Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Bilva – Aegle marmelos Corr.

    Bilva – Aegle marmelos Corr.

    Bilva - A Marvelous tree

    Introduction

    Bilva botanically known as Aegle marmelos is a medicinal plant belonging to the Rutaceae family and has Indian origin. Bilva is a Sacred indigenous tree that is famous locally as the Bael tree or golden apple (in English). Bilva fruit was considered the most sacred fruit and offered as the main food to Lord Shiva. Trifoliate leaves of Bilva are offered on Lord Shiva’s crown and trident. Bilva fruit is a symbol of self-surrender. Bilva grows throughout India wildly in any climate. In ayurvedic classical texts, lots of information is available regarding Bilva and its various uses i.e uses of Bark, fruit, root, and leaves. Bilva is considered as Vishaghana Dravya (anti-toxic drug). Bilva is used to cure various conditions like Mutra Kriccha, Vata Vyadhi, Shotha, Shool, etc. Different parts of Bilva have different Rasa Panchaka and according to that, it exhibits various Karmas. Recent research revealed that Bilva consists of various secondary metabolites like coumarins, scoparone, aegelerin, etc due to which it exhibits various activities like nephron-protective, hepato- protective, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti- toxicity, anti- anemic activity, etc.

    Basonym of Bilva

    बिल्वं पुरीषभेदं वाति गमयतीति संप्राहित्वात्‌ |

    Bilva is a very useful drug in dysentery.

    Synonyms of Bilva

    • According to habitat

    शैलूषः – शैले अपि वसतीति |

    Bilva tree grows in the hilly region.

     

    • According to morphology

    ग्रंथिल: – ग्रंथिमान काण्डे |

    Stem of Bilva is nodular.

    कण्टकी- कण्टकाः सन्त्यस्मिन्‌ |

    Bilva is a thorny tree.

    त्रिपत्र: – त्रीणि पत्रकाण्यस्य |

    Leaves of Bilva are trifoliate.

    गन्धपत्र: – गन्धवन्ति पत्राण्यस्य |

    Leaves of Bilva are aromatic.

    महाकपित्थ: – बृहत्‌ कपित्थ सदृश: | 

    The fruit resembles large Kapittha fruit.

    महाफल: – बृहत् फलम अस्य |

    The fruit is large.

    श्रीफल: – श्रीवासगन्ध युक्तं फलमस्य, अथवा, श्रीमत सुंदरं फलमस्य |

    The fruit of Bilva has an aroma.

    सदाफल: – सदाफलानां विद्यमानत्वात्‌ |

    Bilva bears fruit always.

     

    • According to properties and action

    गोहरीतकी – गा पशूनां हरीतकी कोष्ठ दोष हरणी |

    Bilva purifies Kostha like that of Haritaki, especially in animals.

    मालूर: – मलमेव मालं, तदयुरीकरोति, दोषहरण इत्यर्थ: ||

    Bilva alleviates all types of Mala Dosha.

    वातासारः – वातमपानं सारयतीति |

    Bilva is a very good carminative.

    शाण्डिल्यः – शाण्डं रोग लुनातीति |

    Bilva cures many diseases.

    हद्यगन्ध: – हद्यो मनोहरो गन्धो अस्य |

    The aroma of Bilva is pleasant.

    Regional names of Bilva

    • Bael fruit, Bengal quince (English)
    • Bel (Hindi)
    • Bil (Bengali)
    • Bilpatre (Kannada)
    • Kovalam (Malayalam)
    • Baela (Marathi)
    • Vilvam, Aluvidham (Tamil)
    • Maredu, Billamu (Telugu)
    • Vilvam (Malayalam)
    • Katori (Sindh)
    • Bili (Gujarati)
    • Safarjale (Arabic)

    Scientific classification of Bilva

    KingdomPlantae
    CladeTracheophytes
    OrderSapindales
    Family Rutaceae
    GenusAegle
    Species marmelos

    Botanical Name

    Aegle marmelos Corr.

    Aegle – Goat- one of the Hesperides daughters of the evening golden apple.

    Marmelos is a Portuguese word meaning acid pear-shaped fruit.

    Family – Rutaceae (Jambira Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.)

    Classification of Bilva as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Shothahara Mahakshaya, Arshoghana Mahakshaya, Asthapanopaga Mahakshaya, Anuvasnopaga Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Varunadi Gana, Ambasthadi Gana, Brihat Panchmool.

    Bilva's description in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 10, 18, 19, 27S. S. Su. 2/ 3A. H. Su. 6/ 125, 143, 167
    C. S. Su. 4/ 12, 25, 26, 38S. S. Su. 9/ 4A. H. Su. 15/ 21, 38
    C. S. Su. 5/ 60S. S. Su. 38/ 7, 45, 68A. H. Su. 20/ 38
    C. S. Su. 13/ 9S. S. Su. 46/ 163, 209, 254A. H. Su. 21/ 14
    C. S. Su. 21/ 23S. S. Chi. 4/ 32A. H. Su. 24/ 17
    C. S. Su. 25/ 39, 49S. S. Chi. 5/ 7A. H. Sa. 1/ 77
    C. S. Su. 27/ 204, 135S. S. Chi. 12/ 5A. H. Sa. 2/ 11, 19, 58
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 158S. S. Chi. 17/ 12, 19, 27A. H. Chi. 1/ 28, 90, 112, 115, 123
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 58, 59S. S. Chi. 18/ 5, 6A. H. Chi. 2/ 17
    C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 42, 61S. S. Chi. 19/ 42A. H. Chi. 3/ 20, 56, 134
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 183, 187, 220, 236, 267S. S. Chi. 20/ 12A. H. Chi. 4/ 21, 24, 53
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 46, 50S. S. Chi. 28/ 9, 11, 17A. H. Chi. 6/ 27, 73
    C. S. Chi. 5/ 165S. S. Chi. 31/ 5A. H. Chi. 8/ 15, 24, 35, 50, 63, 76, 78, 89, 110, 115, 130
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 126, 127, 177S. S. Chi. 37/ 8, 12, 15, 41, 46A. H. Chi. 9/ 6, 7, 12, 13, 14, 23, 25, 27, 29, 35, 39, 58, 62, 66, 71, 104, 109, 111, 119
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 43, 54, 59S. S. Chi. 38/ 27, 47, 60, 63, 67A. H. Chi. 10/ 10, 39
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 168S. S. Ka. 5/ 77A. H. Chi. 14/ 110
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 41, 45, 48, 64, 70, 71, 90, 94, 100, 108, 111, 131, 195, 200, 230, 237S. S. Ka. 8/ 47A. H. Chi. 15/ 45
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 99, 112, 129, 136, 188S. S. Sa. 10/ 5, 57, 63A. H. Chi. 16/ 36
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 58, 118S. S. U. 11/ 5, 11A. H. Chi. 17/ 12, 20
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 93, 141S. S. U. 12/ 11A. H. Chi. 21/ 15, 33, 62
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 77, 110, 123S. S. U. 21/ 6, 35, 37A. H. Ka. 2/ 46
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 2329, 37, 38, 48, 51, 58, 68, 110, 115, 116, 119, 120, 124, 125, 126S. S. U. 28/ 7A. H. Ka. 4/ 2, 22, 34, 64, 66
    C. S. Chi. 20/ 22S. S. U. 29/ 3A. H. Ka. 5/ 5, 9, 39, 49
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 65S. S. U. 34/ 3A. H. Ka. 6/ 27
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 82, 135, 184, 235, 241S. S. U. 35/ 3A. H. U. 1/ 39
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 28, 55S. S. U. 36/ 3A. H. U. 2/ 14, 76
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 96, 122, 140, 168, 175S. S. U. 39/ 200, 214A. H. U. 3/ 59
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 103S. S. U. 40/ 36, 42, 43, 48, 56, 63, 66, 67, 70, 73, 77, 91, 95, 110, 114, 125, 127, 132, 135, 144, 155A. H. U. 5/ 20, 42
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 91, 266, 278S. S. U. 41/ 46A. H. U. 13/ 55
    C. S. Ka. 3/ 15S. S. U. 47/ 52A. H. U. 16/ 11
    C. S. Ka. 8/ 10, 16S. S. U. 48/ 21, 28A. H. U. 18/ 9
    C. S. Ka. 10/ 9S. S. U. 51/ 17, 27, 46A. H. U. 20/ 7
    C. S. Si. 3/ 13, 58, 64S. S. U. 60/ 44A. H. U. 28/ 39
    C. S. Si. 4/ 7, 14, 16, 19, 36A. H. U. 34/ 3, 46
    C. S. Si. 7/ 11, 52A. H. U. 36/ 62, 84
    C. S. Si. 8/ 4, 37A. H. U. 37/ 83, 84
    C. S. Si. 10/ 18A. H. U. 38/ 20, 27
    C. S. Si. 11/ 25, 33, 34
    C. S. Si. 12/ 30, 31, 53

    Bilva's description in Brihtrayi as Bhring Vriksha

    This is supposed to be the class name of the tree whose leaves are used as Vatahara, a substance such as Bilva, etc.

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 35/ 4

    Bilva's description in Brihtrayi as Shriphala

    Vaghbhata: A. H. Chi. 1/ 32

    Historical background of Bilva

    Bilva is extensively described and used in Vedic literature. Bilva Mani Dharana is considered Duha Svapan Nasana, Raksoghna, Rasayana, Prajasthapana, Vishghna, etc. It is also used for rituals, marriages, etc. Its cosmetic properties were also documented by the ancient texts. Bilva is considered to be the best Sangrahika and Dipaniya drug being Vata Kapha Hara (C. S. Su. 25). Bilva Patra is, however, Vatahara only (C. S. Su. 27). Sushruta quoted Bilva as Rasayana (S. S. Ci. 27). Bilva, also called Siva Druma (Lord Shiva’s favorite tree) is held sacred by Hindus; the leaves being offered in prayers to Shiva & Parvati. Different parts of the tree are used in ancient medicine viz. root (Vatakara), stem (Hridroga Hara or Jvara Hara), leaves (Madhumeha Hara), Apakya Phala (Sangrahi), and Pakva Phala (laxative).

    External morphology of Aegle marmelos

    • Habit: A small or medium-sized deciduous tree, armed with straight sharp axillary thorns; 2,5-6, 3 cm. long, terete.
    • Leaves: eaves of Bilva are alternate, 3-foliolate, rarely; 5-foliolate; petiole 2.5- 6.3 cm. long, terete. Leaflets 5- 10 by 2.5- 6.3 cm., ovate or ovate-lanceolate, create, acuminate, membranous pellucid- punctate; the lateral opposite, subsessile; the terminal long, petiolate.
    • Flowers: Flowers of Bilva are greenish white, sweet-scented; about 2.5 cm. across; 2-sexual; in short axillary panicles. The Calyx of the flower of Bilva is flat pubescent, with 4 lobes. The lobes are round and sometimes the lobes of the flower of Bilva are obscure. Petals 4, spreading, oblong, thick, gland-dotted; much exceeding the sepals; imbricate. Stamens are numerous. Anthers elongate, apiculate, filaments free or fascicled inserted round in inconspicuous disk. Ovary ovoid, cells 10- 20; style terminal, short, deciduous; stigma capitate; ovules numerous, 2-seriate.
    • Fruit: Fruits of Bilva are 5-10 cm. diameter, globose, gray or yellowish; rind woody. Seeds are numerous, oblong compressed, with a woody mucous testa, embedded in orange-colored mucilaginous, sticky, sweet, and aromatic pulp. Fruits of Bilva are globose; pulp mucilaginous, sweet, orange, and astringent. Dried slice having forth outside a smooth greenish-brown shell enclosing a hard orange-brown gummy pulp in which cells and seeds may be seen. Dried pulp has a mucilaginous acid and is slightly astringent; the taste has an agreeable aroma.
    • Root: Transverse section shows a Penta stele; cork cambium arises in the pericycle.
    • Bark: The bark of Bilva has mature bark cork that is lignified and stratified. It consists of a broad zone of parenchyma cells and starch of stone cells. The medullary group is in the inner region, and is uni or tri- serrate, while in the inner region is into Penta- serrate.
    • Leaves: Leaf is dorsal-ventral, in transverse section, the epidermis on both the sides consist of rectangular in longitudinally elongated cells covered with thick cuticle. The cells are polygonal in surface view; stomata are the amniotic type present on both sides in which cells are squarish to radially elongated and palisade.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Summers to the spring season and onwards, Leafless during hotter months.

    Distribution of Bilva

    It is found wild in the sub-Himalayan tract; Central and Southern India; and Burma. Often planted all over India and Burma. Wild and planted trees are found. Sub-montane regions include hills, terai, and plains; almost throughout the country; also frequently planted around temples, gardens, and other vicinities. The Cultivated fruits of Bilva are more significant than those obtained from wild plants.

    The useful part of Bilva

    Root, bark, leaves, fruits, root-bark

     

    Root- Curved or channeled pieces of foot bark of varying sizes, 3- 5 mm in thickness; Outer surface grayish white, earthy brown, prominently warty in the case of older roots, The younger root shows few warts but a large number of lenticels which appear as short vertical slits. Surface skin is fairly tough and layered but feels off in small irregular pieces on rupturing. The inner surface is fibrous, greenish-brown in color.

    Important phytoconstituent of Bilva

    • Fruit: Fruits of Bilva mainly contain marmelosin (Marmelosine). Young bark contains coumarin and umbelliferone; and old bark umbelliferone and coumarin.
    • Leaves: Leaves of Bilva contain essential oil, consisting of a- and B- phellandrene. Matured bark Y- fragarine, umbelliferone, marmesin, sterols, and triterpenoids. Leaves contain 0.6 percent essential oil, mostly compounds of d- limonene. An aromatic yellowish-greenish oil obtained by pressing the seeds has laxative activity. Roots, leaves, and bark contain mainly tannin.

    Recent research on Bilva

    • To evaluate ethanolic extract of leaves of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome for potential therapeutic benefit. The results are suggestive of the potential protective effect of A. marmelos against experimentally induced CFS. Lalremruta V, Prasanna GS. Evaluation of the protective effect of Aegle marmelos Corr. In an animal model of chronic fatigue syndrome. Indian J. Pharmacology 2012 May; 44 (3): 351- 6.
    • The antioxidative role of Aegle marmelos in aspirin-induced gastroduodenal ulceration in albino rats was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. Pretreatment with Aegle marmelos fruit pulp extract for 14 consecutive days showed the reverse effects of aspirin suggesting gastro- duodenal protective and anti-ulcerogenic properties of Aegle marmelos through its antioxidant mechanism. Das SK, Roy C. The protective role of Aegle marmelos on aspirin-induced gastro- duodenal ulceration in an albino rat model: possible involvement of antioxidants Saudi J. Gastroenterol. 2012 May-Jun; 18 (3): 188- 94.
    • To evaluate the antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos leaves in Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA)- bearing mice. The hydroalcoholic extract of Aegle marmelos exhibits strong antitumor and antioxidant activities in DLA-bearing mice. Chockalingam V. Kadali SS, Gnanasambantham P. Antiproliferative and antioxidant activity of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) leave in Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites transplanted activity of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) leaves in Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites transplanted mice. Indian J Pharmacol. 2012. Mar; 44 (2): 225- 9.
    • Study done to examine the antidiabetic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae) bark in a diabetic rat model. These findings suggest that Aegle marmelos bark extract has the therapeutic potential in STZ- induced hyperglycemia: hence it can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Gandhi GR, Ignacimuthu S, Paulraj MG. Hypoglycemic and cell regenerative effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. bark extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicology 2012 May; 50 (5): 1667- 74. Epub 2012 Jan 30.
    • A study was done to evaluate the immune-modulatory potential of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos in an experimental animal model of cellular and humoral immunity. The low dose of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos was more effective for augmenting cellular immunity, whereas a high dose was more inclined towards humoral immunity. Govinda HV, Asdaq SM. Immuno- modulatory Potential of Methanol Extract of Aegle marmelos in Animals. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 Mar; 73 (2): 235- 40.
    • To evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous root bark extract of Aegle marmelos (Bilva) in experimental acute and chronic inflammatory animal models. Bilva showed a significant anti-inflammatory agent. Benni JM, Jayanthi MK. Suresha RN. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Aegle marmelos (Bilva) root. Indian J Pharmacology 2011 Jul; 43 (4): 393- 7.
    • CVS activity- Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of leaves caused an increase in amplitude and force of contractions of frog’s, heart similar to those shown by digoxin. Both the extracts stimulated the frog’s heart, as seen from the ECGs (Haravey, 1968)
    • Antidiabetic Property- The alcoholic extracts of roots and fruits showed hypoglycemic activity in albino rats (Dhar et al; 1968)

    The leaf extract reversed all the parameters (altered function of pancreatic beta-cells and acinar cells; coarsening of endoplasmic reticulum in acinar cells and altered secretory function; dilatation of veins, loss of usual concentric arrangement of hepatocytes, liver fibrosis, and decrease in glycogen content in the liver; thickened kidney tissues and expanded glomerulus to near normal. The

    treatment of leaf extract showed improvement in the functional status of pancreatic cells. The results indicate the potential hypoglycemic nature of the leaf extract, helping in the regeneration of the damaged pancreas (Das et al; 1996).

    • The effect of leaves is studied in normal and alloxan-induced DM. In normal rabbits, the highest decrease (35.3%) in blood glucose level was recorded at 1 g. equivalent dose after 4 hours of administration. The hypoglycemic effect at 12 hours was moderate but no effect was observed at 24 hours of drug administration. In diabetic rabbits, the extract produced a significant (P<0.01) antihyperglycemic effect within 3 days when given at the dose equivalent to 1g. powder/kg/day (Rao et al; 1995).
    • The antidiabetic property is also reported by Gupta Bharati (BHU), 1990; Prabhakar B (Hyd.) 1996. Hypoglycemic activity of Bael fruits has been reported by Vyas D.S. et al, (J. Res. Ind. Med. Yoga & Homco, 14:63, 1979).
    • Anthelmintic activity- Marmelosin showed anthelmintic activity against ankylostomiasis (Lamba & Bhargava, 1969).
    • Antidiarrhoeal activity- 
    1. Effect of Bael fruit amoebiasis is reported (Verma, B.H.U., 1977).
    2. Bilva powder in Atisara (Tupe, Ahmednagar, 1992).
    3. Bilva powder in Pravahika (Chandak, Nashik, 1986; Meshram, Raipur, 1996; Acharya, BHU, 1980; Desai V.G, Bombay, 1927.
    4. Bilva has also been used for treating giardiasis (Singh & Chaturredi, 1981).

    Rasa Panchaka of Bilva Mula

    Rasa (Taste)Kashaya (astringent), Tikata (bitter)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Rasa Panchaka of Bilva Apakwa Phala

    Rasa (Taste)Kashaya (astringent), Tikata (bitter)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Snigdha (oily)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Rasa Panchaka of Bilva Pkawa Phala

    Rasa (Taste)Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Guru (heavy)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Dosha Karma of Bilva

    Kapha Vata Shamaka)

    Kapha Hara because of Ushana Virya and Katu Vipaka. 

    Vata Hara because of Ushana Virya.

    Karma (Actions) of Bilva

    • Mula (Root)- Sotha Hara, Chardi Ghana, Shula Hara.
    • Patra (Leaf)- Sangrahi, Prameha Ghana, Sothahara.
    • Kanda (Stem)- Kasahara, Hridya, Ruchya, Agni Vardhaka.
    • Apakwa Phala (Unripe fruit)- Dipana, Pacana, Grahi, Hridya.
    • Pakwaphala (Ripen fruit)- Vidahi, Vistambhi, Durjara, Agnisadaka.
    • Pushpa (Flowers)- Atisarahara, Trishnahara, Chardighna.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Bilva

    • Mula (Root)- Sotha, Shula, Chardi
    • Patra (Leaf)- Prameha, Sotha
    • Kanda (Stem)- Kasa, Aruchi, Agnimandya
    • Apakwaphala- Atisara, Agnimandya
    • Pushpa (Flowers)- Atisara, Trishna, Chardi

    Amayika Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Bilva

    Atisara (Diarrhea)

     

    • One gets rid of abdominal disorder (diarrhea) after taking Pippali with honey or buttermilk with Chitraka or tender fruits of Bilva. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 113)
    • In case of diarrhea with blood, tender fruits of Bilva mixed with liquid jaggery, honey and oil should be taken. It checks the disease immediately. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 119)
    • The dietary preparation (Khada) made of tender Bilva fruits, an equal quantity of sesame paste, a supernatant layer of curd, and added with sour and ghee checks dysentery. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 34)
    • Fruit-pulp of Bilva and Madhuka mixed with sugar and honey and taken with rice-water checks diarrhea caused by Pitta and Rakta. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 127)
    • Badara fruits are steamed with Bilva fruits and when cooled are taken with jaggery and oil to check diarrhea. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 133)
    • Intake of Bilva with jaggery checks diarrhea with blood, removes pain due to Ama and constipation and alleviates disorders of bowels. (Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 40, Vaidya Jeevana. 2/ 15, Bhava Prakasha. 2/ 57)
    • Tender fruits of Bilva, jaggery, oil, Pippali, and Sunthi- all these together should be taken in the condition of obstructed Vata, pain, and tenesmus. (Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 66)
    • Decoction of Bilva and Amra (seed) mixed with honey and sugar checks vomiting and diarrhea. (Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 30)

     

    Grahani Roga (IBS)

     

    • Paste of the tender fruit of Bilva mixed with Sunthi powder and jaggery alleviates severe Grahani Roga if the patient is kept on the diet of buttermilk. (Vaidya Manorma. 4/ 10)
    • The steamed Apakva Phala of Bilva (tender fruits of Bilva) with Madhu (honey) followed by intake of Takra (buttermilk) added with Chitraka (powder) should be given to treat Grahani Roga. (Vanga Sena Grahani. 169)

     

    Arsha (Piles)

     

    • In the case of Arsha, the patient should be well massaged (Abhyanga) and then dipped into the Ushana Kwatha (warm decoction) of Bilva or Takra (buttermilk) or Amla Dadhi (sour curd) or gruel or Go Mutra (cow’s urine). (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14- 47)
    • Saturating drinks of buttermilk should be given mixed with Bilva and Kapittha or Sunthi and Bida or Bhallataka or Yavani. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 35)
    • Rakta Arsha i.e bleeding piles can be cured in the patient who eats Apakwa Phala (tender fruits) of Bilva regularly. (Raja Amrittanda. 19/ 6)

     

    Udararoga (Gastrointestinal disorder): In the condition of Vata causing pain in sides, stiffness, and cardiac distress, oil mixed with alkali of Bilva should be given. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 45)

     

    Shotha (Oedema): Juice of Bilva leaves mixed with Marica is useful in edema caused by three Dosas, constipation, piles, and jaundice. (Vaidya Manorma. 39/ 9)

     

    Kamala (Jaundice):  Intake of Bilva leaves (juice) mixed with Trikatu alleviates jaundice. Similarly does Danti 20 gm with double the quantity of jaggery along with cold water. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 59)

     

     

    Chardi (Vomiting)

     

    • Cooled decoction of Bilva or Guduci added with honey or Murva with rice-water should be taken in three types of vomiting. (Vaidya Manorma. 15/ 15, Vanga Sena Chardi. 3, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 85, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 25)
    • Decoction of Bilva and Sunthi checks vomiting and Visuchika. If added with Kaitarya, it becomes more efficient. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana .6/ 112)

     

    Medo Roga (Obesity)

     

    • Decoction of Brihat Pancha Moola (Bilva, Agnimantha, Syonaka, Kasmari, and Patala) mixed with honey alleviates obesity. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 117)
    • The juice of Bilva leaves removes foul odor from the body. (Vaidya Manorma. 36/ 18)
    • The paste of Bilva and Haritaki in equal parts removes the foul smell of the body and also boils. Similarly, the seeds of Putikaranja are also efficacious. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 39/ 71)

     

    Badhirya (Deafness): Bilvataila. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 21/ 35, Vaidya Manorma. 59/ 27, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 9. 171)

     

    Netra Vikara (Eye diseases): Juice of Bilva leaves is strained and added with ghee, rock salt, and Pippali, then it is rubbed with a cowrie in a copper vessel, fumigated with cow-dung fire, and dissolved in milk. Filling eyes with this removes inflammation and pain and are useful in conjunctivitis, glaucoma, lachrymation, and congestion. (Vaidya Manorma. 61. 45- 46)

     

    Bala Roga (Pediatric disorders): 

     

    • Sweet preparation with tender Bilva fruit, Ela, sugar, and parched paddy acts as an appetizer. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 1/ 40)
    • Parched paddy mixed with sugar and dissolved in the decoction of Bilva root (bark) should be administered to the child. It checks for vomiting and diarrhea. (Vanga Sena. Balrog. 49)

     

    As Rasayana (rejuvenator): Bilva Rasayana. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 28. 10- 12)

     

    Jvara (Fever): One gets rid of fever with colic by taking milk cooked with Eranda root or tender fruits of Bilva. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 235)

     

    Jwara (Fever)

     

    • Pippali should be used with the decoction of Dasamulaa. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39/ 216)
    • This group (Dasamula) alleviates asthma, pacifies Kapha, Pitta, and Vata is digestive of Ama and removes all types of fever. (Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 38/ 64)
    • Decoction of Dasamula, warm or cooled, added with the paste of Rasna is useful in fever caused by Vata. (Kashyapa Samhita Purva Khanda. 350)
    • In fever caused by Kapha, the decoction of Dasamula and Vasaka mixed with honey should be given. (Vrinda Madhava. 1/ 109)
    • Decoction of Dasamula added with Pippali should be given in disorders of Kapha and Vata, indigestion, excessive sleep, chest pain, asthma, and cough. (Vrinda Madhava. 1/ 139)
    • Both (Brihat and Laghu Pancamula) combined is Dasamula. It is efficacious in Sannipata fever, cough, asthma, stupor, and chest pain. If mixed with Pippali powder it alleviates Kapha and cardiac pain. (Vrinda Madhava. 1. 169)
    • In Sannipata fever with asthma and cough, the decoction of Dasamula mixed with Pippali and Puskaramula should be given. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 573)

     

    Atisaar Sambandhit Jwara (Fever associated with diarrhea): In fever, diarrhea, edema and Grahaniroga Sunthi 10 gm mixed with Dasamula decoction should be taken. (Vrinda Madhava. 2/ 20)

     

    Atisara (Diarrhoea): In diarrhea with pain and tenesmus non-unctuous enema with the decoction of Dasamula added with honey and milk is an excellent remedy. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 143)

     

    Grahani-roga (IBS): Dasamuladya ghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15. 82- 86)

     

    Pandu (Anaemia): In anemia caused by Kapha, the decoction of Dasamula mixed with Sunthi should be taken. It is also useful in fever, diarrhea, edema, Grahani, asthma, anorexia, and disorders of the throat and heart. (Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 4)

     

    Shavasa and Kasa (Asthma and cough)

     

    • Dvipancamulyadi Ghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18. 158- 60)
    • Dasamulyadi Ghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18. 123- 24)
    • Liquid gruel processed with Dasamula alleviates cough, hiccough, and asthma. (Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 2/ 27, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 23)
    • One suffering from hiccough and asthma should take, while thirsty, the decoction of Dasamula or Devadaru or wine. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 105, Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 11)
    • In Hrid Shool (chest pain), Jwara (fever), Shvaas (asthma) and Kasa (cough) caused by Kapha decoction of Dasamula i.e Dashmool Kwatha mixed with Pippali Churna should be given. (Vrinda Madhava. 11/ 11)
    • Dasamula Kwatha added with Puskaramula Churna pacifies Kasa (cough) and Shwasa (asthma) and removes pain in the chest and heart. (Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 18, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 36)
    • To eradicate asthma decoction of Dasamula should be given. It is effective even in severe cases. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 49)

     

    Rajyakshma (Consumption)

     

    • Fresh ghee extracted from the milk boiled with Dasamula is used after adding Pippali powder and honey. It improves voice, alleviates pain in the head, chest, and shoulder, and removes cough, asthma, and fever. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 97- 98)
    • Ghee cooked with sweet (Jivaniya) Dravyas, Dasamula decoction, milk, and meat soup is an excellent remedy for consumption. (Charaka Samhita Chiktsa Sthana. 8/ 168)

     

    Unmada (Insanity): One should use the decoction of Dasamula added with ghee or meat- soup or powder of white mustard or old ghee alone. (Vrinda Madhava. 20/ 4)

     

    Apsmaar (Epilepsy): The patient who suffers from palpitation of the heart, pain in the eyes, excessive sweat and coldness in hands, etc. should be treated with Dasamula decoction of Kalyana Ghrta. (Vrinda Madhava. 21/ 8)

     

    Hridya Roga (Heart-disease): Decoction of Dasamula added with rock salt and Yavaksara destroys asthma, cough, heart disease, Gulma, and colic. (Vrinda Madhava. 31. 18, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 102)

     

    Shotha (Oedema): Diet of the patient with edema should consist of cereals of old barley and Sali rice cooked with Dasamula decoction and that too in small quantity and added with little salt and ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana 17/ 17)

     

    Granthi-Visarpa: In case of pain, the part should be sprinkled with hot oil or Dasamula decoction, or urine. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 24)

     

    Vatavyadhi

     

    • In Visvachi and Avabahuka (pain in arms), the decoction of Dasamula, Bala, and masa mixed with oil and ghee should be used as snuff in the evening. (Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 31, Vanga Sena, Vatavyadhi. 123, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 87)
    • Newly arisen Kubja (humpedness) should be treated with Dasamüla and other Vata-alleviating drugs. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 35)
    • Dasamula- Ghrta. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 72)
    • Sciatica is treated with a decoction of Dasamula added with Hingu and Puskaramula (powder) or only with that of Sephali leaves. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 86)
    • In Manyastambha (torticollis) decoction of Dasamula or even Pancamula, rough sudation and snuffing should be used. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 76)

     

    Vatarakta (Gout): Milk cooked with Dasamula decoction alleviates pain immediately. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 124, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 23, Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 11)

     

    Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis)

     

    • In Amavata, one should take Dasamula decoction added with Pippali or Haritaki with Sunthi or Guduci with Sunthi. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 10, Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 44)
    • Castor oil mixed with a decoction of Dasamula or Sunthi should be taken in case of pain in the abdomen, pelvis, and waist. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 5)
    • Moreover, an enema of Dasamula mixed with urine should be given. (Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 7/ 20)

     

    Vidriddhi (Abscess): The swelling or wound should be sprinkled with warm decoction of Dasamula or meat soup mixed with fat. (Vrinda Madhava. 43/ 8)

     

    Loose teeth (Danta Roga): Gargle should be used with Dasamula decoction added with ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 22/ 14)

     

    Netra Roga (Defects of vision): In Timira caused by Vata, ghee cooked with Dasamula decoction and paste of Triphala in four times milk should be used. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 48)

     

    Badhirya (Deafness): Oil 640 ml. should be cooked with Dasamula decoction and should be instilled in ears. It is an excellent remedy for deafness. (Vrinda Madhava. 59/ 26) 

     

    Sutika- Roga (post-partum disease): Decoction of Dasamula alleviates Sutika Roga immediately. (Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 28)

     

    Stanya Janana Roga (Abnormal lactation):  In breast milk affected by Vata, the decoction of Dasamula should be given. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 2/ 9, Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 34)

    Benefits of Bilva

    • The unripe fruit or half-ripe fruit of the plant is medicinally potent. The pulp of unripe or half-ripe fruit is aromatic, cooling and laxative. 
    • The pulp of unripe or half-ripe fruit is astringent, digestive, and stomachic and useful in diarrhea.
    • Root bark is used medicinally and powder of decoction of bark obtained from the root of the tree is internally given in cases of intermittent fever. 
    • The fruits are alternative, antipyretic, antiscorbutic, astringent, cardiac, digestive, febrifuge, laxative, nutritive, odoriferous, restorative, stimulant, stomachic, and tonic. It is useful in fever, hepatic fever, typhoid, bronchitis, abdominal complaints, constipation or habitual constipation, melancholia, palpitation of the heart, diabetes, debility, diarrhea and dysentery, piles, seminal weakness, and vomiting.
    • Fruits are mucilaginous and sweet; they are pulpy and sticky, especially ripe pulp which is sweet, sticky, and astringent. Dried pulp has a mucilaginous acid and slightly taste, with an agreeable aroma. Unripe fruits are demulcent. 
    • The fresh juice of the fruit is bitter and pungent. Root and stem, the bark is antipyretic and useful in fever. 
    • Aegelin derived from the plant is considered useful in bronchial spasms (on an experimental basis) Pharmacological activity of the plant and its various parts have been studied along with phytochemicals and other investigations on different aspects. Pharmacological study finds that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves of plant drug, causes an increase in amplitude and force of contractions of frog’s heart similar to that shown by digoxin. Both these extracts stimulated the ventricles of the dog’s heart, as seen from the electrocardiograms.
    • The alcoholic extracts of the roots and fruits drug showed hypoglycemic activity in albino rats. The fruit extract showed antiviral activity against the Ranikhet disease Virus. Marmelosin, isolated from the plant drug, showed anthelmintic activity against ancylostomiasis, the test organism employed being Nippostrogylus nuris as per Studies conducted.
    • The extract of the fresh half-ripe fruit is given in doses of half to one drachm, and this is repeated many times a day. An extract prepared from sun-dried slices of the unripe fruit is given (1-2 drachms). The powder of the dried fruit pulp (in doses of 10-12 grams) is a tonic in general debility. 
    • It is used as an antiscorbutic and febrifuge (in doses of 10- 30 grains). It is given in a nauseant and anti dysentery in the dose of 20 grains to 2 drachms).
    • The juice of leaves is orally given for diabetes mellitus as the plant drug is an anti-diabetic agent. The fresh juice of leaves is given with honey as a mild laxative for fever, catarrh, and asthma (in the dose of 2- 4 drachms). 
    • In dropsy with constipation, the leaf juice mixed with black pepper is given.
    • The same recipe is used in the case of Jaundice. The decoction of the leaves is used as a febrifuge and expectorant in febrile conditions and respiratory complaints, especially in asthmatic ailments.
    • A hot poultice of leaves is applied to the eyes in the condition of ophthalmia. Similarly, the leaves poultice is applied to the head in delirium or fever; the poultice is useful for applying to the chest in acute bronchitis and to inflated parts of the body.
    • The root- bark is useful in various diseases, and the decoction of root- bark is used in intermittent fever, melancholia, and heart (abnormal) palpitation. The root bark is also useful in dyspepsia, diarrhea, and dysentery. 
    • The decoction of root bark is given in edema, and the powder of root bark is useful as a bitter tonic.
    • This drug is one of the important herbal drugs used in various diseases and one of the ingredients of Dashamula (group of ten drugs) and groups of drugs as a component. The drug is specifically considered useful in dysentery and bowel complaints where the fruits (in different stages and forms) are given. 
    • The root, root-bark, and bark are recommended for use in nervine disorders, edema, dropsy, and uterine complaints. Various formulations of medicines with this drug are used in the treatment of several diseases.
    • The syrup, confections, and traditional preparations like Sharbat, Murabba, and others are for domestic and commercial purposes. Ripe Fruits are commonly used domestically as edible fruits, they are known for their health promotive, nutritive, and curative medicinal potentiality.
    • In the system of indigenous medicine (Ayurveda), this drug finds several and frequent therapeutic uses in different forms and recipes (single and compounds), they are prescribed (in medical texts) in several diseases such as abdominal disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, piles or hemorrhoids, edema, Jaundice, vomiting, obesity, deafness (ear complaints), eye diseases (ophthalmia, etc.), fever, pediatric disorders, gynecological disorders, urinary complaints, and as an alternative or rejuvenate (geriatrics) drug.
    • Besides the wide medicinal utility, the plant and its certain parts (i. e. leaves and fruits) are of socio-cultural(religious) importance since the tree is regarded as one of the sacred trees of Indian heritage.

    Benefits of Bilva on different systems of bodies

    • Nervous system: Bel root tranquilizes the nerves hence it is used in Vata disorders, insomnia, epilepsy, and hysteria.
    • Digestive system: Unripe fruit is an appetizer, digestant, and astringent. Ripe fruit is astringent and a sweet mild laxative. An excess dose causes constipation. It is very heavy to digest and vitiates Doshas, giving a bad odor to flatus. Leaf juice is a liver stimulant. Root bark and unripe fruit are useful in loss of appetite, diarrhea, dysentery, sprue, and pain in the abdomen. Apakwa Phala of Bilwa (Unripe fruit of Aegle marmelos) is ground to a paste and cooked with Sharkara (sugar) is very beneficial in Rakta Arsha (bleeding piles). Sharbat made from ripe fruit is also useful in such conditions. Again, an excess dose causes constipation. In sprue, diarrhea, and constipation occur simultaneously. So sharbat of ripe fruit pulp can be used as it acts as a digestive and alleviates jaundice. It is also beneficial in diarrhea. The mixture of leaf juice and black pepper is used in constipation. Both ripe and unripe fruits are useful for the prevention of cholera. Being hemostatic it is also used in hemorrhoids.
    • Circulatory system: It is a cardiac tonic, hemostatic, and alleviates swelling, hence the root is used in cardiac debility and palpitations. The fruit has hemostatic properties. Root bark and leaf juice are used to alleviate edema.
    • Respiratory system: It is Kapha Shamak hence used in cold, cough, and dyspnea. Patra Kwatha (Decoction of leaves) is given for Pratishaya (cold).
    • Urinary system: Bilwa Patra Swarasa (Juice of bel leaves) helps in reducing blood sugar thus given in Prameha. Leaf juice is given in Ikshumeha. The mixture of fresh fruit pulp and Kankol is used in gonorrhea. It alleviates swelling and pain. The mixture of bark juice and sweet cumin seeds is beneficial in Shukra Meha.
    • Reproductive system: Bilva root alleviates the inflammation of the uterus; hence it is used in pregnancy, leucorrhea, and puerperal disorders.
    • Temperature: Bilva root and leaves are febrifuges. Mula Kwatha of Bilwa (Decoction of roots) is given in Jwara i.e intermittent fever while Patra Swarasa (leaf juice) can be given in all types of fever.
    • Satmikaran: Bel is a bitter tonic. Its roots and leaves have an anabolic effect on all body tissues. Since the ripe fruit is sweet to taste, it also acts as a tonic.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Bilva

    • Churna (powder): 1- 2 grams
    • Patra Swarasa (leaf juice): 10- 20 ml

    Classical reference of Bilva

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 13

    Synonyms

    बिल्वः शाण्डिल्य शैलूषौमालूर श्रीफलावपि |

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 13

    Properties and action

    श्रीफलस्तुवस्तिक्तो ग्राही रूक्षो अग्नि पित्तकृत्‌ |

    वात श्लेमहरो बल्यो लघुरूष्णाश्च पाचन: |

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 106- 107

    Properties and action

    बिल्वमूलं त्रिदोषघ्न छर्दिघ्न मधुर लघु |

    बिल्वस्य तु फलं बालं स्निग्धं संग्राहि दीपनम्‌ ||

    कटु  तिक्त कषायोष्ण तीक्ष्णं वात कफापहम्‌ |

    विद्यात्देव संपक्वं मधुरानुरसं गुरु ||

    विदाही विष्टम्मकरं दोषहत्पूतिमारूतम्‌ ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 19- 24

    श्रीफलस्तुवर तिक्तो ग्राही रूक्षो अग्नि पित्तकृत्‌ |

    वातश्लेष्महरस्तस्य पत्रं संग्राहि वातजित्‌ ||

    जटा दोषवमीकृच्छूशूलघनी मधुरा लघु: |

    कफ वातमशूलघ्नो ग्राहिणो बिल्वपेशिका ||

    काण्डम कासां वातघ्नं हृद्यं रूच्या अग्नि वर्ध्नम |

    बिल्वं कटु कषाय उष्णं तिक्तं दीपनपाचनम्‌ ||

    स्निग्धं तीक्ष्णं लघु ग्राही हृद्यं वात कफापहम |

    पक्वं विदाही विषमभिः मधुर अनुरसं गुरु |

    दोषलं दुर्जरां पूति  वातं ग्राही अग्नि सादनं |

    निहन्याद बिल्वजं पुष्पम अतिसारं तृषाम वमिम |

    बिल्व मज्ज मज्ज भवं तैलं उष्णं वात हरम परम |

    काञ्जीके संस्थितं बिल्वं अग्नि संदीपनं परम् |

    हृद्यं रुचिकरं प्रोक्त आम वात विनाशनम |

    Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 190- 192

    बिल्वस्तु मधुरो हद्य: कषाय: पित्तेजित गुरु: |

    कफज्वरातिसारघनो रुचिकृद्दीपन: पर: ||

    बिल्व मूलं त्रिदोषघ्नं मधुरं लघु वातनुत | 

    फल तुंको मलं स्निग्धं गुरु संग्राही दीपनं ||

    तदेव पक्वं विज्ञेयम मधुरं सरसं गुरु |

    कटु तिक्त कषाय उष्णं संग्रही च त्रिदोष जित ||

    Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 19- 20

    बिल्व त्वक उष्णं वातघ्नी दशमूले प्रयोजयते |

    तत्पात्रन्तु प्रमेहघनम हृद्यं शोथहरम परम् |

    फलं आमं कषायं स्यात तिक्तम ग्राही च दीपनं |

    तदेव पक्वं मधुरं गुरु विष्टम्भी दुर्जरम ||

     शूले बिल्वमूलादिगुटिका बिल्वमूलादि क्वाथ | 

    Bhava Prakasha

    आमशूले

    गुडेन भक्षयेत्‌ बिल्वं रक्तातीसारनाशनम्‌ |

    आमशूलविबन्धघ्न कुक्षिरोगहरं परम्‌ ||

    Vanga Sena Bala Roga, 49

    शिशोः छर्दयतिसारयो:

    बिल्व मूल कषायें लाजाश्चैव सशर्कराः |

    आलोड्य पाययेद्बालं छर्दि अतीसारनाशनम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 3/ 235

    ज्वर परिकर्त्तिकायां बिल्वमज़ाक्षीरपाकम्‌

    एरण्डमूलोत्थितम ज्वरात्‌ सपरिकर्त्तिकात्‌ |

    पयो विमुच्यते पीत्वा तदि बल्वशलाटुभि: ||

    Chakradutta Karna Roga Chikitsa, 57/ 29

    कर्ण बाधिर्य बिल्वतैलम्‌

    फल बिल्वस्य मूत्रेण पिष्टा तैलं विपाचयेत्‌ |

    साजाक्षीरम तद्धि हरेद्‌ वाधिर्यम कर्णपूरणे ||

    Chakra Dutta Netra Roga Chikitsa, 59/ 36- 37

    नेत्रामयानां प्रतिकारार्थ बिल्वा अंजन प्रयोगः

    बिल्व पत्र रस: पूतः सैन्धवाज्येन चान्वितः |

    शुल्वे वराटिका घृष्ट: धूपितो गोमया अग्निना ||

    पयसालोडितश्चाक्ष्यो:  पूरणाच्छोथशूलनुत्‌ |

    अभिष्यन्दधि मन्थे च स्रावे रक्ते च शस्यते ||

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 28/ 10- 12

    रसायने

    बिल्वरसायनम्‌

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 113

    अतिसारे

    कणां मधुयुतं पीत्वा तक्रम पीत्वा सचित्रकम्‌ |

    बाल बिल्वानि मुञ्चेत जठरामयान्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 40/ 119

    द्रवे सरक्ते बालबिल्व सफाणितम्‌ |

    सक्षौद्रतैल्म प्रागेव लिख्यादाशु हितम हि तत्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 40/ 119

    स्विन्नानि पिष्ट वद वापि समं बिल्वशलाटुभि: |

    Vrinda Madhava, 3/ 66

    गुडेन खादयेद्‌ बिल्वं रक्तातीसार नाशनम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava, 3/ 40, Vaidya Jivana, 2/ 15, Bhava Prakasha, 2/ 57

    कुक्षि शूलामशूलघनम विविधास्त्रातिसारजित्‌ |

    सेवेत सगुडं बिल्वं बिल्वतुल्यपयोधरे ||

    Vrinda Madhava, 3/ 30

    बिल्वचूतास्थि निर्युह: पीता: सक्षौद्रंशर्करा: |

    निहन्या छर्दि अतिसारं वैश्वानर इवाहुतिम्‌ ||

    Vangsena, Grahani, 169

    ग्रहणी रोग 

    स्विन्नानि बालबिल्वानि खादेत्‌ क्षौद्रेण मानव: |

    तक्रेणानलगर्भ सार्धं तद्‌ ग्रहणी जयेत ||

    Sarva Deva Puja Padhitti, 45- 46

    श्रीशिवपूजनम

    दर्शन बिल्वपत्रस्य स्पर्शन पापनाशनम्‌ |

    अधोरपापसंहारं बिल्वपत्र शिवार्पणम्‌ ||

    त्रिदलं त्रिगुणाकारं त्रि नेत्रं  च त्रिधायुत्तम 

    त्रिजन्मपापसंहारं बिल्व पत्रं  शिवार्पणम्‌ ||

    अखण्डैबिल्वपत्रै्श्च पूजयेत्‌ शिवशड्करम्‌ |

    कोटिकन्यामहादानम बिल्वपत्रं शिवार्पणम्‌ ||

    गृहाण बिल्वपत्राणि सपुष्पाणि महेश्वर |

    सुगन्धीनि भवानीश शिव त्वं कुसुमप्रिय: || 

    Sarva Deva Puja Padhitti, 10

    श्रीगणेशपूजनम्‌

    बिल्वपत्रम

    त्रिशाखै र्बिल्वपत्रेश्च अच्छिद्रे: कोमलै शुभै: |

    तव पूजां करिष्यामि गृहाण परमेश्वर ||

    Sarva Deva Puja Padhitti, 70

    श्रीशालिग्रामपूजनम

    बिल्व पत्रम

    तुलसीबिल्व निम्बैश्च जज्जीरैरामलै: शुभै: |

    पञ्च बिल्वमिति ख्यातं प्रसीद परमेश्वर ||

    Bhava Prakasha Karna Roga Adhikara, 64/ 39

    कर्णरोगे बिल्वतैलम्‌

    गवां मूत्रेण बिल्वानि पिष्ट्वा तैलं विपाचयेत्‌ |

    सजलञ्च संदुग्धञ्च तद्वाधियहरं परम ||

    Chakradutta Grahni Roga Chikitsa, 4/ 39

    उदरामयान मंदाग्नि विकारे बिल्वगर्भ घृतम

    मसूरस्य कषायेण बिल्वगर्भ पचेद्‌ घृतम |

    हन्ति कुक्ष्य आम्यान सर्वान्‌ ग्रहणी पाण्डु कामला: ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 9

    अर्शःसु

    बिल्वोत्ववाथे……सुखोष्णै: | तं शूला्ततमुपनेशयेत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 34

    प्रवाहिकायाम्‌

    कल्क: स्यात्‌ बालबिल्वानां तिलकल्कश्च  तत्सम: |

    दध्न: सरो अम्ल स्नेहाध्या खडो हन्यात्‌ प्रवाहिकाम्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 28

    स्कंध ग्रह प्रतिषेधार्थं 

    …. बिल्वस्य कण्टकान्‌ |

    …. ग्रथितान्येन धारयेत ||

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 40/ 127

    पित्त रक्त उत्थिते अतिसारे 

    बिल्व माध्यम शर्करा क्षौद्रं संयुक्तं |

    तंडुलाम्बुयुतो योग: पित्त रक्त उत्थितं जयेत ||

    Sarva Deva Puja Padhitti, 45

    श्री शिव पूजनम 

    बिल्वप ननयुतं मालां गृहाण सुमनोहराम्‌ |

    बिल्वपत्रम- ॐ नमो बिल्वमने च कवचिने च 

    नमो वर्मिणे च वरुथिने च नम: श्रुताय च श्रुतसेनाय

    च नमो दुन्दुभ्याय. चाहनन्याय च नमो: धृष्णवे ||

    काशीक्षेत्रे निवासी च कालभैरवपूजनम्‌ |

    कोटिकन्यामहादानं बिल्व पत्रं शिवापर्णम्‌ ||

      Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 39/ 216

    ज्वर

    दशमूलीकषायेण मागधीर्वा प्रयोजयेत्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 38/ 64

    गण: श्वासहरो ह्येष कफपित्तानिलापह: |

    आमस्य पाचनश्चैव सर्वज्वरविनाशन: ||

    Kashyap Samhita, Page 350

    द्विपंच्च मूलनिष्क्वाथ: कोष्णो वा यदि वा हिम: |

    रास्नाकल्कसमायुक्तो वातज्वरहितो मत: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 109

    मधुना श्वेष्मसमुत्ये दशमूलीवासकस्य वा क्वाथ: |

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 139

    दशमूलीरस: पेय: कणायुक्त: कफानिले |

    अविपाके अतिनिद्रायां पार्श्व रुकुश्वासकासके ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 169

    उभयं दशमूलं तु संनिपातज्वरापहम्‌ |

    कासे श्वासे च तन्द्रायां पार्श्वशूले च शस्यते ||

    पिप्पलीचूर्णसंयुक्त कण्ठहदग्रहनाशनम्‌ |

    Bhava Prakasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 573

    दशमूलीकषायस्तु पिप्पलीपौष्करान्वित: |

    सन्निपातज्वरे देव: शवासकाससमन्विते ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 2. 20

    ज्वरातिसारे

    दशमूलीकषायेण विश्वमक्षसमं पिबेत्‌ |

    ज्वरे चैबातिसारे च सशोफे ग्रहणीगदे ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 40/ 143

    अतिसारे

    द्विपंच्च मूल क्वथीतें शूले प्रवाहमाणस्य समाक्षिकेण |

    क्षीरेण च आस्थापनं अग्रयं उक्तं |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 82- 86

    ग्रहणी रोग

    दशमूलाद घृतम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 4

    पाण्डु रोग

    द्विपच्च मूल क्वथितं सविश्वं ज्वरे सविश्व॑ कफात्मके पाण्डुगदे पिबेदू वा |

    ज्वारे अतिसारे शवयथो ग्रहण्यां श्वास अरुचौ कंठ हादाम्ये च ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 158- 160

    श्वासकासयो:

    द्वि पंच्च मूल्यादिघृतम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 123- 24

    दशमूलादिघृतम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 2/ 26, Ashtanga Hirdya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 23

    दशमूली शृता कासहिक्काश्वासरुजापहा |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 105, Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 11

    दशमूलस्य वा क्वाथमथवा देवदारुण: |

    तृषितो मदिरां वापि हिक्काश्वासी पिबेन्नर: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 11/ 11

    पा्श्वशूले ज्वरे श्वासे कासे श्रेष्मसमुदभवे |

    पिप्पलीचूर्णसंयुक्तं दशमूलीजल पिबेत् ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 18, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 36

    दशमूलीकषायश्च पुष्करेणावचूर्णित: |

    कासश्वासप्रशमन: पार्श्वहच्छूलनाशन: ||

    Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 49

    दशमूलरसो देव: श्वासनिर्मुलशान्तये |

    अवश्य मरणीयों यो जीवेद्‌ वर्ष श्तं नर: ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 97- 98

    शोषे

    दशमूल शृतात क्षीरात्‌ सर्पियदुदियान्नवम्‌ |

    सपिप्पलीकं सक्षौद्रं तत्‌ पर स्वरबोधनम्‌ ||

    शिर: पार्श्व शूलघ्नं कासश्वासज्वरापहम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 138

    सिद्ध मधुरकैरद्रव्वैदशमूलकषायकै: |

    क्षीरमांसरसोपेतै घृतम शोषहरं परम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 20/ 4

    उन्मादे

    दशमूलाम्बु सघृतं युक्त मांसरसेन वा |

    ससिद्धार्थकचूर्ण वा केवल वा अनवं घृतम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 21/ 8

    अपस्मारे

    हत्कम्पो अक्षिरुजा यस्य स्वेदो हस्तादिशीतता |

    दशमूलीजल तस्य कल्याणाज्यं च योजयेत्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 31/ 18

    हद्रोगे

    दशमूलकषाये तु लवणक्षारयोजितम |

    श्वास कासं सहद्रोगं गुल्मशूलं च नाशयेत्‌ ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 102

    दशमूलकृतः क्वाथ: सयवक्षारसैन्धव: |

    हद्रोगगुल्मशूलानि कासं श्वासं च नाशयेत्‌ |

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 17

    शोथे

    पुराणयवशाल्यन्न दशमूलाम्बुसाधितम्‌।

    अल्पमल्पं पटुस्नेहं भोजन श्वयथोरहितम ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 24

    ग्रन्थिवीसर्पे

    ग्रन्थिवीसर्पशूले तु तैलेनोष्णेन सेचयेत्‌ |

    दशमूलबविपक्वेन तद्वन्‌ मुतरैजलेन वा ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 31, Vanga Sena Vaat Vyadhi. 123, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 87

    वातव्याधौ

    दशमूलीबलामाष क्वाथं तैलाज्यमिश्रितम्‌ |

    सायं भुक्त्वा पिबेन्नस्य विश्वाच्यामवबाहुके ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 22. 35

    वातष्नैर्दशमूल्या च नवं कुब्जमुपाचरेत्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 22. 72

    दशमूलघृतम्‌ |

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 86

    हिंगुपुष्करचूर्णादयं दशमूलशुतं जयेत्‌ |

    गृधसी केवल: क्वाथ: शेफालीपत्रजस्तथा ||

    Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 76

    दशमूलीकृतं क्वा्थ पज्चमूल्यापि कल्पितम्‌ |

    रूक्ष स्वेद॑ तथा नस्यं मन्यास्तम्भे प्रयोजयेत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 124, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 23, Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 11

    वातेरक्ते

    दशमूल शृतं क्षीरं सच: शूलनिवारणम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 10, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 44

    आमवाते

    आमवाते कणायुक्त॑ दशमूलीजल पिबेत्‌ |

    खादेद्वाप्यमयाविश्वं गुडू्ची नागरेण वा ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 5

    दशमूलीकषायेण पिबेद्‌ वा नागराभ्मसा |

    कुक्षि बस्तिकटीशूले तैलमेरण्डसंभवम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 7/ 20

    बस्तिमस्य विदध्याच्च समूत्रं दाशमूलिकम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 43/ 8

    विद्रधौ

    दशमूलीकषायेण सस्नेहेन रसेन वा |

    शोध ब्रण वा कोष्णेन सशूल॑ परिषेचयेत्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 22/ 14

    दन्तदौर्बल्ये

    ससनेहं दशमूलाम्बु गण्डूष: प्रचलदद्विजे |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 48

    तिमिरे

    वातजे तिमिरे तत्र दशमूलाम्भसा घृतम्‌ |

    क्षीरे चतुर्गुणे श्रष्ठा कल्क पक्वं पिबेत्तत: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 51/ 26

    बाधिर्य

    दशमूलीकषायेण तैलप्रस्थ॑ विपाचयेत्‌ |

    ऐतत्‌ कर्णे प्रदातव्यं बाधिये परमौषधम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 28

    सूतिकारोगे

    दशमूलीरस: पूत: सद्य: सूतीरुजापह: |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 2/ 9

    वातिके स्तन्यविकारे

    तत्र वातात्मके स्तन्ये दशमूलं त्रयहं पिबेत्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 65. 34

    तत्र वातात्मके स्तन्ये दशमूलीजलं पिबेत्‌ ||

    Vaidya Manorma

    विषमज्वरे

    वन्दाको बिल्व भव: तक्रेण श्रुतेन व अंगे प्रोत: |

    विषमज्वरस्य विकृतिं जयेन्रि: शेषमतिविषमाम्‌ ||

    Chakradutta, Vrinda Madhava, 39/ 9

    शोथे 

    बिल्वपत्ररसं पूतं सोषणं शवयथो: त्रिजे |

    विट् सङ्गे चैव दुर्नाम्रि विदध्यात्‌ कामलास्वपि ||

    Chakradutta

    वमन

    श्रीफलमस्य…. कषायो मधुकयुत्त: |

    पेय: छर्दि शीत: ||

    Chakradutta

    बाधिर्य 

    फलम बिल्वस्य मूत्रेण पिष्ट्वा तैलं विपाचयेत्‌ |

    साजाक्षीरं तद्धि हरेत बाधिर्यं कर्णपूरणे ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 21/ 35, Vrinda Madhava, 59/ 27, Sharangdhara Samhita, 2- 9- 171

    बिल्व तैलं 

    Chakradutta

    गात्रदौर्गन्ध्ये

    बिल्वपत्ररसैर्वापि गात्रदौर्गन्ध्यनाशन: |

    Chakradutta, Vrinda Madhava, 4/ 10

    ग्रहण्याम्‌

    श्रीफलशलाटुकल्को नांगरचूर्णन मिश्रित: सगुड: |

    ग्रहणीगदमत्युग्रं तक्रभुजा शीलितो जयति ||

    Chakradutta

    रक्तार्श

    …. किंवा बिल्वशलाटव: | योज्या: ||

    Bhava Prakasha, Grahani Roga Adhikara, 4/ 54

    ग्रहणी रोगे बिल्व कल्कम्‌

    श्रीफलशलाटु मज्जा  नागरचूर्णन मिश्रित: सगुड: |

    ग्रहणीगदमत्युग्रं तक्र भुजा शीलितो जयति ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 47

    अर्श बिल्वक्वाथेथवा तक्रे दधिमण्डाम्लकाजिके ।

    गोमूत्रे वा सुखोष्णे तं सम्यक्तमवगाहयेत्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 8/ 35

    युक्तं बिल्वकपित्थाभ्यां महौषधिबिडेन वा |

    आरुष्करैयवान्या वा प्रदद्यात्तक्रतर्पणम्‌ ||

    Raja Martanda, 19/ 6

    य: सतत बिल्वशलाटुभोजी रक्तार्शसां नाशमसौ करोति |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 1/ 40

    बाल रोगे

    दीपनो बालबिल्वैला शर्करा लाज सक्तुभि: |

    Vanga Sena Bala Roga, 49

    अलोडय पाययेद्‌ बालं छर्दि अतिसार नाशनं || 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 16/ 59

    कामलायाम्‌

    सत्रय उष्णं बिल्वपत्रं पिबेन्ना कामलापहम्‌ |

    दन्त्यर्षपलकल्क वा द्विगुडं शीतवारिणा ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita, 2- 2- 117

    मेदोरोगे 

    बिल्वो अग्निमंथ: श्योनाक: काश्मरी पाटला तथा।

    क्वाथ एषाम जयेत्‌ मेदो दोषम क्षौद्रेण संयुत: ||

    Vrinda Madhava, 36/ 18

    बिल्वपत्ररसो वापि गात्रदौर्गन्ध्यनाशन: |

    बिल्वशिवा समभागा लेपाद्‌ भुजमूलगन्धमपहरति |

    परिणतपिडकाञ्चपि पूतिकरझ्ञोत्थ बीजं वा ||

    Vrinda Madhav, 15/ 15, Vang Sena Chardi, 39

    छर्दि 

    श्रीफलस्य गुडूच्या वा कषायो मधुसंयुत्त: |

    पेयच्छर्दित्रये शीती मूर्वा वा तण्डुलाम्बुना ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita, 2- 2- 85, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 17- 25

    बिल्वत्वचो गुडूच्या वा क्वाथ: क्षौद्रेण संयुत्त: |

    जयेत्‌ त्रिदोषजां छर्दिं पर्पट: पित्तजां तथा ||

    Bhava Prakasha, Chikitsa, 6/ 112

    बिल्वनागरनि: क्वाथो हन्याच्छदिं विसूचिकाम्‌ |

    बिल्वनागेरकैटर्य क्वाथस्तदथिको गुणै: ||

    Ashtanga Hridya, Chikitsa Sthana, 15/ 45

    उदर रोग 

    पार्श्व शूलमुपस्तम्भ हदग्रहं च समीरण: |

    यदि कुर्यात्‌ तत्सस्तैल बिल्वक्षारात्चितं पिबेत्‌ |

    Raja Nighantu, Pipplyadi varga, 114- 116

    बोलगुणाः

    बोलन्तु कटु टिकट उष्णं कषाय रक्त दोशनुत |

    कफ पित्त अमयान हन्ति प्रदर आदि रुजापहम ||

    Nighantu Sangreha

    बोलं रक्तहरम शीतं मेध्यं दीपन पाचन |

    मधुरं कटु तिक्तम च ग्रह स्वेद त्रिदोशनुत |

    ज्वरापस्मार कुष्ठ्घ्नं गर्भाशयविशुद्धिकृत्‌  |

    श्रीवास: सरलो बोलः कुन्दरुः ग्रन्थिपर्णकम ||

    तुरुष्क सिल्हकं स्पृक्का गुछं नख द्वयं  मुरा |

    सर्वे अमी पावना: प्रोक्ता रक्षोघ्ना: ज्वर नाशना: ||

    लघूष्णा: कटुका पाके कफवात निबर्हणा: | 

    बोलो विशेषतस्तत्र रक्तहन्ता प्रकीर्तित: ||

    Specific Formulation of Bilva

    • Bilvadi Kwatha for Jvaraatisara and Shotha
    • Bilvadi Ksheera for Rakta Atisara
    • Bilva  Avaleha for Atisara
    • Bilvadi Gutika for Vishuchika, Ajeerna
    • Bilvadi Taila for Arsha, Grahani
    • Bilvadi Churna for Atisara
    • Bilvadi Ghrita for Agnimandya and Grahani Roga

    Contraindication and side effects of Bilva

    • Stay on the safe side and avoid the use of Bilva during Pregnancy and breastfeeding as not enough reliable study has been done regarding this.
    • Bilva exhibits hypoglycemic activity, so if you are taking Bilva along with other diabetes medicine then monitor your sugar carefully. 
    • As Bilva interferes with blood glucose levels it is recommended to stop the use of Bilva at least 2 weeks before the scheduled surgery.

    Suggestive reading regarding Aegle marmelos

    • Choudhary, Shailja & Chaudhary, Gitika & Kaurav, Hemlata. (2021). AEGLE MARMELOS (BAEL PATRA): AN AYURVEDIC PLANT WITH ETHNOMEDICINAL VALUE. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. 12. 147-156. 10.7897/2277-4343.120392.
    • Bhattacherjee AK, Dikshit A, Kumar PC, Pandey D, Tandon DK.Profiling nutraceuticals  in  Bael  [Aegle  marmelos (L.)  Correa] at various stages of fruit development.  The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology 2016 Mar 3; 91(2): 169-74. 
    • Phogat, Neeraj & Bisht, Vinita & Johar, Vishal. (2017). Bael (Aegle marmelos) Extraordinary Species of India: A Review. BJ Kines-National Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences. 6. 10.20546/ijcmas.2017.603.213.
    • Benni, Jyoti & Jayanthi, M & Suresha, R. (2011). Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of Aegle marmelos (Bilwa) root. Indian journal of pharmacology. 43. 393- 7. 10. 4103/ 0253- 7613. 83108.
    • Rahman S, Parvin R. Therapeutic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.)-An overview. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2014 Feb; 4 (1): 71–7. doi: 10.1016/ S2222-1808 (14) 60318- 2. PMCID: PMC4027346.
    • Kimothi, G P. (2007). Bilva (Aegle marmelos) L. Corr. ex Roxb.. Ayurvedic Heritage. 
    • Parmar, Neha & Patel, Bhupesh. (2020). A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF BILVA (AEGLE MARMELOS CORR.) IN IDIOPATHIC EDEMA. 10.20959/wjpps20207-16432.
    • Saran, Parmeshwar Lal & Gajbhiye, N. & Patel, Riddhi & Choudhary, Ravish. (2022). Evaluation of Elite Accessions of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa for Commercial Yield and Quality Parameters Under Indian Conditions Bewertung von Elite-Akzessionen von Aegle marmelos (L.) Corrêa unter indischen Bedingungen hinsichtlich Ertrags- und Qualitätsparameter. Erwerbs-Obstbau. 10.  1007/ s10341- 022- 00654-1.
    • Sharma GN, Dubey SK, Sharma P, Sati N.Medicinal values of Bael (Aegle marmelos) (L.) Corr.: A review. Int J Cur Pharm Rev Res 2011; 2 (1): 12- 22
    • Hasan, Sk. Hafiz & Hussain, Gazala & Sk, Hafiz & Hasan, (2017). A LITERARY REVIEW OF BILVA (AEGLE MARMELOS) CONCERNING ITS ANTI-TOXIC PROPERTIES.    
    • Mc, Sabu & Kuttan, Ramadasan. (2004). Antidiabetic activity of Aegle marmelos and its relationship with its antioxidant properties. Indian journal of physiology and pharmacology. 48. 81- 8.
    • Chatterjee, A. & Chaudhury, B (1960). Occurrence of auraptene, umbelliferone, marmin, lupeol, and skimmianine in the root of Aegle marmelos Corr. J. Indian Chem. Soc. 37. 334- 336.
    • Kaur, Pervinder & Walia, A. & Kumar, Subodh & Kaur, Satwinderjeet. (2009). The antigenotoxic activity of polyphenolic rich extracts from Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in human blood lymphocytes and E. coli PQ 37. Rec Nat Prod. 3. 68-75.
    • Palvai, Vantiha Reddy & Urooj, Asna. (2013). Antioxidant properties and stability of Aegle marmelos leave extracts. Journal of food science and technology. 50. 135-40. 10.1007/s13197-010-0221-z.
    • Parmar, Neha & Singh, Suman & Patel, Bhupesh. (2016). Review Article -Ayurveda Historical and Ethno-Medical Review on Bilva (Aegle marmelos Corr.) 1 2. Journal of research in traditional medicine. 2. 138- 146. 10. 21276/ jrt. 2016/ 200.
    • Dwivedi, Dhananjay. (2018). BILVA IN INDIAN TRADITION. Indian journal of the history of science. 47.
    • Kuncha, Jayachandra & Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu. (2012). Hepatoprotective Effect of Aegle Marmelos (L.) Corr. Leaf Powder (Crude) Against Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damage in Albino Rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 3.
    • Bheeman, Dinesh & Krishna, Jijimol & SUGUMARAN, Dr. SATHISH & Mathan, Ramesh & Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan & Rajamani, Ranjithkumar & Bellan, Chandar. (2014). Indium Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Induced Hepatotoxicity: Role of Aegle Marmelos as a Hepatoprotectant. Journal of Bionanoscience. 8. 10.1166/jbns.2014.1219.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Aamradi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • P.V. Sharma, Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Shodhala Nighantu
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sankrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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