Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Brihati – Solanum indicum Linn.

    Brihati – Solanum indicum Linn.

    Brihati- The Poisonberry

    Introduction

    Brihati is a perennial under the shrub, mostly found throughout India and botanically known as Solanum indicum Linn. Brihati is used throughout South-Eastern Asian countries not only because of its medicinal properties but also due to its economic importance. Recent research revealed that Brihati consists of various active principles like saponins, phenolic compounds, sesquiterpenoids, hydroxycoumarins, coumarins, coumarins lignoids alkaloids, etc due to which it exhibits anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, cardiotonic and hepato- protective activity, etc. As per Ayurvedic classical literature, Brihati is one of the important herbs of Dashmool Dravya and is also classified under Laghu Panchmool. It is Katu (pungent), and Tikata (bitter) in taste with Ushana Virya (hot potency). Brihati is used to treat various disorders like dyspepsia, stomachache, toxic affections, skin problems, etc.

    Basonym of Brihati

    बृहती। बुह वृद्धो। कण्टकारिकात्‌ बृहत्‌ इति।

    In comparison to Kantakari, Brihati is big.

    Synonyms of Brihati

    • According to habitat

    वार्ताकी- वर्तते अनेन इति। 

    Brihati is a common plant available in all regions.

    पीतफल- पीतवर्णानि फलानि अस्य। 

    The fruit of Brihati is yellow.

    कण्टकी- कण्टका: सन्ति अस्य ।

    The plant bears thorns.

     

    • According to properties and action

    सिंही- सिंह इव कासादिरोगान्‌ हन्ति। 

    Brihati is very efficient in Kasa (cough).

    महती- मह्यते पूज्यते असौ इति महती ।

    Brihati is very useful in many diseases and hence respected by all.

    Regional names of Brihati

    • Indian nightshade, large eggplant, Wild Indian Brinjal (English)
    • Banabhanta, Khudra Bhantaki Kateri (Hindi)
    • Rambegun, Byakura (Bengali)
    • Kirigulla (Kannada)
    • Cheruchunda (Malayalam)
    • Chinchoort, Dorali, Ringni(Marathi)
    • Anachundai, Popparamati (Tamil)
    • Pedda Mulaka, Teliamulak (Telugu)
    • Ubhiringani (Gujarati)
    • Kataikatan (Persian)

    Scientific classification of Brihati

    KingdomPlantae
    ClassDicotyledons
    SubclassGamopetalae
    Series Bicarpellatae
    OrderPolemoniales
    Family Solanaceae
    GenusSolanum
    Species indicum

    Botanical Name

    Solanum indicum Linn.

    Solanum word is derived from the name of a German botanist and Indicum means native to India.

    Family – Solanaceae (Kantkari Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Brihati (Solanum indicum Linn.)

    Classification of Brihati as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Shothahara Mahakshaya, Kanthya Mahakshaya, Hikka Nigrehana Mahakshaya, Anga Marda Prashmana Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Brihtyadi Gana, Laghu Panchmool.

    Brihati's description in Brihtrayi

    Other species of Solanum such as S. insanum Roxb. (Vanabhanta) and S. torvum Swartz which may be called Sveta Brihati (white variety of Brihati) are also used under this name. In Dasamula or Laghu Panchamula groups of drugs, two species of Solanum called Kantakari Dwaya or Brihati Dwaya have been included. It appears that Brihati and Kantakari both have been used as common names for both of them. Dalhana, at one place (S. S. U. 40. 40), has defined Brihati Dwaya as the smaller fruit variety and the bigger fruit variety of Brihati, or the smaller and bigger varieties of plants themselves by which he might have meant Solanum indicum Linn. and wild variety of S. melongena Linn. i.e., S. insanum respectively. Both of these are being used as Brhati in different parts of the country.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 11S. S. Su. 36/ 19A. H. Su. 6/ 76, 79, 168
    C. S. Su. 4/ 9, 30, 38, 44S. S. Su. 38/ 4, 8, 31, 66A. H. Su. 14/ 26
    C. S. Su. 5/ 62S. S. Su. 39/ 8A. H. Su. 15/ 4, 21
    C. S. Su. 23/ 18S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Sa. 1/ 40
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 146, 158S. S. Chi. 44/ 79A. H. Sa. 2/ 56, 58
    C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 41, 61S. S. Chi. 46/ 262, 267A. H. Chi. 1/ 89
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 208, 213, 224, 267S. S. Chi. 4/ 32A. H. Chi. 3/ 35, 37, 58, 61
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 46, 88, 102, 108, 112, 128S. S. Chi. 5/ 10A. H. Chi. 4/ 21, 22
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 91, 114S. S. Chi. 6/ 13A. H. Chi. 5/ 42
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 43S. S. Chi. 7/ 5A. H. Chi. 8/ 19
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 36/ 62S. S. Chi. 9/ 28A. H. Chi. 9/ 56
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 29, 72S. S. Chi. 12/ 9A. H. Chi. 10/ 12
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 51S. S. Chi. 19/ 63A. H. Chi. 11/ 21, 35
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 106S. S. Chi. 37/ 122A. H. Chi. 14/ 75
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 75, 88, 99, 101, 126, 176S. S. Chi. 38/ 59A. H. Ka. 2/ 46
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 29, 54S. S. Chi. 40/ 4A. H. Ka. 4/ 17
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 55, 97, 243S. S. Ka. 2/ 48A. H. U. 2/ 37, 38, 48
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 61, 62, 169, 235, 238S. S. Ka. 6/ 9A. H. U. 3/ 55
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 55S. S. Ka. 7/ 16, 28A. H. U. 5/ 18
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 65, 76S. S. Sa. 10/ 57, 61, 63A. H. U. 6/ 27
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 57S. S. U. 11/ 9, 14A. H. U. 11/ 39
    C. S. Ka. 10/ 9S. S. U. 12/ 11A. H. U. 16/ 11
    C. S. Si. 3/ 54S. S. U. 18/ 95, 103A. H. U. 18/ 56
    C. S. Si. 9/ 13S. S. U. 24/ 31A. H. U. 24/ 34, 52
    C. S. Si. 10/ 18, 37, C. S. Si. 12/ 28, 29, 30S. S. U. 30/ 7A. H. U. 30/ 1
    S. S. U. 33/ 5A. H. U. 35/ 22
    S. S. U. 38/ 27A. H. U. 39/ 155
    S. S. U. 39/ 219
    S. S. U. 40/ 40, 58, 76, 114
    S. S. U. 42/ 46, 112, 128
    S. S. U. 44/ 19
    S. S. U. 51/ 24
    S. S. U. 55/ 50

    Brihati's description in Brihtrayi as Kshudra Vartaka

    Vagbhata: A. H. U. 24/ 30

    Brihati's description in Brihtrayi as Kshudra Brihati

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 12/ 9

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 8/ 44

    Brihati's description in Brihtrayi as Mahad Vyaghiri

    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 10/ 30

    Brihati's description in Brihtrayi as Vartakini/ Vartaki

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Vi. 8/ 158, C. S. Chi. 15/ 183

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 5/ 36, A. H. U. 2/ 59. A. H. U. 30/ 12, A. H. U. 34/ 34

    Brihati's description in Brihtrayi as Simhi

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 39/ 215

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 22/ 19, A. H. Chi. 21/ 32, A. H. U. 2/ 50, A. H. U. 5/ 19, 20, A. H. U. 11/ 49, A. H. U. 13/ 54, A. H. U. 20/ 22

    Historical background of Brihati

    Brihati is used for the internal coating of Sutikagara according to Sankhayana Grhyasutra (S. G. 1/ 23/ 1). In the Kousika Sutra it is used for Pumsavana (K. S. 35/ 4). Brihati fruit is delineated in Hiranyakeshi Sutra (H. Sou. 28/ 3/ 5). Samavidhana Brahmana mentions white flowered Brihati (S. B 2/ 3/ 4). Brihat Kantakarika is described in Atharva Parisista (A. P. 1/ 15- 17). In the same text ‘Simhi’ and ‘Vyaghri’ are found together (A. P. 181 1/ 15- 17). Simhi is attributed to properties like Raksoghna, Kityadusana, Varcasya, and Yusya. White-flowered (Shweta) Simhi root juice is given as Nasya for conception (A. P. 18/ 1/ 15- 17 & P. G. 1/ 31/ 1). Brihattrayi mostly described it along with Kantakari. Hence the name Brihati Dwaya. It is also useful for Kasa and along with Kantakari its roots form the part of Dashamula.

    External morphology of Solanum indicum

    • Habit: A much-branched under-shrub 0.3- 1.5 meter high, very prickly; prickles large, with a long compressed base, sharp, often slightly recurved; stem sought, often purple; branches covered with minute stellate hairs.
    • Leaves: Leaves of Brihati are 5- 15 by 2.5- 7.5 cm., ovate in outline, acute, sub entire or with a few large triangular-ovate, subacute lobes, sparsely prickly on both sides, clothed above with simple hairs from bulbous bases intermixed with small stellate ones, covered below with small stellate hairs; base cordate, cuneate or truncate, often unequal-sided; petioles 1.3-2.5 cm. long, prickly.
    • Flowers: Flowers of Brihati are racemose extra-axillary cymes; peduncles short; pedicels 6-13 mm. long, stellate hairy and prickly; calyx 3 mm. long, stellate hairy; teeth triangular, 1.5 mm.  long, corolla 8 mm, long, deltoid-ovate, acute; filaments very short, almost o; anthers oblong-lanceolate, opening by small pores; ovary often hairy at the top; style stellate hairy, curved at the apex.
    • Fruit: Fruit of Brihati is a berry 8 mm. diameter, globose, dark yellow when ripe, glabrous, or sometimes with a few stellate hairs at the apex. Seeds 4 mm. diam., minutely pitted.

    Flowering and fruiting time of Brihati

    Summer season

    Distribution of Brihati

    Brihati is found throughout tropical India and grows in waste places, along roadsides, and in places where it gets good sunshine.

    Varieties of Brihati

    In the text, two varieties of Brihati i.e Brihati and Shweta Brihati are identified with S. indicum Linn. and S. torvum Swartz. respectively. Kaiyadeva enumerated 11 varieties of Brhati quoting other texts. They are: Simhi, Brhati, Kantakari, Nidigdhika, Valli Brihati, Vrtra Brihati, Shweta Brihati, Alambu Phala Brihati, Amla Brihati, Jala Brihati and Sthula Brihati. It is observed in other species of Solanum such as S. insanum Roxb. (Vanabhanta) and S. torvum (Shweta Brihati) are in common use. It is also noticed that S. aungvii and S. trilobatun (Tudvalai in Tamil) are in common use in South India.  Dalhana in one of the contexts (S. S. Ut. 40/ 40) defined Brihati Dwaya as the plant with smaller fruits (Sukshma Phala) and the plant with bigger fruits (Brihat Phala) together as Brhati Dwaya. He might have meant S. indicum and S. melongena Linn. (S. insanum) as the sources respectively. Both these are being used under the name Brihati in various parts of the country.

    Raja Nighantu mentions three varieties of Brihati:

    • Brihati
    • Sarp Tanu
    • Shweta Brihati

    The useful part of Brihati

    Root, fruit, & leaves

     

    Pieces of stout, tortuous roots up to 4 cm in diameter, sometimes divarication branched, with long cylindrical rootlets. The external surface is rough, earthy brown in velour, with small round warty protuberances, Root bark separates easily from the root. exposing a longitudinally striated surface of yellowish white color, A transversely cut portion shows a thin bark, followed by a cortical layer enclosing a broad mealy woody portion and a central pith surrounded by a prominent ring. The dried root is difficult to break and becomes short pieces. It has a slightly pungent odor and a bitter taste.

    Important phytoconstituent of Brihati

    • Roots & Stem- Contains Solasonine (Glycoalkaloid), Solanine, solasodine, diosgenin, B-sitosterol, lanosterol & solamargine.
    • Fruits- Solasonine, solanine, diosgenin, maltase, fatty acids like lauric, palmitic, stearic, arachidic, oleic, and linoleic acids, campesterol.
    • Leaves- Solasonine, solanine, diosgenin, B-sistosterol, lanosterol, solamargine & solasodine.

    Recent research on Brihati

    • A new characteristic steroidal glycoside of the 23S, 26R- hydroxylated spirostanol-type named indioside F was isolated from the fruit of Solanum indicum, along with indioside A and protodioscin. El- Aasr M, Miyashita H. Ikeda T, Lee JH, Yoshimitsu H, Nohara T, Murakami K. A new spirostanol glycoside from fruits of Solanum indicum L. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2009 Jul; 57 (7): 747- 8.
    • Solavetivone (1), Cytotoxic to OVCAR-3 cells with an IC (50) value of 0.1 mM, has been isolated from Solanum indicum. Syu WJ, Don MJ, Lee GH, Sun CM. Cytotoxic and novel compounds from Solanum indicum. J Nat Prod. 2001 Sep; 64 (9): 1232- 3.
    • Beta-Sitosterol (SI-0), beta-sitosterol glucoside (SI-1), dioscin (S1-2), methyl proto- prosapogenin A of dioscin (SI- 3), methyl protodioscin (SI- 4) and protodioscin (SI- 5), were isolated and characterized from the whole plant of Solanum indicum L. (Solanaceae) showed cytotoxic activity on seven cancer cell lines. Chiang HC, Tseng TH, Wang CJ Res 1991, Sep-Oct, 11 (5): 1911- 7.
    • Solanine hydrochloride (obtained from S. ferox Syn. S stramonifolium Jacq.) (25 ml/ kg i.v.) administered to guinea pigs thrice every alternate day protected them against its lethal dose (40 mg/kg) (antitoxic immunity). At 0.1 mg/kg, it inhibited the sensitivity of guinea pigs to horse serum when given 48-72 hr before serum injection (Zh. Ushn. Nos. Gorl. Bolenz. 1977, 64)
    • Both chloroform soluble and insoluble fraction of ethanolic extract, showed cytotoxicity to colo-205 (colon), KB (nasopharynx), Hela (uterine cervix), HA 22T (hepatoma), Hep- 2 (laryngeal epidermoid), GBM 8401/TSGH (glioma) and H1477 (melanoma) cells (Anticancer Res. 1991, 11, 1911).
    • The ethanol extract of roots, fruits, and roots of Solanum indicum and Saccharum munja respectively, and water-soluble resin of Commiphora myrrh a were studied for anti-inflammatory activity found in the former two plants while slight anti-inflammatory activity was observed in the latter plant. Singh Rk, Joshi VK, Gambhir SS. Anti-inflammatory activity of some traditional medicinal plants Ancient Sci Life. 1998 Oct; 18 (2): 160- 4
    • A standardized extract of the fruits of Solanum indicum has previously been shown to possess antihypertensive activity in rats (ED50 about 1 mg/ kg). Earlier acute toxicity studies had shown that single doses up to 2g/kg orally or intraperitoneally failed to show any signs of morbidity. To study its potential long-term toxicity, rats of either sex were fed rurally 1g/ kg of the extract daily over 4 weeks to 6 months the present findings point to the wide safety margin of the extract, Abdel Aziz H, Fawzi N, Ismail Al, El-Askary H. Toxicological studies on a standardized extract of Solanum indicum, distichum. Food Chem Toxicology 2011 Apr; 49 (4): 903- 9. Epub 2010 Dec 22.

    Rasa Panchaka of Brihati

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (pungent), Tikata (bitter)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry), Theekshana (sharp)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Brihati

    Kapha Vata Shamaka, Kapha Hara because of Ushana Virya, Katu Vipaka and Katu, Tikta Rasa.

    Vata Hara because of Ushana Virya

    Karma (Actions) of Brihati

    Kaphaghna, Kasahara, Shvasahara, Mutrala, Hridayottejaka, Raktashodhak, Shothahara, Dipana, Pachana, Rochaka, Vairasyahara, Grahi, Krimighna, Garbhashaya Kocaka, Vajikarana, Jwaraghna, Vedana Sthapana-uttejaka, Keshya, Kandughna, Kusthaghna, Tvacha, Dantya.

    Sarptanu variety: Kasa Hara, Swasha Hara.

    Sweta Brihati: Ruchya, Netrya

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Brihati

    • Abhyantara Paryoga (Internal indication): Kasa, Shwasa, Pratisyaya, Svarabheda, Hikka, Agnimandya, Grahani, Aruci, Chardi, Udararoga-Udarasula, Krimi, Hridya Dourbalya, Shotha, Rakta Vikara, Sanjnanasa, Sutika, Stri Artava- Vikara, Rajorodha, Kastaprasava, Charmaroga, Kustha, Kandu, Jvara, Mutrakrccha, Ashmari.
    • Bahya Paryoga (External Indication): Vedanayukta Vikara, Yonikandu, Dhvajabhanga, Indralupta, Kesavikara, Krimidanta, Sanjnanasa, Murcha.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Brihati

    Aruchi (Anorexia): Brihati fruits are cooked, spiced, and then put into boiled curd. It is useful in anorexia. (Vaidya Manorma.4.4.)

     

    Khalitya (Alopecia)

     

    • Juice of Brihati (fruit) mixed with honey, by local application destroys alopecia. (Vrinda Madhava. 57/ 76, Gada Nigreha. 3. 1. 78, Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 11. 21)
    • The fruit and root of Gunja are pounded with the juice of Brihati fruits and rubbed with Datura fruit. It removes alopecia. (Vrinda Madhava. 57/ 77)

     

    Garbh Dharana (For conception): The woman should take white Brihati (root) by the right nostril for male progeny and by the left one for the female child. (Vanga Sena. Striroga. 153)

     

    Jwara (Fever):  Powder of Brihati fruit and Sunthi mixed is blown into the nostril. By this, the patient sneezes and regains consciousness. (Gada Nigreha. 2. 1. 400)

     

    Kasa (Cough)

     

    • Brihati fruit is slightly steamed in water, pounded, and cooked in ghee. Then it is added with Saindhava Lavana and taken. It stimulates digestion and alleviates cough. (Kshema Katuhal. 8. 62)
    • Brihati fruit is an ingredient in Pippalyadi Leha. (Gada Nigreha. 2. 10. 65)

     

    Pistaka (Eye diseases)

    Maturing fruit of Brihati, after removing the seeds, is filled with a paste of Pippali and Srotonjana. After a week the paste is taken out and applied to the eyes as collyrium, the same procedure is adopted in relation to fruits of Shigru, Indravaruni, Patola, Kiratatikta, and Amalaki. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 11. 14-15)

     

    Karna Roga (Ear diseases): Fumigation with Varttaka destroys maggots in the ear. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 21/ 52, Vrinda Madhava. 59/ 45)

     

    Bala Roga (Pediatric diseases): The child who vomits breast milk frequently should be given fruit juice of Kantakari and Brihati mixed with Panchcakola, honey, and ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya. Uttara Tantra. 2/ 58)

     

    Grahani Roga (IBS): Brihati with buttermilk overcomes Grahani disorder. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 5. 28)

     

    Arsha (Piles): Brihati fruit is boiled in alkaline water of Koshataki and fried with ghee. It is taken with jaggery to satisfaction followed by intake of buttermilk. It destroys hemorrhoids within a week. (Vrinda Madhava. 5. 14- 15)

     

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Dashmool (Brihati is one of the ingredients of Dashmool)

     

    Jwara (Fever)

     

    • Pippali should be used with a decoction of Dasamulaa. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39/ 216)
    • This group (Dasamula) alleviates asthma, pacifies Kapha, Pitta, and Vata is digestive of Ama and removes all types of fever. (Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 38/ 64)
    • Decoction of Dasamula, warm or cooled, added with the paste of Rasna is useful in fever caused by Vata. (Kashyapa Samhita Purva Khanda. 350)
    • In fever caused by Kapha, the decoction of Dasamula and Vasaka mixed with honey should be given. (Vrinda Madhava. 1/ 109)
    • Decoction of Dasamula added with Pippali should be given in disorders of Kapha and Vata, indigestion, excessive sleep, chest pain, asthma, and cough. (Vrinda Madhava. 1/ 139)
    • Both (Brihat and Laghu Pancamula) combined is Dasamula. It is efficacious in Sannipata fever, cough, asthma, stupor, and chest pain. If mixed with Pippali powder it alleviates Kapha and cardiac pain. (Vrinda Madhava. 1. 169)
    • In Sannipata fever with asthma and cough, the decoction of Dasamula mixed with Pippali and Pushkaramula should be given. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 573)

     

    Atisaar Sambandhit Jwara (Fever associated with diarrhea): In fever, diarrhea, edema and Grahaniroga Sunthi 10 gm mixed with Dasamula decoction should be taken. (Vrinda Madhava. 2/ 20)

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea): In diarrhea with pain and tenesmus non-unctuous enema with the decoction of Dasamula added with honey and milk is an excellent remedy. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 143)

     

    Grahani-roga (IBS): Dasamuladya ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15. 82- 86)

     

    Pandu (Anemia): In anemia caused by Kapha, the decoction of Dasamula mixed with Sunthi should be taken. It is also useful in fever, diarrhea, edema, Grahani, asthma, anorexia, and disorders of the throat and heart. (Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 4)

     

    Shvasa and Kasa (Asthma and cough)

     

    • Dwi Panca Mulyadi Ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18. 158- 60)
    • Dasa Mulyadi Ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18. 123- 24)
    • Liquid gruel processed with Dasamula alleviates cough, hiccough, and asthma. (Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 2/ 27, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 23)
    • One suffering from hiccough and asthma should take, while thirsty, the decoction of Dasamula or Devadaru or wine. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 105, Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 11)
    • In Hrid Shool (chest pain), Jwara (fever), Shwaas (asthma) and Kasa (cough) caused by Kapha decoction of Dasamula i.e Dashmool Kwatha mixed with Pippali Churna should be given. (Vrinda Madhava. 11/ 11)
    • Dasamula Kwatha added with Pushkaramula Churna pacifies Kasa (cough) and Shwasa (asthma) and removes pain in the chest and heart. (Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 18, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 36)
    • To eradicate asthma, decoction of Dasamula should be given. It is effective even in severe cases. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 49)

     

    Rajyakshma (Consumption)

     

    • Fresh ghee extracted from the milk boiled with Dasamula is used after adding Pippali powder and honey. It improves voice, alleviates pain in the head, chest, and shoulder, and removes cough, asthma, and fever. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 97- 98)
    • Ghee cooked with sweet (Jivaniya) Dravyas, Dasamula decoction, milk, and meat soup is an excellent remedy for consumption. (Charaka Samhita Chiktsa Sthana. 8/ 168)

     

    Unmada (Insanity): One should use the decoction of Dasamula added with ghee or meat- soup or powder of white mustard or old ghee alone. (Vrinda Madhava. 20/ 4)

     

    Apsmaar (Epilepsy): The patient who suffers from palpitation of the heart, pain in the eyes, excessive sweat and coldness in hands, etc. should be treated with Dasamula decoction of Kalyana Ghrita. (Vrinda Madhava. 21/ 8)

     

    Hridya Roga (Heart disease): Decoction of Dasamula added with rock salt and Yavaksara destroys asthma, cough, heart disease, Gulma, and colic. (Vrinda Madhava. 31. 18, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 102)

     

    Shotha (Oedema): Diet of the patient with edema should consist of cereals of old barley and Sali rice cooked with Dasamula decoction and that too in small quantity and added with little salt and ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana 17/ 17)

     

    Granthi-Visarpa: In case of pain, the part should be sprinkled with hot oil or Dasamula decoction, or urine. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 24)

     

    Vatavyadhi

     

    • In Vishwachi and Avabahuka (pain in arms), a decoction of Dasamula, Bala, and Masa mixed with oil and ghee should be used as snuff in the evening. (Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 31, Vanga Sena, Vatavyadhi. 123, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 87)
    • Newly arisen Kubja (humpedness) should be treated with Dasamüla and other Vata-alleviating drugs. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 35)
    • Dashamoola- Ghrita. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 72)
    • Sciatica is treated with a decoction of Dasamula added with Hingu and Puskaramula (powder) or only with that of Sephali leaves. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 86)
    • In Manyastambha (torticollis) decoction of Dasamula or even Pancamula, rough sudation and snuffing should be used. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 76)

     

    Vatarakta (Gout): Milk cooked with Dasamula decoction alleviates pain immediately. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 124, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 23, Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 11)

     

    Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis)

     

    • In Amavata, one should take Dasamula decoction added with Pippali or Haritaki with Sunthi or Guduci with Sunthi. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 10, Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 44)
    • Castor oil mixed with a decoction of Dasamula or Sunthi should be taken in case of pain in the abdomen, pelvis, and waist. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 5)
    • Moreover, an enema of Dasamula mixed with urine should be given. (Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 7/ 20)

     

    Vidriddhi (Abscess): The swelling or wound should be sprinkled with warm decoction of Dasamula or meat soup mixed with fat. (Vrinda Madhava. 43/ 8)

     

    Loose teeth (Danta Roga): Gargle should be used with Dasamula decoction added with ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 22/ 14)

     

    Netra Roga (Defects of vision): In Timira caused by Vata, ghee cooked with Dasamula decoction and paste of Triphala in four times milk should be used. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 48)

     

    Badhirya (Deafness): Oil 640 ml. should be cooked with Dasamula decoction and should be instilled in ears. It is an excellent remedy for deafness. (Vrinda Madhava. 59/ 26) 

     

    Sutika- Roga (postpartum disease): Decoction of Dasamula alleviates Sutika Roga immediately. (Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 28)

     

    Stanya Janana Roga (Abnormal lactation):  In breast milk affected by Vata, the decoction of Dasamula should be given. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 2/ 9, Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 34)

    Benefits of Brihati

    • The roots are carminative, and expectorant; they are useful in asthma, cough, catarrhal, affections, difficult parturition, toothache, fevers, worm complaints, colic, and dysuria.
    • The external application of leaves and fruits of the plant is made; they are rubbed up with sugar on the itchy part of the body.
    • The juice of leaves is mixed with ginger and orally given for checking to vomit.
    • The roots are medicinally used in various diseases in different forms, as they are a major part of plant drugs frequently employed in therapeutics. The roots similarly enter into several groups of drugs (Gana) e.g., Dashamula or Laghu Panchamula, generally used as a decoction and in other forms, and also as a component of various compound formulations.
    • Secondly, the fruits are important medicinally useful parts of the plant drug. Classically the medicinal properties and uses of the fruits are specifically mentioned with the therapeutic indication (Materia medica and other works). As regards the medicinal utility and used in various diseases, the textual sources mention certain kinds of plant drug and their fruits (e.g., Amla Brihati Phalam, Nadeyi Brihati Phalam, Sthula Brihati Phalam, Lata Brihati Phalam, Simhi Phalam, Brhati Pakvaphalam, etc.). The drug is commonly used as a potential herbal medicine with common availability. 
    • It is analgesic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, digestive, emmenagogue, expectorant, and resolvent. It is used in calculus affections, chronic febrile conditions, flatulence, heart troubles, hair ailments, skin diseases, respiratory and nervine
    • It is useful in gastro-intestinal troubles, piles or hemorrhoids, and miscarriage, obesity, children’s diseases, eye troubles, and several other ailments. Brihati is frequently and effectively used in respiratory troubles and other complaints,

    Benefits of Brihati on different systems of bodies

    • External use: Since it is an analgesic, antipruritic, hair-tonic, and stimulant, it is used for local application. A vaginal suppository made from Brihati, Daruharidra, and Haridra is used in itching. Fumigation with this mixture also helps. Powdered seeds are applied to the genitalia in impotency. In unconsciousness, the powder of the seeds is administered nasally.
    • Digestive system: It is Ushna Veerya, Deepan, Pachan, astringent and anthelmintic. It is therefore used in indigestion, colic, anorexia, and worm infestation. In vomiting, juice of the fruits + cow’s ghee + honey is given.
    • Circulatory system: Since it is a cardiac tonic, blood purifier, and diuretic, it is used in cardiac failure, edema, and blood disorders.
    • Respiratory system: It reduces cough and asthma. It is an excellent remedy for rhinitis, cough, asthma, sore throat, and hiccups.
    • Urinary system: Since it is a diuretic, it is used in dysuria and calculi.
    • Reproductive system: Its seeds have oxytocic and aphrodisiac properties. It is useful in amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and puerperal disorders. Seeds also promote virility.
    • Temperature: Febrifuge. Hence it is used in fever caused by Vata and Kapha.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Brihati

    • Churna (powder): 1- 2 grams
    • Kwatha (decoction): 40- 80 ml

    Classical reference of Brihati

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 36

    Synonyms

    वार्ताकी क्षुद्र भण्टाकी महती बृहती कुली |

    हिंगुली राष्ट्रिका सिंही महोष्ट्री दुष्प्रहर्षिणी |

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 36- 37

    Properties and action

    बृहती ग्राहिणी हृद्या पाचनी कफ वात हत |

    कटु तिक्ता आस्य वैरस्य मलारोचक नाशिनी |

    उष्णा कुष्ठ ज्वर श्वास शूल कास अग्निमांद्यजित ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 94

    Properties and action

    सिंहिका कफ वातघ्नी श्वासशूलज्वरापहा ।

    छर्दिहवद्रोगमन्दायिमामदोषांश्च नाश्येत ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 50- 51

    बृहती कटुका्तिक्ता सोष्णा वातकफापहा |

    दीपनी पाचनी हृद्या ग्राहिणी ज्वरकुष्ठनुत्‌ |

    श्वासस्यमलवैरस्यकासारोचकशूलजित्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu Shatavadi Varga, 25

    बृहती कटु तिक्ताष्णा वातजिज्ज्वरहारिणी |

    अरोचकामकासघ्नी श्वासहद्रोगनाशनी ||

    Raja Nighantu Shatavadi Varga, 27

    Variety

    सर्प तनु  

    क्षविका बृहती तिक्ता कटुरूष्ण च तत्समा |

    युक्तया द्रव्यविशेषण धारा संस्तम्भसिद्धिदा ||

    Raja Nighantu Shatavadi Varga, 29

    श्वेत बृहती विज्ञेया श्वेत बृहती वात श्लेष्म विनाशनी |

    रुच्या चा अंजन योगेन नाना नेत्रामयापहा ||

    Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 17, 38

    बृहती कटु तिक्तोष्ण कफवातहरी मता |

    ग्राहिणी पाचनी रुच्या हृद्य वन्हि प्रदीपनी | 

    ज्वरे कासे तथा श्वासे शूले मान्द्य च शस्यते ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 50- 51

    बृहती कटुका तिक्ता सोष्णा वातकफापहा ||

    दीपनी पाचनी हृद्या ग्राहिणी ज्वरकुष्ठनुत्‌ |

    श्वासास्यमलवैरस्यकासारोचकशूलजित्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 59- 60

    सिंही- बृहत्यो: गुणा:

    सिंही वृहत्यौ विज्ञेये रसत: कटु तिक्तके ||

    कफवातहरे तत्र सिंही सोष्णा तु पित्तनुत्‌ |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 60- 62

    निदिग्धिका- कण्टकार्यो: फलम्‌

    निदिग्धिकाकण्टकार्यो:  फल सोष्ण तयोरपि ||

    कास श्वासपहा तत्र कण्टकारी तयोर्वरा |

    शेषांस्तु चाक्षुषा बल्या वातपित्त निबर्हणा: ||

    श्लेष्मला: क्लेदजनना: मधुर: गुरु बृहण: |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga,  63, 64

    सिंहीफलम्‌

    सिंही फ कोमलमम्लाग्रिसाद श्वासत्रिदोषान्‌ हरते लघूष्णम्‌ |

    अम्लबृहतीफलम्‌

    रुचिकृद्‌: गुरु विष्टम्भिदग्धभूबृहतीफलम्‌ |

    फलमम्लबृहत्यास्तु पित्तश्लेष्मकरं लघु ||

    अम्लं रुचिकरं हृद्यं वातघ्नं कृमिनाशनम्‌ |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 64, 65

    नादेय बृहती फलम

    वात पित्त प्रशमनं अभिष्यंद करम गुरु ||

    बल्यं कफ करं हृद्यं नादेय बृहती फलम |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 65, 66

    स्थूल बृहती फलम 

    श्लेष्मलम सृष्ट विण्मूत्र शीतल गुरु बृहणम्‌ ||

    वातपित्तहरं वृष्यमनल्पबृहतीफलम्‌ |

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 66

    लता बृहती फलम्‌ 

    वल्ली सिंही फलं श्लेष्मकरं गुर्वा अग्निमान्द्यकृत्‌ |

    आमकृद्‌ वातलं कण्डूजननञ्च प्रसेककृत्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 67

    बृहत्या: पक्वफलम्‌

    शीतं विपाके मधुर तु वृष्यं श्लेष्मांपहम पिच्छिलिमामनन्ति |

    वाते च पित्ते च हितम बृहत्या: फल सुपक्क रुचिकृच्च हृद्यम्‌ ||

    Bhava Parkasha Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, 36, 37

    बृहती ग्राहिणी हद्या पाचनी कफवातहत्‌ ||

    कटु तिक्ता आस्य वैरस्यमलारोधकनाशिनी |

    उष्णा कुष्ठज्वर श्वास शूलकासा अग्निमान्द्यजित्‌ ||

    Shodhala Nighantu

    संज्ञास्थापनार्थ बृहतीचूर्णप्रधमनम्‌

    एकं बृहत्या: फलपिप्पलीकं शुण्ठीयुतं चूर्णमिदं प्रशस्तम्‌ |

    प्रध्मापयेत्‌ घ्राणपुटे विसंज्ञ: चेष्टा करोति क्षवथुप्रबुद्ध: ||

    Sharangdhara Nighantu, 2- 5- 58

    ग्रहणीरोगे

    जयेत्‌ सड़्ग्रहणीं तद्वत्‌ तक्रेण बृहतीभव: |

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 21/ 52, Vrinda Madhava, 59- 45

    क्रिमिकर्णे

    वार्ताकुधूमश्च हित: सार्षपपस्नेह एव च |

    Chakra Dutta, Kshudra Roga Chikitsa, 55/ 17

    अलसके बृहतीप्रतिसारणम्‌

    बृहतीरससिद्धन तैलेनाभ्यज्य बुद्धिमान्‌ |

    शिलारोचनकाशीशचूणैर्वा प्रतिसारयेत्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, Mukha Roga (Danta Roga) Chikitsa, 56/ 30

    क्रिमिदन्तरोगे बृहत्यादिक्वाथ:

    Vrinda Madhava, 57- 76, Gada Nigreha, 3- 1- 78, Sharangdhara Samhita, 3- 11- 21

    इन्दललुमे

    इन्द्रलुप्तापहो लेपो मधुना बृहतीरस: |

    Vanga Sena, Stri Roga, 15/ 3

    प्रजास्थापनार्थम्‌ (गर्भधारणप्रयोग:)

    क्षीरिण श्रेतबृहतीमूल नासिकया पिबेत्‌ |

    दक्षिणायात्मजार्थ वा कन्यार्थ वामया तथा ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 39/ 216

    ज्वर 

    दशमूलीकषायेण मागधीर्वा प्रयोजयेत्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 38/ 64

    गण: श्वासहरो ह्येष कफपित्तानिलापह: |

    आमस्य पाचनश्चैव सर्वज्वरविनाशन: ||

    Kashyap Samhita, Page 350

    द्विपंच्च मूलनिष्क्वाथ: कोष्णो वा यदि वा हिम: |

    रास्नाकल्कसमायुक्तो वातज्वरहितो मत: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 109

    मधुना श्वेष्मसमुत्ये दशमूलीवासकस्य वा क्वाथ: |

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 139

    दशमूलीरस: पेय: कणायुक्त: कफानिले |

    अविपाके अतिनिद्रायां पार्श्व रुकुश्वासकासके ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 169

    उभयं दशमूलं तु संनिपातज्वरापहम्‌ |

    कासे श्वासे च तन्द्रायां पार्श्वशूले च शस्यते ||

    पिप्पलीचूर्णसंयुक्त कण्ठहदग्रहनाशनम्‌ |

    Bhava Prakasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 573

    दशमूलीकषायस्तु पिप्पलीपौष्करान्वित: |

    सन्निपातज्वरे देव: शवासकाससमन्विते ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 2. 20

    ज्वरातिसारे 

    दशमूलीकषायेण विश्वमक्षसमं पिबेत्‌ |

    ज्वरे चैबातिसारे च सशोफे ग्रहणीगदे ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 40/ 143

    अतिसारे 

    द्विपंच्च मूल क्वथीतें शूले प्रवाहमाणस्य समाक्षिकेण |

    क्षीरेण च आस्थापनं अग्रयं उक्तं |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 82- 86

    ग्रहणी रोग 

    दशमूलाद घृतम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 4

    पाण्डु रोग 

    द्विपच्च मूल क्वथितं सविश्वं ज्वरे सविश्व॑ कफात्मके पाण्डुगदे पिबेदू वा |

    ज्वारे अतिसारे शवयथो ग्रहण्यां श्वास अरुचौ कंठ हादाम्ये च ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 158- 160

    श्वासकासयो:

    द्वि पंच्च मूल्यादिघृतम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 123- 24

    दशमूलादिघृतम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 2/ 26, Ashtanga Hirdya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 23

    दशमूली शृता कासहिक्काश्वासरुजापहा |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 105, Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 11

    दशमूलस्य वा क्वाथमथवा देवदारुण: |

    तृषितो मदिरां वापि हिक्काश्वासी पिबेन्नर: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 11/ 11

    पा्श्वशूले ज्वरे श्वासे कासे श्रेष्मसमुदभवे |

    पिप्पलीचूर्णसंयुक्तं दशमूलीजल पिबेत् ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 18, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 36

    दशमूलीकषायश्च पुष्करेणावचूर्णित: |

    कासश्वासप्रशमन: पार्श्वहच्छूलनाशन: ||

    Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 49

    दशमूलरसो देव: श्वासनिर्मुलशान्तये |

    अवश्य मरणीयों यो जीवेद्‌ वर्ष श्तं नर: ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 97- 98

    शोषे

    दशमूल शृतात क्षीरात्‌ सर्पियदुदियान्नवम्‌ |

    सपिप्पलीकं सक्षौद्रं तत्‌ पर स्वरबोधनम्‌ ||

    शिर: पार्श्व शूलघ्नं कासश्वासज्वरापहम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 138

    सिद्ध मधुरकैरद्रव्वैदशमूलकषायकै: |

    क्षीरमांसरसोपेतै घृतम शोषहरं परम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 20/ 4

    उन्मादे

    दशमूलाम्बु सघृतं युक्त मांसरसेन वा |

    ससिद्धार्थकचूर्ण वा केवल वा अनवं घृतम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 21/ 8

    अपस्मारे

    हत्कम्पो अक्षिरुजा यस्य स्वेदो हस्तादिशीतता |

    दशमूलीजल तस्य कल्याणाज्यं च योजयेत्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 31/ 18

    हद्रोगे

    दशमूलकषाये तु लवणक्षारयोजितम |

    श्वास कासं सहद्रोगं गुल्मशूलं च नाशयेत्‌ ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 102

    दशमूलकृतः क्वाथ: सयवक्षारसैन्धव: |

    हद्रोगगुल्मशूलानि कासं श्वासं च नाशयेत्‌ |

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 17

    शोथे

    पुराणयवशाल्यन्न दशमूलाम्बुसाधितम्‌।

    अल्पमल्पं पटुस्नेहं भोजन श्वयथोरहितम ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 24

    ग्रन्थिवीसर्पे

    ग्रन्थिवीसर्पशूले तु तैलेनोष्णेन सेचयेत्‌ |

    दशमूलबविपक्वेन तद्वन्‌ मुतरैजलेन वा ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 31, Vanga Sena Vaat Vyadhi. 123, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 87

    वातव्याधौ

    दशमूलीबलामाष क्वाथं तैलाज्यमिश्रितम्‌ |

    सायं भुक्त्वा पिबेन्नस्य विश्वाच्यामवबाहुके ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 22. 35

    वातष्नैर्दशमूल्या च नवं कुब्जमुपाचरेत्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 22. 72

    दशमूलघृतम्‌ |

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 86

    हिंगुपुष्करचूर्णादयं दशमूलशुतं जयेत्‌ |

    गृधसी केवल: क्वाथ: शेफालीपत्रजस्तथा ||

    Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 76

    दशमूलीकृतं क्वा्थ पज्चमूल्यापि कल्पितम्‌ |

    रूक्ष स्वेद॑ तथा नस्यं मन्यास्तम्भे प्रयोजयेत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 124, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 23, Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 11

    वातेरक्ते

    दशमूल शृतं क्षीरं सच: शूलनिवारणम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 10, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 44

    आमवाते

    आमवाते कणायुक्त॑ दशमूलीजल पिबेत्‌ |

    खादेद्वाप्यमयाविश्वं गुडू्ची नागरेण वा ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 5

    दशमूलीकषायेण पिबेद्‌ वा नागराभ्मसा |

    कुक्षि बस्तिकटीशूले तैलमेरण्डसंभवम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 7/ 20

    बस्तिमस्य विदध्याच्च समूत्रं दाशमूलिकम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 43/ 8

    विद्रधौ

    दशमूलीकषायेण सस्नेहेन रसेन वा |

    शोध ब्रण वा कोष्णेन सशूल॑ परिषेचयेत्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 22/ 14

    दन्तदौर्बल्ये

    ससनेहं दशमूलाम्बु गण्डूष: प्रचलदद्विजे |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 48

    तिमिरे

    वातजे तिमिरे तत्र दशमूलाम्भसा घृतम्‌ |

    क्षीरे चतुर्गुणे श्रष्ठा कल्क पक्वं पिबेत्तत: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 51/ 26

    बाधिर्य 

    दशमूलीकषायेण तैलप्रस्थ॑ विपाचयेत्‌ |

    ऐतत्‌ कर्णे प्रदातव्यं बाधिये परमौषधम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 28

    सूतिकारोगे

    दशमूलीरस: पूत: सद्य: सूतीरुजापह: |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 2/ 9

    वातिके स्तन्यविकारे

    तत्र वातात्मके स्तन्ये दशमूलं त्रयहं पिबेत्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 65. 34

    तत्र वातात्मके स्तन्ये दशमूलीजलं पिबेत्‌ ||           

    Vrinda Madhava, 5- 14/ 15

    अर्श   

    स्विन्नं वार्ताकफलं घोषाया: क्षारजेन सलिलेन |

    तद्धृतभ्रष्टं युक्तगुडेन, वा तृपतितो योजत्ति ||

    पिबति च तक्रम नूनं तस्याश्वेवातिवृद्धगुदजानि |

    यान्ति विनाशं पुंस: सहजान्यपि सप्तरात्रेण ||

    Vaidya Manorama, 16/ 317

    मेदोविकारजनितकोठे

    ‘पाकोन्मुखानि बृहतीकुसुमोदभवानि मूत्रावृतानि सुकरी सम्पुटे निधाय |

    दग्ध्वा कुकूलदहनेन च तानि हन्यु: मेदोविकारजनितचिरेण कोठान्‌ ||

    Gada Nigreha, 2- 1- 400

    सन्निपातज्वरे

    एकं बृहत्या फल पिप्पलीकं शुण्ठीयु्त चूर्णमिदं प्रशस्तम |

    प्रध्मापयेद्‌ घ्राणपुटे विसंज्ञ: चेष्टां करोति क्षवधुप्रबुद्ध: ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 2/ 58

    बालरोगे

    पीतं पीतं वमति य: स्तन्यं तम मधुसर्पिष: |

    द्वि वार्ताकी फलरसं पंच्च कोलञ्च लेहयेत्‌ ||

    Shusruta Samhita, 11- 14/ 15

    नेत्ररोगे

    फलं बृहत्या: मगधोद्भवानामादाय: कलकं फलपाकक्राले |

    स्त्रोतोजयुक्त॑ च तदुद्धृतं स्यात्‌ तद्वत्तु पिषटे विधिरेव चापि ||

    वार्ताकशिम्बि्दसुरापटोलकिराततिक्तामलकौ फलेषु ||

    Kshema Kutuhalam, 8/ 62

    कासे

    तोयाल्पस्विन्नबृहतीफलमल्पखण्डं दण्डाहतं चिरविपाचितमाज्यमध्ये |

    चूर्णेन सैन्धवमयेन विमिश्रितश् वहिं प्रबोधयतिं कासनिवारणं हि ||

    बहती प्रसिद्धा । (शां. गृ. १/ २३/ १) (ना.भा.)

    बृहती नाम कण्टकारी । (शां. गृ.  १/ २३/ १) (दा-प.)

    बृहती सिंहिका कान्ता वार्ताकी राष्ट्रिका कुली | 

    विषदा स्थूलकण्टाकी महती तु महोटिका ||

    सिंहिका कफ़वातघनी श्वास शूलज्वरापहा | 

    छर्दिहद्रोगमन्दाग्निमामदोषांश नाशयेत् || (ध.नि.)

    वृहत्या सिंहिका क्रान्ता वार्ताकी राष्ट्रिका कुली । 

    विशदा स्थूलभंटाकी रोहिणी पीततंडुला ||

    मेहनी क्षवथु: प्रोक्ता बहुपत्रा महोटिका | (शो. नि.)

    बृहती पाचनी सोष्णा वातघ्नी  ग्राहिणी तथा ||  

    सिंही श्वेता त्रिदोषघ्नी वन्ध्यानां चाप्यपत्यदा |

    कलानि बृहतीनां च कदुतिक्तलघूनि च | 

    कंडूकुष्ठकृमिष्नानि कफवातहराणि च || (शो. नि.)

    Kaideva Nighantu

    वार्ताकी बृहतीं सिंही स्थूलकण्टा महोष्टिका | 

    कण्टकी विशदा क्रान्ता महती राष्ट्रिका कु्ती ||

    भण्टाकी स्थूलभण्टाकी बहुपत्रा विधाविका | 

    बृहती कटुका तिक्ता सोष्णा वातकफापहा ||

    दीपनी पाचनी हद्या ग्राहिणी ज्वरकुष्ठनुत्‌ | 

    श्रासास्यमलवैरस्यकासारोचकशूलजित्‌ ||

    सिंही च बृहती चैव कण्टकारी निदिग्धिका | 

    वल्लीवृक्ष दृहत्यी च श्वेतालाबुफला तथा। 

    तथैवाम्लबृहत्यश्च बृहती जलजा तथा || 

    अन्या: स्थूलबृहत्यशत्रैकादश उदीरिता |

    सिंहीवृहत्यौ विज्ञेय रसत: कटु तिक्तके || 

    कफवातहरे तत्र सिंही सीष्णा तु पित्तनुत्‌ |

    निदिग्धिकाकण्टकार्यो: फल सोष्ण॑ तयोरपि || 

    कासश्वासापहा तत्र कण्टकारी तयोर्वरा |

    शेषास्तु चाकुषा बल्या वातपित्त निर्बहणा: || 

    श्लेष्मला: क्लेदजनना: मधुरा: गुरु बृहणा: |

    श्वेताफलं भेदि निहन्ति कास श्वास क्षयार्श: कृमिवातरोगान्‌ |

    पित्तप्रद वहिकरं कटुष्ण क्षारं कषाय कटुक कफघ्नं ||

    सिंहीफलं कोमलमग्निसादश्रासत्रिदोषान्‌ हरते लघृष्णम्‌ |

    रुचिकृद्‌ गुरु विष्टम्भि दग्धभूबहतीफलम्‌ | फलमम्लबृहत्यास्तु पित्तश्लेष्मकरं लघु ||

    अम्लं रुचिकरं, ह्॑वातप्न॑ कृमिनाशनम्‌ | वातपित्तप्रशमनमभिष्यन्दकर॑ गुरु ||

    बल्यं कफहरं हृद्यं नादेय बृहतीफलम्‌|

    श्लेष्मलं सृष्टविण्मूत्रं शीतल गुरु बृहणम्‌ || 

    वातपित्तहरं वृष्यमनल्पबृहतीफलम्‌ | 

    वल्लीसिंही फलं श्लेष्मकरं गुर्वग्निमान्द्रकृत्‌ । 

    आमकृद्‌ वातलं कण्डूजनन प्रसेककृत्‌ ||

    शीत विपाके मधुरं तु वृष्यं श्लेष्मावहं पिच्छिलमामनन्ति । 

    वाते च पित्ते च हित वृहत्या: फहं सुपक्क॑ रुचिकृच्च हद्यम ||

    वार्त्ताकी क्षुद्रभण्टाकी महती बृहती कुली । 

    हिंगुली राष्ट्रिका सिंही महाष्ट्री दुष्प्रधर्षिणी ||

    बृहती ग्राहिणी हृद्या पाचनी कफवातहत्‌ || कटुतिक्ता आस्यवैरस्य मलारोचकनाशिनी |

    Bhava Parkasha Nighnatu

    उष्णा कुष्ठ ज्वर श्वास शूल कासाग्निमान्द्य जित |

    Raja Nighantu

    बृहती सिंहिका कान्ता वार्ताकी राष्ट्रिका कुली | विशदा स्थूल कंटका च भंटाकितू महोटिका |

    बहुपत्री कण्टतनु: कण्टालु: कटफला तथा | डोरली वन वृंताकी नामान्य यस्य चतुर्दश ||  

    बृहती कटुतिक्तोष्णा वातजिज्ज्वरहारिणी । अरोचकामकासघ्नी श्वास हृद रोग विनाशनी ||

    बृहत्या अन्य सर्प तनु: क्ष्विका पीत तण्डुला | पुत्रदा बहु फला गोधनीति षडह्या |   

    क्षविका बृहती तिक्ता कटुरुष्णा च तत्समा। युक्तया द्रव्य विशेषेण धरा संस्तभ सिद्धिदा ||

    श्वेता अन्या श्वेतबृहती ज्ञेय श्वेत महोटिका । श्वेत सिंही श्वेत फला श्वेत वार्ताकी च षट ||

    विज्ञे श्वेतवृहती वातश्लेष्मविनाशिनी । रुच्या च अन्ज्जन योगेन नानानित्रायापहा ||

    Specific Formulation of Brihati

    • Brihtyadi Kwatha for Swasha, Sannipatika Jwara
    • Dashmularishta for Swasa, Kasa, Vata Vyadhi
    • Manasamitra Vataka for Anidra, Mansika Vikara
    • Nalikera Svama for Shighrapatan
    • Laghu Panch Mula Kwatha for Vataja- Pittaja Jwara
    • Dasmuladya Ghrita for Vataja Vyadhi
    • Aja Mansa Rasayana for Vataja disorders

    Laghu Panchmool Dravya

    • Shalparni
    • Prishniparni
    • Vaartaaki (Brihati)
    • Kantkari
    • Gokshur

    Dashmool Dravya

    • Shalparni
    • Prishniparni
    • Vaartaaki (Brihati)
    • Kantkari
    • Gokshur
    • Bilva 
    • Sarvatobhadra (Gambhari)
    • Paatla
    • Ganikarika (Agnimantha)
    • Shyonaka

    Contraindication and side effects of Brihati

    Side effects fromBrihati i.e Solanum indicum may occur but they do not occur always. In a few patients’ allergies or irritation may occur due use of Brihati. So, if you are using Brihati for pre existing disease, use it under medical supervision.

     

    During pregnancy and breastfeeding avoid the use of Brihati or consult your doctor before use.

    Suggestive reading regarding Solanum indicum

    • Sharma, Vineet & Hem, Kritika & Seth, Ankit & Maurya, Santosh. (2017). Solanum indicum Linn.: An ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacological review. Current Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences. 1. 1- 9.
    • Sahil, Kanu. (2013). The rich mineral content of the fruits of Solanum indicum (Brihati). 10. 13140/ 2. 1. 2716. 2405.
    • Deb, Prashanta & Ghosh, Rajat & Bhakta, Tejendra. (2013). Ethnopharmacological Investigations of Solanum indicum.
    • Bahgat, Ashraf & Abdel-Aziz, Heba & Abdalla, Mohamed Raafat & Mahdy, Amina & El-Khatib, Aiman & Ismail, Ahmed & Khayyal, Mohamed. (2009). Solanum indicum sp. distichum extract is effective against L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats. Fundamental & clinical pharmacology. 22. 693-9. 10. 1111/ j. 1472- 8206. 2008. 00627. x.
    • Raorane, Chaitanya & Gavimat, C.C. & Kulkarni, S. & Kalsekar, D. & Gavade, B. & Ravishankar, B. & Hooli, Ramachandra. (2012). ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIALS OF Solanum indicum, Solanum xanthocarpum, and Physalis minima. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications. 3. 414- 418.
    • Dhongde, S., & Naik, S. (2019). Comparative study of antimicrobial effect of Brihati [Solanum indicum Linn ] root and fruit- an in vitro study. Ayurlog: National Journal of Research in Ayurved Science, 7(05). Retrieved from https://www.ayurlog.com/index.php/ayurlog/article/view/417
    • Deb, Prashanta & Ghosh, Ranjib & Chakraverty, Raja. (2014). Phytochemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of Fruits of Solanum indicum Linn. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 25.
    • Jayanthy, A & Maurya, Anupam & Verma, Dr. Subash & Srivastava, Anupam & Shankar, Madhira & Sharma, Rajeev. (2016). A Brief Review on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Potential of Solanum Indium L. used in Indian Systems of Medicine. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 9. 127. 10. 5958/ 0974- 4150. 2016. 00022.5.
    • Iqubal, Murteza & Sharma, Satish & Sarfaraj, Md & Mujahid, Mohd. (2022). An updated ethnobotany, phytochemical and pharmacological potential of Solanum indicum L. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 12. 160- 172. 10. 22270/jddt. v12i2. 5385.
    • Saxena, H.O. & Parihar, Samiksha & Pawar, Ganesh & Choubey, Sujit Kumar & Dhar, Pranav. (2021). Phytochemical screening and HPTLC fingerprinting of different parts of Solanum indicum L.: A Dashmool species. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 10. 1935- 1941. 10. 22271/phytochemistry. 2021. v10. i1aa.13633.
    • A, Jayanthi & C T, Sulaiman & B, Rema shree. (2012). Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Comparison of Roots of Solanum Species Used in Ayurvedic Formulati. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 4. 28- 37.
    • Saxena, H., Parihar, S., Pawar, G., Rao, G. R, Sahu, V. R., & Dhar, P. (2021). Comparative analysis of phenolic content in Solanum indicum L. harvested from different locations of Madhya Pradesh state of India. Environment ConservationJournal,22 (3), 415– 421. https://doi. org/ 10. 36953/ ECJ. 2021. 22348
    • Yin, Hai-Long & Li, Jie-Hui & Li, Bin & Chen, Li & Li, Jian & Tian, Ying & Liu, Shi-Jun & Zhao, Yong-Kun & Xiao, Yan-Hua & Dong, Jun-Xing. (2013). Two new coumarins from the seeds of Solanum indicum. Journal of Asian natural products research. 16. 101080/ 10286020. 2013. 841142.
    • Saxena, H.O. & Pawar, Ganesh. (2019). Total Phenolic and Caffeic Acid Contents in Roots of Solanum indicum L. from Different Agroclimatic Regions of Madhya Pradesh State of India. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research. 53. s164- s169. 10. 5530/ ijper. 53. 2s. 62.
    • Patel P, Patel M, Saralai M, Gandhi T. Antiurolithiatic Effects of Solanum xanthocarpum Fruit Extract on Ethylene-Glycol-Induced Nephrolithiasis in Rats. J Young Pharm. 2012 Jul;4 (3):164- 
    • 70. doi: 10. 4103/0975- 1483. 100022. PMID: 23112535; PMCID: PMC 3483526.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Shathavaadi  Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • P.V. Sharma, Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Shodhala Nighantu
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sankrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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