Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Jatiphala- Jaiphala- Jaepatri- Javitri – Myristica fragrans Houtt.

    Jatiphala- Jaiphala- Jaepatri- Javitri – Myristica fragrans Houtt.

    Jatiphala- A tree promising broad-spectrum activities

    Introduction

    Jaiphala is traditionally famous by the name Jatiphala, Javitari in Asian countries. It is botanically known as Myristica fragrans and belongs to the family which is very famous for its flavor, pharmacological activities, and therapeutic actions. Jatiphala is not only useful in pharmaceuticals but is an important ingredient for various food and cosmetics. Therefore, Jatiphala has various industrial applications in soap production, cosmetics, liqueurs, etc. Jatiphala is a rich source of vitamins, proteins, and phytonutrients like carotene- B, cryptoxanthin, etc due to which it exhibits various activities like antiviral, hepato- protective, anti-pimple, anti-cancer, antioxidant, etc. It is used to treat various disorders like dysentery, sciatica, malaria, and leprosy. In Ayurvedic classical texts, Jatiphala was first mentioned by Acharya Shodhala in Gada Nigraha (1200 AD) for medicinal purposes i.e Jatiphala Churna for Kasa (cough). Bhava Mishra in Bhavaprakasha Nighantu and Acharaya Bhoja in Raja AMrittanda have mentioned Jatiphala as Ekal Aushadha for its action on Vyanga (Melasma). As per Ayurveda, Jatiphala is bitter, penetrating, hot in potency, increases the palatability of foods, is light in action, and also pungent in taste. It is an appetizer, absorbent of water, good for voice, and reduces Kapha and Vata. It cures distaste, clears tartar, removes bad smell from the oral cavity, and normalizes the blackening of gums, cough, vomiting, dyspnoea, emaciation, chronic cold, and cardiac problems. The outer covering of Jati Phala i.e. aril is known as Javitri or Jati Patri. Jati Patri is light in action, palatable, Pungent in taste, hot in potency, and promotes taste and complexion. It is useful in Kapha diseases, cough, vomiting, dyspnea, thirst, worm infestation, and poisonous effects.

    Basonym of Jatiphala

    जातित्याख्य फलं जाती फलम | (निघण्टु आदर्श)

    The plant has got a shell like fruit.

    Synonyms of Jatiphala

    • According to morphology

    जातीकोश: जातीत्याख्या कोशमिव फलमिति यावत्‌ |

    Fruit is shell-like, and it is covered by arils.

    पुट- पुटतीति पुट: । पुट आच्छदने ।

    The fruit is in the form of a shell, as it is covered by a hardcover.

     

    • According to properties and actions.

    मालतीफल: – मालत्या: फलम्‌, जातीफलम्‌, मलते शोभां धारयतीति मालती |

    The fruit of Jatiphala has a sweet aroma which resembles Jati (jasmine).

    मदशौण्ड: मत्तानां रुचिप्रदत्वात्‌ |

    Pippali (Piper longum), is also used after consuming alcohol.

    Regional names of Jatiphala Seed

    • Nutmeg, Fragrant nut tree, Mace tree, True nutmeg (English)
    • Jaiphala (Hindi)
    • Jaikayi (Kannada)
    • Jeikaya (Malayalam)
    • Jaiphal (Marathi)
    • Gauzibuya (Persian)
    • Jaipholo (Uriya)
    • Adipalam (Tamil)
    • Jaji (Telegu)

    Regional names of Jatiphala Aril (Javitri)

    • Mace (English)
    • Jaepatri (Hindi)
    • Japatri (Kannada)
    • Jadi- Paltiri (Malayalam)
    • Jaepatri (Marathi)

    Scientific classification of Jatiphala

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassMonochlamydeae
    Series Microembryeae
    Family Myristicaceae
    GenusMyristica 
    Species Fragrans

    Botanical Name

    Myristica fragrans Houtt.

    Myristica means a sweet, scented drug that belongs to the Myristicaceae family.

    Fragrans means aromatic.

    Family – Myristicaceae (Jatiphala Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Jatiphala (Myristica fragrans)

    Classification of Jatiphala as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Not mentioned in Mahakshaya
    • Sushruta: Not mentioned in Gana

    Jatiphala's description in Brihtrayi

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 5/ 73, C. S. Chi. 17/ 126, C. S. Chi. 28/ 151
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 202, S. S. Chi. 24/ 31
    • Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 21/ 77, A.H. U. 22/ 93

     

    Jatiphala’s description in Brihtrayi as Jati Kosha

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 26/ 209, C. S. Chi. 28/ 150
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 202
    • Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 21/ 77

     

    Jatiphala’s description in Brihtrayi as Jati Patrika

     

    • Vagbhata: A. H. U. 22/ 93

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    Historical background of Jatiphala

    In Sankhalikhita Dharmasutra (128 Sutra) and Visnudharma Sutra (66/ 2), Jatiphala is used along with Chandana for external applications. Though Jatiphala and Jatikosha are described separately by the Brihtrayi, their utility is restricted. Jatiphala is quoted thrice by Caraka (C. S. Su. 5/ 73; C. S. Ci. 17/ 126 & C. S. Ci. 28/151) and twice each by Sushruta (S. S. Su. 46/ 202 & Ci. 24/ 31- Jati) and Vagbhata (A. H. Ci. 21/ 77 & Ut. 22/ 93). Similarly, Jati Kosa is quoted twice by Caraka (C. S. Ci. 26/ 209 & Ci. 28/ 150) and once each by Sushruta (S. S. Su. 46/ 202) and Vagbhata (A. H. Ci. 21/ 77). Vagbhata described Jatikosa as ‘Jatipatrika’ (A. H. Ut. 22/ 93). It is important to note that Jatiphala is the seed, and Jatikosa (Jatipatrika) is the synonym of Javitri (aril of the seed). Sharngdhara mentioned Jatiphala as an example of Sukra Stambhana Dravyas.

    Controversial Studies regarding Jatiphala

    Thakurji identified that in some places both Jati and Jatiphala are used as synonyms in Brhattrayi e.g. S. S. Ci. 24/ 31. P.V. Sharmaji reported that M. beddomei King is used as an adulterant for Jatiphala.

    Different varieties of Jatiphala

    Though another variety M. malabarica is being used as Jatiphala in South India, it does not have the classical aroma of nutmeg. M. malabarica is used as the adulterant for Jatiphala. Recently another variety M. dactyloides (M. laurifolia Hook F. & Thoms) is reported to be used as Jayaphal.

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    External morphology of Jatiphala (Myristica fragrans)

    • Habit: A lofty tree, branches slender.
    • Leaves: Leaves coriaceous, 7.5-8.8 cm., elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, acuminate, sometimes oblanceolate, and tip caudate, acute, pale yellow-brown, paler with red-brown nerves beneath, nerves about 8 pairs, slender; petiole 6-13 mm.
    • Flower: Male flower racemes 2.5-5 cm. flowers bracteolate, 6 mm. long; ellipsoid or urceolate, nodding; males in lax slender supra-axillary racemes, bracteoles a scale under the glabrate perianth, anthers 9-12, connate in a cylindric stipitate column.
    • Fruit: Fruit of Jatiphala ovoid, subglobose or pyriform, 3.8-5 cm. long. Fruit pulp or kernel is yellowish and thick. 
    • Seed: Seeds of Jatiphala are solitary, stony, and about 1.5 inches long. The seed is known as Jatiphala (Jaiphal) and its aril (seed-coat) is Jatipatri (Javitri) which are used as Nutmeg and Mace respectively.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Post-rainy season

    Substitute of Jatiphala

    • Myristica beddomei
    • Myristica attenuate

    Adulterants of Jatiphala

    • Myristica malabarica
    • Myristica argentea

    Distribution of Jatiphala

    It is native to the Eastern Moluccas and cultivated in the Malay Peninsula. It is Cultivated in Southern India as a spice tree in certain localities (where the climate is sufficiently hot and moist) in Malay Islands, Penang, and Ceylon.

    The useful part of Jatiphala

    Seed and Aril.

     

    Kernels are ovoid or broadly oval, 2 to 3 cm long, and 1.5 to 2 cm broad. The surface is light brown or grayish brown, showing a network of shallow, reticulate grooves marked with numerous small dark brown lines. The tip of the radicle is indicated by a slight circular elevation which is connected by a broad shallow groove with chalaza which has the form of a slight shallow depression at the opposite end. The inside of the kernel consists of a fawn-colored endosperm covered by a thin reddish brown perisperm. The perisperm penetrates the endosperm with numerous infoldings giving a characteristic ruminate appearance to the broken surface. It has got strong aromatic characteristics and has got a pungent and slightly bitter taste. Fleshy, foliaceous mantle or arillus of seed occurring as an entire piece or in the form of coarsely reticulate flattened bands. The entire piece is cup-shaped and divided into strap-shaped, terminally dissected lobes, up to 4 cm in length, 2.5 to 3 cm in breadth, and about 1 mm in thickness. These are translucent and brittle and have a dully yellowish red. Has a strong aromatic odor.

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    Important phytoconstituent of Jatiphala

    It contains essential oil, saponin. Dry ripe seeds contain 5 to 15% of a volatile oil and 25 to 40% of a fixed oil. Dry leaves contain 1.56% essential oil consisting of 80% a-pinene and 10% myristicin. Seeds (nutmeg) yield 2.08% volatile oil, fixed oil, protein, fat, starch, mucilaginous matter, and alkaline. Seed Coat (mace), like seed (nutmeg), yields volatile oil, 8- 17% fixed oil, resin, fat, sugar, and mucilaginous matter. Fixed oil extracted from the seeds is named ‘Butter of Nutmeg’ aromatic that contains myristin, myristic acid, and aromatic oil. Aromatic oil (a component of Nutmeg Butter) contains myristicin and myristicol. Seeds- coat also yields a yellowish aromatic oil (smelling like seed-coat itself) which contains a chemical substance macene.

    Recent research on Myristica fragrans

    • To investigate the anti-angiogenic activity and antioxidant properties of Myristica fragrans (M. fragrans) (nutmeg). The antiangiogenic activity of nutmeg oil showed significant antiangiogenic activity with IC (50) of 77.64 Hg/mL compared to Meng kudu oil which exhibits IC (50) of 109.30 Mg/ mL. Piaru SP, Mahmud R, Abdul Majid AM, Mahmoud Nassar ZD. Antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of the essential oil of Myristica fragrans and Morinda citrifolia. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012 Apr; 5 (4):294- 8. doi: 10. 1016/ 51995- 7645 (12) 60042- X.
    • This study determined the potential anticancer efficacy of the leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) Phytochemical compounds, possessing antioxidant activity, may be responsible for the observed effects, suggesting a necessary characteristic of a promising anti-cancer agent. Akinboro A, Mohamed KB, Asmawi MZ, Othman AS, Ying TH, Maidin SM. Mutagenic and antimutagenic assessment of methanol leaf extract of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) using invitro and in vivo genetic assays. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2012 Oct; 35 (4): 412- 22. doi. 10. 3109/ 01480545. 2011. 638300. Epub 2011 Dec 12.
    • In this study, a freeze-dried water extract from the leaves of Myristica fragrans (Houtt.) was tested for mutagenic and antimutagenic potential using the Allium cepa assay. The obtained results suggest Mito depressive and antimutagenic potential of water extract from the leaves of M. fragrans as desirable properties of a promising anti-cancer agent. Akinboro A, Mohamed KB, Asmawi MZ, Sulaiman SF, Sofiman OA. Antioxidants in aqueous extract of Myristic fragrans (Houtt.) suppress mitosis and cyclophosphamide-induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cépa L. cells. J. Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2011 Nov; 12 (11): 915- 22 doi: 10. 1631/ jzus. B 1000315.
    • In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of myristicin on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-stimulated macrophages was examined. In conclusion, myristicin has anti-inflammatory properties related to its inhibition of NO, Cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in dsRNA- stimulated macrophages via the calcium pathway. Lee JY, Park W. Anti-inflammatory effect of myristicin on RAW 264.7 Macrophages stimulated with polyinosinic- polycytidylic acid. Molecules 2011: 16 (8): 7132- 42.
    • The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antibacterial activity of constituents of M. fragrans seeds. All the constituents isolated from nutmeg exhibited good antibacterial activity. Narasimhan B, Dhake AS. Antibacterial principles from Myristica fragrans seeds, J. Med. Food. 2006 Fall; 9 (3):395- 9. M. fragrans extract showed mild antibacterial activity against pathogenic Staphylococci (Bhat & Broker, 1953).
    • Nutmeg paste is given orally (40 mg twice daily for 7 days) and produces a marked inhibitory effect on prostaglandin biosynthesis in rat kidneys (in vivo). In invitro tests, the PE fraction and the sub-fraction obtained in the Salicylic acid column with 90% benzene and 10% chloroform, inhibited markedly the biosynthesis of prostaglandins in rat kidney tissues (Mishra et al., 1978).
    • The essential oil showed antibacterial activity against B. anthracis, B. pumilus, and Esch. coli, Sal. typhi, Staph. aureus etc. (Pathak et al., 1979).
    • Seed oil had a depressant effect on isolated frog rectus and a direct relaxant effect on rat ileum. It also potentiated hexobarbital-induced hypnosis in rats (Bhagwat & Saifi, 1980).
    • Prostaglandin inhibition is suspected to be the mechanism of the antidiarrheal effect of nutmeg (PPT, 1983). The aqueous paste of seed had a marked inhibitory effect on the fluid accumulation capabilities of enterotoxigenic Esch. coli in the ligated gut of rabbits (Rashid & Mira, 1984).
    • Aril extract showed antibacterial activity against strep. mutans (Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1985, 34, 3885).
    • Mace (aril of fruit) is used in Indonesian medicine as an aromatic, stomachic, analgesic, and for rheumatism. Its extract (1.5 g/ kg) inhibited carrageenan-induced rat-paw edema and inhibited the increase of dye leakage induced by acetic acid. It reduced the number of writhing induced by acetic acid (Jap. J. Pharmacol. 1989, 49, 155).
    • Eugenol and isoeugenol showed similar anti-aggregating activity on rabbit platelets aggregation with arachidonic acid (Planta Med. 1984, 50, 222).
    • Myristicin (170 mg/kg) inhibited the increase of dye leakage induced by acetic acid in rats; inhibitory potency was the same as that of 10 mg/ kg of indomethacin (Jap. J. Pharmacology. 1989, 49, 155).
    • Administration of plant extract i.p to sarcoma 180- bearing mice prolonged their lifespan from 19 days in controls to 24-32 days (Chem. Abstr. 1990, 112, 91779 &). aril b (12) A single dose of myristicin, licarin B, dehydroisoeugeno, constituents of seeds, to mice prolonged hexobarbital-induced sleep and reduced liver aminopyrine N-demethylase and hexobarbital hydrolase activities. Repeated administration of myristicin, licarin B, and dehydroiisoeugenol shortened the duration of hypnosis and increased hepatic enzyme activities. Myristicin and licasin B-induced sleep with a sub-hypnotic dose of hexobarbital suggest that they possessed CNS depressant properties (Chem. Abstract. 1990, 113, 91283 K). balsuna (13) Malabaricones B & C exhibited strong antifungal and antibacterial activities (J. Nat. Prod. 1991, 54, 856).

    Rasa Panchaka of Jatiphala

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (pungent), Tikta (bitter), Kashaya (astringent)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Snigdha (oily), Teekshna (sharp)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency)
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Jatiphala

    Kapha Vata Shamaka, Vata Hara because of its Ushna Virya. Kapha Hara because of Katu Vipaka, Ushna Virya and Katu, Tikta, Kashaya Rasa.

    Karma (Actions) of Jatiphala

    Grahi, Rocana, Pacana, Dipana, Vatanulomana, Mukh Durgandhahara, Vaktravaisadya Janana, Asyavairasyahara, Pittasaraka, Yakrduttejaka Uttejaka Hridya, Kaphanihsaraka, Kaphaghna, Svarya, Vrishya, Artavajana, Kusthaghna, Jvaraghna, Katupoustika, Kandughna, Tvacya, Varnya, Krmighna, Trsnanigrahana, Vedanasthapana, Aksepahara, Vatahara, Nidrajanana, Madaka (excess dose).

     

    Jatiphala (Fruit/Seed)- Grahi, Dipana, Rocana, Swarya, Dourgandhyahara, Krimighna, Kasahara, Swasahara, Mehaghna, Vrsya and Hrdya.

     

    Jatipatri (Arils)- Rucikara, Varnya, Kasahara, Chardighna, Swasahara, Trsnanigraha, Krimighna, Visaghna, Dourgandhyahara & Vrsya

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Jatiphala

    Atisara, Grahani, Visuchika, Trishna, Vamana, Agnimandya, Ajirna, Mukavairasya, Vistambha, Yakrdvikara, Anidra, Shula, Vatika-nadivikara, Hrdroga, Hridruja, Pinasa, Kasa, Shvasa, Hikka, Yakshma, Rajorodha, Kastartava, Klaibya, Kamasaitya, Dhvaja Bhanga, Jvara, Jvaratisara, Charma Roga, Vyanga, Varnavikara, Vipadika, Amavata, Krimiroga, Visa, Prameha.

     

    Jatiphala- Atisara, Klaibya, Agnimandya, Aruci, Vaiswarya, Mukhadourgandhya, Krimi, Kasa, Chardi, Swasa, Sosha, Pinasa, hridya Ruja, Prameha, Kantha Roga.

     

    Jatipatri/ Kosha- Aruci, Vaivarnya, Klaibya, Chardi, Swasa, Trishna, Krimi, Visa Roga, Mukhadourgandhya, Hrdroga.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Jatiphala

    Atisara (Diarrhoea)

     

    • Jatiphala with Sunthi rubbed in cold water is given to check diarrhea and make stool form. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4. 141)
    • The paste of Jatiphala is applied to the navel. It checks for diarrhea. (Bhaishjya Ratnavalli. Atisara. 30)
    • A lavangacatuhsama-This formulation consisting of Jatiphala, Lavanga, Jiraka, and Tankana and mixed with honey and sugar destroys, by intake, all types of diarrhea associated with Ama. (Bhaishjya Ratnavalli. Atisara. 30)
    • Visuchika: In case of thirst and slight nausea water boiled with Lavanga or Jatiphala and cooled, or decoction of Musta should be given. (Chakra Dutta. 6. 91)

     

    Vyanga (Freckles etc.): Application of the paste of the aril of Jatiphala (Jatipatri) removes freckles. (Raja Amrittanda. 5. 16, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 61/ 42)

     

    Padari (Cracks in feet): Paste of Jatiphala destroys the cracks in feet. Similarly, does Sarjarasa mixed with honey and sesame oil? (Vanga Sena. Kustha. 118)

    Benefits of Jatiphala

    • The seeds are carminative and stomachic and they are useful in flatulence, nausea, and vomiting. 
    • The oil obtained from dried kernels are useful as an aperient and carminative. It is aphrodisiac, anodyne, anthelmintic, astringent, cardiac, carminative, deodorant, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, narcotic, ophthalmic, stimulant, stomachic, and tonic. It is useful in cough, cold, asthma, rhinitis, phthisis, cholera, thirst, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, impotency, sexual frigidity, eyesight weakness (visionary abnormality), flatulence, loss of appetite, indigestion, insomnia, spleen and liver obstruction, nervous disorders, headache, skin and pigmentary ailments, and worms.
    • The medicinal properties and utility of another raw drug Mace (jatipatri or jatikosa) are almost similar to that of the main drug nutmeg (jatiphala), but it is the specifically stomachic appetizer, anodyne or analgesic and promotor to skin health (pigmentation) and to check the foul smell of mouth and it has lesser action on intestinal tract (as astringent in comparison to nutmeg).
    • Jatiphala is an esteemed herbal drug for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly diarrhea and its allied complaints including dyspepsia, loss of appetite, flatulence, colic, diarrhoeal chronicity, over thirst, vomiting, choleric diarrhea and also worms affections, a powder of the seeds is given as s single drug, and it is in combination with other drugs is used in other forms; some formulations of the drug are frequently prescribed and important in the treatment of diarrheal complaints.
    • In the diseases of children, the seeds are rubbed on a stone slate or its paste (in proper dose) is (mixed with water, lukewarm water, mother’s latex, etc. suitably) orally in infantile diarrhea, diarrheal and bowel complaints with fever, cough, cold and chest complaints and other infantile (including belching) troubles, since it is a household remedy for infantile ailments.
    • The seeds paste is topically applied to headaches, joint pain, skin affections, abdominal troubles (e.g., on the umbilicus region in case of diarrhea and colic), and other ailments. The oil prepared with seeds is externally applied to the male genital organ (as an aphrodisiac for promoting erect ability) found in other parts as a stimulant, joints, rheumatic complaints, and various other diseases. 
    • Externally the seed powder or any other suitable form is used in various formulations suggested for skin affection and maintaining skin health (especially face complexion).
    • Seeds powder is dusted over foul ulcers.

    Benefits of Jatiphala on different systems of the body

    • External uses: Analgesic, stimulant and deodorant. Its paste is used for headaches and arthralgia. The ointment is used as a deodorant and an analgesic for skin diseases. Its oil is used for massage in cases of cold and skin laxity. In impotency, nutmeg oil is applied to the penis and then betel leaves are tied over it. Its powder is applied to foul-smelling wounds. In case of Pratishaya (common cold) and (Jwara) fever of children, nutmeg oil is applied on the forehead. Nutmeg and dry ginger powder in water alleviate headaches due to the common cold. In diarrhea, the powder is applied to the umbilicus.
    • Central nervous system: It is analgesic, anticonvulsant and Vata Shamak. The excessive dose is intoxicant. The actions of camphor and nutmeg on the brain are similar. It is useful for insomnia. It also alleviates Vata disorders like pain, convulsions, etc.
    • Digestive system: Nutmeg reduces bad breath temporarily. It improves the taste. It is a stimulant, an appetizer, a digestive, a liver stimulant, a carminative, an astringent, and an anthelmintic. Hence it is used along with other medicines for anorexia, indigestion, liver disorders, diarrhea, colitis, and helminthiasis. Jatiphala reduces the Putigandha (foul smell) and blackness of Pureesa (stools). Jatiphala (Nutmeg) is given in Ati- Trishna (excessive thirst) and Chardi (emesis). In cholera, water boiled with nutmeg is used (after cooling).
    • Circulatory system: Low dose of Jatiphala acts as a circulatory stimulant.
    • Respiratory system: Being an Kpaha Nisaraka (expectorant) and Kapha Ghana, it helps in Jeerna Pratishyaya (chronic rhinitis), Kasa (cough), Shvasa (dyspnea), and Hikka (hiccoughs).
    • Reproductive system: Being an aphrodisiac and stimulant of menstruation, it is used in impotence and premature ejaculation. It is also used in dysmenorrhea.
    • Temperature: Nutmeg is used when fever and diarrhea occur simultaneously.
    • Samikaran: Nutmeg is used as a tonic in post diarrheal weakness and post- sprue debility.

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    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Jatiphala

    • Churna (powder): 250 mg to 1 gram
    • Taila – 7- 15 drops

    Classical reference of Jatiphala

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpooradi Varga- 54

    Synonyms

    जातीफलं जातीकोशं मालतीफलमित्यपि |

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpooradi Varga- 54- 55

    Properties and actions

    जातीफल रसे तिक्त॑ तीक्ष्णोष्णं रोचन॑ लघु |

    कटुकं दीपन॑ ग्राही स्वर्य श्लेष्मानिलापहम ||

    निहन्ति मुख वैरस्य॑ मल दौर्गंध्य कृष्णता: |

    कृमि कास वमि श्वास शोषपीनसह द्रुज: ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpooradi Varga- 56- 57

    जातीपत्री- जातिफलस्य त्वक्‌ प्रोक्ता जातीपत्री भिषग्वरै: |

    जात लघु:  स्वादु:  कटुष्ण रुचि वर्ण कृत | 

    कफ कास वमिश्वास तृष्णा कृमिविषापहा ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Chandanadi Varga- 34

    Properties and action

    जातीफल- जाती फलं कषाय उष्णं कटु कण्ठामयार्तिजित्‌ |

    वात अतिसार मेहघन लघु वृष्यं च दीपनम्‌ ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Chandanadi Varga- 33

    जातीपत्री- जातीपत्री कटु उष्ण स्यात्‌ सुरभि कफनाशिनी |

    वक्त्र दौर्गंध्य हृद वर्ण्य: विषहत काय शान्तिदा ||  

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1327

    जातीफल- जातीफल रसे तिक्त॑ तीक्ष्णोष्ण रोचनं लघु | 

    कटुकं दीपनं हृद्यं स्वर्य श्लेष्मानिलापहम्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1330

    जातीपत्री- जातीपत्री कटु तिक्ता लघु उष्ण रूचि वर्ण कृत |

    कफ कास वमि श्वास तृष्णा कृमि विषापह: |

    Raja Nighantu Chandandi Varga, 78

    जातीफल- जातीफल॑ कषायोष्ण॑ कटु कण्ठामयार्तिजित्‌ |

    वात अतिसार मेहघनम लघु वृष्यं च दीपनम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandandi Varga, 97

    जावित्री- जातीपत्री कटुस्तिक्ता सुरभि: कफनाशनी |

    वक्त्र वैशद्य जननी जाड्यदोष निकृन्तनी ||

    Priya Nighnatu Haritkyadi Varga, 82- 83

    जातीफलं कटु तिक्त हि उष्णं वातकफापहम |

    सुगन्धि दीपन॑ ग्राहि वृष्य॑ वैस्वर्यनाशनम्‌ ||

    पीतवर्णावृतिबीजि जातिपत्रीति कथ्यते |

    शस्यते वृष्ययोगे तु मुखदौर्गन्ध्यनाशिनी ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1327

    निहन्ति मुखवैरस्यमल दौर्गन्ध्यकृष्णता |

    कृमि कासवमि श्वासशोथपीनसहद्रुज: ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1329

    जातीपत्री

    जातीफलस्य त्वक प्रोक्ता जातीपत्री भिषग्वरै: |

    जातीपत्री कटु तिक्ता लघूष्णा रुचिवर्णकृत्‌ |

    कफ कास वमि श्वास तृष्णा कृमि विषापह: ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpooradi Varga- 57

    जातीपत्री लघु: स्वादु: कडुष्णा: रुचिवर्णकृत्‌ |

    कफकासवमिश्वासतृष्णाकृमिविषापहा ||

    Ayurveda Sangreha

    जातीफलतैलम्‌

    तैल॑ जातिफलो उद्भुतम समुत्तेजनमग्रिदम्‌ |

    जीर्णातिसार शमनामाध्मानाक्षेपशूलनुत्‌ ||

    आमवातहरं बल्य॑ दन्तवेष्ट व्रणा अर्तिनुत |

    Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 46

    जातीकोशो अथ कर्पूरं जातीकटुकयो: फलम्‌ |

    तिक्तम कटु कफापहम्‌ ||

    लघु तृष्णापहं वक्रकलेददौर्गन्ध्यनानम्‌ |

    Bhavaprakasha Kshudra Roga Adhikara, 61/ 42

    व्यंग रोग 

    जातीफलस्य लेपस्तु हरे द्वय अंगञ्च नीलिकाम्‌ |

    Bhava Parkasha Rajyakshma Adhikara, 11/ 50- 83

    राजयक्ष्मारोगे जातीफलाद्य चूर्णम्‌

    Chakra Dutta Kshudra Roga Adhikara Chikitsa, 55- 50

    क्षुद्र रोगान्तर्गतं मुखनीली व्यंग शमनार्थ जातीफलकल्क लेप:

    जातीफल कल्कलेपो नीली व्यंगादि नाशन: |

    Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala, 4/ 141

    अतिसार 

    जातीफलं सविश्वं जलघृष्ट शीतमेव दातव्यम्‌ |

    वध्नाती पथ्ययुक्त्या मल द्रवीभूतमह्वाय ||

    Bhaishjya Ratnavali Atisara, 30

    तथा जातीफल पिट्टा नाभौ दद्यात्‌ प्रलेपनम्‌ |

    दुर्निवारमतीसारं वारयत्यनिवारितम्‌ ||

    Bhaishjya Ratnavali Atisara, 35

    अतिसार चिकित्सायां लवंग चतुःसमःयोगे

    जातीफल त्रिदशपुष्पसमन्वितश्न जीरञ्च टंकण युतं मुनिभि: प्रणीतम्‌ |

    एतानि माक्षिक सित्तासाहितानि लीढवा: सामातिसारमखिलं गुरुमाशु हन्ति ||

    Vanga Sena, Kustha, 118

    विपादिकायाम्‌

    पिष्ट्वा जातीफलं लेपाद्‌ विनिहन्ति विपादिकाम्‌ |

    तद्वत्‌: सर्जरस: क्षौद्रतिलतैलसमन्वित: ||

    Bhava Parkashha, Chikitsa, 61- 42

    व्यंग 

    जातीफलस्य लेपस्तु हरेत्‌ व्यंगञ्च नीलिकाम्‌ |

    Raja Amrittanda, 5- 16, Bhava Parkasha, Chikitsa Sthana, 61- 42

    व्यंग मुखे जातीफलस्य बाह्मत्वचा अथवा सन्ततमेव लिप्तम्‌ |

    Specific Formulation of Jatiphala

    • Jatiphaladi Vati for Atisara and Grahni
    • Jatiphaladi Churna for Grahni and Atisara
    • Jati Lavangadi Churna for Swasa and Kasa
    • Jatiphala Parlepa for Atisara
    • Jatiphaladi taila for Danta Shula and Mukha Vedna

    Contraindication and side effects of Jatiphala

    Overdosage of Jatiphala may result in side effects. If someone is taking Jatiphala (nutmeg) in a dosage of 120 mg or more days then it will result in various psychological problems like convulsions, hallucination, disorientation, etc. Along with this overdosage also results in irregular heartbeat, dry mouth, agitation, weak pulse, hypothermia, etc.

     

    Avoid the use of Jatiphala during pregnancy and lactation.

    Suggestive reading regarding Myristica fragrans

    • Rizwana H, Bokahri NA, S Alkhattaf F, Albasher G, A Aldehaish H. Antifungal, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aqueous Extracts of Mace-Arils of Myristica fragrans. Molecules. 2021 Dec 20; 26 (24): 7709. doi: 10. 3390/ molecules 26247709. PMID: 34946791; PMCID: PMC 8705175.
    • Tripathi, Nagja & Vimal, K. & Sanjeev, A. (2016). Myristica fragrans A comprehensive review. 8. 27- 30. Myristica fragrans is a spreading tree, growing 9- 12 m high, chiefly cultivated in the Maluku region of Indonesia, known as the Spice Islands in earlier times. Caribbean islands of Grenada and Trinidad are also influential in growing this aromatic tree commercially. It belongs to the Myristicaceae family and is the source of two spices, nutmeg (Jaiphal) and mace (Javitri). Nutmeg is the seed kernel inside the fruit and mace is the fleshy red, net-like skin covering (aril) on the kernel. Further, studies divulge the occurrence of different chemical constituents like Myristicin, Macelignan, and Eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxy phenol). Nutmeg possesses various pharmacological activities like hepatoprotective activity, antioxidant activity, memory enhancing activity, cytotoxicity, aphrodisiac activity, anti-diabetic activity, antidepressant activity, hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemia effect, antimicrobial activity, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic activity, flavoring properties, and pesticidal activity. 
    • Jaiswal, Preetee & Kumar, Pradeep & Singh, Vinay & Singh, Dinesh. (2009). Biological Effects of Myristica fragrans. Annual Review of Biomedical Sciences. 11. 10. 5016/ 1806- 8774. 2009v11p21.
    • Periasamy, Gomathi & Karim, Aman & Gebrelibanos, Mebrahtom & Gebremedhin, Gereziher & Gilani, Anwar-ul. (2016). Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) Oils. 10. 1016/ B978- 0- 12- 416641-7.00069- 9.
    • Gupta, Rashmi & AZHAR, MISBAHUDDIN & Kalam, Mohd & From,. (2020). An Overview of Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg) -Its benefits and adverse effects on Humans. 2. 45- 50.
    • Kuete, Victor. (2017). Myristica fragrans: A Review. 10. 1016/ B978- 0- 12-809286- 6. 00023- 6. Pharmacological and phytochemical studies on Myristica fragrans have been reviewed. Several compounds were identified in the nutmeg and mace of the plant with terpinen-4-ol, β-pinene, and limonene being the dominant constituents common to volatile oil in all species. Several lignans and neolignans have also been isolated in various parts of the plant. Some reported pharmacological properties of M. fragrans include anticancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and memory enhancing. However, the clinical efficacy in long-term trials is still to be investigated.
    • Ibrahim, M. A., Cantrell, C. L., Jeliazkova, E. A., Astatkie, T., & Zheljazkov, V. D. (2020). Utilization of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) Seed Hydrodistillation Time to Produce Essential Oil Fractions with Varied Compositions and Pharmacological Effects. Molecules, 25 (3). https:// doi. org/ 10. 3390/ molecules 25030565
    • Choudhary, Kunwar & Jabin, Azhar & Aleem, Mohd & Ansari, Fasihur & Professor, Assitant. (2020). A REVIEW ON MYRISTICA FRAGRANS HOUTT. WITH UNANI PERSPECTIVE AND MODERN PHARMACOLOGY. 5. 91- 94.
    • Kumari, Isha & Kaurav, Hemlata & Chaudhary, Gitika. (2021). Myristica fragrans (Jaiphal): A Significant Medicinal Herbal Plant. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 8. 213- 224. 10. 31033/ ijrasb. 8. 2. 27.
    • Myristica aromatica Sw., Myristica laurifolia var. lanceolata Hook.f., Myristica moschata Thumb., Myristica officinalis L. f. Lim, T. (2012). Myristica fragrans. 10. 1007/ 978- 94- 007- 2534- 8_80. Myristica aromatica Sw., Myristica laurifolia var. lanceolata Hook.f., Myristica moschata Thunb., Myristica officinalis L. f.
    • Alma, T. (2007). Myristica fragrans in Norwegian folk tradition. 65. 217- 223. Apart from its use as a spice, Myristica fragrans have found some use in Norwegian folk medicine and magic. In terms of medicine, the main use was for treating diarrhea and other troubles of the digestive tract, e.g. dysentery. According to a 20th-century record, the nuts were chewed to relieve a toothache. A single record from folk veterinary medicine recommended nutmeg to make horses run better. A few black book prescriptions utilized nutmeg as an aphrodisiac, supposedly capable of winning over the love of the attracted one.
    • Ha MT, Vu NK, Tran TH, Kim JA, Woo MH, Min BS. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Myristica fragrans Houtt.: an updated review. Arch Pharm Res. 2020 Nov; 43 (11): 1067- 1092. doi: 10. 1007/ s12272- 020-01285- 4. Epub 2020 Nov 18. PMID: 33206347.
    • Abourashed EA, El-Alfy AT. Chemical diversity and pharmacological significance of the secondary metabolites of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.). Phytochem Rev. 2016 Dec; 15 (6): 1035- 1056. doi: 10. 1007/ s11101- 016- 9469- x. Epub 2016 May 10. PMID: 28082856; PMCID: PMC 5222521.
    • Barceloux, Donald. (2009). Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.). Disease-a-month: DM. 55. 373- 9. 10. 1016/ j. month. 2009. 03. 007.
    • Muchtaridi, Subarnas A, Apriyantono A, Mustarichie R. Identification of compounds in the essential oil of nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) that inhibit locomotor activity in mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2010 Nov 23; 11 (11): 4771- 81. doi: 10. 3390/ ijms 11114771. PMID: 21151471; PMCID: PMC 3000115.
    • Ashokkumar K, Simal-Gandara J, Murugan M, Dhanya MK, Pandian A. Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) essential oil: A review on its composition, biological, and pharmacological activities. Phytother Res. 2022 Jul; 36 (7): 2839- 2851. doi: 10. 1002/ ptr. 7491. Epub 2022 May 13. PMID: 35567294.
    • Tajuddin, Ahmad S, Latif A, Qasmi IA, Amin KM. An experimental study of sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg). BMC Complement Altern Med. 2005 Jul 20; 5: 16. doi: 10. 1186/ 1472- 6882- 5-16. PMID: 16033651; PMCID: PMC 1187868.
    • Naikodi MA, Waheed MA, Shareef MA, Ahmad M, Nagaiah K. Standardization of the Unani drug – Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Javitri) – with modern analytical techniques. Pharm Methods. 2011 Apr; 2 (2): 76- 82. doi: 10. 4103/ 2229- 4708. 84438. PMID: 23781434; PMCID: PMC 3658037.
    • Chauhan NS, Sharma V, Dixit VK, Thakur M. A review on plants used for the improvement of sexual performance and virility. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 2014: 868062. Doi: 10. 1155/ 2014/ 868062. Epub 2014 Aug 18. PMID: 25215296; PMCID: PMC 4151601.
    • Kumar G, Gupta YK. Evidence for safety of Ayurvedic herbal, herbo-metallic, and Bhasma preparations on neurobehavioral activity and oxidative stress in rats. Ayu. 2012 Oct; 33 (4): 569- 75. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 110514. PMID: 23723678; PMCID: PMC 3665192.
    • Kim DH, Lee JW, Kim IS, Choi SY, Lim YY, Kim HM, Kim BJ, Kim MN. Successful treatment of alopecia areata with topical calcipotriol. Ann Dermatol. 2012 Aug; 24 (3): 341- 4. doi: 10. 5021/ ad. 2012. 24. 3. 341. Epub 2012 Jul 25. PMID: 22879719; PMCID: PMC3412244.
    • Matulyte I, Jekabsone A, Jankauskaite L, Zavistanaviciute P, Sakiene V, Bartkiene E, Ruzauskas M, Kopustinskiene DM, Santini A, Bernatoniene J. The Essential Oil and Hydrolats from Myristica fragrans Seeds with Magnesium Aluminometasilicate as Excipient: Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Anti-inflammatory Activity. Foods. 2020 Jan 2; 9 (1): 37. doi: 10. 3390/ foods 9010037. PMID: 31906495; PMCID: PMC 7022514.
    • Zhang WK, Tao SS, Li TT, Li YS, Li XJ, Tang HB, Cong RH, Ma FL, Wan CJ. Nutmeg oil alleviates chronic inflammatory pain through the inhibition of COX-2 expression and substance P release in vivo. Food Nutr Res. 2016 Apr 26; 60: 30849. doi: 10. 3402/ fnr. v60. 30849. PMID: 27121041; PMCID: PMC 4848392.
    • Olajide OA, Ajayi FF, Ekhelar AI, Awe SO, Makinde JM, Alada AR. Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract. Phytother Res. 1999 Jun; 13 (4): 344- 5. doi: 10. 1002/ (SICI) 1099- 1573 (199906) 13:4 344: AID-PTR436> 3. 0. CO; 2-E. PMID: 10404545.
    • Chatterjee, Suchandra, Zareena Niaz, S. Gautam, Soumyakanti Adhikari, Prasad S. Variyar, and Arun Sharma. “Antioxidant activity of some phenolic constituents from green pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and fresh nutmeg mace (Myristica fragrans).” Food chemistry 101, no. 2 (2007): 515- 523.
    • Kumari, Isha, Hemlata Kaurav, and Gitika Chaudhary. “Myristica fragrans (Jaiphal): A significant medicinal herbal plant.” International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology 8, no. 2 (2021): 213- 224.
    • Ram, Alpana, P. Lauria, Rajeev Gupta, and V. N. Sharma. “Hypolipidaemic effect of Myristica fragrans fruit extract in rabbits.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 55, no. 1 (1996): 49- 53.
    • Parle, Milind, Dinesh Dhingra, and S. K. Kulkarni. “Improvement of mouse memory by Myristica fragrans seeds.” Journal of medicinal food 7, no. 2 (2004): 157- 161.
    • Ashokkumar, Kaliyaperumal, Jesus Simal‐Gandara, Muthusamy Murugan, Mannananil Krishnankutty Dhanya, and Arjun Pandian. “Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) essential oil: A review on its composition, biological, and pharmacological activities.” Phytotherapy Research (2022).
    • Jain, Roopesh & Tiwari, Archana. (2020). Biological monograph: Myristica fragrans. Matrix Science Medica. 4. 85. 10. 4103/ MTSM. MTSM_ 8_ 20.
    • Shafiei, Zaleha, Nadia Najwa Shuhairi, Nordiyana Md Fazly Shah Yap, Carrie-Anne Harry Sibungkil, and Jalifah Latip. “Antibacterial activity of Myristica fragrans against oral pathogens.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 (2012).
    • Kumari, Isha & Kaurav, Hemlata & Chaudhary, Gitika. (2021). Myristica fragrans (Jaiphal): A Significant Medicinal Herbal Plant. International Journal for Research in Applied Sciences and Biotechnology. 8. 213- 224. 10. 31033/ ijrasb. 8. 2. 27.
    • Shafiei, Zaleha, Nadia Najwa Shuhairi, Nordiyana Md Fazly Shah Yap, Carrie-Anne Harry Sibungkil, and Jalifah Latip. “Antibacterial activity of Myristica fragrans against oral pathogens.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 (2012).
    • Kapoor, I. P. S., Bandana Singh, Gurdip Singh, Carola S. De Heluani, M. P. De Lampasona, and Cesar AN Catalan. “Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oil and oleoresins of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) fruits.” International journal of food properties 16, no. 5 (2013): 1059- 1070.
    • Ashokkumar, Kaliyaperumal, Jesus Simal‐Gandara, Muthusamy Murugan, Mannananil Krishnankutty Dhanya, and Arjun Pandian. “Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt.) essential oil: A review on its composition, biological, and pharmacological activities.” Phytotherapy Research (2022).
    • Gupta, Ena. (2020). Elucidating the Phytochemical and Pharmacological Potential of Myristica fragrans (Nutmeg). 10. 4018/ 978- 1- 7998- 2524-1. ch004.
    • Rasheed Naikodi, Mohammed Abdul & Waheed, Mohd & Shareef, Mohammad & Ahmad, Mushtaq & Nagaiah, Kommu. (2011). Standardization of the Unani drug – Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Javitri) – with modern analytical techniques. Pharmaceutical methods. 2. 76- 82. 10. 4103/ 2229- 4708. 84438.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: BhavaPrakasha Nighantu, Karpuradi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Chandanadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Chandandi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Priya Nighantu by P. V. Sharma, Haritkyadi Varga Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Vaidya Manorma, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Vrinda Madhava
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sanskrita sansthan, Varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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