Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Chandana Dwaya– Santalum album Linn. and Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.

    Chandana Dwaya– Santalum album Linn. and Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.

    Shweta Chandana – The Precious tree with significant medicinal benefits

    Introduction

    Shweta Chandana botanically known as Santalum album Linn. is a commercially significant evergreen tree that is well known for its unique fragrance and is used as timber in India. Shweta Chandana is a very sacred plant and has been mentioned in Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism culture. The aromatic essential oil extracted from Shweta Chandana is used for various purposes like in cosmetics, perfumes, the food industry, etc. As per Ayurvedic classical texts, Shweta Chandana is cold in potency i.e Sheet Virya, Laghu (light), and Ruksha (dry) in nature. Shweta Chandana has Vishghana property. It is used to treat various disorders like gastric irritability, dysentery, piles, memory enhancer, vaginal discharges, rejuvenators, etc. Recent research revealed that Shweta Chandana has two isomeric sesquiterpene alcohols, alpha -santalol, beta-santalol, santene, santenone, and teresantol, santalone, etc due to which it exhibits various properties like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, hepato- protective, anti-fungal, etc.

    Rakta Chandana- A marvelous gift of nature

    Introduction

    Rakta Chandana botanically known as Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. is a rare deciduous tree of medium-sized that is distributed in South India mainly in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu. The heartwood of Rakta Chandana is highly prized and used in various disorders like piles, syphilis, thirst, fever, purifying blood, etc. As per Ayurvedic classical texts, Rakta Chandana is cold in potency i.e Sheet Virya, Guru (heavy), and Ruksha (dry) in nature. The main difference between Shweta Chandana and Rakta Chandana properties (Rasa Panchaka) is that Rakta Chandana is Guru (heavy) in nature and Shweta Chandana is Laghu (light) in nature. Recent research revealed that Rakta Chandana has various secondary metabolites like saponins, phenols, glucosides, isoflavone, etc. due to which it exhibits anti- pyretic, anti-diabetic, wound healing, anti-inflammatory activities, analgesic activity, etc.

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    Basonym of Shweta Chandana

    चन्दनि आह्वादयति इति |
    चन्दयति आह्वादयति जनान्‌ सुगंध त्वात शीतल त्वाच |

    Chandana gives pleasure because of its aroma and cooling effect.

    श्वेत वर्ण चन्दनम्‌ इति |

    It is white colored.

    Basonym of Rakta Chandana

    रक्त वर्णम चन्दनम इदं इति |

    Rakta Chandana is considered a red variety of sandalwood.

    Synonyms of Shweta Chandana

    • According to habitat

    मलयज- मलयप्रदेशे ज्ञात: |

    Chandana plant grows in Malaya (region covers western Ghats spreading in Karnataka and Kerala states).

     

    • According to morphology

    तिलपर्णकम्‌- तिलस्येव पर्णान्यस्य |

    The leaves of Shweta Chandana resemble the leaves of Tila (Sesamum plant).

    गंध सार: – गंध: सारे अस्य |

    The heartwood of Shweta Chandana has a good aroma.

     

    • According to properties and action

    शिशिरम – शीत स्पर्शे वीर्य च |  

    Shweta Chandana has Sheeta Virya and it is cold to touch.

    चंद्रदयुति – चंद्र ज्योतसा स्नाव आह्लादकरम |

    Shweta Chandana has a cooling effect like that of moon rays so it is pleasing.

    भद्रा श्री: – भद्रा श्री: शोभा अस्य |

    Imparts beauty to one who uses it.

    गंध राज – गंध द्रव्याणां राजा श्रेष्ठ्म |

    Shweta Chandana is regarded as the best among aromatic substances.

    श्री खंडम – श्रीया युतानी खाण्डान्यस्य |

    Pieces of the heartwood of Shweta Chandana and valuable.

    Synonyms of Rakta Chandana

    • According to morphology

    रक्त सारम – रक्त वर्णम सारम असत्यस्या |

    The heartwood of Rakta Chandna is red.

    रक्तांग – रक्त वर्णानि अंगानि यस्य |

    The heartwood is red in color.

    प्रवाल फलम – प्रवाल सदृश फलानि सत्यस्या: |

    The fruit of Rakta Chandana resembles that of Parvala.

     

    • According to properties and action

    क्षुद्र चन्दनम 

    Properties are a little inferior when compared to Shweta Chandana.

    Regional names of Shweta Chandana

    • White sandalwood tree (English)
    • Safed Chandana (Hindi)
    • Chandan (Bengali)
    • Shree Kahanda, Shree Gandha (Kannada)
    • Chandanam (Malayalam)
    • Safed Chandana (Marathi)
    • Chandanam, Sandanmaram (Tamil)
    • Tella Chandanam, Gandhpuchekka (Telugu)
    • Chandanam (Malayalam)
    • Sukhada (Gujarati)
    • Sandale Safed (Pers.)
    • Sandale Abaya (Arabic)

    Regional names of Rakta Chandana

    • Red sandalwood tree (English)
    • Lal/ Rakta Chandana (Hindi)
    • Sandal Surkh (Pers.)
    • Rakta Kahanda, Honne (Kannada)
    • Chan- Chandanam (Malayalam)
    • Rakta Chandana (Marathi)
    • Cheng Chandanam, Sensandamum (Tamil)
    • Erra Chandanam (Telugu)
    • Tilaparni (Malayalam)
    • Katori (Sindh)
    • Lal Chandan (Gujarati)
    • Ahmar (Arabic)

    Scientific classification of the Shweta Chandana

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassMonochlamydeae
    Series Achlamydosporeae
    Family Santalaceae
    GenusSantalum
    Species album

    Scientific classification of Rakta Chandana

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassPolypetalae 
    Series Calyciflorae
    OrderRosales
    Family Fabaceae (Papilionaceae)
    GenusPterocarpus 
    Species santalinus

    Botanical Name

    Santalum album Linn.

    Santalum – Santalum word derived from the Greek word Santalon which signifies its aroma.

    Album means white.

    Family – Santalaceae (Chandana Kula)

    Botanical Name

    Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.

    Pterocarpus – In the Pterocarpus word Ptero means winged shaped, carpus means fruit and Santalinus means Sandalwood.

    Family – Fabaceae/ Papilionaceae (Aprajita Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Shweta Chandana (Santalum album Linn.)

    Ayurveda reference for Rakta Chandana (Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.)

    Classification of Shweta Chandana as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Daha Prashmana Mahakshaya, Angamard Prashmana Mahakshaya, Trishna Nigrehana Mahakshaya, Varnya Mahakshaya, Kandu Mahakshaya, Vishghana Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Salsaardi Gana, Patoladi Gana.

    Classification of Rakta Chandana as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Not mentioned in Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Sarivadi Gana, Patoladi Gana, Priyangvadi Gana.

    Chandana's description in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 3/ 22, 25, 28S. S. Su. 6/ 26A. H. Su. 3/ 20, 38, 53
    C. S. Su. 4/ 8, 14, 16, 29, 41, 44S. S. Su. 12/ 22, 27A. H. Su. 7/ 19
    C. S. Su. 5/ 17, 60S. S. Su. 28/ 11A. H. Su. 10/ 28
    C. S. Su. 25/ 39, 49S. S. Su. 36/ 3, 24A. H. Su. 13/ 6
    C. S. Vi. 6/ 16S. S. Su. 38/ 11, 32, 38, 44, 49A. H. Su. 15/ 15
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 9, 150S. S. Su. 39/ 7A. H. Su. 22/ 20
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 54S. S. Chi. 2/ 38, 39, 68, 75, 83A. H. Su. 30/ 51
    C. S. In. 12/ 72S. S. Chi. 3/ 58A. H. Sa. 1/ 17, 60
    C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 47, 57, 63S. S. Chi. 5/ 8, 12A. H. Sa. 2/ 8, 48
    C. S. Chi. 1. 2/ 12S. S. Chi. 9/ 8, 9A. H. Sa. 5/ 113
    C. S. Chi. 1. 3/ 2S. S. Chi. 11/ 8A. H. Chi. 1/ 15, 33, 50, 56, 110
    C. S. Chi. 1. 4/ 16S. S. Chi. 15/ 31A. H. Chi. 2/ 27, 31, 32
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 145, 202, 219, 223, 247, 253, 257, 260, 261, 262, 264S. S. Chi. 16/ 10, 15, 18A. H. Chi. 3/ 76
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 31, 45, 73, 76, 78, 80, 81, 99, 108S. S. Chi. 17, 7, 8, 11A. H. Chi. 4/ 12, 48
    C. S. Chi. 5/ 120S. S. Chi. 19/ 30A. H. Chi. 5/ 67, 70
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 28, 30, 39, 50S. S. Chi. 20/ 54A. H. Chi. 8/ 112, 127, 130
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 130, 131, 132, 133, 141, 145S. S. Chi. 22/ 17A. H. Chi. 9/ 93
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 77, 78, 83, 84, 85S. S. Chi. 27/ 9A. H. Chi. 10/ 35, 41, 49
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 44S. S. Chi. 34/ 13A. H. Chi. 12/ 8, 18
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 36S. S. Chi. 37/ 12, 24, 27, 30A. H. Chi. 13/ 15
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 18S. S. Chi. 38/ 26, 51, 54A. H. Chi. 14/ 66
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 52, 67, 68, 70S. S. Ka. 1/ 36, 53, 61A. H. Chi. 18/ 4
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 187, 193, 216, 228, 231, 237S. S. Ka. 2/ 48A. H. Chi. 19/ 4, 9, 88, 89
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 125, 138, 149S. S. Ka. 5/ 16, 67, 69A. H. Chi. 21/ 75
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 47S. S. Ka. 6/ 10, 14A. H. Chi. 22/ 27, 28, 42
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 131S. S. Ka. 8/ 104, 112, 114, 117, 119A. H. Ka. 2/ 25
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 90S. S. Sa. 2/ 15A. H. Ka. 3/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 53, 59, 92S. S. U. 10/ 5, 10A. H. Ka. 4/ 11, 12, 14
    C. S. Chi. 20/ 32, 33S. S. U. 11/ 9A. H. U. 1/ 23
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 53, 54, 73, 74, 75, 78S. S. U. 12/ 13A. H. U. 2/ 13, 50, 55, 61
    C. S. Chi. 22/ 41S. S. U. 17/ 27A. H. U. 9/ 18
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 56, 77, 98, 190, 191, 200, 230, 241, 253, 255, 256S. S. U. 18/ 94A. H. U. 11/ 32
    C. S. Chi. 24/ 152, 154, 155S. S. U. 21/ 30, 37A. H. U. 13/ 4, 8, 60, 65, 72
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 45, 86, 89, 90, 161, 177, 179, 182S. S. U. 24/ 40A. H. U. 16/ 3
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 160, 176, 178, 181, 207, 215, 232, 268, 274S. S. U. 26/ 7, 14, 34A. H. U. 21/ 36, 84, 91, 103
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 29S. S. U. 32/ 5A. H. U. 24/ 8, 44
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 149, 152, 157S. S. U. 39/ 109, 173, 179, 214, 218, 223, 226, 303, 304A. H. U. 26/ 26, 55
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 92, 106, 110, 114, 128, 134S. S. U. 40/ 63, 64, 74, 86 A. H. U. 27/ 38
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 91, 272S. S. U. 45/ 25A. H. U. 30/ 25
    C. S. Ka. 7/ 55S. S. U. 47/ 58, 61, 81A. H. U. 32/ 27, 31
    C. S. Si. 3/ 45, 46, 48, 51S. S. U. 49/ 31, 33A. H. U. 35/ 23, 39
    C. S. Si. 6/ 48S. S. U. 62/ 22A. H. U. 36/ 48
    C. S. Si. 10/ 20, 40, 42S. S. U. 64/ 15, 19, 40A. H. U. 37/ 82, 84
    C. S. Si. 12/ 55, 56A. H. U. 39/ 17, 34, 46, 155
    A. H. U. 40/ 72

    Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Trihima

    Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 19

    Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Sheeta

    Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 37

    Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Hima

    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 42/ 71
    • Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 20/ 37, A. H. Su. 22/ 20, A. H. Sa. 2/ 2, A. H. Chi. 1/ 90, A. H. Chi. 3/ 29, A. H. Chi. 8/ 115, A. H. Chi. 17/ 32, A. H. Chi. 21/ 68, A. H. U. 6/ 28, A. H. U. 13/ 74, A. H. U. 18/ 8

    Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Shweta Chandana

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 25/ 39

    Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Bhadra Shree

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 3/ 257
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Sa. 2/ 15, S. S. Chi. 5/ 8, S. S. Ka. 6/ 15
    • Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. U. 30/ 22

    Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Malaya, Malayaja

    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 47/ 55
    • Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. U. 1/ 25

    Rakta Chandana's description in Brihtrayi

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 30/ 90
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 3/ 7, S. S. Chi. 25/ 39, S. S. U. 28/ 14, S. S. U. 39/ 243, S. S. U. 40/ 63, S. S. U. 45/ 39
    • Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 16, A. H. Su. 21/ 71, A. H. U. 32/ 17, A. H. U. 34/ 47, A. H. U. 37/ 86

    Rakta Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Rakta Vriksha

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 284

    Kuchandana's description in Brihtrayi

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 4/ 103
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 38/ 12, 33, 39, 45, S. S. Su. 39/ 7, S. S. U. 48/ 24
    • Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 2/ 16, A. H. Chi. 8/ 102, A. H. Chi. 21/ 65, A. H. U. 13/ 45

    Rakta Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Lohit Chandana

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 4/ 101

    Rakta Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Rakta Sara

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 9/ 50

    Rakta Chandana's description in Brihtrayi as Ashukla Chandana

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 50/ 18

    Hari Chandana's description in Brihtrayi

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Sa. 8/ 11
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 47, 59, 63
    • Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 3/ 40

    Historical background of Shweta Chandana

    Chandana is considered an aromatic substance that is utilized for external application along with other herbs in the Vedic literature. Chandana Mani Dharana (Crystal of sandalwood) was Varcasya (improves complexion) and Ayushya (provides longevity). Charaka indicated Chandana is the best for removing the fetid smell, burning sensation, and external application (C. S. Su. 25). Other varieties of Chandana are traceable from Brhattrayi with various synonyms. However, Shweta and Rakta Chandana are mainly described in these texts. The following varieties of Chandana have mentioned in various texts:

    • Dhanvantari Nighantu- Five varieties

    Chandana, Rakta Chandana, Kuchandana (Patranga), Kaliyaka and

    Barbarika

     

    • Sodhala Nighantu- Eight varieties

    Gosirsa, Sripriya, Sambhrana, Kakubha, Barbarika, Rakta Chandana, Patanga and Haricandana,

    Barbarika is again three types viz., Shweta (white), Krishna (black) & Rakta (red).

     

    • Kaiyadeva Nighantu- six types

    Chandana, Rakta Chandana, Pita Chandana, Kairata Chandana, Barbara Chandana & Hari Chandana.

    Three types- Based on color- Rakta, Pita & Pandu

    *Note- Chandana from Malaya Desa is best; that from Yavana Desa is of moderate quality and that from Barbara, Panchala, etc. places are an inferior variety.

     

    • Bhava Prakasha- four varieties

    Chandana, Rakta Chandana, Kaliyaka (Pita Chandana) and Kucandana (Patranga).

     

    • Raja Nighantu- Six varieties

    Chandana, Rakta Chandana, Patanga, Kaliyaka, Barbaraka and Haricandana.

    Sveta Chandana is again two types viz., Vetta and Sukvadi.

    In Dhanvantari nighantu Hari Candana is used as the synonym for Rakta Chandana. In the nighantus, Shweta Chandana is denoted with Gosirsa and Tilaparna as synonyms.

    The ‘Vetta’ variety of Chandana that is specifically mentioned by Raja Narahari Pandit is found mainly in the Malaya Parvata (mountains). This is considered to be an evergreen tree. The Sukvadi variety always appears a little dried.

    Historical background of Rakta Chandana

    It is a tree reaching up to 15-30 ft in height and possesses yellow flowers. It grows mainly in the forests of Eastern ghats in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka. It is described by Brhattrayi and has been used at some places, instead of Chandana. Overall, four types of Chandana are available in the literature. Their botanical sources are as follows: Chandana- Santalum album, Pita Chandana- P. santalinus, Pita Chandana- Kaliya, Kucandana- Pattanga.

    External morphology of Santalum album Linn.

    • Habit- A small or middle-sized evergreen, glabrous and semi- Parasitic tree with slender drooping branches; the sapwood white and odorless; the heartwood yellowish brown, strongly scented.
    • Branches- Branches of Shweta Chandana are slender and drooping.
    • Sapwood- Sapwood of Shweta Chandana is white and odorless.
    • Heartwood- The heartwood of Shweta Chandana is yellowish-brown and strongly scented.
    • Leaves- Leaves of Shweta Chandana are 3.8- 6.3 by 1.6- 3.2 cm., elliptic-lanceolate, subacute, glabrous, entire, thin, acute; petioles 1- 1.3 cm, long, slender.
    • Flowers- Flowers brownish purples, in terminal and axillary paniculate cymes shorter than the leaves; perianth campanulate; the limb of 4 valvate triangular segments; stamens 4, exerted, alternating with 4 rounded obtuse scales.
    • Fruits- Fruit of Shweta Chandana is drupe globose. 1.3 cm. diam., a purple-black. Endocarp hard, ribbed.
    • Woods- Sandalwood logs are about a yard in length and 12 to 15 cm. in diameter. They are stripped of the bark and a portion of sapwood. Sandalwood, rather ponderous and hard, is very homogenous but does not sink in water.The heartwood is pale, and reddish, with darker, reddish-brown, and brighter yellowish concentric zones. The sapwood is scentless, whereas the heartwood, when freshly cut, is in a high degree odorous state, possessing a very agreeable and remarkably persistent odor of sandal oil. Sandalwood is prized and esteemed for its aromatic value as one of the popular scented wood items.

    Flowering and Fruiting Time of Shweta Chandana

    Rainy season to the winter season and onwards.

    External morphology of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.

    • Habit- A small tree, or medium-sized attaining 7-5 meters, with an extremely hard, dark purple heart- wood.
    • Leaves- Leaflets rarely 4 or 5 broad- elliptic, obtuse, 3.8- 7.5 cm. long, underside pale and clothed with fine appressed hairs.
    • Inflorescence- Flowers few, in short axillary or terminal racemes. Pods of Rakta Chandana are 3- 8 cm. diam., which are oblique and gradually narrowed into a short stalk. Seeds are red like the seeds of Abrus precatorius Linn. (Gunja) and leaves look like leaves of Sesamum indicum (Taila).
    • Fruit- Pod, 4 cm in diameter, oblique, gradually narrowed into a short stalk.
    • Woods- Woods obtained from Rakta Chandana tree with blackish grey barks; woods externally of lighter color, whereas the heartwood is blood red. Woods sinks in water; it is dark red with black veins; thin savings appear blood-red with veins of a lighter tint. All parts of the wood are full of coloring matter.

    Flowering and Fruiting time of Rakta Chandana

    Summer season

    Distribution of Shweta Chandana

    Shweta Chandana mainly occurs in Western Peninsula, but it is also cultivated elsewhere. It is growing wild in Karnataka and neighboring States; and it is naturalized in other provinces such as Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa more or less.

    Distribution of Rakta Chandana

    It is found in Deccan, in the hills of Cuddapah, Southern Kurnool, Northern Arcot, and Chingel pet; in areas up to 1,500 feet. It is also planted in different areas in the country.

    The useful part of Shweta Chandana

    Heartwood

     

    The market sample contains cylindrical or longitudinally split pieces of heartwood, stripped of much of the sapwood, pieces will be 20 cm long and 4 to 8 cm in diameter. The heartwood is homogenous, rather hard and ponderous, pale reddish with dark reddish brown and bright yellow concentric zones, Heartwood is having Characteristic odor.

    The useful part of Rakta Chandana

    Heartwood

     

    Sample of Rakta Chandana heartwood has tough, rectangular pieces of heartwood, up to 18 cm long and 3 to 5 cm in diameter, surface is dark reddish brown, polished with longitudinal striations. The transversely cut portion shows prominent black veins. The wood is quite heavy, sinking in water, does not have any particular odor, and has an astringent taste.

    Varieties of Chandana

    According to Bhava Parkasha Nighantu:

    • Sweta Chandana- Santalum album Linn.
    • Rakta Chandana- Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.
    • Pita Chandana (Kaliyaka) – Jateorhiza palmata or Coscinium fenestratum Colebr.
    • Kuchandana (Patranga)- Caesalpinia sappan

     

    According to Dhanvantari Nighantu:

    • Chandana- Santalum album Linn.
    • Rakta Chandana- Pterocarpus santalinus Linn
    • Kucandana- Caesalpinia sappan
    • Kaliyaka- Coscinium fenestratum Colebr
    • Barbarika

     

    According to Kaideva Nighnatu:

    • Chandana- Santalum album Linn.
    • Rakta Chandana- Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.
    • Pita Chandana- Coscinium fenestratum Colebr.
    • Kairata Chandana
    • Barbara Chandana
    • Hari Chandana

     

    According to Raja Nighantu:

    • Srikhanda- Santalum album
    • Sabara
    • Pita Chandana- Santalum fonum
    • Patranga- Caesalpinia sappan
    • Rakta Chandana- Pterocarpus santalinus
    • Barbara
    • Harigandha

     

    Based on Color- 

    • Rakta
    • Pita
    • Pandura

     

    Based on Habitat-

    • Malayaja- Uttama
    • Yavana- Madhyama
    • Barbara/Pancala- Adhama

    Mainly there are two kinds of Chandana (sandal) which are commonly (prevalent as known viz.

    • Shweta Chandana (white sandal-): Santalum album Linn.
    • Rakta Chandana (Red Sandal): Pterocarpus Santalinus Linn.

    The yellow sandal or Pita Chandana is considered the yellow inner heartwood of white sandalwood (Shweta Chandana) of popular or special quality. Sandal found in Mysore is popular as a major commercial forest produce.

    Important phytoconstituent of Shweta Chandana

    Heartwood contains essential oil, containing Santalol – 90 percent. Stem wood (heartwood) and roots contain volatile oil of 3-6 percent which is obtained by distillation. It is known as sandal oil, which is high in quantity in the roots (approximately Sandal woods yield 125 grams of oil in 40 kgs or depending on quality.

     

    Sandal wood oil contains two isomeric sesquiterpene alcohols, alpha -santalol, beta-santalol, santene, santenone, teresantol, santalone and santalene.

    Important phytoconstituent of Rakta Chandana

    The plant contains santalin, santalic acid, santalic Pterocarpus and homo-pterocarpan, and other glucosides and coloring matters. Santalin is a crystalline red active substance in the heartwood.

    Recent research on Shweta Chandana

    • The chemical composition of volatile compounds from pericarp oils of Indian sandalwood, Santalum album L.  isolated by Hydro distillation and solvent extraction, were analyzed by CC and GC-MS. A total of 66 volatile components were detected. The most prominent compounds were palmitic and oleic acids, representing about 40- 70% of the total oil. Zhang XH, da Silva JA, Jia XX, Zhao IT, Ma GH. Chemical composition of volatile oils from the pericarps of Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album) by different extraction methods. Nat Prod Community. 2012 Jan; 7 (1):93- 6.
    • This study investigated the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of long-term oral administration of the Santalum album pet ether fraction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Santalum album pet ether fraction has a potential antihyperlipidemic activity that can help in overcoming insulin resistance. Kulkarni CR, Joglekar MM, Patil SB, Arvidekar AU. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effect of Santalum album in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  Pharma Biology. 2012 Mar; 5 (3): 360-5. Pub 2011 Dec 1.
    • The antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract leaf and stem of Santalum album was performed against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas. Leaf extract showed significantly higher inhibition when compared to stem extract. Kumar MG, Jeyaraj IA. Jeyaraj R, Loganathan P. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extract of leaf and stem extract of Santalum album. Ancient Sci Life. 2006 Jan; 25 (3- 4): 6- 9.
    • Six new sesquiterpenes, (Z)-2  beta- hydroxy- 14-  hydro- beta-santalol (1), (Z)- 2 alpha hydroxy- album (2), 2R- (2)-camphene-2, 13-diol (3), (Z)-camphene- 2 beta, 13- diol (4), (Z)- 7- hydroxynuciferol (5), and (Z)- Ibeta- hydroxy- 2- hydrolanceol (6), together with five known compounds, (Z)-alpha- santalol (7), (Z)- beta- santalol (8), (Z)-lanceol  (%), alpha- santaldiol (10) and beta-santaldiol (11) were isolated from Santalum album, by using bio- assay-guided fractionation for Helicobacter pylori and compounds 7 and 8 have strong anti-H. pylori activities. Ochi T, Shibata H, Higuti T, Kodama KH, Kusumi T, Takaishi Y. Anti-Helicobacter pylori compounds from Santalum album. J Nat Prod. 2005 Jun; 68 (6): 819- 24.
    • Sandalwood oil, the essential oil of Santalum album L. was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2. It was found that the replication of these viruses was inhibited in the presence of the oil. Benenicia, F, Courreges MC. Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil against herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2. Phytomedicine. 1999 May; 6 (2): 119- 23.

    Recent research on Rakta Chandana

    • One new phenanthrenedione, pterolinus K (1), and one Chalcone, pterolinus L (2) were isolated from the heartwood extract of Pterocarpus santalinus. Wu SF, Hwang TI, Chen SL, Wu CC, Ohkoshi E, Lee KH, Chang FR, Wu YC. Bioactive components from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2011 Sep 15; 21(18): 5630- 2. Epub 2011 Jun 29.
    • Five new benzofurans, pterolinuses A-E (1-5), six new neoflavonoids, pterolinuses F-J (8-13), and five known compounds (6,7,14-16) were isolated from an extract of Pterocarpus santalinus heartwood. Six compounds (1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 15) showed significant inhibition in at least one anti-inflammatory assay. Wu SF, Chang FR, Wang SY, Hwang TL, Lee CL, Chen SL, Wu CC, Wu YC. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic neoflavonoids and 2011 May 27: 74 (5): 989- 96. Epub 2011 Apr 13.
    • The larvicidal potentials of the seed oils of Pterocarpus santalinus were investigated in the laboratory against larvae of Aedes aegypti. The results, therefore, suggest that the seed oil of Pterocarpus santalinus could be in corporate as botanical insecticides against mosquito vectors with high safety to non-target organisms. Adeleke MA, Popoola SA, Agbaje WB, Adewale B, Adeoye MD, Jimoh WA. Larvicidal efficacy of seeds oils of Pterocarpus santalinoides and tropical Manihot species against Aedes aegypti and effects on aquatic fauna. Tanzan J Health Res. 2009 Oct; 11(4):250-2.
    • The study was designed to investigate the effect of the bark of Pterocarpus santalinus, an ethnomedicinal plant, on blood glucose, Plasma insulin, Serum lipids, and the activities of hepatic glucose metabolizing enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Biological testing of the active fraction demonstrated a significant antidiabetic activity by reducing the elevated blood glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin, improving hyper. lipidemia and restoring the insulin levels in treated experimental induced diabetic rats. Further elucidation of the mechanism of action showed improvement in the hepatic carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes after the treatment. Kondet VK, Badri KR, Maddirala DR, Thur SK, Fatima SS, Kasetti RB, Rao CA. Effect of Pterocarpus santalinus bark, on blood glucose, serum lipids, plasma insulin, and hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicology. 2010 May; 48 (5): 1281- 7. Epub 2010 Feb 21.
    • A new isoflavone together with liquiritigenin and iso- liquiritigenin has been isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus. Krishnaveni KS, Rao JV. An isoflavone from Pterocarpus santalinus. Phytochemistry. 2000 Mar; 53 (5): 605- 6.
    • Alcoholic extract of the plant produced a depression in mice and rats at a dose of 1.0 3/kg and caused significant blockade of conditioned avoidance response at 0.5 to 2.0 g/ kg. It also showed protection against electric shock (ED50 1.0 g/ kg). At 1-2 g/ kg dose it showed appreciable protection against carrageenin-induced edema in rats. LD50 in rats was 4 g/ kg (J. Res. Ind. Med. Yoga & Homoco. 1979, 14, 37).

    Rasa Panchaka of Shweta Chandana

    Rasa (Taste)Tikata (bitter), Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Rasa Panchaka of Rakta Chandana

    Rasa (Taste)Tikata (bitter), Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Guru (heavy), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Shweta Chandana

    Pitta Kapha Shamaka

    Pitta Shamaka because of Sheeta Virya and Tikta, Madhura Rasa.

    Kapha Shamaka because of Katu Vipaka and Tikta Rasa.

    Dosha Karma of Rakta Chandana

    Kapha Pitta Shamak, Kapha Shamaka owing to Katu Vipaka and Tikta Rasa.

    Pitta Hara because of Sheeta Virya and Tikta Madhura Rasa.

    Karma (Actions) of Shweta Chandan

    Ahlada Kara, Srama Hara, Trishna Hara, Rakta Prasadaka, Vrsya, Daha Hara, Krmighna, Twakdosa Hara, Saumanasya Janana, Hrdya, Kustha Ghana, Jwaraghna, Angamarda Prasamana.

     

    • Srikhanda Chandana Karma- Trishnahara, Jwarahara, Krmighna, Vrsya, Kanti Vardhaka.
    • Vetta Chandana Karma- Daha Hara, Jwara Hara, Chardi Ghana, Trishna Hara, Kustha Ghana, Kasa Hara.
    • Sukadi Chandana Karma- Daha Hara, Sugandhaprada.
    • Sabara Chandana Karma- Srama Hara, Visphota Hara, Trisna Hara.
    • Pita Chandana Karma- Kustha Hara, Kandu Hara, Dadru Ghna, Krmi Ghna, Kanti Vardhaka.
    • Barbara Chandana- Kustha Ghna, Kandu Ghna, Rakta Dosahara.
    • Hari Chandana- Srama Hara, Tapa Hara

    Karma (Actions) of Rakta Chandan

    Trishna Hara, Varnya, Netrya, Vrsya, Jwarahara, Vrna Ropaka, Visa Hara, Ahladakara, Dahahara, Chardihara.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Shweta Chandana

    • Abhyantara Paryoga (internal uses): Daha Santapa, Srama, Bhranti, Trishna Manasika, Vyagrata Dourbalya, Pacana Vikrti, Atisara, Pravahika, Krimiroga, Hrid Dourbalya, Raktavikara, Raktapitta, Jirna Kasa, Madatyaya Rakta Pradara, Shweta Pradara, Sukrameha, Mutra Kriccha, Puyameh, Basti Sotha, Charma Roga, Varna Vikara, Daha, Angamarda, Trishna, Vami, Santapa, Srama, Sosha.
    • Bahya Paryoga (External uses): Daha, Visarpa, Kandu, Kustha, Charmar Vikara, Varna Vikara, Atisvedajanya Durgandhi, Netra Roga.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Rakta Chandana

    • Abhyantara Paryoga (Internal uses): Chardi, Trishna, Atisara, Raktapitta, Rakta Vikara, Kustha, Daha, Jvara, Visha.
    • Bahya Paryoga (External uses): Daha, Kshata, Sotha, Netra Vikara, Charma Roga, Vrana, Sirah Shula.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Shweta Chandana

    Rakta Atisara (Diarrhea with blood): By taking Chandana mixed with sugar and honey along with rice- water one becomes free from burning sensation, Rakta Atisara, Trishna (thirst), Prameha, and hemorrhage. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 86, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 92)

     

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage)

     

    • Usira, Kaliyaka, etc. separately mixed with an equal quantity of Chandana and sugar and taken with rice water to check intrinsic hemorrhage immediately. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 73)
    • One should take Chandana, Madhuka, and Lodhra, in equal quantity, or only Karanja seed with sugar and honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 45/ 25)
    • Snuffing the powder of dried cow-dung checks epistaxis. Candana or Utpala taken in the same way acts similarly. (Vaidya Manorma. 2/ 7)

     

    Rakta Arsha (Bleeding piles): Decoction of Kutaja bark mixed with Sunthi checks bleeding from the piles. Similarly the bark of Dadima or extract of Chandana mixed with Sunthi. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 185)

     

    Chardi (Vomiting)

     

    • Sandal takes the juice of Amalaka and checks the vomiting. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 20/ 32).
    • To check for vomiting, one should take Chandana rubbed with the juice of Amalaka or Mudga decoction. Similarly, the seed kernels of Badara and Amalaka, or Trijata may be taken. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 49/ 33)
    • Intake of Chandana 10 gm, mixed with Amalaka juice and honey checks vomiting. (Vrinda Madhava. 15/ 6)

     

    Grahani Roga (IBS): Chandanadya Ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 125- 28)

     

    Vatarakta (Gout): Chandanadi Kvatha, prescribed in Pitta Jvara, sweetened with sugar, and honey should be given. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 8)

     

    Visarpa (Erysipelas): The patient having little Dosha and not fit for evacuative therapy should be treated with pacifying remedies such as administration of Chandana and Utpala or Musta, Nimba, and Patola or Patoladi group or Sariva, Amalaka, Usira, and Musta decocted in water. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 4)

     

    Ushnavata: In Ushnavata and haematuria one should take Chandana mixed with sugar along with rice-water keeping on a diet of boiled-cooled milk and cereals. (Vrinda Madhava. 33/ 10)

     

    Prameha (Diabetes): Sukrameha: In Sukrameha, the decoction of Arjuna and Chandana is useful. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 9)

     

    Manjisthameha: Decoction of Manjistha and Chandana is useful in Manjisthameha. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 11/9)

     

    Vishaktata (Poisoning): In case of poisoning, the application of the paste of Chandana on the cardiac region gives relief and comfort. (Sushruta Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 36)

     

    Hikka (Hiccough): To check hiccoughs, one should take snuff juice of Masura, Palandu, Grnjanaka or Chandana mixed with breast milk. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 131)

     

    Pradara (vaginal discharge): 

     

    • In case menstrual blood is fetid, purulent and like bone- marrow one should use the decoction of white or red Chandana. (Sushruta Samhita Sharira Sthana. 2/ 14)
    • The physician should administer Chandana mixed with milk and ghee and sugar and honey. (Gada Nigreha. 6. 1. 42)

     

    Masurika (Pox):  The juice of hHilamocika mixed with paste of white Chandana should be taken in the initial phase of pox. (Bhavaprakasha Chikitsa. 60/ 35)

     

    Sitapitta (urticaria): In urticaria, Chandana rubbed with Guduchi should be taken. (Vaidya Manorma. 11/ 22)

     

    Nabhi Sotha (Inflammation of umbilicus):  In such a condition, the navel should be dusted with the powder of the bark of Kshiri Vriksha or Chandana. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana.71/ 180)

     

    Netra Roga (Eye disease): After scraping, the eye should be washed with the decoction of Yastimadhu or milk processed with Chandana. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 9/ 18)

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Rakta Chandana

    Hikka (Hiccough): Rakta Chandana pounded with breast milk, warm ghee mixed with rock salt, and powdered rock salt with water check hiccough by taking as snuff. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 50/ 17)

     

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage): Rakta Chandana is included in Bhadrasriyadi Gana (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 102) and Priyangvadi Niruhabasti (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 45/ 39) which are useful in the disorder.

     

    Pradara (Vaginal discharges): Pushyanug Churna (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 30/ 92) contains Rakta Chandana.

     

    Bhagna (Fracture): Paste of Manjistha, Madhuka, Rakta Chandana, and Sali rice flour mixed with ghee washed hundred times should be applied. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 7)

     

    Vyanga (Freckles etc.)

     

    • Laksadi Ghrita (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 39) contains Rakta Chandana which is used as a massage on the face.
    • Rakta Chandana, Manjistha, Kustha, Lodhra, Priyangu, buds of Vata and Masura-these destroy freckles, etc, and promote luster of the face. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 32/ 17)

     

    Jirna Jvara (Chronic fever): It is one of the ingredients in Triphaladya Ghrita. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39/ 247) 

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea): Daruharidra, Duralabha, Bilva, Balaka, and Rakta Chandana check diarrhea caused by Pitta. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 63- 65)

     

    Luta Visha Vishakta (Spider-poisoning): Lodhra, Usheera, Padmaka, lotus stamens, Kaliyaka, Rakta Chandana, Priyangu flowers, Dugdhika and lotus-stalk-These counteract all types of spider-poisoning. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 37/ 86)

     

    Drishti Vikara (Defects of vision): Rakta Chandana is rubbed with water, honey, ghee, and oil each for a week and applied as collyrium alleviates defects of vision. (Vanga Sena, Netra Roga. 312)

    Benefits of Shweta Chandana

    • The wood piece (sandal) is ground or rubbed up with water into a paste which is applied to the temple for headache, fever, and local inflammation.
    • The sandal paste is applied externally to skin diseases for allaying heat and pruritus, and also for diaphoretic and refrigerant action. Shweta Chandana due to its Sheeta Virya (cold potency) is effective in prickly heat and for skin health care. 
    • The oil from heartwood is used in the symptomatic treatment of dysuria, gonorrheal arthritis, and cystitis,
    • The sandal powder, sandal oil, and essential oil (from heartwood) are aromatic and cosmetic uses, besides the medicinal utility of sandals.
    • The wood is bitter, sedative, cooling, astringent, cardiac tonic, and diuretic. The wood is used in biliousness, fever, and morbid thirst. 
    • The powder of the sandalwood is given with coconut water to allay thirst.
    • The powder mixed with milk or made into pills is given for gonorrhea, fever, and bilious disorders. The watery emulsion of the wood mixed with sugar, honey, and rice water is administered in gastric irritability, dysentery, and excessive thirst.
    • For Bahya Paryoga, the sandal is used in various forms and preparations like Lep, Pardeha, etc.
    • The wood is of religious importance.

    Benefits of Rakta Chandana

    • The wood is astringent, tonic and cooling. It is used as a cooling external application for inflammation and headache. 
    • It is used in bilious affection, fever, skin diseases, boils, and to strengthen sight or vision. 
    • It is useful as a diaphoretic and in scorpion sting. 
    • The woods of both kinds of sandal viz. white sandal (Shweta Chandana) and red sandal (Rakta Chandana) are considered to have almost similar medicinal properties, however, in classical texts, the white sandal is generally preferred for internal use, while the red sandal is often suggested for external application. But both varieties (also another yellow sandal or Pita Chandana, the yellow heartwood or internal yellow heartwood of white sandal) are recommended (in classical medicine in a different mode of administration (therapeutic) and forms (pharmaceutics); and sometimes both types of sandalwoods are intermixed in recipes of medicines used in the treatment of various diseases.
    • Externally, a paste of the wood is a cooling medicine that is applied to boils, inflammatory diseases of the skin, swollen limbs, ophthalmia, sore eyes, headache, and some other ailments in conditions of overheating and burning sensation.
    • Red sandalwood is used for different ailments. The decoction of sandalwood is given in chronic dysentery.
    • The powder of the wood is given with milk in hemorrhoids or bleeding piles.
    • The wood is used in bilious disorders, and skin diseases and is also useful as a diaphoretic.

    Benefits of Chandana on different systems of bodies

    • External uses (Skin): The (thin) paste is a refrigerant, deodorant, complexion enhancer, and cures skin disorders. It is used for the burning sensation of different organs, erysipelas, dermatoses caused by Pitta, and discoloration of the skin. It is used as a deodorant in diaphoresis. Sandalwood oil is used in ear discharges. It acts as a deodorant and heals wounds.
    • Central nervous system: It is beneficial to the brain and pleases the mind. It is useful in mental irritability, mental debility, and brain impairment.
    • Digestive system: It alleviates thirst, gastric irritation, and enteric and hepatic debility. It is an astringent and vermicide. Because of these activities, it is used in thirst, digestive problems, diarrhea caused by pitta, dysentery, and worms. A lick of sandalwood and amla is effective in emesis. Anupama honey.
    • Circulatory system: It is cardiotonic by Sheeta property. It alleviates hemorrhagic disorders.
    • Respiratory system: It alleviates Kapha and Pitta in the respiratory tract. Sandalwood is useful in hemoptysis and purulent expectoration. It gradually reduces bad breath (halitosis).
    • Urinary system: Sandalwood oil is excreted through urine; hence it acts on the urinary tract. It is a Mutragami Dravya. Useful in dysuria and cystitis. Oil is useful in dysuria caused by gonorrhea.
    • Reproductive system: Sandalwood is the best medicine for foul-smelling, purulent menstruation. It is also used in menorrhagia, leucorrhoea, and Shukrameha.
    • Skin: It cures dermatitis and pruritus. Sandalwood paste or oil is applied over the burning area and pruritus is caused due to eczema. Sandalwood water is given orally.
    • Temperature: Febrifuge and refrigerant. Chandanadi Taila or Chandana- Bala Lakshadi Taila is used for massage in fever associated with a burning sensation. Sandalwood is used in the burning sensation of internal organs. Shadangodaka (water boiled with 6 drugs namely coriander seeds, sandalwood, dry ginger, Parpat, Khas, and Ambu) is given in pitta dominant fever associated with burning sensation and thirst. A thin paste of sandalwood is effective in chronic fever.
    • Satmikaran: It alleviates generalized body ache and acts as an antidote. Its external application is used in swelling caused due to poison or vitiated pitta. It can be given orally.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Shweta Chandana

    • Churna (powder): 3- 6 grams
    • Kwath (decoction): 50- 100 ml
    • Taila (oil): 5- 10 drops

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Rakta Chandana

    • Kanda Sara Churna (powder of heart wood ): 2- 5 grams
    • Kwath (decoction): 50- 100 ml
    • Taila (oil): 5- 25 drops

    Classical reference of Chandana Dwaya

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 11

    Synonyms

    श्री खण्डं चन्दनम न स्त्री भद्र श्री तैल पर्णक |

    गन्धसारो मलयजस्तथा चन्द्राद्युतिश्च सः ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 13

    Properties and action

    चन्दनं शीतल रुक्षं तिक्तम आहदनं लघु |

    श्रमशोषविषश्लेष्म तृष्णापित्तसा्त्र दाह्नुत ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Chandanadi Varga- 2, 3

    Properties and action

    श्रीखण्डं शीतल स्वादु तिक्तम पित्त विनाशनम्‌ |

    रक्त प्रसादनं वृष्यमन्तदहापहारकम्‌ |

    पित्तास्त्र विष तृष्णा दाह कृमिघ्नं गुरु रुक्षणं |

    सर्वं सतिक्तमधुरं चन्दन शिशिरं परम्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1256

    भद्रा श्री मलयं शीर्ष चंदन शिशिरं हिमं ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1262- 1267

    सर्वाण्येतानि तुल्यानी रस्तो वीर्यस्तथा | 

    गंधेन तु विशेषो अस्ति पूर्व श्रेष्ठतमं गुणै: | 

    स्वादने कटु शीतं च घर्षणे पीतमेव च |

    छेदने रक्तवर्णञ्च श्रेष्ठम चन्दनमुच्यते |

    अन्नपि चोत्तमं विद्याद ग्रंथि खर्परकोटरम |

    आर्द्रच्छिने पित्तहरं शुष्कच्छिन्न॑ च वातनुत |

    आद्रं  शुष्कं तु यच्छिन्न॑ तच्च श्लेष्महरं परम्‌ ||

    सतिक्त चन्दनम सर्व सूक्ष्म स्वादु हिमं गुरु |

    तृष्णा दाह अस्त्र पित्तघ्नं क्ल्मशोषविनाशनम्‌ । ।

    भदश्रिय हिमं तिक्तं हद्यमाह्नादनं लघु |

    वर्ण्यं बलास पित्तघ्नं दाहतृष्णाविषप्रणुत्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 8

    श्री खण्डचन्दनगुण

    श्रीखण्डं कटुतिक्तशीतलगुण स्वादे कषायं कियत्‌ |

    पित्तश्रान्तिवमि ज्वरकृमि तृषा सन्तापशान्तिप्रदम्‌ |

    वृष्यं वक्त्र रुजापहं प्रतनुते कान्ति तनो देंहिनां |

    लिप्त सुप्तमनोजसिन्धुरमदारम्भादिसंरम्भदम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 12

    विट्ट चन्दन गुण

    वेहचन्दनमतीव शीतल दाहपित्त शमनं ज्वरापहम्‌ |

    छर्दि मोह तृषि कुष्ठतैमिरोत्कासरक्तशमनं च तिक्तकम ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 13

    सुकड़ि चन्दन गुण

    सुकडिचन्दनम तिक्तम कृच्छ पित्तस्त्र दाहनुत |

    शेतयम सुगन्धद च आद्रं शुष्कम लेपे तदन यथा |

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 15

    शबरचन्दन गुण (कैरात चन्दन)

    कैरातमुष्णं कदुशीतलञ्च श्लेष्म अनिलघनं शर्म पित्त हारि | 

    विस्फोटपामादिकनाशनञ्च  तृषापहम ताप विमोह नाशि |

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 17

    पीत चन्दन गुण 

    पीतञ्च शीतलम तिक्तम कुष्ठ श्लेष्म अनिलापहम |

    कण्डु विचर्चिका दद्रु कृमि हत कांतिदं परम् | 

    Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 69

    चन्दनम शीतलम तिक्तम कफ पित्त हरम लघु |

    ताकतपित्त तृषा दाह शमनं ह्लादकारकम ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1278- 1279

    चन्दन त्रिविध॑ विद्याद्‌ रक्तं पित्तम च पाण्डुरम |

    आरक्तमुत्तमम चैव मध्यम पीतकं तथा | 

    पाण्डुरम त्वधमं प्रोक्तं गंध युक्तिविशारदै: ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 8

    श्री खण्डं शबरं पीते पत्राङ्गं रक्तचन्दनम्‌ |

    बर्बर हरिगंधञ्च चन्दन सप्तथा स्मृतम्‌ ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 12

    उत्तम चन्दन गुण

    स्वादे तिक्तम कषे पित्तम छेदे रक्तं तनौ सितम |

    ग्रंथि कोटर संयुक्तं चन्दनम श्रेष्ठ्म उच्यते ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 16

    Synonyms of Rakta Chandana

    रक्तचन्दनमाख्यातम रक्तांग क्षुद्रचन्दनम्‌ |

    तिलपर्ण रक्तसारम तत्मवालफलं स्मृतम्‌ ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 17

    Properties and action of Rakta Chandana

    रक्तं शीतं गुरु स्वादु छर्दि तृष्णा अस्त्र पित्तहत्‌ |

    तिक्तम नेत्र हित्तम वृष्यं ज्वर व्रण विषापहम ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Chandanadi Varga- 5

    रक्तचन्दनमप्याहू रक्षोघ्नं तिक्तशीतलम्‌ |

    रक्तो द्रेक हरम हन्ति पित्त कोपं सुदारुणं ||

    चन्दनं शीतल तिक्ताथं ह्वादनं लघु |

    आमशोषविषश्लेष्म तृष्णा पित्तास्रदाहनुत्‌ ||

    रक्तचन्दनतीव शीतल तिक्त मोक्षण गदास्र दोषनुत्‌ |

    भूतपित्तकफकासज्वर भ्रान्तिजन्तुवमिजितृषापहम्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1262- 1263

    वर्णा भेदम देशभेदञ्च गन्धवैशिष्ट्यात्‌:

    श्रेष्ठ्म मलय सम्भूतं यवनेषु च मध्यमम्‌ ||

    वर्बरेष्वधमं प्रोकत पाञ्चल्य यवनादिषु |

    सर्वाण्येतानि तुल्यानि रसतो वीर्यतस्तथा ||

    गन्धेन तु विशेषो अस्ति पूर्व श्रेष्ठतमं गुणै: |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1263- 1264

    श्रेष्ठ चन्दनलक्षणम्‌

    स्वादने कटुशीतं च घर्षणे पीतमेव च |

    छेदने रक्तवर्ण्ञ्च श्रेष्ठ चन्दनमुच्यते ||

    अत्रापि चोत्तमं विद्याद्‌ ग्रन्थिखर्परकोटरम्‌ ।

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1265

    अवस्थाभेदेन

    आर्द्रशिन्नं पित्तंहरं शुष्कच्छिन्नं च वातनुत्‌ |

    आर्द्रशुष्क तु यच्छिन्न तच्च श्लेष्महरं परम्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1266

    चन्दन सामान्य गुणकर्म 

    सतिक्त चन्दनम सर्व सूक्ष्म स्वादु हिम॑ गुरु |

    तृष्णादाहास्र पित्तघ्नं क्लमशोथ विनाशनम्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1267

    चन्दन विशिष्ट गुणकर्म

    भद्रंश्रियं हिम तिक्तम हद्यमाह्वादनं लघु |

    वर्ण्य बलासपित्तघ्रं दाहतृष्णाविषप्रणुत्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1269- 1270

    रक्त सार चन्दनम्‌

    रक्तसारं गुरु स्वादु चक्षुष्यं शुक्रल हिमम्‌ |

    किश्चित्‌ तिक्त ज्वर छर्दि तृष्णापित्तास्त्र नाशनम्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, 33/ 14, Bhava parkasha Mutra Ghata Adhikara, 36- 39

    मूत्रघाते चन्दनजलम्‌

    श्रृतशीतपयो अन्नाशी चन्दनं तण्डुलाम्बुना |

    पिबेत्सशर्कर श्रेष्ठमुष्णवाते सशोणिते ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1268

    त्रिविधचन्दनम्‌

    चन्दन त्रिविधं विद्याद्‌ रक्त पीतं च पाण्डुरम्‌ |

    आरक्तमुत्तमं चैव मध्यमं पीतकं तथा ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 13

    चन्दनस्य गुण:

    चन्दनम शीतलम रुक्षं तिक्तमाह्वादनं लघु |

    श्रमश्लेषविषश्लेष्मतृष्णापित्तास्त्र दाहनुत्‌ ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 12

    उत्तमचन्दनस्य लक्षणम्‌

    स्वादे तिक्त कषे पीत छेदे रक्तं तनौ सितम्‌ |

    ग्रन्थिकोटरसंयुक्त चन्दन श्रेष्ठमुच्यते ||

    पीतचन्दनम्‌

    कालीयकं रक्तगुणं विशेषाद्‌ व्यंग नाशनम ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 17

    रक्तचन्दनम्‌ 

    रक्तं शीतं गुरु स्वादु छर्दि तृष्णा अस्त्र पित्तहत |

    तिक्तम नेत्र हितम वृष्यं ज्वर व्रण विषापहम्‌ ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 20

    सर्वेषां मध्ये मलयजस्य श्रेष्ठता

    सपा चला तु सर्वाणि सदृशानि रसादिभि: |

    गन्धेन तु विशेषो अस्ति पूर्व श्रेष्ठामो गुणै: ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 9

    श्रीखण्डम्‌ 

    श्रीखण्डं कटुतिक्तशीतलगुणं स्वादे कषायं कियत्‌ |

    पित्त भ्रान्ति वमिज्वरक्रिमितृषासन्तापशान्तिप्रदम |

    वृष्यं वक्त्र रुजापहं प्रतनुते कान्तिं तनोदेंहिनां |

    लिप्तं सुप्तमनोजसिन्धुरमदारम्भादिसंरम्दम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 8

    श्रेष्ठ- क्षीण- मध्यमचन्दनम्‌

    श्रेष्ठ कोटरकर्परोपकलितं सुग्रन्थि साद गौरवम |

    छेदे रक्तमयं तथा च विमलं पीतञ्न यद्घर्षणे |

    स्वादे तिक्त कटु: सुगन्धबहुलं शीत: यदल्प गुणे |

    क्षीणाश्च अर्धर्गुणान्वित॑ तु कथित तच्चन्दनं मध्यमम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 10

    द्विविधं चन्दनम्‌

    चन्दन द्विविधं प्रोक्त बेट सुककडी  संज्ञकम्‌ |

    बेट्टं तु सार्द्रविच्छेदं  स्वयं शुष्क तु सुक्कड़ि ||

    Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 25

    चन्दन दुर्गन्धहरदाहनिर्वापणलेपनानाम्‌ |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 37/ 86

    लूताविषे

    रोधर्म सेव्यं पद्मकं पद्म रेणू: कालीयाख्य चन्दनं यच्चरक्तम्‌ |

    कान्तपुष्प॑ दुग्धिनीका मृणालं लूता: सर्वा: घ्रन्ति सर्वक्रियाभि: ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 12

    बेट्ट चन्दनम 

    बेट्ट चंदम अतीव शीतल दाहपित्तशमनं ज्वरापहम्‌ |

    छर्दिमोहतृषि कुष्ठेमिरोत्कासरक्तशमने च तिक्तकम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 13

    सुक्कड़िचन्दनं       

    सुक्कड़िचन्दनं तिक्तम  कृच्छपित्तासदाहनुत्‌ |

    शैत्यसुगन्धदं चाह शुष्क लेपे तदन्यथा ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 15

    कैरात चन्दनम 

    कैरातमुष्ण कटु शीतलञ्च श्लेष्मानिलघनम श्रमपित्तहारि |

    विस्फोटपामादिकनाशनञ्च तृषापह तापतिमोहनाशि ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 17

    पीत चन्दनम  

    पीतञ्च शीतल तिक्त कुष्ठरलेष्मानिलापहम्‌ |

    कण्डू विचर्चिका दद्रु कृमिहत्कान्तिद परम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 22

    रक्त चंदम 

    रक्तचन्दनमतीव शीतल तिक्तमीक्षण गदास्त्र दोषनुत्‌ |

    भूत पित्तकफकासज्वरशभ्रान्तिजन्तुवमिजिततृषापहम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 26

    हरि चन्दनम 

    हरिचन्दन तु दिव्यम तिक्तहिमं तदिह दुर्लभं मनुजैः |

    पित्ताटोपविलोपि चन्दनवच्छमशोषमान्द्यतापहरम्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Chandanadi Varga, 27

    चन्दनम सामान्यगुणा:

    चंदनानि समानानि रसतो वीर्यतस्तथां |

    भिद्यन्ते किन्तु गन्थेन तत्रा गुणवत्तरम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa sthanam 24/ 152- 155

    पित्तज मदात्यय चंदन उदक स्पर्शश्च चंदन लेपश्च  

    चन्दनोदकशीतानां स्पर्शाश्चन्द्रांशुशीतलाः |

    चन्दनानां च मुख्यानां शस्ताः पित्तमदात्यये ||

    शीतवीर्य यदन्यच्च तू सर्व विनियोजयेत्‌ |

    Chakra Dutta Chardi Chikitsa, 15- 6

    छर्दि विकार चंदन कल्क प्रयोग 

    चन्दनेनाक्ष मात्रेण संयोज्यामलकीस्वरस: |

    पिबेत्‌ माक्षिक संयुक्तं छर्दिस्तेन निवर्तते |

    Chakra Dutta Visarpa Chikitsa, 53- 28

    विस्फोटे दाहशान्त्यर्थम्‌

    चन्दनादिलेप: ।

    Bhava Prakasha Vajikarana Adhikara, 72, 50- 59

    रतिवर्द्धनार्थ महाचन्दनादितैलम्‌

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 12/ 69

    पित्तजनशोथे चन्दनघृतम्‌

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 20/ 32

    छर्दिरोगे चन्दनधात्रीरसः

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 1- 2/ 12

    रसायनप्रयोगे चन्दनरसायनम्‌

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 8/ 86

    यक्ष्मारोगे दाहशमनाय चन्दन शृत कषायपरिषेकः

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 6/ 63- 70

    चन्दनादियोगः

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 20/ 33, Chakra Dutta, 15/ 7

    छर्दिरोगे चन्दनादिकल्कः

    Charka Samhita Sharira Sthana, 8/ 32

    चन्दनादिकल्कः

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 21/ 54

    विसर्परोगे चन्दनादिकषाय:

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 21/ 54

    व्रण रोपण चन्दनादिकषाय:

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 186

    अर्शःसु रक्तावरोधकचन्दनादिक्वांथ:

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 77

    हृदयरोगे चन्दनादिप्रदेह

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 53

    पित्तजातिसारे चन्दनादियोगः 

    Charka Samhita Siddhi Sthana, 3- 48- 52

    निरुह्नबस्तियोग- चन्दनादिबस्तिः

    Charka Samhita Siddhi Sthana, 10/ 22

    पित्त नाशक चन्दनादिबस्तिः

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 234

    नेत्ररोगे चन्दनादिविडालकः

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 4/ 45

    रक्तपित्ते चन्दनादिसिद्धपेया

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 15/ 125, 128

    ग्रहणीरोगे चन्दनादयं घृतम्‌

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 12/ 68, 69

    पित्तजशोथे लाह्योपचाराः

    सचन्दना: पद्यकबालकौ च पैत्ते प्रदेहस्तु सतैलपाक: |

    आक्तस्य तेनाम्बु रविप्रतप सचन्दन साभयपद्मक च |

    स्नाने हितम क्षीरवता कषाय  क्षीरोदकं चन्दनलेपनं च ||

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 20/ 32

    वमन तृष्णाशामकयोग:

    धात्रीरसेनोत्तमचन्दनं वा तृष्णावमिप्नानि समाक्षिकाणि |

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 8/ 85, 85

    राजयक्ष्मा- दाहशान्त्यर्थ परिषेक अभ्यंग योग 

    चन्दनाद्यतैलेन शतधौतेन सर्पिषा |

    अभ्यज्ञा: पयसा सेक: शस्तश्च मधुकाम्बुना ||

    महिन्द्रेण सुशीतेन चन्दनादिश्रृतेन वा |

    परिषेक: प्रयोक्तव्य इति संशमनी क्रिया ||

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 86

    रक्तातिसारे

    पीत्वा सशर्कराक्षौद्रं चन्दन तण्डुल अंभसा |

    दाहतृष्णाप्रमेहेभ्यो रक्तस्रावाच्च मुच्यते ||

    Bhava Prakasha Chikitsa Sthana, 79- 180

    नाभि पाके 

    दग्धेन छागशकृता नाभिषाके अवचूर्णनम्‌ |

    त्वक चूर्णः क्षीरिणां वापि कुर्याच्चन्दनरेणुना ||

    Vrinda Madhava, 33/ 10

    उष्णवाते

    शृत शीतपयोन्ञाशी चन्दन तण्डुलाम्बुना |

    पिबेत सशर्कर श्रेष्णमुष्णवाते सशोणिते ||

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 11/ 9

    प्रमेहे 

    शुक्रमेहे शुक्रमेहिन ककुभचन्दनकषाय वा |

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 11/ 9

    मंजिष्ठा मेहे 

    मंजिष्ठा मेहिनं मंजिष्ठा चन्दन कषायाम | 

    Bhava Prakasha Chikitsa Sthana, 60- 35

    मसूरिकायाम्‌

    श्वेतचन्दनकल्केन हिलमोचारसं भवम्‌ |

    पिबेन्‌ मसूरिकारम्भे…… ||

    Sushruta SamhitaKalpa Sthana, 1/ 36

    विषे

    हृदि चन्दनलेपस्तु तथा सुखमवाप्नुयात्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita Sharira Sthana, 2/ 14

    प्रदरे

    दुर्गन्धिपूयसंकाशे मज्जतुल्ये तथा् आर्तव |

    पिबेद्‌ भद्राश्रिय: क्वाथं चन्दन क्वाथमेव वा ||

    Gada Nigreha, 6- 1- 42

    चन्दनक्षीरयुक्त पाययेत्‌ संघृत भिषक्‌ |

    शर्करामंधुसंयुक्तमसृग्दरविमर्दनम्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 3/ 7

    रक्त चन्दनम (विशिष्ट प्रयोग:)

    भग्ने 

    आलेपनार्थ मंजिष्ठा मधुकं रक्त चन्दनम |

    शतधौतघृतोन्मिश्रं शालिपिष्ट॑ च संहरेत्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 50/ 17

    हिक्का 

    नारीपय: पिष्टमशुक्लचन्दनं घृतसुखोष्ण॑ च ससैन्धवं तथा |

    चूर्णी कृत॑ सैन्धवमम्भसा अथवा निहन्ति हिक्काम च हित॑ च नस्यतः ||

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 25/ 39

    व्यंग 

    वक्त्र अभ्यंगे लाक्षादिपृते |

    Ashtanga Hridya, Uttara Tantra, 32/ 17

    रक्तचन्दन मंजिष्ठा कुष्ठरोध्र प्रिंयंगव: |

    वट अंकुर: मसूराश्च व्यंगघना: मुखकान्तिदा: ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 30/ 92

    प्रदरे

    पुष्यानुगे चूर्णे |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 4/ 73

    रक्तपित्ते

    भद्रश्रियादिगणे |

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 45/ 39

    प्रियड्ग्वादिनिरूहबस्तौ |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 4/ 73

    श्वेत चन्दनम्‌ (विशिष्टप्रयोगा: )

    रक्तपित्ते

    उशीरकालीयकलोध्र…. पृथक्‌ पृथक्‌ चन्दनतुल्यभागिका: |

    सशर्करास्तण्डुलधावनाप्लुता: रक्तं सपित्तं शमयन्ति साद्य: ||

    Vaidya Manorma, 2- 7

    तत्क्षणं क्षुण्णमाघ्रात॑ शुष्कगोमयमस्यति |

    नासासृतमसृकस्रावं चन्दनस्योत्पलस्य वा ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 45/ 25

    चन्दन मधुकं रोध्रमेवमेव समं पिबेत्‌ ।

    करंज बीजमेवं वा सिताक्षौद्रयुत पिबेत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana

    छर्दि

    धात्रीरसेनोत्तमचन्दनं वा | 

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 49/ 33

    धात्रीरसे चन्दन वां घृष्टम मुद्रदलाम्बुना |

    कोलामलक मज्जानाम लिहयाद वा त्रिसुगन्धिकम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 185

    रक्त अर्श 

    कुटज त्वड् निर्युह: सनागर: स्निग्ध रक्तसड्ग्रहण: |

    त्वग्दाडिमस्य तद्वत्‌ सनागरश्च चंदन रसश्च ||

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 5/ 8

    वात रकते 

    पित्त ज्वर हरं वा चन्दनादिकषायं शर्करामधुमधुरम्‌ |

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 18/ 4

    विसर्पे

    अविशोध्यस्य दोषे अल्पे शमनं चन्दनोत्पलम्‌ |

    मुस्तनिम्बपटोल वा पटोलादिकमेव च |

    सारिवामलकोशीरमुस्ते वा क्वथितं जले ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 9/ 18

    नेत्ररोगे

    यष्टीकषाय: सेकस्तु क्षीरं चन्दनसाधितम्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 40/ 63, 65

    रक्तचन्दनम्‌

    पित्तातिसारें

    दार्वी दुरालभा बिल्व बालक रक्तचन्दनम्‌ |

    षडेते अभिहिता योगा: पित्तातीसारनाशन: ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 39/ 247

    जीर्णज्वरे 

    त्रिफलाच घृते |

    Sushruta Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 3- 7

    भग्रे

    आलेपनार्थ मंजिष्ठा मधुकं रक्तचन्दनम्‌ |

    शतधौतघृतोन्मिश्रं शालिपिष्टं च संहरेत्‌ ||

    Vanga Sena Netra Roga, 312

    नेत्ररोगे (तिमिररोगे)

    सलिलमकरन्दसर्पिस्तैलै: प्रत्येकतस्तु समाहम्‌ |

    विनिहन्ति तिमिरमचिरादञ्च नत चंदन रक्तम्‌ ||

    Specific Formulation of Shweta Chandana

    • Chandanadi Taila for Daha, Jwara.
    • Dashanga Lepa for Shool, Kustha, Visrapa.
    • Chandana Aasava for Shukra Meha, Mutra Kriccha.
    • Chandandi Kwatha for Vata Pittaja Jwara.
    • Chandana Bala Lakshadi Taila for Jwara, Kasa, Kshaya.
    • Chandanadi churna for Jirna jwara, Parmeha.

    Specific Formulation of Rakta Chandana

    • Chandanadi Churna for Rakta Pitta, Atisara.
    • Chandana Kwatha for Rakta Pitta, Rakta Arsha.
    • Chandana Aasava for Mutra Dosha, Shukra Dosha, Chandanadi Lepa for Vyanga.
    • Chandanadi Varti for Timira.
    • Chandanadi Lepa for Vyanga.

    Contraindication and side effects of Shweta Chandana

    • Prolonged use of Shweta Chandana has been reported to do kidney damage, so it is recommended to not use Shweta Chandana in continuation for more than 6 weeks.
    • It is also advised to not use Shweta Chandana if you are suffering from kidney disorders.
    • Oral intake of Shweta Chandana may result in nausea, stomach upset, itching, etc in a few people.
    • Shweta Chandana may cause an allergic reaction in a few people. So, it is recommended to do a patch test before the external use of Shweta Chandana.
    • Miscarriages have been reported after the use of Chandana, so it is advised to avoid the use of Shweta Chandana during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    Contraindication and side effects of Rakta Chandana

    Stay on the safe side and avoid the use of Rakta Chandana during pregnancy and breastfeeding as no scientific evidence of the use of Rakta Chandana on pregnant women has been reported.

    Suggestive reading regarding Santalum album Linn.

    • Shailja Choudhary, & Gitika Chaudhary. (2021). SANDALWOOD (SANTALUM ALBUM): ANCIENT TREE WITH SIGNIFICANT MEDICINAL BENEFITS. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research9 (4), 90- 99. 
    • Sundharamoorthy, Susikumar & Govindharajan, Natrunai & Chinnapillai, Arunachalam & Raju, Ilavarasan. (2019). Macro-Micro Atlas on Heartwood of Santalum album L. (Sandalwood).
    • Kumar, Rakesh & Anjum, Nishat & TRIPATHI, YOGESH. (2015). Phytochemistry and Pharmacology of Santalum album L.: A Review. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 4. 1842- 1876.
    • Tripathi, Manoj & Bele, D. & Tiwari, Sushma & Mishra, Nishi & Tripathi, Niraj & Tiwari, Gyanendra & Tiwari, Sharad. (2022). Plantlet Regeneration from Cultured Nodal Segments in Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.). 10. 9734/ bpi/ rdst/ v2/ 6011F.
    • Sahu, Sonupriya & Sahoo, Ashok & Mishra, Rukmini & Panigrahi, G. & Dash, Sonali & Bhattacharyay, Dipankar. (2020). Santalum album L. Derived Phytochemicals against Jaundice. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International. 106- 109. 10. 9734/ jpri/ 2020/ v32i630501.
    • Arunkumar, A. N. & Joshi, Geeta & Warrier, Rekha. (2016). Know Your Trees – Santalum album (Indian Sandalwood). Envis Newsletter, Forest Genetic Resources, and Tree Improvement. 2. 2- 11.
    • Pullaiah, T. & Ramulu, D. & Sri Rama Murthy, K. & Reddy, Vaddi & Saradamma, Bulle & Swamy, Mallappa. (2021). Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Properties of Santalum album L. 10. 1007/ 978- 981- 16-0780- 6_5.
    • Viswanath, Syam. (2018). Conservation Improvement and Bioresource of Sandalwood (Santalum album L.).
    • Subasinghe, Upul & Hettiarachchi, D. (2012). Santalum album: Current status and research conducted in Sri Lanka. 10. 13140/ 2. 1. 4842. 3042.
    • Sundaram, Suresh & Kunnathu George, Alex & Chavan, Sangram. (2020). Progress and future research trends on Santalum album: A bibliometric and science mapping approach. Industrial Crops and Products. 158. 10. 1016/ j. and crop. 2020. 112972.
    • Ashtamoorthy, Sreejith. (2016). A new population of Santalum album L. (Sandalwood) from Agali Forest Range, Kerala, India. Current science. 110. 148- 150.
    • Subasinghe, Upul. (2013). Sandalwood Research: A Global Perspective. Journal of Tropical Forestry and Environment. 03. 1- 8. 10. 13140/ 2. 1. 2548. 5445.
    • Kumar, Yadav & Subrata, Mukhopadhyay & Jagatpati, Tah. (2019). A Short Review on White Sandalwood (Santalum album L.). International Journal of Scientific Research and Reviews. 08. 73- 136. 10. 37794/ IJSRR. 2019. 8408.
    • Nurochman, Deden & Matangaran, Juang & Santosa, Gunawan & Suharjito, Didik & Sari, Rita. (2019). EVALUATION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SANDALWOOD (SANTALUM ALBUM, L.) IN ACEH, INDONESIA, AND ITS ESSENTIAL OIL CHARACTERISTICS. Malaysian Journal of Science. 38. 31- 46. 10. 22452/ MJS. vol38no2. 3.
    • Xinhua, Zhang & Teixeira da Silva, Jaime & Yong-Xia, Jia & Jian, Yan & Guo-Hua, Ma. (2012). Essential Oils Composition from Roots of Santalum album L. Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants. 15. 1-6. 10. 1080/ 0972060X. 2012. 10644011.
    • Sindhu, Rakesh & Upma, & Kumar, A. & Arora, Satish. (2010). Santalum album Linn: A review on morphology, phytochemistry and pharmacological aspects. International Journal of PharmTech Research. 2. 914- 919.
    • Moy RL, Levenson C. Sandalwood Album Oil as a Botanical Therapeutics in Dermatology. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2017 Oct;10 (10): 34- 39. Epub 2017 Oct 1. PMID: 29344319; PMCID: PMC5749697.
    • Rajsmita B, Keshavamurthy V. Re-discovering Sandalwood: Beyond Beauty and Fragrance. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2019 May-Jun;10(3):296- 297. doi: 10. 4103/ idoj. IDOJ_357_18. PMID: 31149575; PMCID: PMC6536050.

    Suggestive reading regarding Pterocarpus santalinus Linn.

    • Bulle S, Reddyvari H, Nallanchakravarthula V, Vaddi DR. Therapeutic Potential of Pterocarpus santalinus L.: An Update. Pharmacogn Rev. 2016 Jan- Jun; 10 (19): 43- 9. doi: 10.4103/ 0973- 7847. 176575. PMID: 27041873; PMCID: PMC4791987.
    • Dahat, Yogita & Saha, Priyanka & Mathew, J & Chaudhary, Sushil & Srivastava, Amit Kishor & Kumar, Deepak. (2021). Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological attributes of Pterocarpus santalinus and future directions: A review. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 276. 114127. 10.1016/ j. jep. 2021. 114127.
    • Biswas, Tuhin & Maity, Lakshmi & Mukherjee, Biswapati. (2005). The Clinical Evaluation of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. Ointment on Lower Extremity Wounds—A Preliminary Report. The international journal of lower extremity wounds. 3. 227- 32. 10. 1177/ 1534734604271031.
    • Soundararajan, V. (2016). A REVIEW ON RED SANDERS (PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS LINN.) -PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE. WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES. 5. 667- 689. 10. 20959/ wjpps 20166- 7047.
    • Navada, Kavitha & Vittal, Ravishankar. (2014). Ethnomedicinal value of Pterocarpus santalinus (Linn. f.), a Fabaceae member. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine. 14. 313- 317. 10. 1007/ s13596-014- 0168- 0.
    • Arunakumara, & Arunakumara, K.K.I.U. & Walpola, Buddhi & Subasinghe, Siripala & Yoon, Min-Ho. (2011). Pterocarpus santalinus Linn f. (Rath handun): A Review of Its Botany, Uses, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology. J. Korean Soc. Appl. Biol. Chem. 54. 495- 500. 10. 3839/ jksabc. 2011. 076.
    • Sundharamoorthy, Susikumar & Govindarajan, Nartunai & Raju, Ilavarasan. (2021). Macro-microscopic Atlas on Heartwood of Pterocarpus santalinus L.f. (Red sandalwood). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 14. 3927- 3930. 10. 52711/ 0974-360X. 2021. 00682.
    • Ghali, Eswara Naga Hanuma Kumar & Maurya, Dharmendra & Meriga, Balaji. (2018). Radioprotective Properties of Pterocarpus santalinus Chloroform Extract in Murine Splenic Lymphocytes and Possible Mechanism. Cancer Biotherapy and Radiopharmaceuticals. 33. 427- 437. 10. 1089/ CBR. 2018. 2532.
    • Kavimani, S. (2015). A REVIEW ON PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS LINN. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Volume 4, Issue 2, 282- 292.
    • Kumar, Dinesh. (2011). Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antioxidant activities of methanolic wood extract of Pterocarpus santalinus L. Journal of pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics. 2. 200- 2. 10. 4103/ 0976- 500 X. 83293.
    • Selvaraj, Arokiyaraj & Martin, S. & Kantharaj, Perinbam & Arockianathan, Marie & Beatrice, V. (2008). Free radical scavenging activity and HPTLC fingerprint of Pterocarpus santalinus L. – An in vitro study. Indian Journal of Science and Technology. 1. 10. 17485/ ijst/ 2008/ v1i7/29602.
    • Palanisamy, Dhanabal & Kannan, Elango & Bhojraj, Suresh. (2007). Protective and Therapeutic Effects of the Indian Medicinal Plant Pterocarpus santalinus on D-Galactosamine-induced Liver Damage. Asian J Trad Med. 
    • Selvaraj, Arokiyaraj & Kantharaj, Perinbam. (2010). Antifungal activity of Pterocarpus santalinus – An in vitro study. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 3. 263- 265.
    • Arunkumar, A. N. & Joshi, Geeta. (2014). Pterocarpus santalinus (Red Sanders) an Endemic, Endangered Tree of India: Current Status, Improvement, and the Future. Journal of Tropical Forestry and Environment. 4. 1- 10. 10. 31357/ jtfe. v4i2. 2063.
    • Donga, Savan & Pande, Jyoti & Moteriya, Pooja & Chanda, Sumitra. (2017). Development of quality control parameters for the standardization of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. F. leaf and stem. 6. 242- 252.
    • Yadav, Durgavati & Srivastava, Shivani & Singh, Jasmeet & Tripathi, Yamini Bhusan. (2019). Pharmacognostic evaluation of Pterocarpus santalinus Linn. 6. 530- 541.
    • Azamthulla, Mohammad & Rajkapoor, Balasubramanian. (2015). A REVIEW ON PTEROCARPUS SANTALINUS LINN. 4. 282- 292.
    • Biswas, Tuhin & Chakrabarti, Shrabana & Auddy, Biswajit & Mondal, Tanmoy & Pandit, Srikanta & Seal, Tapan. (2021). Pterocarpus santalinus: A Wonder Gift of Nature. 10. 1007/ 978- 981- 15- 8127- 4_44.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Karpuradi  Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Chandanadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Chandanadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • P.V. Sharma, Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Vaidya Manorma, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Vrinda Madhava
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sankrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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