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    Durva – Cynodon dactylon Person.

    Durva: A valuable medicinal plant

    Introduction

    Durva commonly known as “Doob Ghas” is a perennial herbaceous creeping grass of a Poaceae family. Durva is popular with English names like Dog’s tooth grass, Bermuda grass, Conch grass, etc. It is wildly distributed throughout India ascending to 1500 meters in the lower Himalayas, throughout the year. Durva is native to North and East Africa, Asia, Australia, and Southern Europe. In Ayurvedic classical texts, various properties and uses of Durva have been mentioned. Durva is one of the constituents of the Dasha Pushpam that is therapeutically and culturally linked to the folk of Kerala. In Ayurvedic classical texts Durva is indicated in various disorders like Yonivyapada, Garbhasrava, Garbhapata, Pradararoga, Mutra Vikara, Mutra Krcchra, Raktapitta, Rakta Srava, Nasa Asra, Atisara, Pravahik, Ksata, Vrana, Arsa, Daha, Netrabhisyanda, Paittika Siro Roga, Visarpa, Sitapitta, Charma, Vrana Vikara, Dadru, Kacchu-pana, Jantu Vikara, Vrana, etc. Durva is used in the worship of Lord Ganesha and it is used in all kinds of worship or Pooja by Hindus. Recent research revealed that Durva whole plant consists of B-Carotene, Carotene, Vitamin- C, Beta-sitosterol, palmitic acid, triterpenoids, arundoin, friedelin, selenium, ergonovine, and ergonovinine (alkaloids), due to which it exhibits antioxidant, anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-microbial, anti-cancer, CNS depressant activity, etc. In Pushpa Ayurveda of the 20th century Durva flowers are indicated in Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhages).

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    Basonym of Durva

    दूरी करोति संताप वारयति च रोगोन प्रदेरादीनिति |

    Durva is a very useful drug that alleviates many diseases.

    Synonyms of Bilva

    • According to morphology

    अनन्ता- न अन्तो अस्या: बहुप्रसरेत्यर्थ: |

    Durva spread extensively on the ground.

    प्रतानिका- प्रकर्षेण तनोति विस्तारयतीति बहुविसृतेत्यर्थ: |

    Durva grows extensively and spreads.

    अमरी- न म्रियते इति |

    The plant never dies.

    रुहा- छिन्ना अपि पुन: रोहतेति |

    When the cut grows again.

    गोलोमी- गोलोमवत पत्राण्य यस्या: |

    Durva has linear leaves which resemble cow’s hair.

    शत पर्विका- शतम बहूनि पर्वाण्य यस्या: | 

    Durva has many nodes.

     

    • According to properties and action

    शतवीर्या- शतं बहुनि वीर्याण्यस्या: |

    Durva is a very efficacious drug and has many actions.

    Regional names of Durva

    • Conch grass, Dog’s tooth grass, Bermuda grass (English)
    • Doorva, Dub, Dubarha (Hindi)
    • Durva (Bengali)
    • Dobda (Punjabi)
    • Garike (Kannada)
    • Karuka- Pullu, Belikaraka (Malayalam)
    • Haryali (Marathi)
    • Arugampulla (Tamil)
    • Garika Gaddi, Harvali (Telegu)
    • Usva (Arab)
    • Marg. (Pers.)

    Scientific classification of Durva

    KingdomPlantae
    Classmonocotyledons
    OrderCyperales
    Family Poaceae 
    GenusCynodon 
    Species dactylon

    Botanical Name

    Cynodon dactylon Person.

    In the Cynodon word Cyano is derived from Kyno means dog.

    Dactylon means fingered.

    Family – Poaceae (Yava Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Durva (Cynodon dactylon Person.)

    Classification of Durva as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Varnya Mahakshaya, Praja Sthapana Mahakshaya
    • Sushruta: Not mentioned in Gana.

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi

    Two varieties white and green have been recognized and used. All the under-mentioned names except Sadvala are either multi-meaning or not correctly identified and therefore Durva varieties have been used in their places as substitutes or as real source plants.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 3/ 26S. S. Su. 36/ 4A. H. Su. 15/ 6
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 257S. S. Su. 39/ 8A. H. Su. 22/ 20
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 67, 100S. S. Su. 46/ 432A. H. Chi. 2/ 17
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 40S. S. Chi. 11/ 8A. H. Chi. 8/ 66, 110, 117
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 83S. S. Chi. 34/ 13A. H. Chi. 9/ 23, 26, 36, 63, 109, 111
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 71S. S. Ka. 8/ 106A. H. Chi. 10/ 40
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 219S. S. Sa. 10/ 69A. H. Chi. 12/ 8
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 76, 96S. S. U. 15/ 15A. H. U. 1/ 39
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 91S. S. U. 17/ 87A. H. U. 2/ 36, 41, 48
    C. S. Si. 6/ 82S. S. U. 26/ 40A. H. U. 18/ 20
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 37, 40S. S. U. 45/ 20A. H. U. 22/ 80, 92
    A. H. U. 25/ 53
    A. H. U. 27/ 24, 25
    A. H. U. 28/ 35
    A. H. U. 34/ 47, 51, 55

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Ajalomi (controversy)

    It is a variety of Soma-like powerful drugs. The description given by Sushruta appears to be the description of a typical Fern plant wherein the rhizome is covered by ramenta or hairy scales (and gives rise to radical dissected leaves, typical of Ferns such as Hamsapadi. But its comparison with Sankhapuspi is not clear. They may, however, be similar in their effects on mental ailments. The only other alternative sources of Ajalomi and Golomi may be aromatic plants of Umbelliferae found on the snowy heights of the Himalayas. In practice, two varieties of Durva are used in their places.

     

    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 30/ 5, 23, 24, S. S. U. 60/ 47
    • Vagbhata: A. H. U. 5/ 2

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Shastra Virya

    One of the varieties of either Durva or Satavari is supposed to have been called by this name. It may be noted that one of the Asparagus species with long, fleshy, and spreading roots was found to be known by the popular name of Sahasapi in Kangra. It is reported to be placed as a symbol during the marriage ceremony.

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 49, C. S. Sa. 8/ 25, 89, C. S. Chi. 4/ 101, C. S. Si. 12/ 56
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 19/ 29, S. S. U. 58/ 58

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Shveta Durva (Variety)

    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Sa. 10/ 69

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Shaivala

    Saivala is a water plant known as Sevara. There is confusion in respect of its identity. It is, however, not Jalakumbhi (Pistia) or any non-flowering plant i.e. algae or Moss, as the use of its Mula (root) has been mentioned (S. S. Su. 45. 17). The plant known as Sevara near Varanasi is a flowering plant identified tentatively as Zannichellia palustris Linn, or Potamogeton pectinatus Linn. The possibility of this being identified as Kaivartamustala has been hinted at earlier. But it is found that Vanya and Plava have been mentioned side by side with Saivala. S. S. Chi. 11. 8  which is usually accepted as a synonym of Saivala except in S. S. U. 10. 4 where Dalhana has identified it as Durva.

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 3/ 25, C. S. Su. 27/ 77, C. S. Chi. 3/ 257, C. S. Chi. 4/ 102, C. S. Chi. 21/ 84, 90, C. S. Chi. 22/ 36, C. S. Chi. 26/ 93, C. S. Si. 10/ 20
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 13/ 13, 16, S. S. Su. 39/ 8, S. S. Chi. 45/ 11, 17, S. S. Chi. 5/ 8, S. S. Chi. 11/ 8, S. S. Chi. 17/ 6, S. S. U. 10/ 4
    • Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 5/ 6, A. H. Chi. 6/ 48, A. H. U. 37/ 35, 82

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Shadvala

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 16/ 120, C. S. Chi. 21/ 74

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Shata Virya

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 49, C. S. Sa. 8/ 29, 89, C. S. Chi. 8/ 174
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 19/ 29
    • Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 5/ 78

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Lata

    Lata has been considered to be a synonym mainly for Priyangu, Manjistha, and Durva. Sometimes it is preceded by Sita (white) or Rakta (red) when Rakta Lata is supposed to stand for Manjistha but Sita is treated independently to stand for sugar or Shweta Durva.

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 3/ 26 (Sita- Lata), C. S. Su. 4/ 8 (Sita- Lata), C. S. Chi. 4/ 75, C. S. Chi. 29/ 111, C. S. Si. 4/ 20
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Sa. 10/ 60, S. S. Ka. 5/ 68, S. S. U. 60/ 49
    • Vagbhata: A. H. Sa. 2/ 55, A. H. U. 5/ 2, 20, A. H. U. 25/ 61

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Ruha

    This is considered to be either Vrksaruha, Mamsa Rohini, or Durva. The vegetable Ruhapatra has been identified by Cakra with something called Udagra Saka.

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 3/ 266, C. S. Chi. 14/ 125, C. S. Chi. 23/ 80
    • Vagbhata: A. H. U. 25/ 52

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Dhanyavyasa (controversy)

    Although Dhamasa and Yavasa are identified with Fagonia cretica Linn, and Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb.) Dev. respectively and they belong to different families, they are considered to be almost identical in their properties and have been used as substitutes (Vide A. H. U. 13.7 and S. S. U. 39. 222 in identical Yoga). Both these two plants are also similar in their habit and habitat. Duralabha seems to be a synonym for Dhanvayasa in A. H. (Vide Chi. 3. 64; 13. 14 and 19. 10) and C. S. (Vide Ci. 18. 52; 5. 118 and 7. 139). Both the names Duhsparsa and Dunsparsaka have also been accepted as synonyms of Dhanvayasa. Duhsparsa again is a synonym of Kantakari and Kapikacchu. Lastly, Ananta- Amaar has usually been accepted as another name for Sariva- Antana. Still, some commentators at some places have taken it to be equivalent to Dhanvayasa and Durva as well.

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 12, 29, C. S. Chi. 3/ 204, 208, C. S. Chi. 4/ 45, C. S. Chi. 7/ 145, C. S. Chi. 14/ 187, C. S. Chi. 18/ 178, C. S. Chi. 21/ 57, C. S. Chi. 26/ 170
    • Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 10/ 29, A. H. Chi. 1/ 53, 65, 69, A. H. Chi. 3/ 64, A. H. Chi. 8/ 102, A. H. Chi. 11/ 37, A. H. Chi. 13/ 14, A. H. Chi. 14/ 49, A. H. Chi. 19/ 10, A. H. U. 13/ 7, A. H. U. 24/ 54, A. H. U. 30/ 12

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Golomi (Controversy)

    The controversy between Ajalomi and Durva.

     

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 48, C. S. Sa. 8/ 93
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 8/ 39, S. S. Chi. 30/ 5, 23, 33, S. S. U. 29/ 3, S. S. U. 32/ 4, S. S. U. 36/ 6, S. S. U. 60/ 47
    • Vagbhata: A. H. U. 5/ 2

    Durva's description in Brihtrayi as Ananta (controversy)

    It has been identified with any one of these, Sariva, Dhanvaysa, and Durva. In many places, it has been used with Sariva and at some with Durva or Yasa as well. As each of these three has two varieties, Ananta may indicate the use of the second variety in such cases. As all three appear to have partial similarity in their effects, any one of these may also be used. The name Ananta probably refers to the indefinite growth of the whole plant (in the case of Durva) or a part of it (primary root only in the case of Dhanvayusa). The long traditional use of Sariva under the name of Anantamula may indicate the preference Vaidyas gives to Sariva.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 4/ 31S. S. Su. 16/ 20. 27A. H. Su. 15/ 6, 37
    C. S. Su. 25/ 39S. S. Su. 36/ 7A. H. Sa. 2/ 55, 59
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 151S. S. Chi. 3/ 61A. H. Chi. 8/ 113
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 41S. S. Chi. 11/ 9A. H. Chi. 18/ 15
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 257S. S. Chi. 38/ 54A. H. Ka. 4/ 12
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 102S. S. Ka. 3/ 12A. H. U. 1/ 13
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 41S. S. Ka. 6/ 3A. H. U. 3/ 49
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 87S. S. Sa. 10/ 60, 64A. H. U. 6/ 39
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 231S. S. U. 10/ 5A. H. U. 13/ 76, 93
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 178, 232S. S. U. 24/ 40A. H. U. 18/ 8
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 91S. S. U. 29/ 7A. H. U. 22/ 36, 88
    C. S. Si. 3/ 46S. S. U. 33/ 7A. H. U. 34/ 47
    C. S. Si. 20/ 41S. S. U. 36/ 4
    S. S. U. 39/ 204
    S. S. U. 62/ 31

    Historical background of Durva

    It is perennial procumbent grass found all over India. Durva Dvaya is used in Ayurvedic therapeutics very extensively. Two varieties (Durva Dvaya) i.e; white and green/blue have been described. But a separate botanical identity for each species is not possible so far. There is another variety of Durva- “Ganda Durva” mentioned by Bhavamisra is different from Durva Dvaya.

    External morphology of cynodon dactylon

    • Habit- Prostrate, widely creeping herb forming matted tufts.
    • Stem- Slender and creeping with erect or ascending flowering branches 7 to 30 cm long.
    • Leaves- 2 to 10 cm long, 1 to 3 mm wide, narrowly linear or lanceolate, finely acute to pungent. glaucous, soft, smooth, usually conspicuously distichous in the barren shoots and at the base of the stems. Sheaths are tight, glabrous, or hairy.
    • Inflorescence- Spikes of 2 to 6 radiating from the top of a slender peduncle, 2.5 to 5 cm long, green or purplish, with slender rachis.
    • Spikelet- Spikelets are 1.5 to 2.5 mm long, rhachilla produced, very slender, equaling 1/2 the length of the spikelet. Involucre glumes are lanceolate, acute, or subulate- mucronate, the lower involved glumes are 1 to 1.5 mm long and the upper is slightly long. The grain is 1 mm long.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Throughout the year.

    Distribution of Durva

    It is a cosmopolitan plant. It is very commonly found in grass, everywhere in the country.

    Varieties of Durva

    According to Bhava Parkasha Nighantu and Kaiyadeva Nighantu:

     

    • Nila Durva 
    • Shweta Durva
    • Ganda Durva

     

    According to Raja Nighantu

     

    • Nila Durva 
    • Shweta Durva
    • Ganda Durva
    • Mala Durva

     

    Different species of Durva

     

    • Cynodon biflorus
    • Cynodon pilosus/ Eragrostis pilosa
    • Cynodon longiglumis
    • Cynodon linearies
    • Panium dactylon
    • Agrostis linearis

    The useful part of Durva

    Whole plant leaves and roots.

    Important phytoconstituent of Durva

    Whole plant B-Carotene, Carotene, Vitamin- C, Beta-sitosterol, palmitic acid, triterpenoids, arundoin, friedelin, selenium, ergonovine, and ergonovinine (alkaloids).

    Recent research on Durva

    • To study the ability of the secondary metabolites of Cynodon dactylon to serve as an antagonist to angiotensin 11 type 1 receptor (AT (1)); activation of this receptor plays a vital role in diabetic retinopathy (DR). The present study shows that the metabolites of C. dactylon could serve as a natural antagonist to AT(1) that could be used to treat diabetic retinopathy. Jannie RK Priya V, Vijayalakshmi It Secondary metabolites of Cynodon dactylon as an antagonist to angiotensin 11 type 1receptor Novel in silico drug targeting approach for diabetic retinopathy. J. Pharmacology Pharma. 2012 Jan; 3 (1): 20- 5.
    • To assess the beneficial effect of different fractions of Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Fractions of C. dactylon showed a beneficial effect on preventing and eliminating CaOx deposition in the rat kidney. These results provide a scientific rationale for the preventive and treatment roles of C. dactylon in human kidney stone disease. Khajavi Rad A, Hadizadeh MA, Rajaei Z, Mohammadian N, Valiollahi S, Sonei M. The beneficial effect of cynodon dactylon fractions on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats, Urology J. 2011 Summer; 8 (3): 179- 84.
    • This study was carried out to test if the constituents of this plant are useful in coping with stress-induced sexual problems In this study, it is considered immobilization stress to induce male infertility, and the effect of C. dactylon in the restoration of the dysfunction was evaluated by considering sexual behavioral observations, sexual performance, the fructose content of the seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration and histopathological examinations as parameters. Active constituents of C. dactylon present in methanolic extract have a potent aphrodisiac and male fertility activity. Chidrawar V, Chitme H, Patel K. Patel Nj, Racharla V, Dhoraji N, Vadalia It Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats J Young Pharm. 2011 Jan; 3 (1) 26- 35.
    • The objective of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of C. dactylon (AECID) could potentially prevent aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of the rat brain. The results of this study indicated that AECD has the potential to protect various brain regions from aluminum-induced neurotoxicity. Sumathi T, Shobana C, Kumari BR, Nandhini IDN. Protective role of Cynodon dactylon in ameliorating the aluminum-induced neurotoxicity in rat brain regions. Biology Trace Elem Res. 2011 Dec; 144 (1-3); 843- 53. Epub 2011 Mar 30.
    • The Anthelmintic activities of different extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworms (Pheritima posthuma). It was found that petroleum ether (PECID), chloroform (CECD), ethanol (EECID), and aqueous extract (AECID) of C. dactylon showed anthelmintic activities at the concentration of 5 mg/ml of each. Pal D, Pandab Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activities of Aerial Parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. Ancient Sci Life. 2010 Jul; 30 (1): 12- 3
    • An alkaloid isolated from a plant caused the slowing of blood flow in the mesenteric capillaries of rats and mice. It increased the toxicity of the isolated ileum of guinea pigs. It reduced the blood sugar level in rabbits by 15% at the end of the first hour. It also reduced clotting time and bleeding time in adult rabbits at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg i.e. (Dutta, 1974).
    • The alcoholic extract of the entire plant was found to have antiviral activity against the Vaccinia virus (Dhar et al., 1968).

    Rasa Panchaka of Durva

    Rasa (Taste)Tikata (bitter), Kashaya (Astringent), Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Dosha Karma of Durva

    • Kapha Pitta Shamaka

    Kapha Hara because of Tikta Rasa, Pitta Shamaka because of Madhura Vipaka and Sheeta Virya. 

    Karma (Actions) of Durva

    • Nila Durva- Trishnhara, Daha Shamaka, Twak Rogahara, Stambhaka, Jwarahara.
    • Shweta Durva- Trishna Hara, Dahahara, Varnya, Jivani, Rucya.
    • Ganda durva- Grahi, Daha Samaka, Trishna Hara, Kustha Ghana, Iwara Ghana, Sramahara.
    • Mala Durva- Trishnahara, Chardi Ghana.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Durva

    • Abhyantara Paryoga (Internal indication): Yonivyapada, Garbhasrava, Garbhapata, Pradararoga, Mutra Vikara, Mutra Krcchra, Raktapitta, Rakta Srava, Nasa Asra, Atisara, Pravahika, Arsa, Chardi, Trishna, Daha, Murcha, Mastiska Dourbalya, Savedana Vikara, Unmada, Apasmara,Tvagdosa, Kustha, Dourbalya, Ksaya. 
    • Bahya Paryoga (External Indication): Ksata, Vrana, Arsa, Daha, Netrabhisyanda, Paittika Siro Roga, Visarpa, Sitapitta, Charma, Vrana Vikara, Dadru, Kacchu-pana, Jantu Vikara, Vrana.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Durva

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage)

     

    • One should take Durva, tender leaves of Vat, and white Girikarnika mixed with honey. Kharjura Phala and other similar fruits should be mixed with Madhu and can be used to cure Rakta Pitta. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 45/ 20)
    • To check hemorrhage, juice of the grape, sugarcane, Durva, Yavasa root, onion, and Dadima flowers and milk should be used as snuff. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 100)

     

    Rakta Arsha (Bleeding piles): Anointment of ghee cooked with Durva and the same washed hundred or thousand times as well as the cool air of palm-fan checks hemorrhage immediately. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 219)

     

    Visarpa (Erysipelas): Ghee cooked with Durva promotes the healing of the wound. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 21/ 96)

     

    Vrna (Wounds): Oil cooked with Durva juice or Kampillaka and paste of Darvi bark is an excellent remedy for wound-healing. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 93, Vrinda Madhava. 45/ 28)

     

    Kustha Roga (Skin diseases): 

     

    • Oil should be cooked with four times the juice of Durva. Local application alleviates scabies and eczema. (Vrinda Madhava. 51/ 135)
    • Paste of Durva and Haridra removes scabies, eczema, worms, ringworm, and urticaria. (Vrinda Madhava. 52/ 6)

     

    Chardi (Vomiting): Durva taken with rice-water checks vomiting (Gada Nigreha. 2. 14. 30)

     

    Anartava (Amenorrhoea): On taking the paste of Durva, a woman gets menstruation. (Chakra Dutta. 62/ 25)

    Benefits of Durva

    • The juice of the herb is astringent and used as an application to fresh cuts and wounds. It is a diuretic, used in dropsy and anasarca; and it is given in hysteria, epilepsy, insanity, and mental troubles. 
    • Juice is orally used as an astringent in diarrhea and dysentery. The juice is useful in catarrhal ophthalmia.
    • The crushed roots are mixed with curds used in chronic gleet. Infusion of the roots is used for checking bleeding from piles.
    • The decoction of the roots is used in diarrhea, dropsy, and secondary syphilis.
    • The juice of the herb is put into the nostrils (Nasya or Bindu Patana) in the condition of epistaxis (Nasagata Raktapitta) which is an effective remedy.
    • The Mula Kwatha (roots decoction) is given in Updansha (secondary syphilis). A cold infusion of the herb is given in piles for checking the blood in hemorrhoids.
    • The herb is applied to parasitic affections. The plant of the rhizome is applied to gout and rheumatic affections.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Durva

    • Swarasa (juice): 12- 24 g/ 10- 20 ml
    • Churna (powder): 1- 3 gram
    • Kwatha (decoction): 50- 100 ml

    Classical reference of Durva

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 173

    Synonyms
    Nila Durva

    नीलदूर्वा रुहा अनन्ता भार्गवी शतपर्विका |

    शष्पं सहस्रवीर्या च शतवल्ली च कीर्तिता ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1231

    नीलदूर्वा हिमा तिक्ता मधुरा तुवरा हरेत |

    कफपित्तास्र वीसर्पतृष्णादाह त्वगामयान्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 108

    नीलदूर्बातु मधुरा तिक्ता शिशिररोचनी |

    रक्तपित्तातिसारघ्नी कफवात ज्वरापहा ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 174

    Shweta Durva

    श्वेत दूर्वा कषाया स्यात्स्वाद्वी वर्ण्या जीवनी |

    तिक्ता हिमा विसर्पास्रत्र तृट पित्तकफदाहहत्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1233

    श्वेतदूर्वा कषाया स्यात्‌ स्वाद्दी वर्ण्या च जीवनी |

    तिक्ता हिमा विसर्पास्रतट्पित्तकफदाहजित्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 111

    श्वेतदूर्वा अतिशिशिरा मधुरा वान्तिपित्तजित |

    आमातीसारकासघ्नी रुच्या दाहतृषापहा ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 175, 176

    Ganda Durva

    गण्डदूर्वा हिमा लोहद्राविणी ग्राहिणी लघु: |

    तिक्ता कषाया मधुरा वातकृत्‌कटुपाकिनी ||

    दाहतृष्णाबलासास्रकुष्ठपित्तज्वरापहा |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1235- 1236

    मत्स्याक्षस्तुवरस्तिक्त: कषायो मधुरो हिम: ।

    कटुपाको लघुग्राहि लोहद्राव्यनिलप्रद: ||

    बलासपित्ततृष्णास्रकुष्ठदाह ज्वरापह: ||

    Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 116

    गण्डदूर्वा तु मधुरा वातपित्तज्वरापहा ||

    शिशिरा द्वन्द दोषघ्नी भ्रमतृष्णाश्रमापहा ||

    Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 113

    Mala Durva

    वल्लिदूर्वा सुमधुरा तिक्ता च शिशिरा च सा |

    पित्तदोष प्रशमनी कफवान्तितृषापहा ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Karveeradi Varga, 129

    Samanya Durva Guna

    दूर्वा शीता कषाया च रक्तपित्तकफापह |

    Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 117

    दूर्वा: कषाया मधुराश्च शीता: पित्तातृषा अरोचक वान्तिहतय: |

    सदाहमूच्छग्रिह भूतशान्ति श्लेष्म श्रमध्वंसनतृप्तिदाश्च ||

    Priya Nighantu, Shatpushpadi varga, 75

    दूर्वा शीता कषाया स्यात्‌ स्तम्भनी पित्तनाशिनी |

    रक्त पित्ते विसर्पे च त्वग रोगेषु प्रशस्यते ||

    दूर्वात्रय दूर्वा- नील दूर्वा 

    हरिता शादूवलं वृष्यं श्यामङ्गो श्यामवल्लयपि ||

    नीलदूर्वा सहानन्ता भार्गव शतपर्विका |

    शस्यं सहस्रवीर्या च शीतवल्ली च कीर्तिता ||

    नीलदूर्वा हिमा तिका मधुरा तुवरा हरेत |

    (शीतवीर्या नील दूर्वा गोलोमी शतपार्विका) 

    शतवीर्या: नमस्कार्या शितवल्लियसिता मता ||

    दूर्वा स्वाद्वी हिमा तिक्ता कषाया जीवनी जयेत्‌ |

    कफपित्तास्त्र विसर्प तृषादाहत्वगामयान्‌ |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1232-1233

    श्वेत दूर्वा 

    श्वेतदूर्वा श्वेतदण्डी रवेतकाण्डा सिता: लता |

    सहस्त्र वीर्य अनंता च दुष्करा भार्गवी रुहा |

    श्वेत दूर्वा च गोलोमी शतवीर्या च  कथ्यन्ते |

    श्वेत दूर्वा कषाया स्यात्‌ स्याद्वी वर्ण्या च जीवनी |

    तिक्ता हिम विसर्प अस्त्र तृट पित्तकफदाहजित्‌ ||

    (श्वेत दूर्वा हिमा स्वाद्वी कफवाता स्त्रदाहहा |)

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1234- 1236

    गण्डदूर्वा

    मत्स्याक्षकों मत्स्यगन्धा वाल्ही नाडी कलायकः ||

    मत्स्यादनी तु गण्डाक्षी तथा गर्त कलंबुकः ||

    मत्स्याक्षास्तुवरस्तिक्त: कषायो मधुरो हिमः ||

    कटु पाको लघुग्राही लोहद्राव्यनिल प्रद: |

    बलास पित्ततृष्णास्रकुष्ठदाह ज्वरापह: ||

    नीलदूर्वा

    स्यान्नील दूर्वा हरिता च शाम्भवी

    श्यामा च शान्ता शत पर्विका अमृता |

    पूता शतग्रन्थिरनुष्ण वल्लिका |

    शिवा शिवेष्टा अपि च मंगला जया |  

    सुभगा भूतहन्त्री च शतमूला महौषधि |

    अमृता विजया गौरी शान्ता स्वादिकरविंशतिः ||

    Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 106- 108

    दूर्वा नील दूर्वा गुणा

    नील दूर्वा तू मधुरा तिक्ता शिशिररोचनी |

    रक्तपित्त अतिसारघ्नी कफ वात ज्वरपहा ||

    Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 109- 111

    गोलोमी दूर्वा भेद:

    स्याद गोलोमी श्वेत दूर्वा सीताख्या 

    चाण्डा भद्रा भार्गवी दुर्मरा च |

    गौरी विघ्ने शान कान्ता अप्यनन्ता

    सहस्त्र वीर्या च सहस्त्र काण्डा

    सहस्त्र पर्व सुर वल्लभा च |

    शुभा सुपर्वा च सितच्छदा च

    स्वच्छा च कन्छान्तरुहा अब्धिहस्ता ||

    गोलोमी गुणा:

    श्वेतदूर्वा अतिशिशिरा मधुरा वान्तिपित्तजित्‌ |

    आमातिसार कासघ्नी रुच्या दाहतृषापहा ||

    Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 112- 113

    मालादूर्वा

    मालादूर्वा वल्लिदूर्वा अलिदूर्वा माला ग्रंथि ग्रन्थिला ग्रंथि दूर्वा |

    मूल ग्रंथि वल्लरी ग्रंथि मूला रोहत्पर्वा पर्ववल्ली सिताख्या ||

    मालादूर्वा गुणा:

    (मालादूर्वा) वल्लिदूर्वा सुमधुरा तिक्ता च शिशिरा च सा |

    पित्तदोषप्रशमनी कफवान्तिषापहा ||

    Bhava Parkasha Rakta pitta Adhikaram, 9/ 32, 36

    रक्तपित्ते दूर्वा आद्य घृतम्

    Chakra Dutta, 50- 20

    कुष्ठे दूर्वाद्यलेप:

    Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 117

    दूर्वासाधारण गुणा:

    दूर्वा: कषाया मधुराश्च शीता: पित्तातृषा अरोचक वान्तिहन्ता: |

    सदाहमूर्च्छाग्रह भूतशान्ति श्लेष्ममध्वंसनतृप्तिदिश्च: ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 45/ 20

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic haemorrhage)

    लिह्याच्च दूर्वा वटजाश्च पल्ल्वान मधु द्वितियां सित कर्णि कस्य | 

    हित्तम च खर्जुर फलं समाक्षीकं फलानि च अन्यान्यपि तद गुणा अन्यथ |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 219

    Rakta Arsha (bleeding piles)

    दूर्वा घृत प्रदेह: शतधौत सहस्त्र धौत अपि सर्पि: |

    व्यजन पवन: सु शीतो रक्त स्तरावं ज्याताशु ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 21/ 16

    Visarpa (herpes)

    दूर्वा स्वरस सिद्धं च घृतं स्याद व्रण रोपणम |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 93

    Vrna (ulcer)

    दूर्वा स्वरस स सिद्धं व तैल…. प्रधानं व्रण रोपणम |

    Specific Formulation of Durva

    • Durvadya Kwatha for Jwara Atisara
    • Durvadya Taila for Sutika Vikara
    • Durvadya Ghrita for Pravahika
    • Jatyadi Ghrita for Nadi Vrana
    • Durvyadi Lepa

    Contraindication and side effects of Durva

    In the prescribed dosage Durva does not exhibit any side effects. overdosage of Durva may result in rash, burning sensation, paresthesia oral, etc. In Vata dominant people Durva must be used under medical supervision carefully. It is best to avoid the use of Durva during pregnancy and lactation or use it as per your doctor’s advice.

    Suggestive reading regarding Cynodon dactylon

    • Ashok kumar, Kaliya perumal & Selvaraj, Kumara kurubaran & Muthu krishnan, Saradha. (2013). Review Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.: An updated review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of medicinal plant research. 7. 3477-3483. 10. 5897/ JMPR2013.5316x.
    • Paul, Rita & Mandal, Aninda & Datta, Animesh. (2012). An updated overview on Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy. 3. 11- 14.
    • Shendye, Ninad & Gurav, Shailendra. (2014). Cynodon dactylon: A systemic review of pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 6. 7- 12.
    • Nagori, Badri & Solanki, Renu. (2011). Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.: A Valuable Medicinal Plant. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant. 5. 508-514. 10.3923/rjmp.2011.508.514.
    • Parihar, Shweta & Sharma, Devender. (2021). Cynodon dactylon: A Review of Pharmacological Activities. Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy. 10. 10. 36347/ sap. 2021. v10i11. 001.
    • Singh, Vandana & Oommen, Sara. (2021). EFFECT 0F DURVA (Cynodon dactylon Linn) IN MENOPAUSAL SYNDROME.
    • Singh, Sharda & Kumar, Sanjeev & Kamal, Dr & Dwivedi, Nayan & Shashi, Dr & Pandey, Kant. (2019). THERAPEUTIC REVIEW ON AN AUSPICIOUS GRASS: DURVA (CYNODON DACTYLON LINN. PERS): FROM KOSHA AND NIGHANTUS.
    • Singh, Vandana & Singh, Anita & Singh, Inder Pal & Kumar, B. (2021). Phytomedicinal properties of Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers. (Durva) in its traditional preparation and extracts. Phytomedicine Plus. 1. 100020. 10. 1016/ j. phyllo.  2021.100020.
    • Shabi, Mohamed & Sasikala, S.S. & Krishnamoorthy, Gayathri & Sreelakshmi, B. S. (2010). Cynodon dactylon: a review. Int. J. Biomed. Res. Anal. 1. 65-67.
    • Al- Snafi, Ali. (2016). Chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Cynodon dactylon-A Review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 6. 17- 31. 10. 9790/ 3013-06721731.
    • Chowdhury, Tuhina & Al-Mamun, Mohammad & Absar, Nurul & Hasanuzzaman, Md. (2017). A Study on the Nutrients and Secondary Metabolites Composition of Two Varieties of Cynodon Available in Bangladesh and their Anti-Oxidant Activities.
    • Charde, Manoj & Fulzele, S.V. & Satturwar, P.M. & Dorle, A.K. (2003). Wound healing activity of Durva Ghrita. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 65. 482-485.
    • Lonial, Sagar & Oriol, Albert & Mateos, Maria-Victoria & Rodriguez-Otero, Paula & Bahlis, Nizar & Bensinger, William & Porkka, Kimmo & Donk, Niels & Yiu, Wai & Casoli, Carl & Ervin-Haynes, Annette & Zaki, Mohamed & Vangsted, Annette. (2017). A phase 1/2 study of Durva (DURVA) in combination with lenalidomide (LEN) with or without dexamethasone (DEX) in patients (pts) with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM). Journal of Clinical Oncology. 35. TPS8055- TPS8055. 10. 1200/ JCO. 2017. 35.15_suppl.  TPS 8055.
    • Khatun, Papia & Das, Shonkor. (2020). Medicinal and Versatile Uses of an Amazing, Obtainable and Valuable Grass: Cynodon dactylon. 8. 1-11.
    • Asthana, A. & Kumar, A. & Dora, J. & Gangwar, Smriti. (2012). Pharmacological perspectives of Cynodon dactylon. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological, and Chemical Sciences. 3. 1135- 1147.
    • Virmani, Tarun & Virmani, Reshu & Mittal, Girish & Singh, Scholar Satbir & Mahlawat, Geeta. (2018). Hidden Potential of Doob Grass-An Indian Traditional Drug. 4. 478- 482. 10. 32463/rphs. 2018. v04i03. 13.
    • Saeed, Anwaar & Park, Robin & Dai, Junqiang & Al-Rajabi, Raed & Kasi, Anup & Saeed, Azhar & Collins, Zachary & Thompson, Kayra & Barbosa, Lori & Mulvaney, Kelly & Manirad, Vanna & Phadnis, Milind & Williamson, Stephen & Baranda, Joaquina & Sun, Weijing. (2022). Phase II trial of cabozantinib (Cabo) plus Durva in chemotherapy-refractory patients with advanced mismatch repair proficient/microsatellite stable (MMR/MSS) colorectal cancer (CRC): CAMILLA CRC cohort results. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 40. 135- 135. 10. 1200/ JCO. 2022. 40. 4_suppl.135.
    • Atram, & Kolte, Smita & Kamble, Akshay & Kolhe, & Manani, Yogesh. (2020). STANDARDIZATION OF THE DURVADI LEPA. 6. 142-146.
    • Kumar V, Krishna & Harisha, Channappa & Manjusha, Rajagopala & Shukla, Vinay. (2016). PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DURVADI GHRITA – AN AYURVEDIC POLYHERBAL FORMULATION. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 5. 1242-1251.
    • Badri Prakash Nagori and Renu Solanki, 2011. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.: A Valuable Medicinal Plant. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 5: 508- 514. DOI: 10. 17311/ ramp. 2011. 508. 514.
    • Biswas TK, Pandit S, Chakrabarti S, Banerjee S, Poyra N, Seal T. Evaluation of Cynodon dactylon for wound healing activity. J Ethnopharmacol. 2017 Feb 2; 197: 128- 137. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2016. 07. 065. Epub 2016 Jul 22. PMID: 27457694.
    • Pattanashetti LA, Patil BM, Hegde HV, Kangle RP. Potential ameliorative effect of Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats: Restoration of cholinergic and antioxidant pathways. Indian J Pharmacol. 2021 Jan- Feb; 53 (1): 50- 59. doi: 10. 4103/ IJP. IJP_ 473_ 20. PMID: 33975999; PMCID: PMC8216122.
    • Bhangale, Jitendra & Acharya, Sanjeev. (2014). Antiarthritic activity of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Indian journal of experimental biology. 52. 215- 22.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Shalmalyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Karveeradi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • P.V. Sharma, Priya Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Shodhala Nighantu
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sankrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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