupeol & amino acids. Seeds consist of myricetin, glycosides flowers have hentriacontane, octacosanol, B-Sitosterol & stigma sterol.

    Recent research on Bauhinia variegata

    • Study to investigate the role of aqueous (BVA) and ethanol (BVE) extracts of Bauhinia variegata against milk-induced leukocytosis and eosinophilia in albino mice. The results of the study revealed that pretreatment with both extracts caused a significant reduction in the total leukocyte and eosinophil counts in animals in a dose-dependent manner, Mali RG, Dhake AS. Evaluation of effects of Bahuhina variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2011 Apr; 2 (2): 132- 4. doi: 10. 4103/ 2231- 4040. 82949.
    • The nephroprotective activity of the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata (Linn.) whole stem against cisplatin-induced nephropathy was investigated by an in vivo method in rats. The ethanol extract of B. variegata at 400 mg/ kg (b. w.) exhibits significant and comparable nephroprotective potential to that of the standard polyherbal drug cystone. Pani SR, Mishra S, Sahoo S, Panda PK. Neuroprotective effect of Bauhinia vareigata (Linn). whole stem extract against cisplatin-induced nephropathy in rats. Indian J. Pharmacol. 2011. Apr; 43 (2): 200- 2. doi: 10. 4103/ 0253- 7673. 77370.
    • Tripathi, Abhishek & Gupta, Pushpraj & Singh, Sunil. (2019). Antidiabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, and antioxidant activities of Bauhinia variegata flower extract. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 19. 101142. 10.1016/j.bcab.2019.101142. To evaluate the antidiabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata flower. Ethanolic extract of B. variegata was administered orally to Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats once daily for 21 days. Blood glucose levels were estimated at days 0, 7, 14, and 21 by glucometer (one touch), and lipid profile and histopathological examination of isolated organs (kidney, liver, and pancreas) were also estimated on 21 days. The antioxidant activity of B. variegata was evaluated by performing 1,1-diphenyl-picryl- hydroxyl (DPPH) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging (H2O2) assays. B. variegata flower extract showed a reduction in blood glucose level (90.00 mg/dL) at the highest dose 400 mg/kg when compared with diabetic control rats (224.50 mg/dL). The levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) were restored while administrating B. variegata. In addition, the percentage inhibition of B. variegata was 86.60% and 68.47% at 100 μg/ml for DPPH and H2O2 radicals, respectively, which was near to standard BHT i.e. 91.63% (DPPH) and 73.42% (H2O2). It can be concluded from the present study that B. variegata possesses significant antidiabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, and antioxidant activities.
    • To evaluate the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. for in vitro antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. From the results, it is evident that alcoholic and aqueous extracts of B. variegate Linn. can effectively decrease plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL, and VLDL and increase plasma HDL levels. In addition, the alcoholic and aqueous extracts have shown significant antioxidant activity. By the virtue of its antioxidant activity, B. variegata Linn. may show anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Rajani GP, Ashok P. In vitro antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Bauhinia variegata Linn. Indian J. Pharmacal. 2009. Oct; 41 (5): 227- 32. doi: 10. 4103/ 0253- 7613. 58513.
    • To evaluate the anticarcinogenic and antimutagenicity of Kachanar extract skin carcinogenesis and melanoma tumor model in Swiss albino mice. Results suggest that Kachanar extract exerts anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activity. Agarwal RC, Pandey S. Evaluation of the anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic potential of Bauhinia variegata extract in Swiss albino mice. Asian Pac J. Cancer prevention 2009; 10 (5): 913- 6.
    • Shahana, Syeda & Nikalje, Anna & Nikalje, G. (2017). A Brief Review on Bauhinia variegata: Phytochemistry, Antidiabetic and Antioxidant potential. American Journal of Pharma Tech Research ISSN: 2249- 3387. Anna PG et al., Am. J. PharmTech Res. 2017; 7(1). 186- 197. Bauhinia variegata Linn is widely used in folk medicine for varied purposes to treat different kinds of pathologies particularly diabetes, infections, pain, and inflammation owing to the presence of numerous phytochemicals residing in the plant. The chemical constituents isolated so far from the plant are β-sitosterol, kaempferol-3-glucoside, tannins, carbohydrates, amides, reducing sugars, vitamin C, crude protein, fibers, calcium, phosphorus, quercetin, rutin, quercitrin, apigenin, apigenin- 7- O- glucoside, heptatriacontane- 12, 13- diol and dotetracontan- 15- en- 9- ol. Different parts of Bauhinia variegata like leaves, bark, and flowers have significant antioxidant activity. Bauhinia variegata can be considered a model herbal drug for experimental studies including free radical-induced disorders like cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, etc.
    • Sharma, Khaga & Kalauni, Surya & Awale, Suresh. (2015). Antioxidant, Phytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extract of Bauhinia variegata Barks. Journal of Institute of Science and Technology. 20. 37. 10. 3126/ jist. v20i2. 13946. Bauhinia variegata is a well-known medicinal plant used from the ancient era to till date for its medicinal values. The methanolic extract of Bauhinia variegata barks was screened for phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, phytotoxic, and microbial activity. The microbial activity was tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi at different concentrations of 10, 15, and 20 mg/mL by agar well diffusion method. The plant extract showed potent antimicrobial activity against the Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus, and Escherichia coli with the zone of inhibition 14 mm, 12mm, 14mm, and 11mm respectively. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed that the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the plant materials is due to the presence of active secondary metabolites. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the IC50 value of Bauhinia variegata was found to be 6.48±0.08 g/mL, while the IC50 value of the reference standard ascorbic acid was 45.93 g/mL. The extract of Bauhinia variegata contains a high value of phenolic (156.30± 0.3 mg GAE/gm) and flavonoid (16.04± 1.4 mg QE/gm) content and exhibits high antioxidant activity. The in-vitro phytotoxic bioassay showed 65%, 40%, and 25% growth regulation at just a higher concentration. of 1000, 100, and 10 g/mL with the number of fronds 07, 12, and 15 respectively concerning the standard drug Paraquat of concentration 0.015 g/mL. Journal of Institute of Science and Technology, 2015, 20 (2): 37- 41
    • Sharma, Neha & Bhardwaj, Renu & Kumar, Subodh & Kaur, Satwinderjeet. (2011). Evaluation of Bauhinia variegata L. bark fractions for in-vitro antioxidant potential and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 5. 1494-1500. Bauhinia variegata L. (Fabaceae) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of different fractions from the crude methanolic extract of B. variegata L. bark against free radicals and H2O2-induced oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA. 80%methanol extract (MEB) of the bark was fractionated into non-polar fractions, including hexane (HEB), chloroform (CFB) fractions, and Polar fractions, including n-butanol (NBB), ethyl acetate (EAB), and remaining extract (REB). The extract/ fractions were analyzed for total phenolic and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assays while the gene protective activity was assessed using a DNA nicking assay. The polar fractions, MEB, EAB, NBB, and REB showed greater antioxidant activity (EC50 44.07, 58.09, 69.68, and 51.81µg/ml, respectively) in comparison to non-polar fractions. However, all the fractions effectively protectedpBR322 plasmid DNA from H2O2-induced damage. The phytochemical analysis of the polar fractions revealed them to be rich in phenolic/flavonoid content and that a significant correlation existed between phenolic/flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Our studies showed that the phytoconstituents of B. variegata harbor the potential to combat various free radicals and need further investigation.
    • Sawhney, S & Mir, Mohd & Kumar, Sandeep. (2011). Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant properties of Bauhinia Variegata. J. Pharm. Sci. Technology 3. This paper describes simple and easy methods for qualitative analysis of phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of the concerned plant. The distribution of the main active principles (Alkaloids, carbohydrates, proteins/ amino acids, fixed oils, fats, phenolic compounds, tannins, and saponins) was assessed along with the antioxidant potential of plants in various solvents. The plant extracts were found to possess different phytochemical constituents differently in various solvents, which are because of the different ionic potential of different solvents; also they show variation in their antioxidant potential. The plant extracts were found to contain different constituents differently in various solvents (like petroleum ether, methanol, and water), as performed by one or other particular method for every constituent as given below. Antioxidant properties were carried out only in two solvents (methanol and water) by the FRAP method (the ferric-reducing ability of plasma or plant) and were found more in methanolic extract than in water extract. The importance of the distribution of the above-mentioned phytochemicals was discussed. The study provides a scientific method for the investigation of the active components of the concerned plant along with its antioxidant potential.
    • The present work was carried out to assess the potential of Bauhinia variegata bark as a hepatoprotective agent. The hepatoprotective activity was investigated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated Sprague rats. The extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity. Bodak SH, Ram A. Hepatoprotective properties of Bauhinia variegata bark extract. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2007 Sep; 127 (9): 1503- 7.
    • The alcoholic extract of B. variegata (bark) showed CNS activity. Besides producing hypothermia in mice, it also responded to amphetamine hyperactivity tests (Bhakuni et al., 1969).
    • The alcoholic extract of B. racemosa (bark) was found to have anti-cancer activity against human epidermal carcinoma of the nasopharynx in tissue culture (Dhar et al., 1968).
    • Clinical studies have revealed that preparations of stem bark of Kanchnar enhance the effect of anti-tuberculous drugs used in cases of tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis (Dixit, 1967).
    • It’s used in the treatment of experimental goiter in rats has been reported (Veena et al., 1975).

    Recent research on Bauhinia purpurea

    • Negi, Bhawna & Dave, Bharti & Agarwal, YK. (2012). Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves Under In Vitro Conditions. Indian journal of microbiology. 52. 360- 5. 10. 1007/ s12088- 012- 0264- 0. This study was undertaken to test the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Bauhinia purpurea leaves and identify the bioactive compounds. The antimicrobial activity of leaf extract was determined in aqueous and organic extracts and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against six species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using the disk diffusion method. The chemical constituents of organic plant extract were separated by thin-layer chromatography and purified by column chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Significant inhibitory activity was observed with methanol extracts of plant against the test microorganisms while less antibacterial activity was observed in hexane, acetone, and aqueous extracts. MIC of B. purpurea extract was ≤1,500 μg/ml against S. aureus and B. subtilis while this extract showed no inhibition against Gram-negative S. typhi, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa or fungus C. albicans. Eleven compounds were identified in B. purpurea leaf extract by GC-MS analysis. The composition of B. purpurea revealed the presence of lupeol, stigmasterol, lanosterol, ergosterol, beta-tocopherol, phytol, hexadecenoic acids, hexadecanoic acids methyl esters, octadecadienoic acids, and octadecatrienoic acid. Stigmasterol and lupeol were the most abundant (34.48 and 15.63 %). Other phytosterols like lanosterol (4.15 %) and ergosterol (2.82 %) were also found to be present in this extract.
    • P, Avinash & Attitalla, Idress & Mopuri, Dr RamGopal & Ch, Santhosh & Meriga, Balaji. (2011). In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bark extracts of Bauhinia purpurea. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10. 9160- 9164. 10. 5897/ AJB11. 1021. Bark extracts of Bauhinia purpurea were phytochemically analyzed and evaluated for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The phytochemical analysis of the bark extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, triterpenes, and carbohydrates. While most of them were present in methanolic and aqueous extracts, one or a few of them were present in other solvent extracts. Among different solvent extracts, the aqueous extract exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. It showed strong antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacterial strains like Bacillus subtilis, and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative strains like Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and antifungal activity against Candida albicans. While methanolic extract showed moderate to strong antibacterial activity against B. subtilis, E. coli, and K. pneumonia, the extracts of hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate did not show any antibacterial or antifungal activity against the tested fungal and bacterial strains. The antioxidant activity of the bark extracts was evaluated in terms of the inhibition of free radicals by 2, 2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Aqueous extract followed by methanolic extract exhibited strong to moderate antioxidant activity. The antioxidant property and antimicrobial activity of the extracts of B. purpurea against the tested microbial strains, therefore, supports that there is a scientific basis for their utilization in traditional medicine for wound healing and also in the treatment of some infectious diseases.
    • H V, Annegowda & Mordi, Mohd & Ramanathan, Suresh & Hamdan, Mohammad Razak & Mansor, Sharif. (2012). Effect of Extraction Techniques on Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Bauhinia purpurea: HPTLC Determination of Antioxidants. Food Analytical Methods. 5. 10.1007/s12161-011-9228-y. Bauhinia purpurea leaf was extracted by Soxhlet, ultrasonication, and maceration extraction methods using ethanol (99.5%, v/v) to obtain Soxhlet (SBE), ultrasonicated (UBE) and macerated (MBE) B. purpurea leaf extract. The effects of different extracting methods on the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activities using 2, 2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2, 2- azinobis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline- 6- sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were investigated. Disc diffusion and broth dilution methods were also carried out to find the antibacterial activity of these extracts. The findings of this study showed that UBE possessed significant (P<0.05) polyphenolic constituents followed by MBE and SBE. All the extracts exhibited good DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging as well as potentially reducing ability in TAC and FRAP methods. UBE possessed significant (P<0.05) radical scavenging activity and reducing ability followed by MBE and SBE. Even the results of antibacterial activity were similar to antioxidant activity, with UBE inhibiting most of the bacteria followed by MBE and SBE. All the extracts were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography followed by high-performance TLC densitometric determination, and the results show that extraction using the ultrasonication method yields the highest amount of antioxidant compounds among the three methods mentioned earlier. This study confirms ultrasonic extraction to be an ideal, simple and rapid method to obtain antioxidant-as well as antibacterial-enriched B. purpurea leaf extract. The HPTLC fingerprint profile can be used as reference data for the standardization of B. purpurea leaf.
    • M, Murugan & Mohan, Veerabahu. (2011). Evaluation of phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of Bauhinia purpurea L. and Hiptage benghalensis L. Kurz. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 01. 157-160. Phytochemicals from the leaves and stem bark of Bauhinia purpurea and Hiptage benghalensis were extracted using different solvents of various polarities such as petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, methanol, and water. The antibacterial activity was carried out against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi by disc diffusion method. Among the solvent extracts, methanol extract was most effective against the tested microorganisms. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, coumarin, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and terpenoids.
    • Ragasa, Consolacion & Hofilena, Joy & Rideout, and. (2004). Secondary metabolite from Bauhinia purpurea. Philippine Journal of Science. 133. 1-5. The leaves of Bauhinia purpurea afforded a mixture of phytol fatty esters (1a, 1b, 1c, 1d, 1e, 1f), lutein, and β-sitosterol. The structure of 1 was elucidated by NMR spectroscopy, while the chain lengths of the esterified fatty acids in 1 were determined by mass spectrometry. The structures of lutein and β-sitosterol were identified by comparison of their NMR spectral data with those reported in the literature. Antimicrobial tests indicated that 1 has low activity against the fungi, A. niger, and C. albicans, and inactive against the bacteria, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, and the fungus, T. mentagrophytes.
    • Vijayan, Remya & Joseph, Siby & Mathew, Beena. (2019). Anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and catalytic activities of green-synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles using Bauhinia purpurea leaf extract. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering. 42. 10. 1007/ s00449- 018- 2035- 8.
    • Ramakrishnan, Prakash & Perumal, Panneerselvam & Ramadoss, Dhivya & Ramalingam, Parthiban & Boss, Subash & Prakash, R & Pharm, M. (2020). Amelioration of Cognitive Deficits, Oxidative Damage, Neurochemical Alteration by Bauhinia purpurea (stem bark) on Scopolamine Induced Amnesia. Journal of Young Pharmacists. 12. 231-236. 10.5530/jyp.2020.12.66. Aim: To evaluate the anti-amnesia effect of Bauhinia purpurea in Scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 rats were divided into 5 groups 6 rats in each. Group I is considered as normal control. Group II served as a negative control. Groups III, IV, and V were treated with Donepezil (3 mg/kg), ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea 200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg respectively for 14 consecutive days followed by a single administration of Scopolamine (3 mg/kg) to all the groups except group I. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Morris water maze, elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme level, biochemical markers such as lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and β amyloid 1 42 levels, Neurotransmitters including dopamine and serotonin, and histopathological study of rat brain were estimated. Results: Bauhinia purpurea and Donepezil rats showed a significant increase in escape latency, step-through latency, and decreased transfer latency in respective cognitive models of the Morris water maze, passive avoidance test, and elevated plus maze. Additionally, Bauhinia purpurea extract remarkably promoted cholinergic neurotransmission, decreasing β amyloid protein and protecting against oxidative stress damage as indicated by, increasing reduced glutathione levels, lowering the level of lipid peroxidation, restoring dopamine and serotonin level in the brain. Furthermore, histopathological studies revealed the reversal of neuronal damage in the treatment group compared to Scopolamine-treated rats. Conclusion: Bauhinia purpurea extract showed promising anti-amnesia activity against scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. This could be attributed to its brain acetylcholinesterase level, β amyloid level inhibition, antioxidant activity, and alteration in neurotransmitter level.
    • Joshi, Vishal & Verma, Tekeshwar & Rajangam, Jayaram & Shetty, Prajwal & Patel, Sanjay & Hirapara, Hitesh. (2011). Anticonvulsant Activity of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Leaves. Journal of Natural Remedies. 11. 14-18. 10.18311/jnr/2011/44. The Ethanolic extract of the leaves of Bauhinia Purpurea Linn. studied for anticonvulsant effect on maximum electroshock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizure in albino male mice at 3 different dose levels (100 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg i.p). The ethanolic leaves extract showed significant action (p<0.001) against both Maximal Electroshock (MES) and Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced seizure.

    Rasa Panchaka of Kanchnara

    Rasa (Taste)Kashaya (astringent)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency)
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Kanchnara

    Kaphapitta Samaka, Pittahara due to Sheeta Virya and Kasaya Rasa and Kaphahara because of Katu Vipaka and Kasaya Rasa.

    Karma (Actions) of Kanchnara

    • Kancanara/ Karbudara Twak- Grahi, Krimighna, Kusthaghna, Gandamalahara, Vrnahara, Kasahara.
    • Kovidara Twak- Gandamalahara, Kusthaghna, Krimighna, Dipana.
    • Kanchanara Pushpa- Sangrahi, Rocaka, Pradara Nashaka, Kasahara.
    • Kovidara Puspa- Pradaranasaka, Raktapittahara

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Kanchnara

    Galganda, Gandamala, Granthi, Shotha, Vrana, Lasika, Granthi, Arbuda, Kustha, Mukha Paka, Charma Vikara, Vivandha, Krimi, Prameha, Medoroga, Charmvikara, Dadru, Arsha, Guda Bhransha, Parkartika.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Kanchnara (Karbudara- Bauhinia variegata)

    Gandamala (Scrofula)

     

    • The fresh bark of Kancanara mixed with Sunthi should be pounded with sour gruel and taken. It is an excellent remedy for Gandamala. (Vrinda Madhava. 41/ 19)
    • In Gandamala as well as Galaganda (goiter), the decoction of Kancanara and Triphala added with Pippali powder is beneficial as also Triphala- Ghrita and a diet of barley and green gram. (Chakra Dutta. 183)
    • Decoction of Kancanara bark added with Sunthi powder destroys Gandamala. Similarly, Varuna bark added with honey will help to destroy Ganda Mala. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 126, Bhava Parkasha Samhita. 44/ 37)

     

    Masurika (pox): Decoction of Kanchnara bark added with swarnamaksika bhasma is useful. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 60/ 49)

     

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Kovidara (Bauhinia purpurea)

     

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage)

     

    • Flowers of Kovidara, Kasmarya, and Shalmali should be used as a vegetable in case of intrinsic hemorrhage. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 39)
    • One suffering from intrinsic hemorrhage should take powdered flowers of Khadira, Priyangu, Kovidara, and Shalmali. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 70)

     

    Arsha (Piles): Powder of the Kovidara root (bark) should be taken with buttermilk. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 31)

     

    Sarpa Visha (Snake-poisoning): Kovidara, Shirisa, Arka, and katabhi should be taken. (Sushruta Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 5/ 18)

    Benefits of Kanchnara

    • The drug Kancanara is astringent, antiallergic, and vermifuge. It is used in cough, menstrual disorders, glandular diseases, and prolapse of the rectum. The drug is frequently used in traditional medicine for glandular ailments.
    • The drug Kancanara (Bauhinia variegata Lin.) is an excellent medicine for Galaganda, Gandamala, Granthi, and similar other ailments in Ayurveda. The fresh bark of Kancanara mixed with Sunthi (ginger) is pounded with sour gruel and given in Gandamala (Cakradatta, 41-18).
    • The decoction of Kancanara bark (tvaka), added with Sunthi powder is given in Gandamala. 
    • Decoction of Kanchnara bark added with three myrobalans or Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, and Emblica Officinalis) and Pippali Churna (fruits powder of Piper longum Linn.) is recommended in Gandamala as well as Galaganda (goiter). Besides these recipes, Triphala ghrta, the diet of barley (Yava), and green gram (Mudga) are advised in texts of clinical medicine in the management of Gandamala (cervical adenitis-chain of swollen glands in the neck). 
    • Kancanara bark is pounded in rice water (Tandulodaka) and given to the patient of Gandamala.
    • Kancanara Guggulu is a prominent formulation in Indian medicine which is frequently administered for the treatment of Galaganda, Gandamala, granthi, and allied diseases.
    • The plant drug Kovidara (Bauhinia purpurea Linn.) is of almost similar medicinal importance. The powder of the Kovidara root bark may be taken with buttermilk in ara or piles (Astanga Hrdaya, Cikitsa, 8-31). 
    • It is recommended for the treatment of Raktapitta, (intrinsic hemorrhage).
    • The powdered flowers – of Kovidara, Salmali, Khadira, and Priyangu are given to the patient (Caraka Samhita, Cikitsa. 4- 70). Similarly, another recipe contains two plants Kasmari and Salmali with Kovidara. It is taken for some kind of ailment (s). Kovidara also enters a recipe containing Sirisa, Arka, and Katabhi which is indicated against snake poisoning or Sarpavisa (Susruta Samhita,  Kalpa. 5-18). 
    • The flowers of Kovidara are specially indicated for Raktapitta in medical texts as they have grahani (Sangrahi) and other medicinal properties.
    • In pox (masurika), the decoction of Kancanara bark added with Svarnamaksika Bhasma is considered useful. Kanchnara is useful in various other diseases such as Kasa, Svasa, pradara, kaya, Krimi, kustha, Gudabhransa, Vrana, Mutrakrcchra, atisara, Pravahika, Prameha, Medoroga, Charmavikara, Parikarttika, and other diseases.

    Benefits of Kanchnara

    • External use: It helps in Vrana Shodhana and Vrana Ropana (wound cleaning and healing). It cures skin disorders and inflammations. Decoction is used for washing wounds and skin disorders. The Chhal of Kanchnaar (bark) ground in a Kalka (paste) is useful in lymphadenitis. The decoction made from its bark, pods of Babool (Acacia) tree, and flowers of pomegranate is used for gargles in oral disorders. A decoction is used for fomentation in rectal prolapse.
    • Digestive system: It has astringent and anthelmintic properties, but it causes vomiting in excess doses. Being sweet, flowers are mildly laxative. Astringent property is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, rectal prolapse, hemorrhoids, and helminthiasis. It enhances Vamaka Karma (emetic action) when used in conjunction with Vamaka Dravya (emetic drugs). Gulkand prepared from the Pushpa (flowers) is used in Vivandha (constipation), while dried buds are used in Arsha (hemorrhoids).
    • Circulatory system: It acts as hemostatic and reduces the inflammation of the lymph nodes (lymphadenitis). It is effective in hemorrhagic disorders. (Paste of bark, roots, and flowers is mused).
    • Respiratory system: Used in cough (Kaphaghna).
    • Urinary system: Controls polyurea in diabetes.
    • Reproductive system: In menorrhagia, it acts as a hemostatic by astringent property.
    • Skin: Used for skin diseases. The mixture of Kanchnara bark, rice water, and ginger is effective in osteoporosis (Asthikshaya).
    • Satmikaran: Because of Ruksha’s property, it is fat-reducing. Used in lipid disorders.

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    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Kanchnara

    • Tvak Churna (Bark powder): 3- 6 grams 
    • Kwatha (Decoction)- 40- 80 ml
    • Pushpa Swarasa (Flower juice)- 10- 20 ml 

    Classical reference of Kanchnara

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 101- 102

    Synonyms

    काञ्चनर:  काञ्चनको गण्डारि:  शोणपुष्पकः। 

    कोविदारश्च मरिक: कुद्दालो युगपत्रक: ।। 

    कुण्डली ताम्रपुष्पश्च अश्मंतक: स्वल्पकेशरी। 

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 103- 104

    Properties and actions

    काँचनारो हिमो ग्राही तुवर:  श्लेष्म पित्तनुत्‌। 

    कृमिकुष्ठगुदभ्रंश गण्डमाला व्रणापह: ।। 

    कोविदारो अपि तद्त्तस्यात्तयो: पुष्प॑ लघु स्मृत्तम।। 

    रूक्षं संग्राहि पित्तास्र प्रदरक्षयकासनुत्‌।। 

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga, 195

    कोविदार: कषायस्तु संग्राही व्रणरोपण: । 

    गण्डमाला गुदभ्रंश शमन: कुष्ठकेशहा।। 

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 936

    काञ्चनार तद्वच्च कांचनो ज्ञेय: तयोः पुष्प॑ हिम॑ गुरु। 

    कषायं मधुर पाके रसे संग्राहि रोचनम्‌।। 

    रूक्ष॑ कासक्षय श्वासपित्तास्त्र प्रदरापहम्‌।। 

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 934

    कोविदार- कोविदारो हिमी ग्राही कषाय: कफपित्तजित्‌। 

    गण्डमाला गुदभ्रंश व्रण कुष्ठकमीन्‌ जयेत्‌।। 

    Raja Nighantu Karveeradi Varga, 25

    कोविदार: कषाय: स्यात्‌ संग्राही व्रणरोपण: ।

    दीपन: कफवातघ्नो मूत्र कृच्छ निबर्हण।।

    Priya Nighantu, Haritakyadi Varga, 196

    कांचनार- कांचनार: कषाय: स्याच्छीतो ग्राही व्रणापह: । 

    कफपित्तहरो गण्डमालापचि विनाशन: ।। 

    Priya Nighantu, Haritakyadi Varga, 200

    कोविदार- कोविदारो काश्चनार समो न्यूनो गुणे अलपश:। 

    तयोः पुष्प॑ रक्तपित्ते प्रदरे च हितावहम।। 

    Sushruta Samhita

    कोविदारपुष्पम्‌

    कोविदारपुष्पाणि मधुराणि मधुरविपाकानि रक्तपित्तहराणि। 

    Charaka Samhita

    पुष्प ग्राहि विशेषेण रक्तपित्तं प्रशस्यते। 

    Vrindha Madhava, 41- 19, Chakra Dutta, Gandamala Chikitsa, 41- 18

    गण्डमालायाम्‌

    नित्यं (पिष्ट्वा) ज्येष्ठाम्बुना पेया: काञ्चनार त्वच: शुभा: । 

    विश्वभैषजसंयुक्ता गण्डमलाहर: पर: ।। 

    Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa, 60- 49

    मसूरिकायाम्‌

    काञ्चनार त्वच: कषाय: ताप्यचूर्णावचूर्णित: । 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 4- 39

    रक्तपित्ते 

    कोविदारस्य पुष्पाणि……. ।

    अन्नपानविधौ पाक यच्चान्यद्‌ रक्तपित्तनुत्‌। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 4- 38

    ..कोविदारस्य….. ।

    पुष्प चूर्णानि मधुना लिह्मान्ना रक्तपित्तक: ।। 

    Sushruta Samhita Kalpa Sthana, 5- 17

    सर्प दंष्ट्रे 

    कोविदार शिरीषा र्ककटभीरवा अपि भक्षयेत्‌। 

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 39

    मेधा वर्द्धनार्थं

    …… सपिश्चतु: कुवलयं सहिरण्यपत्रं

    मेध्यं गवामपि भवेत किमु मानुषाणाम्‌।। 

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 8

    अर्श 

    कोविदारस्य मूलानाम मथितें रज: पिबेत।  

    Ratna Kosha

    कोविदार:

    कोविदारो अप्सर: शम्य: कोविदारश्च काञ्चन: ।

    पूर्व: सितो अपरो रक्तो युक्तपत्रावुभावपि।।

    Harivansha

    को अप्ययं दारुरित्याहु: अजानन्तो यतो जना: । 

    कोविदारस्त्विति ख्यात: तत: स तरु पुंगव: ।। 

    Shiva Dutta

    कोविदार: श्वेतपुष्पो सुशिम्बो युग्मपत्रक: । 

    दृढकाष्ठो रक्तसार: पादप: पर्वते भवेत्‌।। 

    कांञ्चनारो महान्‌ किंचित युग्मपत्रो अयं शिम्बक: । 

    कषायो रक्तपुष्पश्च काननादौ प्रजायते।। 

    Chakrapani, Charaka Samhita, Kalpa Sthana, 2- 14

    कोविदार- कर्बुदारयो मध्ये पार्थक्यम्‌

    कोविदार: स्वनामख्यात: स शरदि पुष्प्यति ।

    कर्बुदार: कांचनार: स बसन्ते हि पुष्प्यति।। 

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 4- 70

    रक्तपित्ते कोबिदार पुष्पचूर्णम्‌

    खादिरस्य प्रियंगुणां कोविदारस्यः शाल्मले: । 

    पुष्प चूर्णानि: मधुना लिह्यान्ना: रक्त पित्तक: |

    Sushruta Samhita, Kalpa Sthana, 5/ 18

    सर्प विष 

    कोविदार शिरीषा र्ककटभीवापि भक्षयेत्‌। 

    Ashtanga Hridya, Chikitsa Sthana, 8/ 31

    अर्श 

    कोविदारस्य मूलानां मथितेन रज: पिबेत्‌। 

    Charaka Samhita, Siddhi Sthana, 10/ 34- 35

    कोविदारादि वृन्त बस्ति- परिकर्तिका नाशनार्थं 

    कार्बुदार आढ़की नीप विदुलै: क्षीर साधिते:। 

    बस्ति: प्रदेयो भिषजा शीत: स मधु शर्करा: ।। 

    (देयो बस्ति: सुवैद्यस्तु यथावद्विदितक्रियै:) 

    Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 44- 37

    गण्डमालाचिकित्सायां काञ्चनार: 

    काञ्चनार त्वच: क्वाथ: शुण्ठीचूर्णन संयुत्त:। 

    माक्षिक आढ्य: सकृत्पीत: क्वाथो वरुणमूलज:।। 

    गण्डमालां हरत्याशु चिरकालानुबन्धिनीम्‌।। 

    Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 44- 38

    पलमर्द्धपलञ्चापिपिष्टां तण्डुलवारिणा। 

    काञ्चनार त्वचं पीत्वा गण्डमालां व्यपोह्नति।। 

    Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 44- 39- 44

    गलगण्ड-गण्डमालाग्रन्थ्यर्बुदाधिकारे

    कांचनार गुग्गुलुयोग:

    Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 60- 49

    मसूरिकायां काश्चनारत्वच:

    उत्थिता प्रविशेद्या च तां पुनर्वाह्मतयो नयेत्‌। 

    कांचनार त्वच: क्वाथस्तान्यचूर्णावचूर्णित: ।। 

    Vaidya Manorma, 13- 37

    गण्डमाला-चिकित्सायां कांचनार प्रयोगा:

    कांचनार त्वच: कषाय: शुण्ठी चूर्णन नाशयेत्‌। 

    गण्डमालां तथा क्वाथ: क्षौद्रेण वरुणत्वच: ।। 

    Chikitsa Kalpavalli, 1- 83

    स कांचनार त्रिफलाजले श्रृत: प्रशम्यते मागधिकावचूर्णिता: । 

    सगण्डमाले गलगण्डरोगिणी फलत्रिकाज्यं यवमुदगभोजनम्‌।।

    Specific Formulation of Kanchnara

    • Kanchnara Guggulu for Galaganda, Apachi, Arbuda
    • Kanchnara Gutika for Galganda, Nadivrana
    • Kanchnara Varuna Kwatha for Ganda Mala
    • Kanchnaradi Kwatha for Masurika     
    • Usher Asava
    • Chandana Asava
    • Gulkand Kanchnara
    • Vidanga Arishta
    • Kanchnara Drava
    • Varunadi Kanchnara Kwatha  

    Contraindication and side effects of Kanchnara

    Kanchnara exhibits hormones- influencing properties, so it is advised to not take Kanchnara during pregnancy and lactation period.  

     

    It is also advised to avoid the use of Kanchnara by patients who have kidney damage, liver abnormalities, etc.  

    Suggestive reading regarding Bauhinia variegata

    • Sharma, Kartik & Kumar, Vikas & Kumar, Satish & Sharma, Rakesh & Mehta, Chandra. (2020). Bauhinia variegata: a comprehensive review on bioactive compounds, health benefits, and utilization. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine. 10. 1007/ s13596- 020- 00472- 4.
    • Lim, T. (2014). Bauhinia variegata. 10. 1007/ 978- 94- 007- 7395- 0_60.
    • Bhandari, Jyoti & G.C., Dhruba & Dhungana, Sunita & Thapa, Neeru & Kunwar, Ripu & Jan, Hammad & Abbasi, Arshad & Bussmann, Rainer & Zambrana, Narel. (2021). Bauhinia variegata L. Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. Fabaceae. 10. 1007/ 978- 3- 030- 45597- 2_34- 2.
    • Kulkarni, Yogesh & Garud, Mayuresh. (2015). Antidiabetic activity of Bauhinia variegata in type II diabetic rats.
    • Tripathi, Abhishek & Gupta, Pushpraj & Singh, Sunil. (2019). Antidiabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, and antioxidant activities of Bauhinia variegata flower extract. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 19. 101142. 10. 1016/ j. bcab. 2019. 101142.
    • Sharma, Khaga & Kalauni, Surya & Awale, Suresh. (2015). Antioxidant, Phytotoxic and Antimicrobial Activities of Methanolic Extract of Bauhinia variegata Barks. Journal of Institute of Science and Technology. 20. 37. 10. 3126/ jist. v20i2. 13946.
    • Mishra, Amita & Sharma, Amit & Kumar, Shashank & Saxena, Ajit & Pandey, Abhay K. (2013). Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities. BioMed research international. 2013. 915436. 10. 1155/ 2013/ 915436.
    • Gupta, Praveen Kumar & Sahu, Gayatri. (2012). A review on Bauhinia Variegata.
    • Al-Snafi, Ali. (2014). The Pharmacological Importance of Bauhinia variegata. A Review. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 4. 160- 164.
    • Komala, Nurhikmah, and Kapil Dev M. Roopa Kulkarni. “Mondor’s disease.” Int J Anat Res 2, no. 4 (2014): 660- 63.
    • Kulkarni YA, Garud MS. Bauhinia variegata (Caesalpiniaceae) leaf extract: An effective treatment option in type I and type II diabetes. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 Oct; 83: 122- 129. doi: 10. 1016/ j. biota. 2016. 06. 025. Epub 2016 Jun 24. PMID: 27470559.
    • Sharma, Neha & Bhardwaj, Renu & Kumar, Subodh & Kaur, Satwinderjeet. (2011). Evaluation of Bauhinia variegata L. bark fractions for in-vitro antioxidant potential and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to pBR322 DNA. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 5. 1494- 1500.
    • Gurjar, Himanshu & Pandey, Himanshu & Verma, Amita & Irchhaiya, Raghuveer & Singh, Prem. (2018). ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA EXTRACTS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 8. 10. 22270/ jddt. v8i1. 1548.
    • More-Adate P, Lokhande KB, Swamy KV, Nagar S, Baheti A. GC-MS profiling of Bauhinia variegata major phytoconstituents with computational identification of potential lead inhibitors of SARS- CoV- 2 Mpro. Comput Biol Med. 2022 Aug; 147: 105679. doi: 10. 1016/ j. Biomed. 2022. 105679. Epub 2022 Jun 1. PMID: 35667152; PMCID: PMC 9158327.
    • Deb, Chitta Ranjan, and T. Ibeeka Sharma. “Ethnomedicinal plants with anti-diabetic property used by tribes of Nagaland, India: A review.” Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 10, no. 6 (2021): 216- 219.
    • Laddha AP, Garud MS, Kulkarni YA. Neuroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata Linn. leaf extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley rats. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2021 Oct 12; 20 (2): 1639- 1645. doi: 10. 1007/ s40200-021- 00915-y. PMID: 34900815; PMCID: PMC 8630341.
    • Pinakin, Dave Jaydeep, Vikas Kumar, Sheenam Suri, Rakesh Sharma, and Manisha Kaushal. “Nutraceutical potential of tree flowers: A comprehensive review on biochemical profile, health benefits, and utilization.” Food Research International 127 (2020): 108724.
    • Gul H, Awais M, Saddick S, Ahmed Y, Sher Khan F, Ahmed E, Afzal U, Naqvi SMZA, Asghar Khan M, Gulfraz M, Kaukab Raja G. Quantification of biochemical compounds in Bauhinia Variegata Linn flower extract and its hepatoprotective effect. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2021 Jan; 28 (1): 247- 254. doi: 10. 1016/ j. sjbs. 2020. 09. 056. Epub 2020 Oct 8. PMID: 33424304; PMCID: PMC 7785441.
    • Mali RG, Dhake AS. Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegata stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2011 Apr; 2 (2): 132- 4. doi: 10. 4103/ 2231- 4040. 82949. PMID: 22171306; PMCID: PMC 3217693.
    • Sharma N, Sharma A, Bhatia G, Landi M, Brestic M, Singh B, Singh J, Kaur S, Bhardwaj R. Isolation of Phytochemicals from Bauhinia variegata L. Bark and Their In Vitro Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Potential. Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Oct 17; 8 (10): 492. doi: 10. 3390/ antioxidant 8100492. PMID: 31627372; PMCID: PMC 6826637.
    • Kamal Y, Khan T, Haq I, Zahra SS, Asim MH, Shahzadi I, Mannan A, Fatima N. Phytochemical and biological attributes of Bauhinia variegata L. (Caesalpiniaceae). Braz J Biol. 2022 Feb 11; 82: e257990. doi: 10. 1590/ 1519- 6984. 257990. PMID: 35170677.
    • Mishra A, Sharma AK, Kumar S, Saxena AK, Pandey AK. Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Biomed Res Int. 2013; 2013: 915436. doi: 10. 1155/ 2013/ 915436. Epub 2013 Sep 5. PMID: 24093108; PMCID: PMC 3777169.
    • Deuri, Pompi, N. Sood, M. Wadhwa, M. P. S. Bakshi, and A. Z. M. Salem. “Screening of tree leaves for bioactive components and their impact on in vitro fermentability and methane production from the total mixed ration.” Agroforestry Systems 94, no. 4 (2020): 1455- 1468.
    • El-Khatib, A.A., Abd El-Rahman, A.M. and El-Sheikh, O.M., 2012. Biomagnetic monitoring of air pollution using dust particles of urban tree leaves at Upper Egypt. Assiut Univ. J. Bot, 41, pp.111- 130.
    • Shahana, Syeda & Nikalje, Anna & Nikalje, G. (2017). A Brief Review on Bauhinia variegata: Phytochemistry, Antidiabetic and Antioxidant potential. American Journal of Pharma Tech Research ISSN: 2249- 3387. Anna PG et al., Am. J. PharmTech Res. 2017; 7 (1). 186- 197.
    • Mali, Ravindra & Dhake, Avinash. (2010). “Bauhinia variegata (Rakta Kovidara): A Review of Contemporary Literature and Medicinal Properties.
    • Nariyal, Vikas & Sharma, Priyanka. (2017). KANCHNAR (BAUHINIA VARIEGATA) AS A MEDICINAL HERB: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW. International Journal of Advanced Research. 5. 587- 591. 10. 21474/ IJAR01/ 5364.
    • Kumar, Shiv & Baniwal, Poonam & Kaur, Jaspreet & Kumar, Harish. (2020). Kachnar (Bauhinia variegata) 18. 10. 1007/ 978- 981- 15- 7285- 2_18.
    • Laddha, Ankit P., Mayuresh S. Garud, and Yogesh A. Kulkarni. “Neuroprotective effect of Bauhinia variegata Linn. leaf extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Sprague Dawley rats.” Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders 20, no. 2 (2021): 1639- 1645.
    • Kumar, Parveen & Baraiya, Shailesh & Gaidhani, Sudesh & Gupta, M & Wanjari, Manish. (2012). Antidiabetic activity of stem bark of Bauhinia variegata in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats. Journal of pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics. 3. 64- 6. 10. 4103/ 0976- 500X. 92518.
    • Sawhney, S & Mir, Mohd & Kumar, Sandeep. (2011). Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant properties of Bauhinia Variegata. J. Pharm. Sci. Technology.
    • Meshram, Satish. (2013). To Study Antidiabetic Activity of Stem Bark of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2. 171- 175.
    • Aslam, Muhammad & Wajid, Muhammad & Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil & Mamat, Awang. (2015). A REVIEW ON ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL OF GENUS BAUHINIA. Indian Research Journal of Pharmacy and Science. 2. 268-273.

    Suggestive reading regarding Bauhinia purpurea

    • Arora, Sumit. (2020). Bauhinia purpurea: An Updated Pharmacological Profile. Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine. 6. 81- 85. 10. 31254/ jahm. 2020. 6213.
    • Kumar, T. & Chandrashe, K.S. (2011). Bauhinia purpurea Linn.: A Review of its Ethnobotany, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant. 5. 420- 431. 10. 3923/ rjmp. 2011. 420. 431.
    • Lim, T. (2014). Bauhinia purpurea. 10. 1007/ 978- 94- 007- 7395- 0_59.
    • Sarkar, Ashish. (2017). Effects on Plant Metabolites of Bauhinia Purpurea Linn. Journal of pharmacology & clinical research. 4. 10. 19080/ JPCR. 2017. 04. 555646.
    • Bandyopadhyay, Subir. (2016). Bauhinia purpurea L. seeds. 10. 13140/ RG. 2. 1. 2490. 1524.
    • Nafees S, Ali N, Rashid S, Hasan SK, Sultana S. Chemopreventive Effect of Bauhinia Purpurea Against Chemically Induced Hepatocarcinogenesis via Amelioration of Oxidative Damage, Cell Proliferation and Induction of Apoptosis in Wistar Rats. Toxicology Int. 2013 May; 20 (2): 117- 25. doi: 10. 4103/ 0971-6580. 117252. PMID: 24082504; PMCID: PMC 3783677.
    • Krishnaveni, Marimuthu. (2015). Phytochemical Study of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Stem. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 8. 1555- 1559. 10. 5958/ 0974- 360X. 2015. 00277. 2.
    • Thyagaraj, Shamala & Krupanidhi, A.M. & S, Shanmukhappa & Basavarajappa, B.E. & kulkarni, Jayamma. (2017). Antimicrobial Activity of Bauhinia Purpurea (L) by Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Method. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 12. 69- 71. 10. 9790/ 3008- 1201026971.
    • Ananth KV, Asad M, Prem Kumar N, Asdaq SM, Rao GS. Evaluation of Wound Healing Potential of Bauhinia purpurea Leaf Extracts in Rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010 Jan;72 (1):122- 7. doi: 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 62250. PMID: 20582204; PMCID: PMC 2883215.
    • Lakshmi BV, Neelima N, Kasthuri N, Umarani V, Sudhakar M. Protective Effect of Bauhinia purpurea on Gentamicin-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009 Sep;71 (5): 551- 4. doi: 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 58196. PMID: 20502576; PMCID: PMC 2866349.
    • Negi BS, Dave BP, Agarwal YK. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves Under In Vitro Conditions. Indian J Microbiol. 2012 Sep; 52 (3): 360- 5. doi: 10. 1007/ s12088- 012- 0264- 0. Epub 2012 Mar 25. PMID: 23997325; PMCID: PMC 3460113.
    • Panda S, Kar A. Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Nov 1; 67 (2): 233- 9. doi: 10. 1016/ s0378- 8741 (99) 00018- 5. PMID: 10619390.
    • Sreedharan CS, Vaidya VP, Vagdevi HM, Latha KP, Muralikrishna KS, Krupanidhi AM. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Indian J Pharmacol. 2009 Apr; 41 (2): 75- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 0253-7613. 51345. PMID: 20336222; PMCID: PMC 2841237.
    • Kumar S, Kumar R, Gupta YK, Singh S. In vivo anti-arthritic activity of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. Bark Extract. Indian J Pharmacol. 2019 Jan- Feb; 51 (1): 25- 30. doi: 10. 4103/ IJP. IJP_107_16. PMID: 31031464; PMCID: PMC 6444833.
    • Sreedharan CS, Vaidya VP, Vagdevi HM, Latha KP, Muralikrishna KS, Krupanidhi AM. Screening of Bauhinia purpurea Linn. for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Indian J Pharmacol. 2009 Apr; 41 (2):75- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 0253-7613. 51345. PMID: 20336222; PMCID: PMC 2841237.
    • Krishnaveni, Marimuthu & Dhanalakshmi, Ravi. (2014). A Study on Phytochemicals in Bauhinia purpurea l. Leaf and Flower. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 
    • Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin & Rofiee, Mohd & Teh, Lay Kek & Salleh, M.Z. & Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan & Somchit, M. (2011). Bauhinia purpurea leaves’ extracts exhibited in vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant activities. African Journal of Biotechnology.
    • Ramakrishnan, Prakash & Perumal, Panneerselvam & Ramadoss, Dhivya & Ramalingam, Parthiban & Boss, Subash & Prakash, R & Pharm, M. (2020). Amelioration of Cognitive Deficits, Oxidative Damage, Neurochemical Alteration by Bauhinia purpurea (stem bark) on Scopolamine Induced Amnesia. Journal of Young Pharmacists. 12. 231- 236. 10. 5530/ jyp. 2020. 12. 66.

    Suggestive reading regarding Bauhinia vahlii

    • Chauhan, Rajani. (2013). Bauhinia vahlii: Plant to be explored: A Review. international research journal of pharmacy. 4. 2230. 10. 7897/ 2230-8407. 04802.
    • Bhandari, Jyoti & G.C., Dhruba & Dhungana, Sunita & Thapa, Neeru & Kunwar, Ripu & Jan, Hammad & Abbasi, Arshad & Bussmann, Rainer & Zambrana, Narel. (2021). Bauhinia variegata L. Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. Fabaceae. 10. 1007/ 978- 3- 030- 45597- 2_34- 1.
    • Singh, Maneesha & Singh, Preeti. (2013). Phytochemical Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extract of Bauhinia vahlii in Doon valley, Uttrakhand against Human Pathogens.
    • Elbanna, Ahmed & Mahrous, Engy & Khaleel, Amal & El-Alfy, Taha. (2016). Morphological and anatomical features of Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arnott. grown in Egypt. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 6. 084- 093. 10. 7324/ JAPS. 2016. 601212.
    • Geetha, Saramanda. (2014). Antibacterial Activity in Extract of Bauhinia. vahlii.
    • Kamatchi, Sundara Saravavan & Madhavan, Varadharajan & Yoganarasimhan, Sunkam. (2015). Pharmacognostical Studies on the Roots of Bauhinia vahlii Wt. and Arn. – A botanical source for the Ayurveda drug Murva. Spatula DD – Peer Reviewed Journal on Complementary Medicine and Drug Discovery. 5. 1. 10. 5455/ spatula. 20151111074745.
    • Kumar, Keshav & Bhat, Poorna & Kumar, Amit & Ravikanth, Gudasalamani & Saikia, Purabi. (2022). Distribution mapping of Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. in India using ecological niche modeling. Tropical Ecology. 63. 286- 299. 10. 1007/ s42965- 021- 00197- 8.
    • Mahrous, Engy & Nooh, Mohammed. (2020). Bauhinia vahlii and antioxidant potential in diabetes. 10. 1016/ B978- 0- 12- 815776- 3. 00019- X.
    • Bandyopadhyay, Subir. (2005). Traditional use of the leaves of Bauhinia vahlii Wight & Arn. ENVIS Newsletter. 10. 4.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Priya Nighantu by P. V. Sharma, Haritkyadi Varga Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Vaidya Manorma, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Vrinda Madhava
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Karveeradi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sanskrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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