Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Kampillaka – Mallotus philippensis Muell Arg.

    Kampillaka – Mallotus philippensis Muell Arg.

    Kampillaka- The ethnic anthelmintic herb

    Introduction

    Kampillaka botanically known as Mallotus philippensis is a widely disturbed perennial shrub that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. Kampillaka is one of the best drugs that has been mentioned in Ayurveda for worm infestation (Krimighana). As per Ayurvedic classical texts, Kampillaka is Katu (pungent) in Rasa and Ushna Virya (hot potency). It reduces Kapha, Pitta, and Rakta diseases, destroys worms, and pacifies intestinal tumors, abdominal diseases, and wounds or ulcers. It is a mild purgative, pungent in taste, and heat-generating. It brings relief from urinary diseases, abdominal distension, poisonous effects, and urinary calculi. As per recent research, Kampillaka consists of malloto- philippinens, rottlerin, iso-rottlerin, and bergenin, etc due to which it exhibits antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory activities, etc.  The red powder obtained from the fruit of Kampillaka acts as an excellent anthelmintic. 

    Basonym of Kampillaka

    कम्पिल्यप्रदेश बहुश उपलभ्य त्वात्‌।

    The plant is abundantly available at Kampilla.

    Synonyms of Kampillaka

    • According to morphology

    रक्ताङ्गरक्तवर्ण अङ्गम फलमस्य

    Fruits of Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis) will be covered by red dust.

    कर्कश:- खरस्पर्श: रोमशत्वात्

    The powder is rough to the touch as it is covered by hair.

    रक्तचूर्णक: – रक्त वर्णचूर्ण फलोपरिस्थितमस्य। 

    Fruits are covered by red colored powder.

     

    • According to properties and action

    चन्द्र:- चन्दति आह्वादयति विकारहर्तृत्वात्

    Kampillaka Raja (powder), if mixed with water, may be used as a coloring agent for clothes.

    पटोदक: – पट रञ्जनार्थमुदकमस्य

    Powder of Kampillaka if mixed with water may be used as coloring agents for clothes.

    रञ्जनक:- रञ्जयति वस्त्रादीनि, अथवा रंजक पित्तं वर्धयति

    It imparts color to the clothes and also increases Ranjaka Pitta.

    रक्तशमनरक्तविकारं शमयति

    It alleviates diseases related to Rakta Dhatu

    रोचनक: – रोचयति रुचिमुत्यादयति, कृमिरोगहर्तत्वात्

    Kampillaka improves taste as it kills worms which may be the cause of anorexia.

    रेचनःरेचयति मलं कृमिसहितं निस्सारयति

    Kampillaka is very good purgative and expels the worms.

    व्रण शोधन: – व्रण शोधयति, कृमिघ्न त्वात्

    Kampillaka cleanses the wounds by killing microorganisms.

    Regional names of Kampillaka

    • Indian Kamala, Rottlera, Monkeyface (English)
    • Kambila (Hindi)
    • Chandra Hittu, Kunkundamar (Kannada)
    • Kampippala, Kurmadakku (Malayalam)
    • Shendri, Kapila (Marathi)
    • Kama Lagundi (Bengali)
    • Rohini Roini (U.P. Hills)
    • Kambel (Jaunsar hills U. P)
    • Kamilo (Gujarati)
    • Kungumam (Tamil)
    • Kunkum (Telugu)
    • Kunkumo (Uriya)
    • Kapilo Gundi (Orissa)
    • Lokhan (Assam)
    • Kambil (Arabi)

    Scientific classification of Kampillaka

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassMonochlamydae
    OrderUnisexual
    Family Euphorbiaceae
    GenusMallotus
    Species philippinensis

    Botanical Name

    Mallotus philippensis or philippinensis Muell Arg.

    Mallotus is like the shape of a melon.

    Philippinensis means it is native to the Philippines.

    Family – Euphorbiaceae (Eranda Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Kampillaka (Mallotus philippinensis)

    Classification of Kampillaka as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Not mentioned in Mahakshaya
    • Sushruta: Shyamadi Gana

    Kampillaka's description in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 1/ 82S. S. Su. 38/ 29A. H. Su. 7/ 38
    C. S. Su. 2/ 8S. S. Su. 39/ 3A. H. Su. 15/ 2
    C. S. Su. 3/ 9S. S. Su. 44/ 83A. H. Chi. 12/ 16, 22
    C. S. Su. 26/ 122S. S. Su. 45/ 115, 124A. H. Chi. 14/ 54, 61
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 144S. S. Chi. 4/ 27A. H. Chi. 15/ 10
    C. S. Chi. 5/ 104, 130S. S. Chi. 9/ 61A. H. Chi. 18/ 35
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 34S. S. Chi. 11/ 7A. H. Chi. 19/ 67, 71, 77, 81
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 102, 113, 119S. S. Chi. 12/ 5
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 119S. S. Chi. 31/ 5
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 136S. S. U. 42/ 94
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 89, 90S. S. U. 55/ 52
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 12, 63S. S. Ka. 5/ 66
    C. S. Ka. 9/ 9S. S. Ka. 6/ 22
    C. S. Si. 10/ 25S. S. Ka. 8/ 137
    S. S. U. 21/ 11, 53
    S. S. U. 42/ 63
    S. S. U. 51/ 51

    Kampillaka's description in Brihtrayi as Ranjjnaka

    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 45

    Kampillaka's description in Brihtrayi as Varnaka

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 10/ 10, S. S. U. 35/ 7              

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    Historical background of Kampillaka

    This tree will attain a height of about 10 m and is found all over South India. Kampillaka is described as a Recana Dravya by Brhattrayi. In Rasa Shastra, Kampillaka is considered under Sadharana Rasa.  According to Dr. Anil Kumar (Vijayawada, A.P.), the Kampillaka of Rasa Sastra may be a variety of clay (red colored) used in Gujrat as purgative. Therefore, the Kampillaka of Rasa Sastra and Dravya guna may be entirely different, the former being mineral and the latter being herbal. Vagbhata quoted the synonym Rajanaka (A. H. Su. 15/ 45) while Sushruta quoted it as Varnaka (S. S. U. 10/ 10 & 35/ 7). The hairs over fruits or red dust with brownish or brownish shade (Rakta Raja) or brick color powdery substance (collected from fruits possessing glandular and non-glandular hairs) form the drug Kampillaka mainly which also contains sometimes smaller pieces or traces of fruit- coat. The drug material is admixture with red-colored dust or soil and other similar substances collected from the same plant. Such adulterated or admixture raw material when put into water leaves a precipitate of undesirable soil portion, and the actual drug part remains insoluble in water, and it is lighter than weighty soil, etc. Most content (part) of the drug Kampillaka is resinous coloring matter and leaves some red color water and aqueous solution in alkalines being soluble to some extent and soluble in alcoholic solution fully, giving a red dark solution after mixing the drug material. The matured or ripe fruits are collected (generally in summer or summer-end) and red dust (powder) with brownish, minute crystalline (traces) powder which is almost inodorous and tasteless. It is insoluble in cold water, soluble to a certain extent in warm water, and quite soluble in alcohol and ether-smelling melon-like dour. Besides the characteristic solubility of genuine Kamela or Rottlera (Kamala or Glandular Rottlerin) powdery raw drug, the drawing of a line with drug-dust by a wet finger on a white paper (surface) leaf bright yellow color or mark sign (lining) or turns into smooth (Masrna) linear streak or band, straining yellow finally. The Kamala powder is properly collected of genuine and standard quality and is properly stored in airtight containers.

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    External morphology of Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis)

    • Habit: Kampillaka is a small evergreen tree, but occasionally it may reach up to 50ft. in height and 5ft. in girth. Bark: Bark thin, dark gray, somewhat rough. Young branches are rusty. Wood is smooth, hard and close-grained, the sapwood of Kampillaka is white and the heartwood is light, red to darker, and red towards the center in large stems. Annual rings are indistinct in Kampillaka and it weighs approx. 48 lbs. per c. ft. Tree coppices exceedingly well.
    • Leaves: Leaves alternate, simple, very variable both in size and shape, usually 3-9 in long, ovate, ovate-oblong or lanceolate, entire or, if of luxuriant coppice-shoots, closely toothed, glabrous above, pubescent and with closest red glands beneath, 3-nerved at the base; petiole about half the length of the blade, rusty-pubescent.
    • Inflorescence: Inflorescence and flowers brown or brick-red. Calyx 3- cleft. Petals and disk none. Male flowers: clustered, anther-calls distinct and globose. 
    • Female flowers: solitary. Ovary 3-celled; cells 1-ovule; styles 3; papillose inside.
    • Fruit: Fruit of Kampillaka is a 3-lobed capsule, 3.5 in diam; covered with a crimson powder or brick red powder in dust form when ripe. 
    • Seeds: Seeds of Kampillaka are about 1 in. diam.; globose, smooth, and black.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Its flowers bloom in September-November and fruits in March-May. Flowering and fruiting stages fall during the post rainy season to summer.

    Distribution of Kampillaka

    Mostly tropical regions of Asia and Australia. In India, it occurs in the Himalayan regions from Kashmir to Nepal. It is growing wild in the Himalayan terai in Uttar Pradesh (Uttarakhand region) and the terai of Nepal. It is found in West Bengal, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, and the Andaman Islands. It also occurs in Burma, Singapore, and Sri Lanka.

    The useful part of Kampillaka

    Phala raja (Dried glands covering mature fruits)

     

    Reddish powder containing numerous brick red, spherical glands, and stellate thick-walled hair. The powder is resinous.

    Books Written by Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S, M.H.A.)

    Important phytoconstituent of Kampillaka

    • Heartwood: Heartwood yielded lupeol, lupeol acetate, sitosterol, and berginin.
    • Bark: Bark consists of acetylaleceritolic acid, a-amyrin, sitosterol and sitosterol glucoside.
    • Seeds:  Seeds yielded bergenin, corotoxigenin- L- rhamnoside and coroglaucigenin- L- rhamnoside.

    Recent research on Mallotus philippensis

    • In preliminary screening, the crude extract of fruit hairs at a dose of 0.75 g and 3.0 g daily when given for 4 weeks was found to significantly reduce fertility in rats and guinea pigs respectively (Gujral et al., 1960 a).
    • The antifertility activity of the plant was attributed to rottlerin. At 840 and 200 mg/kg, rottlerin showed an antifertility effect in all the rats (Gujral et al., 1960b).
    • The alcoholic and ethereal extracts of fruits showed taenicide action against Hymenolepis nana and H. diminuta, both in vivo and in vitro (Srivastava et al., 1967).
    • The resin from capsules showed significant purgative action in rats (Gupta et al., 1984).
    • Kadam, Prasad & Bhingare, Chandrashekhar & Soni, Surajkumar & Rathi, Sandesh & Patil, Manohar. (2013). PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF FRUITS OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS (LAM). MUELL- ARG (EUPHORBIACEAE). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation. 2. 20- 23. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4572. 02331. Correct identification of starting material is necessary to ensure the quality of herbal medicines. Pharmacognostic evaluation is the first step toward establishing the identity and purity of the crude drug. With this aim, the present paper deals with the study of pharmacognostic and physicochemical characteristics of fruits of Mallotus philippensis (lam) Muell. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae). The powder of Mallotus philippensis was used for the detection of various chemical constituents. The transverse section and the powder of fruit were studied for macroscopy, microscopy, and physicochemical parameters. Fruit is globose, 3-lobed capsule with abundant orange or reddish glandular granules. The Microscopy showed the presence of epicarp and mesocarp endocarp. The cells also showed the presence of starch. From the pharmacognostical evaluation, it was found that the fruit contains alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, etc. Physicochemical parameters were also within the limit. It can be concluded that Pharmacognostic evaluation can serve as a tool for developing standards for the identification, quality, and purity of M. philippensis.
    • Aqueous extract of red resinous powder (0.03 g) showed a lithotriptic effect in adult albino rats which was comparable to that of cystone (10.0 mg). The stone formation was induced by the insertion of zinc pellets in the urinary bladder of adult rats (J. Res. Ay. & Siddha 1989, 10, 175).
    • A new lignan dimer, bilariciresional (1), was isolated from the leaves of Mallotus philippensis, along with platanoside (2), isovitexin (3), dihydromyricetin (4), bergenin (5), 4-O-galloylbergenin (6), and pachysandiol A (7). Mai NT, Cuong NX, Thao NP, Nam NH, Khoi NH, Minh CV, Heyden YV, Thuan NT, Tuyen NV Quetin- Leclercq J, Kiem PV. A new lignan dimer from Mallotus philippensis. Nat Prod Common. 2010 Mar, 5 (3): 423- 6. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the organic extract against Mycobacterium tuberculosis was a new compound, 8- cinnamon 1- 5, 7- dihydroxy- 2, 2- dimethyl, 1- 6 geranylchromene (1) for which the name Mallotus philippensis F is suggested. Hong Q, Minter, DE, Franzblau 5G, Arfan M, Amin H, Reinecke MG. Anti-tuberculosis compounds from Mallotus philippensis. Nat Prod Common. 2010 Feb; 5 (2): 211- 7.
    • Rathore, Atul & Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan & Mahadik, Kakasaheb. (2016). Characteristic Fingerprint Analysis of Mallotus philippensis by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques. 7. 10.4172/2157-7064.1000332. The developing countries mostly trust traditional remedies, which include the use of different plant extracts or bioactive phytoconstituents. For this purpose, analysis such as chemical fingerprinting strongly represents one of the best possibilities in searching for new economic and therapeutically effective plants for medicine. Mallotus philippensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae) is a large genus of trees and shrubs mainly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions and is reported to have a wide range of pharmacological activities. A new, simple and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method with a photodiode array (PDA) detector has been developed. Further confirmation was performed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the chemical fingerprint analysis in extracts of Mallotus philippensis. The chromatographic separations were obtained on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column using gradient elution with 0.1% (v/v) formic acid/water and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The UPLC-PDA-ESI-MS characteristic fingerprints were established, and 7 characteristic peaks were identified along with 5 unknown peaks within 4.5 min by comparing the retention times, λ max (nm), and MS spectra with the literature data. Therefore, this fingerprint analysis method can be applied for the identification and quality control of Mallotus philippensis.
    • In the quest for potent anti-Helicobacter pylori agents, scholars found 70% EtOH extract of Mallotus philippensis (LAM.) MUELL. (MPM) with strong bactericidal activity at the concentration of 15.6-31.2 mg/L against eight H. pylori strains. Further fractionation and purification of 70% Ethanol extract of MPM led to the isolation of 5 compounds, namely 5,7-dihydroxy-8-methyl- 6-prenylflavanone (1), 3- prenylrubranine (2), red compound (3), isorottlerin (4), and rottlerin (5) which were elucidated based on nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. Zaidi SF, Yoshida I, Butt F, Yusuf MA, Usmanghani K, Kadowaki M, Sugiyama T.
    • Potent bactericidal constituents from Mallotus philippensis against clarithromycin and metronidazole-resistant strains of Japanese and Pakistani Helicobacter pylori. Biol Pharm Bull. 2009 Apr; 32 (4): 631- 6.
    • Four known friedelane-type triterpenoids, friedelin (1), 3- hydroxy- D: A- friedoolean- 3- en- 2- one (2), beta- hydroxy-D: A- friedooleanan- 3- one (3), and 3 alpha- hydroxy- DA- friedooleanan-2-one (4), and two known lupine- type triterpenoids, lupeol (5) and betulin (6) were isolated from the stem bark of Mallotus philippensis. Tanaka R, Nakata T, Yamaguchi C, Wada S, Yamada T. Tokuda H. Potential anti-tumor-promoter- inactivity of 3alpha-hydroxy-D: A -friedooleanan- 2- one from the stem bark of Mallotus philippensis. Planta Med. 2008 Mar; 74 (4): 413 -6, doi: 10. 1055/ s- 2008- 1034347.
    • The present study was designed to investigate the adverse effects of indigenous Kamala seed ethereal extract on various reproductive parameters of female rats. Taken together, these data indicate that Kamala reduced serum FSH and L levels probably by affecting the hypothalamic/ pituitary axis in treated animals. Thus, reduced levels of FSH and LH and estradiol might have affected the follicular development, quality and number of ovulated eggs, corpora lutea formation, estrous cycle, and establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in treated rats. Thakur SC, Thakur SS, Chaube SK, Singh SP. An ethereal extract of Kamala (Mallotus philippensis (Moll. Arg) Lam seeds induce adverse effects on the reproductive parameters of female rats. Reproduction Toxicology 2005. May- Jun; 20 (1): 149- 56.

    Rasa Panchaka of Kampillaka

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (pungent)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry), Tikshna (sharp)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency)
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Kampillaka

    Kapha Vata Shamaka, Pitta Saraka.

     

    Vatasamaka because of Ushna virya, Kapha samaka due to its Usna virya, Katu rasa and Katu vipaka. Pittasaraka has Virechana karma.

    Karma (Actions) of Kampillaka

    • Phalaraja- Recana, Krimighna, Mehahara, Visaghna, Asmarighna, Vranahara.
    • Saka- Grahi and Dipana

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Kampillaka

    Krimi Roga, Sphit Krimi Hara, Udara Roga, Rakta Vikara, Ashmari, Prameha, Charma Vikara, Kandu, Pama, Kustha, Vrna , Kshata.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Kampillaka

    Krimi Roga (Worms): Kampillaka 5 gm, taken with jaggery fells all the worms out of the bowels. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 7/ 22)

     

    Gulma (Abdominal tumor)

     

    • In Paittika Gulma, one should take an extract of Draksa and Haritaki mixed with jaggery or Kampillaka mixed with profuse honey to induce purgation. (Vrinda Madhava. 30. 14)
    • In Rakta Gulma, the powder of Kampillaka mixed with sugar and honey should be given which also eliminates faces. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 32. 49)

     

    Prameha (Diabetes): One suffering from Prameha caused by Kapha and pitta should use powdered flowers of Kampillaka, Saptaparna, Shala, Bibhitaka, Rohitaka, Kutaja, and Kapittha mixed with honey or the paste thereof in the dose of 10 gm. with the juice of Amalaka. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 6. 35- 36)

     

    Vrana (Wound): Oil cooked with Durva juice or Kampillaka or the paste of Daru Haridra bark is an efficacious wound-healing drug. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25. 93)

    Benefits of Kampillaka

    • The drug Kampillaka is pungent (Katu in rasa or taste and Vipaka) and hot (Ushna) in potency (Virya). Its chief action is anthelmintic (Krimighna) against abdominal worms (Udarakrimi). Being anthelmintic or vermifuge and Virecaka or cathartic (laxative) in a higher dose, it is used frequently in worms’ affections and abdominal disorders. In smaller or normal doses, it is useful in other diseases.
    • The drug Kampillaka is anthelmintic, bitter, cathartic, and styptic. It is used in worm affections, abdominal disorders, blood diseases, calculus, flatulence, leprosy, and skin diseases. Traditionally it is used for expelling worms in children. The powder is useful to apply on herpes zoster vesicles, and it gradually checks herpetic neuralgia.
    • The powder of the drug Kampillaka is orally administered in proper doses (child and adult) as an anthelmintic in a suitable form and with a vehicle (Anupama) for expelling abdominal worms. 
    • Kampillaka is given with jaggery (Guda) and falls all the worms out at the bowels.
    • The bark is sometimes used for tanning. The crimson powder, Kamela or Kamila, which covers the ripe fruit is used for dyeing silk, and also in medicine and Hindu religious ceremonies.
    • Kampillaka exhibits hypoglycemic effects and therefore helps to reduce the increased level of blood glucose. Along with this, it is very beneficial in the complication of Diabetes.
    • Infusion is prepared from the Kampillaka which is very beneficial in renal stones, urinary retention, etc.
    • Kampillaka exhibits anti-inflammatory actions which are very beneficial for the stiffness of muscles and joints. It also helps to reduce inflammation.
    • Kampillaka helps us to protect ourselves from various infections internally and externally due to its antibacterial activity.
    • Kampillaka is very beneficial in acid reflux, anorexia, severe abdominal pain, and spasm of abdominal muscles.
    • It exhibits excellent results in allergic skin disorders and psoriasis.

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    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Kampillaka

    • Phala Raja Churna (powder): 2 – 3 grams for adults and fruit powder for children in 1- 2 grams.
    • Vermifuge dosage- 3- 6 grams (Adult), Child dosage- 625 mg
    • Hairs- 0.5- 1 gram

    Classical reference of Kampillaka

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 147

    Synonyms

    काम्पिल्ल: कर्कशश्चन्द्रो रक्ताङ्गो रोचनो अपि च ।

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 147

    Properties and actions

    काम्पिल्ल: कफपित्तास्त्र कृमि गुल्मोदर व्रणान्‌ । 

    हन्ति रेची कटु उष्णश्च मेहानाहविषाश्मनुत्‌।। 

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 125

    कम्पिल्लको विरेची स्यात्‌ कटु उष्णो व्रणनाशन: ।

    गुल्मोदरविबन्धाध्मश्रलेष्म कृमिविनाशन: ।। 

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 949- 950

    कम्पिल्लो दीपनो रेची कटु उष्ण: कफवातजित्‌ ।

    व्रणगुल्मोदरानाहमेहाश्मविषजन्तुहा।। 

    तच्छाक॑ शीतल तिक्त॑ वातलं ग्राहि दीपनम।। 

    Priya Nighantu, Haritakyadi Varga, 65

    कम्पिल्लो:  रक्तरेणुश्च: कटुरूषणो विरेचन: ।

    प्रयुज्यते फलरज: कृमिरोगे व्रणेषु च ।।

    Bhava Parkasha Krimi Roga Adhikara, 7- 22

    कृमि रोग 

    कम्पिल्ल चूर्ण कर्षाद्ध गुडेन सह भक्षितम्‌। 

    पातयेत्तु क्रिमीन्सर्वानुदरस्या न संशय: ।। 

    Bhava Parkasha Gulma Roga Adhikara, 7- 22

    पैत्तिक गुल्म कम्पिल्लक चूर्ण 

    विरेकाय सीता युक्त कम्पिल्लम वास माक्षिकम। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 5/ 130

    गुल्म 

    द्राक्षा आमय रसं गुल्मे पैत्तिके सगुडम पिबेत। 

    लिह्यात कम्पिलल्कम वापि विरेकार्थम मधु द्रवम।।

    Vrinda Madhava, 30- 14

    स्निग्धोष्णे पित्तगुल्मे तु कम्पिल्लं मधुनां लिहेत्‌। 

    रेचनार्थ रस वा अथ द्राक्षाया: सगुडं पिबेत्‌।। 

    Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana, 32- 49

    रक्तगुल्मे

    गुण्डारोचनिका चूर्ण शर्करामाक्षिकान्वितम्‌। 

    विद्धीताशु गुल्मिन्या मल संञ्च क्रमाय च।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa, 25- 93

    व्रण 

    दूर्वास्वरससंसिद्ध॑ तैलं कम्पिल्लेन वा। 

    दार्वी त्वचश्च कल्केन प्रधान॑ व्रणरोपणम्‌।। 

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa, 6- 65/ 66

    प्रमेहे कम्पिल्लक प्रयोग:

    Specific Formulation of Kampillaka

    • Kampillaka Churna for Krimi Roga
    • Triphlyadi Ghrita for Krimi Roga
    • Shayamadi Kwatha for Udavarta
    • Vasavaleha for Rajayakshma
    • Bindu Ghrita for Udara Roga (Jalodara)
    • Kampilakyadi Ghrita for Udara Roga

    Kampillaka mentioned in various Rasa Grantha

    Kampilaka is described in various Rasa Grantha as it is considered under Uparasa. 

     

    The Rasagrantha where Kampillaka is described is as follows:

     

    • Abhinava Navjivnam (Siddhinandana Mishra . Abhinava Navajeevaniyama. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.)
    • Anand Kanda (Bhairavakta, Anandakanda. 1st ed. Siddhinanda M, editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2008.)
    • Arka Parkasha (Ravan Lankapati Arkaprakasha. Indradev T, editor. Reprint. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2011.)
    • Ayurveda parkasha (Madhava. Ayurveda Prakasha. Reprint 2007. Mishra G, editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Bharati Academy; 2006.)
    • Brihat Rasa Raja Sundara (Chaube D, editor. Bhrihat Rasarajasundara. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 2000.)
    • Rasa Chintamani (Anantadev S, Rasacintamani, editor, Siddhinandan Mishra. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1990.)
    • Rasa Jala Nidhi (Mookerjee B Rasa JalaNidhi, Vol. 1, 2, 3, 4and5. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Publishers, reprint – 1998.)
    • Rasa Kamadhenu (Chudamani M Rasa Kamadhenu. Gulrajasharma Mishra, editor. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Orientalia; 1988.)
    • Rasa Amritam (Joshi D Rasamritam, Reprint 2012. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 2003.)
    • Rasa Ratna Samuchya (Sharma D Rasaratnasammuchaya. Gupta Atrideva, editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan; 1999.)
    • Rasa Trangini (Mishra S Rasatrangani. Shastri Kashinath,editor. 11th ed. Varanasi: Motilal Banarasidas; 2000.)
    • Rasayana Sara (Shyamsundaraacharya Vaishya, Rasayan Sara. Reprint 2014. Varanasi: Krishnadas Ayurveda Series; 1997.)
    • Rasa Yoga Sagara (Sharma Hariprapanna. Rasayogasagara. Vol. I and II. Reprint 2010. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 1999.)
    • Rasendra Chudamani (Somadeva. Rasendrachudamani. Bajpai RD editor. 2nd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 1999.)
    • Rasendra Saudamani (Vishwanath D Rasendra Sambhava. 1st ed. Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy; 1997.)
    • Rasendra Chintamani (Dhundhukanatha. Rasendrachintamani. 1st ed. Mishra Siddhinanda, editor. Varanasi:Chaukhhamba Orientalia; 1999.)
    • Siddha Bheshaj Mannimala (Bhatta Krushnarama. Siddhabheshaja Manimala. 3rd ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; 2003.)
    • Trimalla Bhatta. Yogatarangini. Chandrabhshana Zha, editor. 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Vidyabhavan; 2003.  Back to cited text no. 45
    • Yoga trangini (Krishnamurthy MS Basavarajiyama; 1st ed. Varanasi: Chaukhhamba Orientalia; 2005.)

    Contraindication and side effects of Kampillaka

    • Kampillaka in large dosages may result in GI stress, nausea, colic cramping, etc.
    • A recent study revealed that Rottlerin present in Kampillaka has an antifertility effect as it reduces FSH and LH levels by affecting the hypothalamic axis. So, it is advised to avoid the use of Kampillaka, if you are trying to conceive. 
    • Avoid the use of Kampillaka during pregnancy and lactation.

    Suggestive reading regarding Mallotus philippensis

    • Tripathi, Indra. (2017). MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS: A MIRACLE STICK. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 678- 687. 10. 20959/ wjpr 20177-8816.
    • Gangwar, Mayank & Goel, Ruchika & Nath, Gopal. (2014). Mallotus philippensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae): Ethnopharmacology and Phytochemistry Review. BioMed research international. 2014. 213973. 10. 1155/ 2014/ 213973.
    • Mai, Nguyen Thi & Minh, Chau & Kiem, Phan & Khoi, Nguyen & Cuong, Nguyen & Dang, Nguyen & Thao, Nguyen & Nam, Nguyen & Moi, La & Ban, Ninh. (2010). Study on the chemical constituents of Mallotus philippensis. Journal of Chemistry.
    • Kumar, Abhishek & Patil, Meenu & Kumar, Pardeep & Bhatti, Ram & Kaur, Rupinder & Sharma, Nitin & Singh, Anand. (2021). Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll. Arg.: A review of its pharmacology and phytochemistry. Journal of Herbmed Pharmacology. 10. 31- 50. 10. 34172/ jhp. 2021. 03.
    • Poudel, Ram & Kunwar, Ripu & Jan, Hammad & Abbasi, Arshad & Bussmann, Rainer & Zambrana, Narel. (2021). Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll.-Arg. Euphorbiaceae. 10.1007/ 978- 3- 030- 45597- 2_147- 2.
    • Hewageegana, Sujatha & Arawwawala, Menuka. (2020). Mini review – Kampillaka. 05. 364- 368.
    • Kumar, Abhishek & Patil, Meenu & Kumar, Pardeep & Bhatti, Ram & Kaur, Rupinder & Sharma, Nitin & Singh, Anand. (2020). Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll. Arg.: A comprehensive review on ethnomedicinal uses. Ethnobiology and Conservation. 10. 15451/ ec2020- 05- 9. 19- 1- 44.
    • Velanganni, J. & Kadamban, D. & Chanemougame, Tangavelou. (2011). Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of the stem of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. Var. philippensis (Euphorbiaceae). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 3. 160- 163.
    • Sheikh, Heenamushtaque & Wanjari, AnitaSantosh & Rathi, Bharat & Rajput, Dhirajsingh & Rathod, Pratikshapandurang. (2020). Pharmaceutical-analytical study of Kampillaka ( Mallotus philippensis Muell.) ointment. Journal of Indian System of Medicine. 7. 10. 4103/ JISM. JISM_39_19.
    • Sudarshan, Ambika & Parathuvayalil, Paul & Hussain, Gazala. (2021). PHARMACEUTICAL AND PRELIMINARY ANALYTICAL STUDY OF JEEVANTYADI MALAHARA. 10. 3876- 3886. 10. 31032/ IJBPAS/ 2021/ 10. 11. 5700.
    • Kurele, Rajeev & K S, Rohit & Gajana, Pawar & Abdulah, & Jp, Singh & Bandari, Srinivasulu. (2020). International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research Review Article A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON ADULTERATION OF RAW MATERIALS USED IN ASU DRUG MANUFACTURING.
    • Buha, MitalMansukhbhai & Acharya, Rabinarayan. (2020). Kampillaka (Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg.), an overlooked plant of Ayurveda pharmacopeia: A review. Journal of Indian System of Medicine. 8. 266. 10. 4103/ JISM. JISM_107_20.
    • Gangwar M, Goel RK, Nath G. Mallotus philippensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae): ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry review. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 213973. doi: 10.  1155/ 2014/ 213973. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PMID: 25105119; PMCID: PMC4109133.
    • Mital, Buha & Acharya, Rabinarayan. (2020). Ethnomedicinal Claims on Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg.: A Review. Journal of Drug Research in Ayurvedic Sciences. 5. 186- 97.
    • Khan M, Qureshi RA, Hussain M, Mehmood K, Khan RA. Hexane soluble extract of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. root possesses anti-leukemic activity. Chem Cent J. 2013 Sep 17; 7 (1): 157. doi: 10. 1186/ 1752-153X- 7- 157. PMID: 24041220; PMCID: PMC 3848768.
    • Gangwar M, Goel RK, Nath G. Mallotus philippensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae): ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry review. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 213973. doi: 10. 1155/ 2014/ 213973. Epub 2014 Jul 8. PMID: 25105119; PMCID: PMC 4109133.
    • Gangwar M, Gautam MK, Ghildiyal S, Nath G, Goel RK. Pharmacological evaluation of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell.-Arg. fruit hair extract for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and hypnotic activity. J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2015 Dec 22; 5 (1): 14- 21. doi: 10. 5455/ jice. 20151217110953. PMID: 27069718; PMCID: PMC 4805142.
    • Gangwar M, Gautam MK, Ghildiyal S, Nath G, Goel RK. Mallotus philippensis Muell. Arg fruit glandular hair extract promotes wound healing in different wound models in rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 Apr 17; 15: 123. doi: 10. 1186/ s12906- 015- 0647- y. PMID: 25925413; PMCID: PMC 4414308.
    • Bhavana KR, Shreevathsa. Medical geography in Charaka Samhita. Ayu. 2014 Oct-Dec; 35 (4): 371- 7. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520.  158984. PMID: 26195898; PMCID: PMC 4492020.
    • Savrikar SS, Ravishankar B. Introduction to ‘Rasashaastra’ the Iatrochemistry of Ayurveda. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2011; 8 (5 Suppl): 66- 82. doi: 10. 4314/ ajtcam. v8i5S. 1. Epub 2011 Jul 3. PMID: 22754059; PMCID: PMC 3252715.
    • Chaudhary A, Singh N, Kumar N. Pharmacovigilance: Boon for the safety and efficacy of Ayurvedic formulations. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2010 Oct; 1  (4): 251- 6. doi: 10. 4103/ 0975- 9476. 74427. PMID: 21731371; PMCID: PMC 3117316.
    • Gangwar, Mayank, R. K. Goel, and Gopal Nath. “Mallotus philippensis Muell. Arg (Euphorbiaceae): ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry review.” BioMed research international 2014 (2014).
    • Kumar A, Aswal S, Chauhan A, Semwal RB, Kumar A, Semwal DK. Ethnomedicinal Investigation of Medicinal Plants of Chakrata Region (Uttarakhand) Used in the Traditional Medicine for Diabetes by Jaunsari Tribe. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2019 Jun; 9 (3): 175- 200. doi: 10. 1007/ s13659-019- 0202- 5. Epub 2019 Apr 9. PMID: 30968350; PMCID: PMC 6538708.
    • Rana, Shelly, Ved Prakash, and Anand Sagar. “Antibacterial activity of Mallotus philippensis fruit extract.” J Med Plants Stud 4, no. 3 (2016): 104- 6.
    • Pal, Netra, Suraj Mandal, Km Shiva, and Bijender Kumar. “Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of Mallotus philippensis.” Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics 12, no. 5 (2022): 175- 181.
    • Srivastava, M. C., S. W. Singh, and J. P. Tewari. “Anthelmintic activity of Mallotus philippinensis-kambila powder.” Indian Journal of Medical Research 55, no. 7 (1967): 746- 748.
    • Moorthy, K., K. Srinivasan, C. Subramanian, C. Mohanasundari, and M. Palaniswamy. “Phytochemical screening and antibacterial evaluation of stem bark of Mallotus philippensis var. Tomentosus.” African Journal of Biotechnology 6, no. 13 (2007).
    • Gangwar, Mayank, Vijay C. Verma, Tryambak D. Singh, Sushil K. Singh, R. K. Goel, and Gopal Nath. “In-vitro scolicidal activity of Mallotus philippinensis (Lam.) Muell Arg. fruit glandular hair extract against hydatid cyst Echinococcus granulosus.” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine 6, no. 8 (2013): 595- 601.
    • Hewageegana, H. G. S. P., L. D. A. M. Arawwawala, M. H. A. Tissera, H. A. S. Ariyawansa, and I. Dhammaratne. “A comparison of the physicochemical and phytochemical parameters of glands/hairs of fruits and leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. grown in Sri Lanka.” (2014).
    • Arfan, Mohammad, Hazrat Amin, MAGDALENA KARAMAĆ, AGNIESZKA KOSIŃSKA, Fereidoon Shahidi, WIESŁAW WICZKOWSKI, and Ryszard Amarowicz. “Antioxidant activity of extracts of Mallotus philippensis fruit and bark.” Journal of Food Lipids 14, no. 3 (2007): 280-297.
    • Manhas D, Gour A, Bhardwaj N, Sharma DK, Sharma K, Vij B, Jain SK, Singh G, Nandi U. Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Rottlerin from Mallotus philippensis Using a Highly Sensitive Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Bioanalytical Method. ACS Omega. 2021 Nov 24; 6 (48): 32637- 32646. doi: 10. 1021/ACS omega. 1c04266. PMID: 34901612; PMCID: PMC 8655892.
    • Reiko T, Tomoko N, Chiharu Y, Shun-Ichi W, Takeshi Y, Harukuni T Potential antitumor-promoting activity of 3a- hydroxy- D: A- friedooleanan-2-one from the stem bark of Mallotus Philippines. Plzanta Med 2008; 74: 413-6.  
    • Sharma and Verma: A review on the endangered plant of Mallotus philippensis (Lam) M Arg. Pharmacol Online 2011; 3: 1256-65. 
    • Nair SP, Rao JM Kamaladiol-3-acetate from the stem bark of Mallotus philippensis. Phytochem 1993; 32: 407- 9.
    • Kadam, Prasad & Bhingare, Chandrashekhar & Soni, Surajkumar & Rathi, Sandesh & Patil, Manohar. (2013). PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATION OF FRUITS OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS (LAM). MUELL- ARG (EUPHORBIACEAE). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation. 2. 20- 23. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4572. 02331.
    • Sellaperumal, Sathya & Puratchikody, Ayarivan. (2015). Standardization of leaves of Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Muell. Arg. as per WHO guidelines. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences. 6. 679 – 689.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Hari Shastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: BhavaPrakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Chandandi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Priya Nighantu by P. V. Sharma, Haritakyadi Varga Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Vaidya Manorma, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Vrinda Madhava
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sanskrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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