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    Jyotishmati- Malkangni – Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

    Jyotishmati: A well-known Medhya Rasayana


    Jyotishmati is botanically known as Celastrus paniculatus and is very famous with the name “tree of life” or “Elixir of life” or “Intellect tree” and belongs to the Celastraceae family. Approximately 30 species of Jyotishmati are found throughout the world from which 7 species are found in India and 25 species are available in China. Jyotishmati is a scrambling shrub or climber, traditionally known as Malkangani and used as Medhya Rasayana (intellect-promoting drug). As per Ayurvedic classical texts, Jyotismati is pungent and bitter, laxative reduces Kapha and Vata, and is very much heat generating, emetic, penetrating, and appetizer. It enhances the functioning of the mind and recollection capacity. It is used in various disorders like Udara Roga, Kustha, Paksha Ghata, Ardita, Gulma, Kati Shula, etc. Recent research revealed that Jyotismati contains active principles like Valeranone, a sesquiterpenoid is major and others included spiro-jatamol, patchouli alcohol, nor-seychelanone, alpha and beta patchoulene, Jatamol A and B, Jatmaushic acid, terpenic coumarins like oroselol, j and lignans like neolignane, etc. due to which it exhibits antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-depressant, nervine tonic, anti- fertility, anti-inflammatory activities, etc.

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    Basonym of Jyotishmati

    ज्योतिषा शुभ्रविन्दुभिरयक्त काण्डमस्या: ज्योति मेधा तत्त प्रद त्वाच्च, ज्योतिर अग्नि तद्वति उष्ण वीर्या च ।

    Stem of Jyotishmati is having white shining dots (lenticels), it improves intellect and has hot potency.

    Synonyms of Jyotishmati

    • According to morphology

    लता- वल्लीरूपा ।

    Jyotishmati is a climber.

    पारावतपदी- पारावतस्येव पद॑ मूलमस्या: |

    Root of Jyotishmati resembles the legs of a pigeon.

    स्फुटत्वचा- स्फुटा द्योतमाना त्वगस्या: |

    Stem bark has shining white dots over its surface.

    सुवर्णलतिका- पीतपुष्पान्विता लता |

    Jyotishmati has yellow-colored flowers.

    सूक्ष्मफला- हस्वफला |

    Fruits are small in size.

    काकाण्डी- काकाण्डवत्‌ फला |

    Fruits of Jyotishmati are resembling the eggs of a crow.


    • According to properties and action

    पीततैला- पीतवर्ण तैलमस्या: |

    The oil prepared from Jyotishmati will be yellow.

    मेध्या- मेधाये हिता |

    Jyotishmati improves intellect.

    लवणा- लुनाति छिनत्ति रोगानिति |

    Jyotishmati alleviates many diseases.

    दुर्जरा- रसायनत्वेन जराया: प्रतिषेधकत्वाद वा |

    Jyotishmati postpones senility as it is a Rasayana.

    पण्या- पाणे साधुः पण्या आपणे व्यवहत त्वात | 

    Seeds and oil of Jyotishmati are solid in the market.

    Regional names of Jyotishmati

    • Staff tree (English)
    • Malkangani (Hindi)
    • Kariganne (Kannada)
    • Palularam (Malayalam)
    • Kanguni (Marathi)
    • Valulavai (Tamil)
    • Iohoro (Nepali)
    • Kaal (Persian)

    Scientific classification of Jyotishmati

    Class Dicotyledons 
    Series Disciflorae
    Family Celastraceae
    Species paniculatus

    Botanical Name

    Celastrus paniculatus Willd.

    Celastrus means privet, a bushy evergreen shrub.

    Paniculate means having panicle inflorescence.

    Family – Celastraceae (Jyotishmati Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus)

    Classification of Jyotishmati as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Shiro Virechana Mahakshaya
    • Sushruta: Araka Gana

    Different sources and synonyms of Jyotishmati

    • Celastrus montana
    • Celastrus multiflora
    • Celastrus nutans
    • Celastrus senegalensis
    • Celastrus spinosis

    Jyotishmati's description in Brihtrayi

    Dalhana has called it Kakamardanika which he has described as having round and red seeds with yellow which refers to Malakanguna. He has, on the other hand, been given the same name as Tejovati which is different. The Kavirajas of Bengal believe Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. to be Jyotismati which, in our opinion, is Kakadni. In the Adhobhagahara group of drugs, Kshira or latex of Jyotismati as a purgative drug has been mentioned. It might be noted that some plants of Celastraceae do contain latex but not the one referred to above.


    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 1/ 77, 78, C. S. Su. 2/ 4, C. S. Su. 4/ 27, C. S. Su. 5/ 23, C. S. Vi. 8/ 158, C. S. Chi. 3/ 257, 266, C. S. Chi. 10/ 41, C. S. Chi. 23/ 67, C. S. Chi. 26/ 190


    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 39/ 4, 6, S. S. Su. 42/ 18, S. S. Su. 45/ 115, S. S. Chi. 8/ 39, 51, S. S. Chi. 31/ 5, S. S. U. 62/ 31


    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 21/ 17, A. H. Chi. 19/ 75, A. H. U. 6/ 39, A. H. U. 22/ 1, A. H. U. 28/ 34

    Jyotishmati's description in Brihtrayi as Paravat Padi

    This is considered to be a synonym of Kakajangha and Jyotishmati. Dalhana describes it as a variety of Hainsapadi with a reddish tinge. The name is a term indicative of the leaf morphology and may imply a close resemblance between the shape of the leaves and the legs or feet of a pigeon or a water bird in general. The winged leaves of Vitex, Leea, or Xanthoxylum species might have been the basis for naming one of them Paravatapadi.


    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Ka. 1/ 26


    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 9/ 32

    Jyotishmati's description in Brihtrayi as Tejovati

    Dalhana has described Tejavati as if it is a synonym of Jyotishmati. The common popular name Kakamardanika has been given by him for both of them while others have supposed it to be Tumburu. In C. S. Vi. 8. 158, Jyotismati root and Tejovati bark have been included in the errhine group of drugs and so both must be considered as belonging to different sources. The similarity in the names and their uses appear to have led to this confusion.


    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Vi. 8/ 149, 158, C. S. Chi. 8/ 136, C. S. Chi. 17/ 140, C. S. Chi. 26/ 188, 215, C. S. Chi. 27/ 35, C. S. Ka. 7/ 14


    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 2/ 90, S. S. Su. 8/ 42, S. S. Su. 9/ 10, S. S. Chi. 15/ 22, S. S. Chi. 22/ 24, S. S. Chi. 24/ 8, S. S. U. 24/ 36, S. S. U. 39/ 253, S. S. U. 40/ 41, S. S. U. 51/ 28


    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 4/ 52, A. H. U. 21/ 59, A. H. U. 22/ 38, 98

    Jyotishmati's description in Brihtrayi as Pita Taila

    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 28

    Jyotishmati's description in Brihtrayi as Alavana

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 38/ 15, S. S. Chi. 17/ 34

    Jyotishmati's description in Brihtrayi as Katabhi (Controversy)

    This is a highly controversial drug. It has been used mostly as an Alexipharmic and included in preparations useful for Epilepsy (Apasmara) and Mania (Unmaad). Its bark has often been recommended for use.

    Katabhi and Kinihi are usually considered synonyms (compare C. S. Ci. 10. 31 and S. S. U. 61. 23) and were variously interpreted to be Aprajita, Apamarg, Jyotishmati or Sirisa varieties. Now, Kinihi has been identified with white Shirisha.  It is, therefore, safe to accept only Shweta Shrisha for both Katabhi and Kinhi


    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 9/ 75, C. S. Chi. 10/ 31, C. S. Chi. 15/ 188, C. S. Chi. 23/ 65, 78, 186, 203, 213, 243


    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 31/ 5, S. S. Ka. 3/ 12, S. S. Ka. 5/ 18


    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 7/ 24, A. H. U. 22/ 57, A. H. U. 37/ 36, A. H. U. 38/ 26

    Jyotishmati's description in Brihtrayi as Kakadni

    This drug name does not occur in Charaka. If the version of Sthulakakadani is correct, two kinds of Kakadani were recognized by Vagbhata. Dalhana has identified it with Himsra, Vayasatinduka, Krana Sriphalika etc. and others with a variety of Kakamachi, Kakamari and Gunja. Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (Lataphataki or Jyotishmati of the Ayurvedists of Bengal ) also has a chance to be considered as Kakadani. It might be noted that roots have often been recommended for use and not fruits and there is also a possibility that the roots are poisonous in effect. According to Susruta, Avagutha, and Veganama are synonyms of Kakadani.


    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 39/ 9, S. S. Chi. 14/ 8, S. S. Chi. 18/ 13, 36, S. S. Chi. 19/ 63, S. S. Ka. 7/ 31, S. S. U. 28/ 6, S. S. U. 32/ 8, S. S. U. 34/ 7, S. S. U. 44/ 19, S. S. U. 51/ 24


    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 15/ 78, A. H. Chi. 17/ 27, A. H. U. 30/ 18    

    Jyotishmati's description in Brihtrayi as Jyotishak Phala

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 9/ 10, S. S. Chi. 14/ 10         

    Jyotishmati's description in Brihtrayi as Sthula Kakadni

    The meaning of Sthula Kakadni is not clear. It may indicate Jyotishmati.


    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 17/ 27

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    Historical background of Jyotishmati

    Katabha stems are mentioned among the ritual items in the Vedic literature (A. Pa. 26/ 5/ 1- 5). But its identity with Jyotismati is doubtful. Charaka quoted it among Sirovirecana Dravyas. Jyotismati is considered Medhya Rasayana as well. Sushruta and Charaka indicated Jyotismati Taila for Unmada and Apasmara. Among the Adhobhagahara Dravyas, Ksheera (latex) of Jyotismata is used as a purgative agent. Vagbhata emphasized the utility of Jyotismati in the management of Sidhma Kushta and Bhagandara. Dalhana considered it as Kakamardanika which possesses round and red seeds yielding yellow oil.

    Controversial Studies regarding Jyotishmati

    Sushruta used the term ‘Alavana’ twice in his work (S. S. Su.38/ 14 & Ci. 17/ 34). Both Dhanvantari and Raja Nighantu have given it as the synonym for Jyotismati while Kaiyadeva mentioned it as Salavana. Bapalaji did not accept the concept and equated ‘Alavana’ to Haritaki.  Kaviraj Vinodalal Sen has also mentioned another Paryaya of Jyotishmati i.e.  “Rakta Phana/ Raktaphala”. Thakurji believes that the Kavi rajas of Bengal believe Cardiospermum helicacabum Linn. as Jyotismatì which is considered as Kakadani by Thakurji. Bapalal Vaidya concluded that:

    • Kakamardanika- Cardiospermum helicacabum Linn
    • Jyotishmati- Celastrus paniculatus Willd.
    • Tejovati- Zanthoxylum budrunga wall.

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    External morphology of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus)

    • Habit: A large deciduous climber with stems up to 23 cm. in diameter and 18 meters high, sometimes twining dextrose but more often rambling. Twigs are fairly smooth, reddish brown, and densely covered with small elongated whitish lenticels. 
    • Bark: Bark pale brown, rough with hollow cracks, exfoliating in small soft scales. Blaze 7.5- 10 mm., not fibrous, pink finely streaked with red or reddish brown, the juice turning blue on the blade of a knife.
    • Leaves: Leaves 6.3- 10 by 3.8- 7.5 cm., broadly elliptic ovate or obovate, abruptly short-acuminate, crenate-serrate, rather coriaceous, glabrous, lateral nerves arching. Petiole 7.5- 15 mm. long.
    • Flowers: Flowers 3.8 mm. diam., in terminal drooping, panicles 5-20 cm. long. Capsules 1-1.3 cm. diam, depressed-globose,3-lobed, bright yellow.
    • Seeds: 3- 6-seeds. Seeds are completely enclosed in an orange-red aril.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Summers to autumn season onwards.

    Distribution of Jyotishmati

    It is found in Sub-Himalayan tracts and up to 6,000 feet, in Central India and provinces in India.

    The useful part of Jyotishmati

    Seeds, Fruits.


    Seeds and fruits of Celastrus paniculatus contain 3 to 6 seeds enclosed in a complete arillus of deep orange. Seeds are triquetrous, reddish brown, and slightly arched with acute ends. The testa is hard, enclosing a white kernel that releases oil when putting some pressure. Has an aromatic odor.

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    Important phytoconstituent of Jyotishmati

    The oil contains coloring matter; the fat contains formic, acetic, and benzoic acid. Fleshy aril yields fat. Alkaloid clastrine, panicalatine. The stimulant action of celastrine is especially manifested in the brain and is not followed by secondary depression. Seeds yield brownish oil (52.2%) with an unpleasant taste. Oil is extracted from seeds by two methods which yield black oil-oleum nigrum and oil containing creozote.


    Root- bark & stem- Pristimerin


    Seeds- Celapagine, celapanigine, celapanine, celastrol, celastrine, paniculatine, malkanguniol, malkangunin, paniculatadiol, B- amyrin, Beta-sitosterol, acetic, benzoic, formic, linoleic acids, etc.

    Recent research on Celastrus paniculatus

    • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of the methanolic extract of Celastrus paniculatus in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Histological studies showed fewer cholesterol deposits in the aorta of animals fed with seed extract of C. paniculatus, compared to the induced hypercholesterolemic animals not given C. paniculatus supplement. Patil RH, Prakash K, Maheshwari VL. Hypolipidemic. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus in experimentally induced Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats. Indian J Clin Biochemistry. 2010 Oct; 25 (4): 405- 10. doi; 10. 1007/s 12291- 010- 0050-x. Epub 2010 Sep 14.
    • The effect of Celastrus paniculatus Will. (Celastraceae) seed aqueous extract on learning and memory was studied using elevated plus maze and passive avoidance test (sodium nitrite induced amnesia rodent model). The study reveals that the aqueous extract of Celastrus paniculatus seed has dose-dependent cholinergic activity, thereby improving memory performance. Bhanumathy M, Harish MS, Shivaprasad HN, Sushma G. Nootropic activity of Celastrus paniculatus seed. Pharmacology Biology. 2010 Mar; 48 (3): 324-7. doi: 10. 3109/ 13880200903127391.
    • MISHRA, BHARAT & JOHN, ELIZABETH & JOY, KRUPAMOL & R, BADMANABAN & R, ALEESHA. (2020). TOXICITY PROFILE OF CELASTRUS PANICULATUS SEEDS: A PRECLINICAL STUDY. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 115- 118. 10.  22159/ ajpcr. 2020. v13i7. 37803. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the toxicity profile of Celastrus paniculatus (CP) by performing a preclinical study on Swiss albino mice and demonstrate a safety description through monitoring their autonomic, neurological, behavioral, physical, and biochemistry profiles. Methods: The toxicity profiles (acute and subacute) of CP were evaluated using Swiss albino mice which were divided into four groups: Group I received 1% Tween 20 and dimethyl sulfoxide. Group II, III, and IV received CP seed oil orally, at doses of 300, 2000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight for both acute and subacute toxicity studies under Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines No. 423. Special attention was given during the first 4 h and daily thereafter for a total of 14 days. Behavioral profile, physical state changes, and other parameters such as tremors, convulsion, and lethargy were noted. Clinical signs were observed daily during the 28 days of the treatment period. Body weights were measured once a week. On the 29th day, the animals were kept overnight and blood samples were collected through retro-orbital puncture for biochemical analysis. Results: In both acute and subacute toxicity studies, the treatment with CP did not affect the normal health status of animals. It is suggestive that CP is considered practically non-toxic. Conclusion: The toxicity profile of CP seed oil was evaluated and found to be safe until the 2000 mg/kg dose.
    • To investigate the mode of the relaxing action of a methanolic extract prepared from the seeds of Celastrus paniculatus (CPE, 0.001-10 microg/mL) in the rat ileum and to try to confirm human tissue’s intestinal pharmacological activity of the extract. It is concluded that (i) CPE exerted a powerful myogenic and L-type Ca (2+)- dependent relaxing effect in the isolated rat ileum and that (ii) the human ileum is sensitive to the inhibitory effect of CPE. If confirmed in vivo, our data could explain the traditional use of this herb in the treatment of intestinal spasms. Borrelli, F, Borbone N. Capassoa R, Monesanao D, De Marino S, Aviello G, Aprea G, Masone S, Izzo AA. The potent relaxation effect of Celastrus paniculatus extracts in the rate and human ileum. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr. 21; 122 (3): 434- 8. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2009. 02. 003. Epub 2009 Feb 11.
    • Biochemical, histochemical, and histological studies of the effects of an oily extract from the seeds of Celastrus paniculatus were done on the testes and liver of adult rats. These results indicate that Celastrus paniculatus oil may have useful antifertility effects and that the degenerative changes seen in the liver are reversed with time. Bidwai PP, Wangoo D, Bhullar N. Antispermatogenic action of Celastrus paniculatus seed extract in the rat with reversible changes in the liver. J Ethnopharmacology. 1990 Mar; 28 (3): 293-303. 
    • TSankaramourthy, Divya & Sankaranarayanan, Lakshmi & Kavimani, S. & Sudha Rani, Sadras. (2022). Neuroprotective potential of Celastrus paniculatus seeds against common neurological ailments: a narrative review. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 10.1515/jcim-2021-0448. The most common human neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Huntington’s disease (HD), etc. have been recognized to result from a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and defective cellular dynamics such as inappropriate accumulation of unfolded proteins, oxygen free radicals and mitochondrial dysfunction. The treatment strategies available today for these neurodegenerative ailments are only palliative and are incapable of restraining the progression of the disease. Hence, there is an immense requirement for the identification of drug candidates with the ability to alleviate neuronal damage along with controlling the progression of the disease. From time immemorial mankind has been relying on plants for treating varied types of dreadful diseases. Among the various medicinal plants used for treating various neurological ailments, Celastrus paniculatus (CP) popularly known as Jyotishmati or Malkangni is well known in the Ayurveda system of Indian Traditional Medicine whose seeds and seed oil have been used for centuries in treating epilepsy, dementia, facial paralysis, amnesia, anxiety, sciatica, cognitive dysfunctions, etc. This review apart from specifying the phytochemical characteristics and traditional uses of C. paniculatus seeds and seed oil also exemplify the comprehensive data derived from various research reports on their therapeutic potential against some common neurological disorders. The oil obtained from the seeds of the plant produced sedation in rats at a dose of 1g/kg i.m. On i.p. administration, the same dose of oil produced sedation but the effect was not so marked. The oil showed anticonvulsant activity in rats. 50-100 mg/kg of oil (as an emulsion) produced a gradual fall in B.P. of cats. 20 mg/kg of the oil produced fall in cardiac output, bradycardia, and a marked increase in pulse pressure on isolated heart-lung preparation (Gaitonde et al., 1957).
    • An active fraction (Mal IIIA) had a tranquilizing effect in rats, mice, monkeys, and cats at a dose of 200 mg/kg. It potentiated the effect of hexobarbitone and produced hypothermia in mice. Diminution of carotid occlusion reflex and hypotension was observed in anesthetized cats. Fraction Mal III and Mal IM/B produced salivation, vomiting, defecation, and tremors in cats and dogs (Sheth et al., 1963).
    • A polyester prepared from the oil also decreased amphetamine-induced hyperactivity and group toxicity in albino rats (Joglekar & Belwani, 1967).
    • Aerial parts of the plant were found to possess antiviral activity against the Ranikhet disease virus (Bhakuni et al; 1969).
    • Root bark chloroform extract showed significant antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (phytotherapy Res., 1989).
    • Methanolic extract of C. paniculatus slowed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (Ahmed et al; 1994).
    • Its antispermatogenic effect is also reported (Wangoo 1988 & Bidwai et al; 1990).

    Rasa Panchaka of Jyotishmati

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (pungent), Tikta (bitter)
    Guna (Virtue)Snigdha (oily), Teekshna (sharp), Sara (mobility)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency)
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Jyotishmati

    Kapha Vata Shamaka, Vata Hara because of its Ushna Virya. Kapha Hara because of Katu Vipaka, Ushna Virya and Katu, Tikta Rasa.

    Karma (Actions) of Jyotishmati

    Medhya, Buddhi Samriti Janana, Vatahara, Vedana Sthapana, Uttejaka, Dipana, Anulomana, Hridayottejaka, Sirovirecana, Vrikkottejaka, Mutrajanana, Nadibalya, Vajikarana, Kusthaghna, Svedajanana, Kandughna, Amapacana, Sothahara, Varnya, Chaksusya, Artavajanana, Vranasodhana, Vamani.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Jyotishmati

    Mastiska, Nadivikara, Smritihrasa, Vatavyadhi, Vatavikara, Pakshaghata, Ardita, Grdhrasi, Katisula, Sandhivata, Dhvajabhanga, Klaibya, Granthi, Gandamala, Agnimandya, Gulma, Udararoga, Hridroga, Sotha, Tvagvikara, Kustha, Kandu, Artavavikara, Rajorodha, Jvara, Mutrakrcchra, Kasa, Shvasa, Varnavikara.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Jyotishmati

    • Udara Roga (GIT disorder mainly ascites): Oil of Jyotismati fruits mixed with Svarjika and Hingu should be taken with milk. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14. 10, Vanga Sena. Udara Roga. 56)
    • Vrana (Wounds): Jyotismati, Langali, Shyama, Danti, Trivrt, Tila, Kustha, Satahava, Durva, Tilvaka, Girikarnika, Kasisa, and two types of Svarnaksiri- these constituents the wound- cleansing group. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8. 39)
    • Sidhma (White-spotted leprosy): Jyotismati oil processed with water of apamärgaksara decanted seven times. Massage destroys Sidhma. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 75)
    • Tandra in Jvara (Drowsiness in fever): Jyotismati oil and Pinda Araka root are used as snuff to remove drowsiness in fever. (Vanga Sena Jvara. 490)
    • Anartava (Amenorrhoea):  Java flowers with sour gruel and fried jyotishmati leaves, by intake, induce menstruation. (Chakra Dutta. 62/ 25)

    Benefits of Jyotishmati

    • It is a brain tonic, memory promotor, nervine tonic, anodyne, aphrodisiac, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, stimulant, heart tonic (stimulant), stomachic, antiphlogistic, anti-dermatosis and carminative. It is one of the esteemed brain tonic herbal drugs. It is useful in mental disorders, loss of memory, brain and nervine complaints, sciatica, paralysis, gout, joints pain and inflammation, epilepsy, insanity, dermatosis, skin affections, ulcers, abdominal diseases, complexion (skin pigmentation) disorders, ulcers, scrofula, constipation, beriberi, colic, asthma, menstrual troubles (scanty or painful periods and fever).
    • The powder of seeds is orally used for promoting memory and treating disorders of the brain and nervous system as a tonic. It is given in epilepsy and insanity. Seeds powder is internally given for various diseases; it is used for heart troubles (weakness), respiratory diseases, menstrual disorders, and sexual debility (loss of erectility of genital organ-male).
    • Leaves of the plant drug are also used in certain diseases. The expressed juice of the leaves is orally given to the opiate subject (person addicted to opium use). Leaves are fried and used (or in the form of decoction or juice) for females suffering from menstrual troubles.
    • The oil extracted from the seeds is externally as well as internally used in the treatment of several ailments. Seeds oil is locally applied to joint pain and swelling, backache, sciatica, paralysis, and various other nervine and muscular complaints. Oil is externally applied to skin affections, dermatosis, itchy affections, and skin complexion complaints. It is topically applied to glandular affections. It is applied to the genital organ (male) for stimulation or sexual excitement in organic impotency.
    • The oil of seeds is a specific medicine (black oil esteemed remedy against beriberi) for the treatment of beriberi). The oil is orally given in fever for diaphoretic action.
    • Seeds-oil is internally used as a brain tonic and medicine for other nervine as well as mental disorders. The dose of the oil for this purpose differs (lesser quantity).

    Benefits of Jyotishmati on different systems of the body

    • External use: Oil massage is Vatanashak, Vedana Shamak and stimulant. Because of these properties, it is used in paralysis, backache, Bell’s palsy, arthritis, and sciatica. Stimulant property helps in the loss of libido. Betel leaves impregnated with its oil are tied on the penis. It is also useful in adenitis, cervical lymphadenopathy, tuberculosis, and adenitis because of Ushna Veerya.
    • Nervous system: Improves memory by Medhya Guna. Ushna property enhances grasping power. Cow’s ghee and Jyotishmati oil mixture are used as memory enhancers. Morphine addiction can be counteracted by daily consumption of 60 ml. of leaf juice of Jyotishmati. It is a Medha Rasayana.
    • Digestive system: Being an appetizer by Katu, Tikta, and Ushna Guna, it is used for loss of appetite. Snigdha and Ushna Guna improve peristalsis and are therefore useful in overcoming constipation and abdominal distension (flatulence).
    • Circulatory system: Ushna Guna stimulates the heart and improves cardiac output. Therefore, useful in bradycardia and edema. The black oil of Jyotishmati is useful in beriberi. Peeta Taila (Yellow oil) is used in Sandhi Vata (osteoarthritis)- (external use).
    • Respiratory system: It is used for Nasya by its property of Katu, Ushna, Kaphaghna, and Shirovirechak, also useful in asthma and bronchitis.
    • Urinary system: By increasing renal circulation due to ushan it acts as a diuretic. Therefore, it is used in dysuria due to excessive cold.
    • Reproductive system: Aphrodisiac and emmenagogue. It is used in infertility (impotency). Krishan Taila (Black oil) with Dugadh (milk) is given for internal use. Leaves fried in ghee are used as a vegetable in dysmenorrhea.
    • Skin: Diaphoretic and cures skin disorders. It is used as an antipruritic.
    • Temperature: By Katu and Tikta property, which is Ama Pachak and diaphoretic, it is used as an antipyretic. Within 2-3 hrs. It reduces fever by promoting sweating.

    buy ayurvedic herbs online

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Jyotishmati

    • Churna (powder): 1 gram
    • Taila (oil): 5- 15 drops, 10- 30 drops (brain tonic)

    Classical reference of Jyotishmati

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 171


    ज्योतिष्मती स्यात्कटभी ज्योतिष्का कँगुनीति च |

    पारावतपदी पण्या लता प्रोक्ता ककुन्दनी ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 171, Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 259

    Properties and action

    ज्योतिष्मती कटुस्तिक्ता सरा कफसमीरजित्‌ |

    अत्युष्णा वामनी तीक्ष्णा वन्हिबुद्धिस्मृतिप्रदा ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 716- 717

    ज्योतिष्मती तु सुस्निग्धा तिक्तोष्णा कटुका सरा |

    कषाया वामनी तीक्ष्ण मोहमेधाक्षिवर्णदा ||

    कफानिलहरा हन्ति व्रणवीसर्प पाण्डुता: ||

    Raja Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga, 45

    ज्योतिष्मती तिक्तरसा च रूक्षा किश्चित्कटु्वातकफापहा च |

    दाहप्रदा दीपनकृच्च मेध्या प्रज्ञाञ्च पुष्णाति तथा द्वितीया ||

    Priya Nighnatu Pipplyadi Varga, 72- 74

    ज्योतिष्मती कटुस्तिक्ता तीक्ष्णोष्णा कफवातजित्‌ |

    दीपनी वामनी तिक्तकारिणी  बुद्धिवर्धिनी ||

    तत्तैलं वातरोगेषु च अभ्यंगार्थ प्रशस्यते |

    मेधाविवर्धनार्थञ्च सेव्यते कल्पयोगत: ||

    ज्योतिष्मती स्यात्‌ परिदीप्तकाया ददाति मेध्या च धिय: प्रकाशम्‌ |

    उष्णा हरत्याशु हिम॑ समीर॑ लतेयमस्याद्‌ भुवि सार्थनाम्नी ||

    Raja Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga, 82

    ज्योतिष्मती मेध्या

    दीप्ता च मेध्या मतिदा च दुर्जरा

    सरस्वती स्यादसृतार्क संख्य्या |

    Raja Nighantu Ksheeadi Varga, 120

    ज्योतिष्मती तैलम्‌

    कटु ज्योतिष्मती तैलं तिक्तोष्णं वातनाशनम्‌ |

    पित्तसंतापनं मेधा प्रज्ञाबुद्धि विवर्धनम्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta

    रजः विकारे

    स काञ्जिक भृष्ट ज्योतिष्मतीदलम्‌ |

    प्राश्य वनितात्वार्तवं लभेत्‌ |

    Dhanwantri Nighantu

    ज्योतिष्मती गुणा

    कटभी कटु तीक्ष्णोष्णा कफजित्‌ च विरेचनी |

    मेधाकर वर्णकरी व्रण्या जठरनाशिनी ||

    ज्योतिष्मती कटुस्तिक्ता सरा कफसमीरजित्‌ |

    अत्युष्णा वमनी तीक्ष्णा वहिबुद्धिस्मृतिप्रदा ||

    Raja Nighantu

    ज्योतिष्मती तिक्तरसा च रूक्षा |

    किश्चित कटु वातकफापहा च ||

    दाहप्रदा  दीपनकृच्च  मेध्या,

    प्रज्ञा् पुष्णाति तथा द्वितीया ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 14- 10, Vanga Sena, Udara Chiukitsa, 56


    ज्योतिष्क फलतैलं वा क्षीरण स्वर्जिकाहिज़ुमिश्रं पिबेत्‌ |

    Vanga Sena, Udara Chikitsa


    ज्योतिष्मत्या: पिबेत्‌ तैल॑ पयंसा वा दिना अष्टकम | 

    Raja Amrittanda


    मेध्या ज्योतिष्मती तीक्ष्णा व्रणविस्फोयट नाशनी |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 10/ 42- 43

    अपस्मारे ज्योतिष्मती नावनम्‌

    ज्योतिष्मती नागदन्ती पादोक्तां मूत्रषेषिता ||

    योगास्त्र यो अतः षड् बिन्दून पंच्च वा नावयेद्भिषक्‌ |

    Chakra Dutta, 62- 65, Yonivyapada Chikitsa, 22

    रजोराधेषु आर्तवजननार्थ भृष्ट ज्योतिष्मतीपत्र प्रयोग:

    भृष्टं ज्योतिष्मती दलम्‌ |

    सम्प्राश्य न चिरादेव वनितात्वार्तबं लभेत्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, Bala Roga Chikitsa, 63- 12

    बाला नामक हरो योग: 

    दत्त्वा रजनीचूर्ण दत्ते नश्येदनामाख्य: |

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 8/ 39

    व्रण शोध्ने          

    ज्योतिष्मती लांगलकी श्यामा दन्ती त्रिवृत्तिला: |

    कुष्ठ्म शताह्वा गोलोमी तिल्वको गिरिकर्णिका ||

    कासीसं काश्चन क्षीरयो क्षीयों वर्ग: शोधन इष्यते |

    Vanga Sena, Jwara, 490

    ज्वरे तन्द्रायाम्‌

    ज्योतिष्मत्वास्तथा तैलं मूलं पिण्डारकस्य वा |

    तन्द्राविनाशनं श्रेष्ठ नस्यकर्मणि योजितम्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya, Chikitsa Sthana, 19- 75


    मयूरकक्षारजले सारकृत्व: परि स्रुते |

    सिद्ध ज्योतिष्मती तैलमभ्यंगात्‌ सिध्मनाशनम्‌ ||

    Specific Formulation of Jyotishmati

    • Jyotishmati Taila for Mansika Vikara, Medhya Karmartha.
    • Samriti Sagara Rasa.
    • Jyotishmati Churna
    • Chandanadi Taila
    • Karanjadi Yoga

    Contraindication and side effects of Jyotishmati

    • Jyotishmati in doses lower than 500mg, is safe to use in all kinds of patients. But Jyotishmati is hot and acrid and also increases Pitta in the body. So, advise using after consulting a doctor in Vata, Kapha dominant Prakriti, and Pittaja disorder.
    • If Jyotishmati is taken in a dosage of 2 grams more it will result in Vamana (induce vomiting), and Virechana (induce purgation).
    • Jyotishmati may also lead to a burning sensation, profuse sweating, restlessness, and Giddiness in some people. Pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers avoid the use of Jyotishmati. If you are trying to conceive (Garbha Dharana), or in the postpartum period avoid the use of Jyotishmati.

    Suggestive reading regarding Celastrus paniculatus

    • Yadav, Keerti. (2019). JYOTISHMATI: AN ARTAVA PRAVARTAKA. International Journal of Advanced Research. 7. 304- 307. 10. 21474/ IJAR01/ 9361.
    • Saini K, Chaudhary A, Sharma RK. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus on trace elements of the cerebellum in aging albino rats. Ann Neurosci. 2012 Jan;19 (1): 21- 4. doi: 10. 5214/ ans. 0972. 7531.180405. PMID: 25205957; PMCID: PMC 4117074.
    • Bhagya V, Christofer T, Shankaranarayana Rao BS. Neuroprotective effect of Celastrus paniculatus on chronic stress-induced cognitive impairment. Indian J Pharmacol. 2016 Nov- Dec; 48 (6): 687- 693. doi: 10. 4103/ 0253-7613. 194853. PMID: 28066108; PMCID: PMC  5155471.
    • Vij, Divya & Dhyani, Srishti & Kumar, Rajesh & Mishra, Rajesh. (2019). JYOTISMATI (CELASTRUS PANICULATUS WILLD.) PLANT OF AYURVEDA.
    • Bhanumathy M, Harish MS, Shivaprasad HN, Sushma G. Nootropic activity of Celastrus paniculatus seed. Pharm Biol. 2010 Mar; 48 (3): 324- 7. doi: 10. 3109/ 13880200903127391. PMID: 20645820.
    • Jyothi, K. S., and M. Seshagiri. “In-vitro activity of saponins of Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium on selected oral pathogens.” Journal of Dentistry (Tehran, Iran) 9, no. 4 (2012): 216.
    • SHARMA, GANESH N., HARJINDER KAUR, BIRENDRA SHRIVASTAVA, and SATISH CHANDER ARORA. “A review from historical to current-Celastrus paniculatus.” seeds 12 (2020): 13.
    • Patil RH, Prakash K, Maheshwari VL. Hypolipidemic Effect of Celastrus paniculatus in Experimentally Induced Hypercholesterolemic Wistar Rats. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2010 Oct; 25 (4): 405- 10. doi: 10. 1007/ s12291- 010-0050- x. Epub 2010 Sep 14. PMID: 21966115; PMCID: PMC 2994564.
    • Valecha R, Dhingra D. Behavioral and Biochemical Evidence for Antidepressant-Like Activity of Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Oil in Mice. Basic Clin Neuroscience 2016 Jan; 7 (1): 49- 56. PMID: 27303599; PMCID: PMC 4892330.
    • Debnath M, Biswas M, Shukla VJ, Nishteswar K. Phytochemical and analytical evaluation of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) leaf extracts. Ayu. 2014 Jan; 35 (1): 54- 7. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 141929. PMID: 25364201; PMCID: PMC 4213970.
    • Malik J, Karan M, Dogra R. Ameliorating effect of Celastrus paniculatus standardized extract and its fractions on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neuronal damage in rats: possible antioxidant mechanism. Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec; 55 (1): 980- 990. doi: 10. 1080/ 13880209. 2017. 1285945. PMID: 28164735; PMCID: PMC 6130694.
    • Faldu, Khushboo G., Snehal S. Patel, and Jigna S. Shah. “Celastrus paniculatus oil ameliorates synaptic plasticity in a rat model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 11, no. 3 (2021): 105.
    • Aleem, Mohd. “Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Celastrus paniculatus Wild.: a nootropic drug.” Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine (2021).
    • Patil, R. H., K. Prakash, and V. L. Maheshwari. “Hypolipidemic effect of Celastrus paniculatus in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic Wistar rats.” Indian journal of clinical biochemistry 25, no. 4 (2010): 405- 410.
    • Kulkarni YA, Agarwal S, Garud MS. Effect of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus) seeds in animal models of pain and inflammation. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2015 Apr-Jun; 6 (2): 82- 8. doi: 10. 4103/ 0975- 9476. 146540. PMID: 26166997; PMCID: PMC 4484053.
    • Lekha G, Mohan K, Samy IA. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil) on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice. Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 May; 2 (3): 169- 74. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8490. 65512. PMID: 21808561; PMCID: PMC 3141309.
    • Japang, Ibamedabha & Rathi, Renu & Rathi, Bharat & Verma, Jitesh & Pandey, Vidya. (2021). Evaluation of Comparative Efficacy of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Wild) and Yastimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn) in Enhancing IQ and Memory of Different Prakriti School Going Children- A Study Protocol of Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 33. 236- 244. 10. 9734/ JPRI/ 2021/ v33i52B33622.
    • Kulkarni, Yogesh & Agarwal, Sneha & Garud, Mayuresh. (2015). Effect of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus) seeds in animal models of pain and inflammation. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 6. 82- 8. 10. 4103/ 0975- 9476. 146540.
    • Deodhar, Ketakee & Shinde, Nanda. (2015). Full-Length Review Article CELASTRUS PANICULATUS; MEDICINAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES: A REVIEW. International journal of development research. 5. 5526- 5531.
    • K.A., Sujana & John, Joseph & Narayanan, M.K. & Kumar, N. (2012). Ethnomedicinal uses of Celastrus Paniculatus willd. Known to four tribal communities of the Wayanad district of Kerala, India. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. 3. 573- 575.
    • Sahoo, Srinibash & Sudhakar, D & Bhuyan, G.C. & Rana, Rakesh & Singhal, Richa & Dua, Pradeep & Khanduri, Shruti & Yadav, Babita. (2018). Clinical Evaluation of Brahmi Ghrita and Jyotishmati Taila in the Management of Cognitive Deficit in Children. Journal of Research in Ayurvedic Sciences. 2. 80- 89. 10. 5005/ jp- journals- 10064- 0043.
    • Sankaramourthy, Divya & Sankaranarayanan, Lakshmi & Kavimani, S. & Sudha Rani, Sadras. (2022). Neuroprotective potential of Celastrus paniculatus seeds against common neurological ailments: a narrative review. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine. 10. 1515/ jcim- 2021-0448.
    • Arya A, Kaushik D, Almere R, Bungau SG, Sayed AA, Abdel-Daim MM, Bhatia S, Mittal V. Application of Green Technologies in Design-Based Extraction of Celastrus paniculatus (Jyotishmati) Seeds, SEM, GC-MS Analysis, and Evaluation for Memory Enhancing Potential. Front Nutr. 2022 May 18; 9: 871183. doi: 10. 3389/ fnut. 2022. 871183. PMID: 35662919; PMCID: PMC9158750.
    • Valecha R, Dhingra D. Behavioral and Biochemical Evidence for Antidepressant-Like Activity of Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Oil in Mice. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2016 Jan; 7 (1): 49- 56. PMID: 27303599; PMCID: PMC4892330.
    • Debnath M, Biswas M, Shukla VJ, Nishteswar K. Phytochemical and analytical evaluation of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) leaf extracts. Ayu. 2014 Jan; 35 (1): 54- 7. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 141929. PMID: 25364201; PMCID: PMC 4213970.
    • Ali A, Umar D, Farhan M, Basheer B, Baroudi K. Effect of Brahmyadi Churna (Brahmi, Shankhapushpi, Jatamansi, Jyotishmati, Vacha, Ashwagandha) and tablet Shilajatu in essential hypertension: An observational study. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2015 Oct-Dec; 6 (4): 148- 53. doi: 10. 4103/ 2231-4040. 165015. PMID: 26605154; PMCID: PMC 4630720.
    • Kulkarni R, Girish KJ, Kumar A. Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: An update. Pharmacogn Rev. 2012 Jul; 6 (12): 147- 53. doi: 10. 4103/ 0973- 7847. 99949. PMID: 23055641; PMCID: PMC  3459457.
    • Singh HK. Brain enhancing ingredients from Āyurvedic medicine: quintessential example of Bacopa monnieri, a narrative review. Nutrients. 2013 Feb 6; 5 (2): 478- 97. doi: 10. 3390/ nu5020478. PMID: 23389306; PMCID: PMC. 3635207.
    • Kulkarni YA, Agarwal S, Garud MS. Effect of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus) seeds in animal models of pain and inflammation. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2015 Apr-Jun; 6 (2): 82- 8. doi: 10. 4103/ 0975- 9476. 146540. PMID: 26166997; PMCID: PMC 4484053.
    • Deodhar, Ketakee & Shinde, Nanda. (2015). Full-Length Review Article CELASTRUS PANICULATUS; MEDICINAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES: A REVIEW. International journal of development research. 5. 5526-  5531.
    • Dwivedi, Vaibhav, and Harikesh Maurya. “A comprehensive overview of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil intended for the management of human ailments.” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research 6, no. 02 (2018): 37-42.
    • Vij, Divya, Srishti Dhyani, Rajesh Kumar, Rajesh Kumar Mishra, and P. G. Scholar. “JYOTISMATI (CELASTRUS PANICULATUS PLANT OF AYURVEDA.”
    • Rajkumar, Shyamala, V. Vijaya Kumar, C. Ponmuthu Rani, K. Gopakumar, and R. S. Ramaswamy. “International Journal of Multidisciplinary Health Sciences.”
    • Khare, Divya, and Prasanna Savanur. “Understanding of Unmada in Ayurveda and Rational Application of Herbal Drugs-A Review.” Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences 4, no. 04 (2019): 279- 288.
    • Maurya, Harikesh, Rajewshwar KK Arya, Tarun Belwal, Mahendra Rana, and Aadesh Kumar. “Celastrus paniculatus.” In Naturally Occurring Chemicals Against Alzheimer’s Disease, pp. 425- 435. Academic Press, 2021.
    • Deodhar, Ketakee. (2015). Celastrus paniculatus: Traditional uses and Ethnobotanical study. Indian Journal of Advances in Plant Research. 2. 18-21.
    • Debnath, Monojit & Moulisha, Biswas & Shukla, Vinay & Nishteswar, K. (2014). Phytochemical and analytical evaluation of Jyotishmati (Celastrus paniculatus Willd.) leaf extracts. Ayu. 35. 54- 7. 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 141929.
    • Bhanumathy, M. & Chandrasekar, S.B. & Chandur, Uma & Somasundaram, T. (2010). Phytopharmacology of Celastrus paniculatus: An Overview. Int J Pharm Sci Drug Res. 2. 176- 181.
    • Maurya, Harikesh & Arya, Rajewshwar & Belwal, Tarun & Rana, Mahendra & Kumar, Aadesh. (2021). Celastrus paniculatus. 10. 1016/ B978- 0- 12-819212- 2. 00036- 0.
    • Sharma, Ganesh & Kaur, Harjinder & Shrivastava, Birendra & Arora, Satish & Kaur, Harjinder. (2021). A REVIEW FROM HISTORICAL TO CURRENT-CELASTRUS PANICULATUS. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 12. 15- 20.
    • MISHRA, BHARAT & JOHN, ELIZABETH & JOY, KRUPAMOL & R, BADMANABAN & R, ALEESHA. (2020). TOXICITY PROFILE OF CELASTRUS PANICULATUS SEEDS: A PRECLINICAL STUDY. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 115- 118. 10. 2 2159/ ajpcr. 2020. v13i7. 37803.


    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Guduchyadi, Kshiradi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Priya Nighantu by P. V. Sharma, Pipplyadi Varga Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Vaidya Manorma, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Vrinda Madhava
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sanskrita sansthan, Varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)


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