Mustaka (Cyperus Rotundus)
Mustaka - The Nut Grass with Anti-Obesity Properties
Mustaka botanically known as Cyperus rotundus belongs to the Cyperaceae family and is an erect perennial glabrous herb. Mustaka is distributed throughout India as the weed in roadsides, wastelands, gardens, etc. Mustaka is described as Kyambu in the Vedic literature. In Ayurvedic classical literature, Mustaka is described as pungent, bitter, and astringent in taste, cold in potency, absorbent, appetizer, and digestant. It removes Kapha, Pitta, and Rakta diseases, thirst, fever, distaste, and worm infestation. Mustaka is used to treat various disorders like bowel disorders, inflammation, malaria, obesity, etc. A recent study reveals that Mustaka consists of various active principles like copaene, cyperene I & II, cyperenone, iso- patchoulenone, cyperotundone, cyperol, cyperolone, etc due to which it exhibits various properties like antioxidant, anti- lipidemic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, etc.
Basonym of Mustaka
मुस्ते सङ्घाते जायते इति |
Musta is a plant gregariously with clustered tubers.
Synonyms of Mustaka
According to Habitat
गांगेयी– गंगाया तट वर्ति प्रदेशेषु भवा |
Musta commonly grows near water resources so very common on the bank of river Ganga.
कछोत्था– कच्छेषु जल प्राय भुमेषु जायते इति |
Musta grows in marshy land.
प्राच्यम – प्राचि भव: |
Musta is common in the northeastern region of India.
वारिद नामकम – अम्भोद: घन: वारिद इत्यादि मेघपरक नामान्यस्य |
Musta grows near water resources hence the synonyms related to water are also synonyms of Musta.
According to Morphology
ग्रंथिला – ग्रंथि रूपा |
Tubers are nodular.
According to Properties and Actions
सुगन्धि– शोभन गंध युक्त: |
Musta has an agreeable odour.
क्रोदेष्टा– क्रीड़ानाम वराहनाम इष्ट प्रिया |
Musta is liked by pigs.
Regional Names of Mustaka
- Nut grass (English)
- Korehi- Jhar (Hindi)
- Konnarigadde, Tungeggade (Kannada)
- Karimuttan (Malayalam)
- Moth, Nagarmoth (Marathi)
- Mutha (Bengali)
- Muthakach, Korai (Tamil)
- Tungmuste (Telegu)
- Nagarmoth (Gujrati)
- Soyad Kuphi (Arabic)
- Mushke Jami (Persian)
Scientific Classification of Mustaka
Botanical Name of Mustaka
Cyperus rotundus Linn.
Cyperus word is derived from the Greek word kuperos, rotundus means round.
Medica means it has got very useful medicinal properties.
Cyperaceae (Musta Kula)
Ayurveda Reference for Mustaka (Cyperus Rotundus) and Its Varieties
Classification of Bija Puraka - As Per Charaka and Sushruta
Charaka: Triptighna Mahakshaya, Trishna Nigrehana Mahakshaya, Lekhniya Mahakshaya, Kandughana Mahakshaya, Satnya Shodhana Mahakshaya
Sushruta: Mustadi gana, Vachadi gana
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi
|C. S. Su. 3/ 4, 9||S. S. Su. 38/ 25, 53||A. H. Su. 10/ 29|
|C. S. Su. 4/ 3, 11, 14, 18, 29||S. S. Su. 42/ 18||A. H. Su. 15/ 7, 40|
|C. S. Su. 5/ 19, 61||S. S. Su. 44/ 26, 54||A. H. Su. 21/ 13|
|C. S. Su. 23/ 9, 11, 13||S. S. Chi. 5/ 12||A. H. Chi. 1/ 33, 45, 46, 49, 51, 53, 56, 62, 69, 90, 120, 122, 153|
|C. S. Su. 25/ 39||S. S. Chi. 9/ 8, 9, 46||A. H. Chi. 3/ 14, 31, 50, 68, 74, 162|
|C. S. Vi. 8/ 150||S. S. Chi. 10/ 4||A. H. Chi. 4/ 43|
|C. S. Sa. 8/ 54, 87||S. S. Chi. 11/ 5, 7||A. H. Chi. 7/ 25, 28, 106|
|C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 46, 62||S. S. Chi. 12/ 11||A. H. Chi. 8/ 110, 131, 154|
|C. S. Chi. 1. 4/ 13||S. S. Chi. 17/ 4, 27, 44||A. H. Chi. 9/ 6, 8, 23, 39, 8, 59, 61, 62, 104|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 144, 197, 198, 200, 201, 202, 204, 205, 207, 208, 218, 222, 224, 242, 245, 248, 342||S. S. Chi. 19/ 35||A. H. Chi. 10/ 8, 35, 37, 39, 43, 58|
|C. S. Chi. 4/ 30, 44, 59, 70, 73, 77, 80||S. S. Chi. 22/ 11, 12, 16, 74||A. H. Chi. 12/ 2, 5, 18|
|C. S. Chi. 5/ 118||S. S. Chi. 38/ 26, 63, 94, 105, 111||A. H. Chi. 13/ 15|
|C. S. Chi. 6/ 25, 26, 29, 31, 37, 38, 39||S. S. Ka. 5/ 65||A. H. Chi. 16/ 10, 14, 36|
|C. S. Chi. 7/ 46, 64, 76, 90, 101, 112, 141, 143||S. S. Ka. 6/ 19||A. H. Chi. 17/ 24|
|C. S. Chi. 8/ 99, 136||S. S. U. 10/ 8||A. H. Chi. 18/ 5, 11, 16, 30|
|C. S. Chi. 10/ 44, 46||S. S. U. 11/ 13, 17||A. H. Chi. 19/ 4, 10, 50, 59, 67, 71|
|C. S. Chi. 11/ 15||S. S. U. 12/ 7, 48||A. H. Chi. 21/ 50, 76|
|C. S. Chi. 12/ 22, 39, 41, 63, 69||S. S. U. 17/ 93||A. H. Chi. 22/ 14|
|C. S. Chi. 13/ 158||S. S. U. 24/ 35, 36||A. H. Ka. 2/ 25, 29|
|C. S. Chi. 14/ 196, 231, 236||S. S. U. 26/ 14||A. H. Ka. 3/ 28|
|C. S. Chi. 15/ 97, 98, 126, 129, 138, 158, 182, 188||S. S. U. 39/ 113, 170, 188, 189, 191, 194, 204, 210, 225, 237, 291||A. H. Ka. 4/ 8, 37|
|C. S. Chi. 16/ 46, 59, 69, 72, 93, 102, 118||S. S. U. 40/ 36, 41, 44, 48, 52, 62, 63, 64, 69, 72, 74||A. H. U. 2/ 14, 18, 19, 25, 49, 76|
|C. S. Chi. 17/ 122||S. S. U. 43/ 18||A. H. U. 3/ 50|
|C. S. Chi. 18/ 50, 68, 86, 89, 91, 112, 113, 114, 117, 119, 120, 162, 175||S. S. U. 44/ 28||A. H. U. 9/ 26, 27|
|C. S. Chi. 19/ 23, 25, 54, 59, 111||S. S. U. 52/ 21||A. H. U. 13/ 8|
|C. S. Chi. 20/ 37||S. S. U. 57/ 10, 14||A. H. U. 18/ 28|
|C. S. Chi. 21/ 53, 88, 129||S. S. U. 58/ 36||A. H. U. 22/ 28, 35, 57, 81, 92, 98, 103|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 76||S. S. U. 59/ 23||A. H. U. 24/ 6|
|C. S. Chi. 24/ 149, 165||S. S. U. 61/ 30||A. H. U. 35/ 58|
|C. S. Chi. 25/ 90||S. S. U. 62/ 22||A. H. U. 37/ 82|
|C. S. Chi. 26/ 199, 226, 233||A. H. U. 39/ 17, 33, 104|
|C. S. Chi. 27/ 29, 35||A. H. U. 40/ 48|
|C. S. Chi. 28/ 111, 149, 160|
|C. S. Chi. 29/ 85, 149|
|C. S. Chi. 30/ 90, 98, 196, 273, 274|
|C. S. Ka. 7/ 15, 45, 50, 55, 59|
|C. S. Si. 3/ 39, 57|
|C. S. Si. 6/ 52|
|C. S. Si. 8/ 8|
|C. S. Si. 10/ 22|
|C. S. Si. 12/ 27, 47, 51, 52, 53|
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Abda
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 38/ 50, S. S. Ka. 3/ 17, S. S. U. 40/ 67, S. S. U. 52/ 13
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 3/ 29, A. H. Chi. 19/ 36, A. H. U. 2/ 55
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Abhra
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 10/ 4
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Varida
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 38/ 70
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Ambuda
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Si. 3/ 61
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 39/ 223, S. S. Chi. 51/ 21, S. S. Chi. 61/ 31
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. U. 5/ 20
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Bhadra Musta / Bhadra Mustaka
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 21/ 21, C. S. Chi. 14/ 161, C. S. Chi. 19/ 23, C. S. Chi. 24/ 144
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 39/ 205
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 7/ 25
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Ambhoda
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 39/ 218, 220, S. S. U. 40/ 66, S. S. U. 41/ 50, S. S. Chi. 38/ 43
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 9/ 109, A. H. Chi. 18/ 22, A. H. Ka. 2/ 11
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Ambhodhara
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 52/ 30
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Gangeya
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 17/ 17, S. S. U. 39/ 109
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Gangeyi
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 1/ 54, A. H. Ka. 4/ 44
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Jalada
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 3/ 23, A. H. Su. 15/ 35, A. H. Su, 20/ 38, A. H. Chi. 2/ 18, 31
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Toyada
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 12/ 7, A. H. Ka. 4/ 35, A. H. U. 34/ 46
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Kraunchadana
It is some water planted upon the fruits or tubers of which the water birds curlew feed. It may be some Scripus or Cyperus. Any one of these with poisonous effects may be Krauncha Visa and the non-poisonous and nutritious one may be Krauchadana.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 27/ 114, C. S. Chi. 3/ 257, C. S. Chi. 14/ 10
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 6/ 93
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Ghana
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 15/ 165, C. S. Chi. 16/ 87, C. S. Chi. 26/ 190, 198, 207, C. S. Si. 3/ 16, 36, C. S. Si. 9/ 18
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 38/ 47, S. S. U. 39/ 195, 215, 253, S. S. U. 40/ 42, 65, S. S. U. 55/ 24
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 14/ 22, A. H. Sa. 2/ 7, A. H. Chi. 1/ 15, 52, 55, 65, A. H. Chi. 3/ 54, 64, 174, A. H. Chi. 9/ 7, A. H. Chi. 11/ 36, A. H. Chi. 15/ 71, A. H. Chi. 16/ 23, A. H. Chi. 17/ 39, A. H. Chi. 19/ 81, A. H. Chi. 21/ 48, A. H. Ka. 4/ 2, 6, 29, A. H. U. 2/ 24, 37, A. H. U. 3/ 51, A. H. U. 22/ 12, A. H. U. 30/ 22, A. H. U. 37/ 83
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Jimuta (controversy)
Dalhana has identified it with Mustaka in S. S. Chi. 37/ 27 where it has been used in the masculine gender while at other places Jumuta has been indicated as the Devdali.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 1/ 81, 83, C. S. Su. 2/ 6, C. S. Su. 4/ 4, C. S. Su. 30/ 60, C. S. Chi. 26/ 15, C. S. Ka. 1/ 5, C. S. Ka. 2, C. S. Ka. 3/ 5, 9, C. S. Si. 10/ 24, C. S. Si. 11/ 4
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 39/ 3, S. S. Su. 43/ 4, S. S. Su. 45/ 115, S. S. Chi. 14/ 11, S. S. Chi. 18/ 20, 21, S. S. Chi. 31/ 5, S. S. Chi. 37/ 27
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 8/ 19, 20, A. H. Ka. 1/ 12, 19, 26, 46, A. H. U. 30/ 18, A. H. Chi. 38/ 21, 22, 27.
Mustaka's Description in Brihtrayi as Plava
After a study of the Nighantus, it appears that besides the two Cyprus species i. e. C. rotundus Linn., Musta or Pindamusta, and C. scariosus R. Br., Bhadra Mustaka there is a third kind of Musta called Kaivarti mustaka which is generally considered to be a synonym of Plava. Dhanvantari Nighantu mentions it with its synonyms Jalaja, Jal Mustaka, Daaspur, Paripelav, Vaaney, and Shaival while Raja Nighantu appears to agree with it but does not mention all the synonyms and the properties like those of the former. Bhavamisra also agrees fully but without mentioning Saivala as its synonym which he has mentioned separately. Confusion is created by the former two Nighantus which mention still another drug giving almost all the synonyms but which according to them is Usna- Virya and different from Sitavirya-Saivala or Kaivartimustaka. This anomaly, in our opinion, has arisen due to misunderstanding about the identity of Saivala and Kaivart- mustaka even up to the present day, and acceptance of another aromatic (Cyprus sp.) drug which floats on water or grows in water-flooded areas. It may, therefore, be concluded that Saivala and Kaivart- mustaka and all their synonyms mentioned above are now applicable to two plants that are now located by us and are under investigation as regards their botanical identification. For further light, discussion on Saivala, Jalasuka, and Vanya may be consulted.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 46, C. S. Chi. 6/ 41, C. S. Chi. 7/ 129, C. S. Chi. 12/ 63, C. S. Chi. 14/ 164, C. S. Chi. 15/ 158, C. S. Chi. 20/ 36, C. S. Chi. 23/ 53, C. S. Chi. 28/ 152
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 11/ 8
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 20/ 38, A. H. Su. 21/ 14, A. H. Chi. 12/ 25, A. H. Chi. 19/ 88, A. H. Chi. 21/ 79, A. H. U. 27/ 38, A. H. U. 39/ 18
Historical Background of Mustaka
In Atharva, Parisista Mustaka is attributed with Vasikarana property (A. P. 35/ 2/ 9). Mustaka is delineated in Varaha Sroutra (3/ 4/ 3/ 44). It is also reported that C. rotundus is described as ‘Kyambu’ in Vedic literature. Its synonyms like Gundra and Gangeyam denote the hydrophytic nature of this plant. Charaka described the use of this plant in diarrhea, as an appetite stimulant, and for skin infections. Sushruta elaborately discussed the medicinal uses of this plant. Vagbhata specifically quoted Musta as a febrifuge. Different Nighantu writers have delineated Mustaka in their works. In Western medicine, Romans used it as an emmenagogue and in Cambodia, this tuber is known as a diuretic and anti-periodic. Chinese medicine described these small tubers as effective against liver and lung diseases. In Nigeria, the tuberous rhizome is used to relieve cough in children, and in the Congo basin, the pus of the root is used for rheumatic pains and edema. In Cylon, a decoction of the tuber is given in fevers, diarrhea, dyspepsia, and stomach complaints. There is a reference to another plant Mustaka (i.e. the plant which looks like Mustaka) in Charaka Samhita (C. S. Ci. 23/ 11) and Susruta Samhita (S. S. Ka. 2/ 5, 6, 15). The author believes it is a poisonous plant/ grass belonging to Cyperaceae but not Musta described in other contexts.
Have A Health Issue?
– Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)
Ayurvedic Allergy Specialist
CEO & Founder of IAFA®
External Morphology of Cyperus rotundus
- Habit – Mustaka is a rhizomatous perennial herb.
- Stem – Mustaka is a caespitose or solitary, sparsely tufted, rigid trigonous, solid, and septate.
- Leaves – Leaves of the Mustaka are basal, lower ones are often scale-like, sometimes reduced to sheaths, several, flat, nerves, prominent, scabrous.
- Inflorescence – Mustaka has Spike inflorescence with spikelets, spikelets 2-8, spicate, narrow-oblong, pale or purple, 10 to 20 flowered, rachilla is present, winged, glumes closely imbricating.
- Flower – Small, bisexual subtended by glumes, upper ones are male flowers. Perianth is bristles or scales, stamens are 3, red-crusted, and the ovary is superior, unilocular.
- Fruit – Nut, oblong, and trigonous.
Tuber of Mustaka morphology: The drug comprises dried tubers in varying sizes. The tubers are oval to spindle-shaped, somewhat compressed, and tapered at both ends, spreading the root system. The tubers generally range from 1.5- 3.5 cm. in length to 0.5- 2.5 cm. in diam. The tubers are unbranched and sometimes flattened or uniformly cylindrical with comparatively longer central portions. They are slightly semi-succulent when fresh but turn hard in nature after drying. These are dark brown to black and are covered with numerous rootlets. Some of the tubers have tears or remains of rootlets. Tubers are not easily breakable due to their smaller size and hardened nature. The fracture is short exposing a white interior with light brown dots. The tubers have an aromatic fragrance and a slightly agreeable taste.
External Morphology of Cyperus scariosus
- Habit: It is a small grass herb and underground rhizomatous tubers with angular soft stems.
- Leaves: Leaves are usually short, less than 1/3 stem, short, variable, weak, and umbels are slender.
- Inflorescence: Spikelets, linear pale straw colored.
- Rhizomes: Woody, stolon, short. Rhizomes contain light brown essential oil.
External Morphology of Cyperus esculentus (Earth almond)
- Habit: Cyperus esculentus is a perennial grass herb with a triangular upright stem up to 0.61 meters.
- Leaves: Leaves of Cyperus esculentus are grass-like and very glossy. They taper to a short point.
- Inflorescence: Terminal clustered spikelet. Flowers of Cyperus esculentus are yellowish to brownish.
- Fruit: Fruits are achenes, sessile, and brown. Fruits mature seldom.
Flowering and Fruiting Time of Mustaka
Plant flowers and fruits during the rainy to spring season. July to March.
Distribution of Mustaka
The plant grows abundantly as a weed after the rainy season and commercial supplies are based on collection from natural habitats. It is not cultivated commercially on a large scale. The plant can be cultivated and raised through tubers, and the plant is undertaken for experimental cultivation as it is considered a suitable cultivation species in marshy open fields, along with other medicinal plants undertaken for cultivation in herbal gardens or farming plots. By nature, the plants thrive best in slightly marshy areas. The drug is collected from most parts of the country after the rainy season when it flourishes well as a common weed in the areas of occurrence. The source plant Cyprus rotundus Linn. of drug Mustaka occurs throughout India, particularly in marshy and moist areas ascending to 6,000 ft. elevation in different regions where the localities with water courses or any other similar watery or aquatic situations along which the plants find their suitable habitat. It is a common annual weed of pasture lands, roadsides, and other moist places in the plains and also in the hilly region. The plant is commonly growing along water courses or near ponds and tanks or similar habitats in eastern and southern India and Bengal, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and other states of India.
Different Varieties of Mustaka
Generally, the three kinds of Mustaka are prevalent in Ayurveda based on texts (Nighantu viz. Mustaka (Bhadra- Mustaka), Nagaramustaka and Jalamustaka (Kaivartamustaka). In comparison to other major classical works on materia medica (e. g. Dhanvantari Nighantu and Raja Nighantu) incorporating the foregoing three kinds of Mustaka, Bhavamisra (Bhavaprakasa Nighantu) also similarly mentions three kinds of Mustaka, but Bhadramusta and Nagaramusta are termed synonymous in this particular Nighantu work. Various species of the Cyprus genus are referred to in the context of Mustaka especially Cyprus rotundus Linn., Cyprus scariosus R. Br. Cyperus esculentus Linn., Cyperus platy stilis Br. and Cyprus amabilis Vahl. Some of these species are almost morphologically similar or their morphological differences are minute, and as a result they are difficult to distinguish during collection in the field and use as raw drug material. Most commonly the drug Mustaka is identified and recognized as Cyprus rotundus Linn. which is generally used in current medical practice. As regards the classical varieties and botanical species, the correlation and probable identity are made. For instance, Mustaka and Bhadra mustaka are synonymous and so they indicate the single drug which is botanically identified as Cyprus rotundus Linn., a commonly and abundantly found weed in the field. Nagarmustaka can be considered a cicada which may be botanically known as Cyprus esculentus Linn. instead of Cyperus scariosus R. Br. which is almost similar to C. rotundus Linn. Kaivarttamustaka or Jalamus-taka may be known as Cyprus platystilis Br. or Cyperus amabilis R. Br. which is generally found in paddy fields. In materia medica texts (Nighantu), Nagarmustaka is also given synonymous names like Uccata, Cudala, etc. Uccala is indicated as Musta visesha (Amarakosa) and interestingly. Nagaramustaka is one of the Nagaraka given in Kamasastra (classical sexology) where Nagaramustaka is also named Uccata. Another variety of Mustaka is ksudramustaka, classically termed Paripelam or Paripelavam (in Kaiyadeva Nighantu), and Kaivarti (a) mustaka is termed as vitunnakam (Bhavaprakasa Nighantu). The classical description of Mustaka regarding its habit and habitat along with characteristics of the ideal or quality drug Mustaka (prashasta mustaka) is given in Ayurveda.
The Botanical Equivalents of Three Varieties of Mustaka are:
- Nagara Mustaka – C. scariosus (Nut hedge) i.e., one which is found in and around the Nagara (townships).
- Bhadra Musta – C. rotundus (Nut grass) i.e., one which will take care of the health of human beings.
- Kaivarta or Jala Musta – C. esculentus (Earth almond). i.e. one which is found near the water sources.
In Pakistan, C. esculentus is being used as Nagarmoth due to its resemblance with C. rotundus. After careful evaluation of the market samples and the existing literature on different kinds of Musta, it is concluded that both C. rotundus Linn. and C. scariosus R. Br. are being used in the trade/ tradition under the same name Musta. Even the scientific and experimental studies of both species appear the same. Their tubers yield an oil which is known as Cyperol oil or oil of cyperiol in trade. Even CSIR documentation of the chemistry of Mustaka varieties appears to be the same. Maybe because of the close similarity between the two Cyprus species, scholars at different institutes might be confused about their identity. Therefore, botanical identification/ pharmacognostic studies are needed for correct identification. Chunekarji reported that Sciprus articulatus is one of the varieties of Kaseru along with S. Kaysoor. Bhavamisra quoted two varieties of Kaseru viz., Mah Kaseru & Raja Kaseru.
The Useful Part of Mustaka
Tubers – Tubers of Musta (Cyperus rotundus) are hard, ovoid, and sometimes elongated, with a wiry stolon attached to the tips, up to 5 cm long and 1 cm in diameter at the thickest part. The surface is dark brown or black with several annular ridges densely clothed with root hair. A transversely cut portion shows a mealy flesh-colored surface, differentiated into an outer cortex and a central core region with several dot-like structures representing vascular bundles. It is very difficult to break and if broken also then becomes a very small piece. Has got strong aromatic odor and bitter taste.
Chemical Composition of Mustaka
The tuber of the plant drug Cyperus rotundus Linn. contains an aromatic oil of 0.5-0.9 percent and the remaining quantity is of fixed oil. Another plant species Cyperus esculentus Linn., a tonic and aphrodisiac drug, tubers yield chupa oil and they also contain protein 5.21 %, starch, 22.72 %, and other carbohydrates 24.79%. Mainly two species of Cyprus (out of several Cyprus species growing in India) are sources of aromatic oil, known as Cyperus oil which is obtained by distillation. Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Motha) yields an essential oil obtained by distillation. The chemical values of oil are on record. Sudanese oil has a lower refractive index, specific gravity, and negative optical rotation. The oil is not of much commercial production owing to the difficulty in collection of commercial quantities of the raw material. Similarly, Cyprus scariosus R. Br. (Nagarmotha) rhizomes are used for the commercial distillation of oil. Chemical characteristics and saponification values are on record. Cyperus oil is useful as a flavoring agent.
The Other Chemical Constituents of Mustaka are as follows:
Cineol (+) copadiene, copaene, cyperen I & II, cyperenone, isopatchoulenone, cyperotundone, cyperol, cyperolone, a-cyperone, (+) epoxyguaiene, isocyperol, isokobusone, kobusone, mustakone, patchulene, (+) rotundone, a- & B-selinene, sugenol, B-sitosterol etc.
Recent Research on Cyperus rotundus
- Manivannan, Rajamanickam & Rajamanickam, Aeganathan. (2016). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts from Cyperus rotundus Linn rhizomes. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 6. 197- 203. 10. 7324/ JAPS. 2016. 60929. The rhizome part of Cyperus rotundus has been shown to contain 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) (1), methyl ferulate (MF) (2), (E)- formaldehyde (FA) (3), and N-trans-feruloyl tyramine (NTF) (4). These known compounds are being reported for the first time from this plant and their structures were determined by physical properties and spectroscopic analyses. The present study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts of C. rotundus. All the extracts displayed significant analgesic effects in acetic acid and hot plate pain models in a dose-dependent manner. As compared with the other extracts, the ethyl acetate extract (500 mg/kg) was the most effective in the analgesic test similar to standard drugs. In the writhing test, ethyl acetate extract (500 mg/kg) showed significant, inhibiting pain by 73.44 %, similar to aspirin which showed 76.47 % inhibition at the dose of 100 mg/ kg i.p. In the hot plate test, ethyl acetate extract (500 mg/kg) produced maximum possible analgesia of 12.72 ± 1.15 sec at 90 min, whilst morphine sulfate (5 mg/kg) showed 13.83 ± 1.15 sec. Similarly, carrageenan-induced paw volume was significantly reduced by ethyl acetate extract (500 mg/kg) at 2.20 ± 1.18 4 h after administration similar to that of diclofenac sodium which showed 2.24 ± 1.18 at the dose of 100 mg/ kg. The data justify the traditional use of Cyperus rotundus as a medicinal plant which has a potential source of bioactive molecules to treat inflammatory diseases.
- Raut, Nishikant & Gaikwad, Naresh. (2007). Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats. Fitoterapia. 77. 585- 8. 10. 1016/ j. fitote. 2006. 09. 006. In light of the traditional claim of Cyperus rotundus in the treatment of diabetes, investigations were carried out to evaluate its effect on alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in rats. Oral daily administration of 500 mg/kg of the extract (once a day for seven consecutive days) significantly lowered the blood glucose levels. This antihyperglycemic activity can be attributed to its antioxidant activity as it showed the strong DPPH radical scavenging action in vitro.
- Majeed, Muhammed & Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam & Bhat, Beena & Ansari, Mohammad & Pandey, Anjali & Bani, Sarang & Mundkur, Lakshmi. (2022). The Anti-Obesity Potential of Cyperus rotundus Extract Containing Piceatannol, Scirpusin A and Scirpusin B Rhizomes: Preclinical and Clinical Evaluations. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. Volume 15. 369- 382. 10. 2147/ DMSO. S348412. Purpose: Obesity is a complex medical problem that increases the risk of other diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and fatty liver disease. The present study evaluated the efficacy and safety of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract (CRE), standardized to contain Piceatannol, Scirpusin A, and Scirpusin B (5% total Stilbenoids) in overweight individuals. The mechanism of activity was evaluated in a diet-induced mice model of obesity and adipocytes in vitro. Materials and methods: The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of CRE were evaluated in 30 obese individuals with a BMI of 30 to 40 kg/ m2 for 90 days in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. In vitro, studies were carried out in differentiated 3T3 L1 adipocytes, and the therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Results: The pilot clinical study showed a reduction in body weight with a significant decrease in waist circumference and BMI. The serum lipid profile showed a significant improvement in CRE-treated individuals. The extract was well tolerated, and no adverse effects were reported at the end of the study. CRE showed a dose-dependent adipogenesis reduction in vitro with an IC50 value of 9.39 μg/ mL, while oral administration of CRE reduced weight gain in diet-induced obese mice. The efficacy in mice was associated with reduced levels of leptin, corticosteroids, and serum lipid levels, with no adverse effects. Conclusion: CRE has anti-adipogenic properties, is safe for human consumption, and effectively manages weight and hypercholesterolemia in overweight individuals.
- Athesh, Kumaraswamy & Divakar, Megha & Brindha, Pemaiah. (2014). Anti-obesity potential of Cyperus Rotundus L. aqueous tuber extract in rats fed on high-fat cafeteria diet. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 7. 88- 92. Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-obesity potential of the aqueous tuber extract of Cyperus rotundus L. (ATECR) in high-fat cafeteria diet (HFCD) fed obese rats. Methods: Wistar strain of albino rats were divided into six groups comprising six rats each. Group I served as normal control fed with normal pellet chow, group II served as disease control fed with a high-fat cafeteria diet, and group III, IV, and V animals, received ATECR at a dose level of 100, 200, and 300mg/ kg bw along with HFCD for 40 days, while, group VI served as standard drug control, which received Orlistat at a dosage of 50mg/ kg bw along with HFCD. Results: Administration of HFCD for 40 successive days to experimental rats significantly increased the body weight, organ and fat pad weights, serum total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels; and decreased HDL cholesterol as compared to normal control. While treatment with ATECR showed a significant reduction in body weight gain, organ weight of the liver, kidney, and spleen, weight of fat pads, and the levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, glucose, and an increase in HDL cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Further, the levels of liver markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), which were found to be elevated in the serum of obese rats, also resumed to normal on treatment with different concentrations of ATECR. Moreover, the consumption of ATECR reduced oxidative stress by enhancing the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase in the hepatic tissue of rats with HFCD-induced obesity. Conclusion: These results demonstrate clearly that repeated oral administration of tubers of Cyperus rotundus L. aqueous extract can evoke a potent anti-obesity activity.
- Sivapalan, Sri Ranjani Sivapalan. (2012). PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PHYTO-CHEMICAL STUDY OF RHIZOME of Cyperus rotundus LINN. International Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Technology (IJPPT), ISSN: 2277 – 3436, Volume-1, Issue- 2, 2012. 1. 42- 46. 10. 13140/ 2. 1. 2036. 2888. Abstract – Cyperus rotundus L., (Family Cyperaceae), also known as purple nutsedge or nutgrass, is a common perennial plant. This is a multipurpose plant, widely used in traditional medicine around the world to treat various diseases such as indigestion, constipation, dysentery, abdominal distention, neurogenic gastralgia, chest pains, irregular menstruation, painful menstruation, skin diseases, furuncle infections, leprosy, sprains and bruises, and fever. It has the property of therapeutic actions such as analgesic, alternative, astringent, antispasmodic, antibacterial, carminative, contraceptive, demulcent, emmenagogue, emollient, febrifuge, immunostimulant, laxative, tonic, vermifuge. Pharmacognostical investigations are the first and foremost step to determining the identity and assessing the quality of plant species. The study aimed to evaluate the parameter to determine the quality of the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L. These studies comprise to investigate macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, and fluorescence characteristics. The findings may provide useful information concerning its identification and standardization in the future.
- Sundaram, M.S. & Sivakumar, T. & Balamurugan, G. (2008). Anti-inflammatory effect of Cyperus rotundus Linn. leaves on acute and subacute inflammation in experimental rat models. Biomedicine. 28. 302- 304. This study was carried out to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of alcoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus leaves in experimentally induced inflammation in rat models. Rat paw edema was induced by an injection of 0.1 ml of carrageenan 1 % (acute model) and implantation of cotton pellets in the subplantar region (Subacute model). The extract exhibited an anti-inflammatory effect at doses of 100 and 300 mg/ kg. It inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, the edema induced by 0.1 ml of carrageenan 1%. The extract also reduced the wet weight of the implanted granuloma (37.5 %) significantly at 300 mg/ kg. The results obtained from the study revealed that the alcohol extracts of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) have anti-inflammatory properties.
- Singh, V. & Gunjan, & Ali, M. (2017). Acyl and Stigmasterol esters from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus L.. Indian Drugs. 54. 34- 39. 10. 53879/ id. 54. 12. 11214. Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), is a perennial sedge distributed throughout India and other tropical and temperate regions of the world. Its tubers are used as an appetizer and anti-inflammatory and to treat thirst, pyrexia, cough, vomiting, rheumatoid arthritis, worm infestation, stomach ailments, diarrhea, skin diseases, wounds, and bleeding. Phytochemical investigation of the tubers led to the isolation of new acyl and sterol esters, characterized as n- pentadactyl octadec- 9, 12- dienoate (1), stigmatist- 5, 22- dien- 3β – olyl dodecanoate (2), stigmast- 5, 22- dien- 3β- olyl tetradecanoate (3) and n- pentacos- 13′- enyl octadec- 9- enoate (4) together with β- sitosterol glucoside. The structures of this phytoconstituent, isolated for the first time from the tubers, have been established by spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.
- Zhang, Liang-Liang & Zhang, Li-Fang & Hu, Qing-Ping & Hao, Dong-Lin & Xu, Jian-Guo. (2017). Chemical composition, the anti-bacterial activity of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus via membrane disruption and apoptosis pathway. Food Control. 80. 290- 296. 10.1016/ j.foodcont.2017.05.016. The chemical composition, antibacterial activity, and mechanism of essential oil from Cyperus rotundus rhizomes against Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in this study. Results showed that α- cyperone, cyperene, and α-selinene were the major components of the essential oil. The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) were 10 and 20 mg/mL respectively, and the antibacterial effects increased with increasing essential oil concentrations and treatment time. The electric conductivity, cell membrane integrity, NPN uptake, and membrane potential assays demonstrated that essential oil disrupted the membrane integrity of S. aureus. Electron microscope observations further confirmed that essential oil destroyed cell membranes. Moreover, we found that essential oil could induce cell death of S. aureus through the apoptosis pathway based on apoptosis analysis. These findings suggested that essential oil mainly exerted antibacterial activity by damaging cell membranes and membrane-mediated apoptosis pathways.
- Dwita, Lusi & Dewanti, Ema & Ladeska, Vera & Sediarso, Sediarso & Muntashir, Adnan & Safni, Ulfa & Sari, Rahma. (2018). Neuropharmacological Activity of Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus L.) Rhizome Fraction. Pharmacia. 8. 224. 10. 12928/ pharmaciana. v8i2. 8938. Research in the area of herbal neuropharmacological effects has increased markedly over the past decades. This research aimed to further investigate the neuropharmacological properties of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes fraction by measuring hypnotic-siccative and anticonvulsant activities. The exploratory behavior test was performed using the Hole Board method while motor coordination was assessed using Rotarod Test. The result showed that the 70 % ethanol fraction of Cyperus rotundus rhizome is significant (p 0.05). In conclusion, Teki ladang (Cyperus rotundus) rhizome appeared as a potent neuropharmacological drug candidate with abilities comparable to synthetic drugs.
- Asaduzzaman, Md & Kabir, Imonul & Biswas, Subir & Molla, Md & Rafe, Md. Rajdoula. (2019). Neurobehavioral activity study of methanolic whole plants extract of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results. 10. 36- 40. 10. 4103/ jpnr. JPNR_ 11_ 19. Background: Cyperus rotundus commonly known as “nutgrass” is extensively used in traditional Chinese and Indian Ayurvedic medicine. It is traditionally used to treat fevers, digestive disorders, wounds, and bruises. Materials and Methods: This study evaluated the sedative‑hypnotic and antidepressant effect of the methanolic extract of C. rotundus (MECR). To perform this study, the whole plants of C. rotundus were taken for extraction with methanol following the soaking process and tested for acute toxicity in mice first. The sedative and hypnotic activity were then studied performing hole board and open field tests in the albino mice model at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/ kg body weight of MECR. Diazepam at the dose of 1 mg/ kg was utilized as a standard drug in both experiments. Similarly, an antidepressant activity test was also performed using a forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Nortriptyline was used as a standard to assess antidepressant activity. Results: We found that MECR produced an insignificant dose-dependent effect against the locomotor activity of mice both in hole cross and open field tests. Besides, it was also noticed after analyzing forced swimming and tail suspension test that it has no significant antidepressant activity. Conclusion: Taken together, our study suggests that MECR does not possess notable sedative‑hypnotic and antidepressant or neurobehavioral properties.
- Chandratre, R & Chandarana, Shubham & Mengi, S. (2011). The lipid-lowering activity of alcoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus. IJRPC. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Over 50 % of CHD is developed due to excess blood cholesterol levels. There is a closer association between CHD and hyperlipidemia 1. Hyperlipidaemia is a term used to describe elevated plasma levels of lipids (triglycerides and cholesterol) and lipoproteins. The concentration of plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are highly correlated with the prevalence of coronary heart disease while a high plasma HDL cholesterol concentration is a powerful protective factor against coronary heart disease. The allopathic drugs available for the treatment of hyperlipidemia are fibrate derivatives, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, bile acid binding agents, and nicotinic acid but they show side effects like kidney and liver impairment, gallstone formation, rhabdomyolysis (destruction of skeletal muscles) and gastrointestinal disturbances. India has got a rich flora of herbs due to its unique climatic and geographical conditions. The Indian system of medicine has been regarded as a rich mine of ethnopharmacological knowledge. One such plant is called Cyperus rotundus Family: Cyperaceae. It is mentioned in Charaka Samhita has been claimed to be effective in medoroga (lipid disorder). The Cyperus rotundus is also known as musta or nagarmotha. The rhizomes of plants have been reported to possess various medicinal properties like anthelmintic, antipyretic, antidepressant, anti-rheumatic, anti-spasmodic, and anti-fungal. Since there is no report on the hypolipidemic activity of the drug, it was decided to screen for hypolipidemic activity. In the present study, the effect of the alcoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizome on the serum lipid profile of hyperlipidaemic rats of the Wistar strain was done. Hyperlipidemia was induced by feeding them on a high-fat diet. The extract was also screened for its mode of action.
- Nagulendran, Kr & Ramalingam, Mahesh & Vava Mohideen, Hazeena. (2007). Preventive role of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes extracts on age-associated changes in glucose and lipids. Pharmacologyonline. 2. Cyperus rotundus rhizomes have been used traditionally as a home remedy for various ailments. In the present study, the preventive role of ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes (CRRE) was investigated on age-associated changes in glucose and lipids in young and aged rats. Male albino rats of Wistar strains were divided into four groups: Group I – control young rats; Group II – young rats treated with CRRE (500 mg/ kg body weight) orally for 30 days; Group III – aged control rats and Group IV – aged rats treated with CRRE (500 mg/ kg body weight) orally for 30 days. Age-associated increase in serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, and a decrease in HDL cholesterol was observed in aged rats when compared to young rats. Administration of CRRE to aged rats prevented the age-associated changes in glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, and VLDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol level was found to be increased significantly in both young and aged rats after treatment with CRRE. These findings demonstrated that CRRE normalized the age-associated altered levels of glucose and improved lipid profile status in aged rats thereby decreasing the risk factors for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases associated with advancing age.
- Khalid, Karzan & Shnawa, Bushra & Abdullah, Shorish. (2017). Antimicrobial Activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Extracts and Phytochemical Screening. Eurasian Journal of Science and Engineering. 3. 10. 23918/ eajse. v3i2p82. This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of C. rotundus rhizomes and tuber together, leaves, and oil against several bacteria and three species of fungi. The plant was collected from Degala, Erbil, Kurdistan, and Iraq. The anti-microbial activity of Crude aqueous and ethanolic extracts was examined by inoculating bacteria and fungi on media containing plant extract, and agar well diffusion method. The study revealed the effect of the plant by evaluating microbial growth and inhibition zone measurement. Aqueous extract of leaves could suppress the growth of E. coli, and both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of rhizome-tuber figured out antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli, positively. Moreover, all selected bacteria and fungi were susceptible to ethanolic extract of the rhizome-tuber, with different inhibition zones. Cyperus oil had no potential inhibitory effect against bacteria and fungi, excluding C. albicans. By performing phytochemical screening for rhizome-tuber extracts eleven secondary metabolites were detected.
- Puratchikody, Ayarivan & Albert, Jaswanth. (2001). Antibacterial activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 63. 326- 327. Extracts of Cyperus rotundus Linn were investigated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (NCIM 2079), Escherichia coli (NCIM 2065), Bacillus Subtilis (NCIM 2063), Pseudomonas aeruginosna (NCIM 2036), and Proteus vulgaris (NCIM 2027) at 50 μg/ disc using disc diffusion method. The acetone and ethanol extracts showed significant broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for this herb that it is useful against bacterial infection.
- Sharma, Sk & Singh, Ajay. (2011). Antimicrobial investigations on rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 3. 427- 431. Cyperus rotundus Linn. rhizomes extracts were evaluated against six important pathogenic microbes viz. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. The powdered rhizome extracts were successively extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and water using the Soxhlet apparatus. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed by both agars well diffusion and serial dilution methods. The ethanolic extract was found to exhibit the highest activity against tested bacteria. However, all extracts were ineffective against fungal strains. The inhibitory effect is very similar and comparable with that of standard drugs.
- Masfria, & Permata, Yade. (2018). Total Phenolic Content and Antibacterial Activity of Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus L.) Extract. Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 1. 28- 36. 10. 32734/ idjpcr. v1i1. 202. The objectives of this research were to study the macroscopic, microscopic, and phytochemicals characterization of raw materials, total polyphenol content, and the antibacterial activity of nut grass extracts (Cyperus rotundus L.) against Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. The macroscopic and microscopic characterization of raw materials was done with the determination of the water contents, the water-soluble contents, the ethanol-soluble contents, total ash, and acid-soluble ash. The extract was prepared by percolation using n-hexane, ethanol, and ethyl acetate as solvents. Phytochemical screening was done on the raw materials as well as n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts. Total phenol contents were tested with the Folin- Ciocalteu reagent method. The antibacterial activity test was done by measuring the diameter of the inhibition zones using the diffusion agar method. The results showed that raw material retrieved 7.33 % water content, 21.85 % water soluble contents, 7.9 % ethanol soluble contents, 1.53 % total ash, and 0.67 % total insoluble-acid ash. The phytochemical study showed that the nut grass contains various secondary metabolites including flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, anthraquinone glycosides, and steroid/triterpenoids. The total polyphenol contents of ethanol extracts were expressed as catechin equivalents 1.1616 mg/ g extract. All of the nut grass extracts showed antibacterial activity. Ethyl acetate extract of nut grass indicated the highest antibacterial activity against Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. The ethanol extract was only effective against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Keywords: Antibacterial Activity, Bacteria, Cyperus Rotundus L Extracts, Phenolic.
- Kabbashi, Ahmed & Eldeen, Seif & Mohammed, A & Almagboul, Asha & Ahmed, Ibrahim. (2015). Antimicrobial activity and Cytotoxicity of Ethanolic Extract of Cyperus rotundus L. Am. J. Pharma. Phaceut. Sc. 2. 1- 13. The purpose of the paper was to investigate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) of ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus L (whole plant). The ethanol extract of C. rotundus was tested against four standard bacteria i.e.: two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and two standard fungi species i.e. Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans using the agar plate diffusion method. The cytotoxicity was tested against the Vero cell line using 3- (4, 5- dimethyl thiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The ethanol extract of C.rotundus (whole plant) exhibited inhibitory effects against most of the tested organisms with the zone of inhibition ranging from 19 to 31 mm in length. The largest inhibition zone in the case of bacteria was obtained for the Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus (31 mm) and B. subtilis (30 mm) while in the case of fungi highest inhibition was observed against C. albicans (26 mm). MTT assay verified the safety of the examined extract. In conclusion: This study conducted for C. rotundus (whole plant) proved to have potent activities against antibacterial as well as antifungal activity in vitro.
- Mannarreddy, Prabu & Denis, Maghil & Munireddy, Durgadevi & Ranjani, Pandurangan & Kalaichelvan, Puthupalayam & Thangavelu, & Kaviyarasan, Venkatesan & Devi, Durga. (2017). Cytotoxic effect of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract on human cancer cell lines. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy. 95. 10. 1016/ j. biopha. 2017. 09. 051. The wild weed Cyperus rotundus is commonly used as traditional medicine in different parts of the world. Sequential extraction of C. rotundus rhizome with solvents of different polarity namely hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water were prepared, and the free radical scavenging activity was determined by 1, 1- diphenyl- 2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Based on high antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of C. rotundus rhizome (MRCr) was further investigated for its cytotoxic effect on different human cancer cell lines-breast (MCF- 7), cervical (HeLa), liver (Hep G2), prostate (PC- 3), colorectal (HT- 29) and normal cell line (MCF- 12A) by 3- (4, 5- Dimethylthiazol-2- yl)- 2, 5- Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT) assay evaluated as 50 % inhibition of growth (IC50). Apoptosis cells were analyzed by flow cytometry staining with annexin V- Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate (AF) and propidium iodide (PI). The cellular and nuclear changes were examined under light and fluorescent microscope using 4′, 6′ diamino- 2- phenylindole (DAPI) stain, dual stains of AF/ PI and acridine orange/ ethidium bromide (AO/ EB). The cytotoxic effects on the tested cancer cell lines ranged from 4.52± 0.57 to 9.85± 0.68 μgml (-1). The migration assay showed the inhibitory effect with MRCr. The MRCr showed significant anticancer activity against all the tested cancer cell lines and also protected the non-cancer cells. The anticancer activity suggests further elucidation for the formulation of natural pharmaceutical products in the treatment of cancer.
- Alqaesi, Sulaiman & Latef, Safaa & Al-Shammari, Ahmed. (2019). The cytotoxic activity of local Cyperus rotundus phenolic extract on human breast cancer cell lines. 12. 21 – 30. Background: Cyperus rotundus L. is a herbal plant used worldwide to treat different diseases in traditional medicine, including malignancy. Methods: Purified phenolic compounds of C. rotundus rhizomes had been extracted, and GC-MS analysis of phenolic extract was performed and conducted according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology. The cytotoxic activity of C. rotundus phenolic extract was investigated on various cell lines of human breast cancer (MCF-7, AMJ13, CAL-51) and normal cell line HBL-100 using MTT assay to evaluate IC50. Acridine orange-propidium iodide (AO-PI) stains have been used to investigate the apoptosis effects. Results: Results of GC-MS analysis revealed that the extraction of C. rotundus rhizomes contained six phenolic compounds. C. rotundus phenolic extract displayed a significant cytotoxic efficacy against cancer cells MCF-7, CAL-51, and AMJ-13 with (IC50) of (135.3± 2.887, 218.6± 6.009, and 148.4± 4.619) μg /ml, respectively, but it has a negligible effect on HBL-100 at these concentrations with IC50 of 329.6± 5.196 μg/ml. Conclusion: The presence of anticancer activity in Cyperus rotundus phenolic extract suggested further research in screening these phytochemicals and investigating their cytotoxic activity against various types of cancer cell lines.
- Ramachandran, Kavitha & Sushma, A & Mary, L & Belciya, Maria. (2021). Phytochemical profiling and antioxidant activity of tuber extracts of Cyperus rotundus L. 6. 460- 465. The plant selected for the present investigation was Cyperus rotundus L. The extraction of C. rotundus tubers was made through a sequential extraction method using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol, and water. The extracts were tested for the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, phenols, and terpenoids. Alkaloids, phenols, Tannins, and terpenoids were present in all four extracts of tuber, but the flavonoids were available with petroleum ether alone. Steroids showed their presence only with the water extract. Saponins are found in all the extracts except aqueous tuber extract. While glycosides were identified in the petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts. UV- VIS and FTIR spectra of petroleum ether extract confirmed the presence of many phytochemical compounds. The petroleum ether extract was subjected to GC-MS analysis and the spectrum showed the presence of more than 50 compounds. Antioxidant activity was estimated in terms of the free radical scavenging ability of these extracts by DPPH. While the ethanolic extracts of tubers show significant activity and petroleum ether extract showed moderate activity.
- Simorangkir, Delisma & Masfria, Masfria & Harahap, Urip & Satria, Denny. (2019). Activity Anticancer n-hexane Fraction of Cyperus Rotundus l. Rhizome to Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 7. 3904-3906. 10.3889/oamjms.2019.530. BACKGROUND: Cancer is one of the causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in Indonesia. Failures that often occur in the treatment of cancer primarily through chemotherapy, and synthetic drugs that have side effects include anemia, alopecia, cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic due to low anti-cancer selectivity and unclear carcinogenesis process. Cyperus rotundus L. rhizome is one of the medicinal plants that has potential enough to be developed as an anticancer agent. AIM: The aim of this study was to anticancer activity n-hexane fraction Cyperus rotundus L. rhizomes to breast cancer MCF-7 cell line in vitro.METHODS: Cyperus rotundas L. rhizomes powder was extracted from ethanol by percolation and then fractionated with n-hexane. Phytochemical screening was then carried out. The cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane fraction was determined by observing this extract on MCF-7 cells using the (3- (4, 5- dimethylimidazole- 2- il) -2, 5- diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT). Selectivity index (IS) of normal cells (Vero cells). Cell cycle and apoptosis induction were analyzed by flow cytometry.RESULTS: The result showed that the fraction n-hexane Cyperus rotundas L. rhizome has anticancer activity against breast cancer MCF- 7 cells with the accumulation cell cycle in the G0- G1 phase and through induction of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: The n-hexane fraction Cyperus rotundus L. rhizome has potent anticancer activity.
- Agustini, Sulistyo & Widjajanto, Edi & Rifai, Muhaimin & Haryana, Sofia & Nurdiana, & Lyrawati, Diana & Sukorini, Usi & Lestari, Noviana. (2023). The anti-leukemic activity of Cyperus rotundus L. on human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research. 11. 191- 197. 10. 56499/ jppres22. 1502_ 11. 1. 191. Context: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common form of acute leukemia. Currently, many people use medicinal herbs for the treatment of cancers. Nut grass (Cyperus rotundus L.) is a medicinal plant widely used in conventional medicine due to its role as an anti-cancer. Aims: To evaluate the effect of Cyperus rotundus tuber (CRT) ethanolic extract on cell proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptotic of HL-60 cells. Methods: HL-60 cells line as a model for AML was cultured under the influence of CRT extract concentrations (35.4, 354, and 3540 µg/ mL) for 48 h. Furthermore, the cell was subjected to carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester staining for proliferation, using a CD117 marker for differentiation. Annexin V-FITC and PI for cell cycle and apoptosis. The effect of this herb was studied by flow cytometry. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA (p≤ 0.05) and the Tukey test using SPSS version 16 for Windows. Results: The results showed that the CRT inhibited proliferation activity, differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Conclusions: The data clearly showed the potential anti-cancer activity of CRT on HL-60 cells and suggested that it could help develop promising therapeutic agents for AML treatments.
- Kamala, Arunagiri & Middha, SushilKumar & Gopinath, Chitra & Sindhura, HS & Karigar, Chandrakant. (2018). In vitro Antioxidant Potentials of Cyperus rotundus L. Rhizome Extracts and Their Phytochemical Analysis. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 14. 261. 10. 4103/ pm. pm_ 228_ 17. Background Cyperus rotundus L. (family Cyperaceae), native to India, is a multivalent medicinal plant widely used in conventional medicine. The research reports on bioactive components from C. rotundus L. are scanty. Objective: The objective of the study was to optimize the best solvent system and bioprospect the possible phytochemicals in C. rotundus L. rhizome (CRR). Materials and Methods: The phytochemicals were extracted from the rhizomes of C. rotundus L. by successive Soxhlet technique with solvents of increasing polarity. The resultant extracts were analyzed for their total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), total proanthocyanidin content (TPAC), in vitro antioxidant potential, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The 70 % acetone extract of CRR was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for probable phytochemicals. Results and Discussion: The TPC, TFC, and TPAC estimates ranged from 0.036 ± 0.002 to 118.924 ± 5.946 μg/ mg extract, 7.196 ± 0.359 to 200.654 ± 10.032 μg/ mg extract, and 13.115 ± 0.656 to 45.901 ± 2.295 μg/ mg extract, respectively. The quantities of TPC, TFC, and TPAC were found to be the highest in 70% acetone extract. The 70% acetone and 70% methanol extracts revealed the best radical scavenging effect. GC-MS analysis of CRR extract revealed the presence of a novel compound 1 (2)- acetyl- 3 (5)- styryl- 5 (3)- methylthiopyrazole. Conclusion: The study indicated that 70% acetone and 70% methanol extracts of CRRs can be a potential source of antioxidants.
- Ibrahim, Sabrin & A. Mohamed, Gamal & Khayat, Maan & Zayed, Mohamed & El- Kholy, Amal. (2018). Anti-inflammatory terpenoids from Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Pakistan Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 31. 1449- 1456. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) rhizomes afforded a new nor terpenoid with an unprecedented carbon skeleton, namely cyperalin A (1) and sugetriol triacetate (2). Their structures were identified by using advanced spectroscopic techniques such as UV, IR, 1D (1H and 13C), 2D (1H- 1HCOSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) NMR, and HRESIMS as well as comparison with literature data. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity. Compound 1 displayed the highest inhibitory activity of PGE2, COX-2, and LOX-5 with IC50s 0.22, 1.03, and 1.37 µM, respectively compared to indomethacin (IC50s 0.15, 0.69, and 0.81 μM, respectively). Moreover, 2 demonstrated significant activity with IC50s 0.57 (PGE2), 1.74 (COX-2), and 2.03 (LOX-5) μM.
- Khamees, Amjed & Abdulhussein, Ali & Sahib, Hayder & Fawzi, Hayder. (2018). Anti-angiogenic and Antioxidant Activity of Iraqi Cyperus rotundus Ethanol Extract. International Journal of Pharmacology. 14. 546- 552. 10. 3923/ ijp. 2018. 546. 552. Background and Objective: Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) has been used in medicine for years ago. The study aimed to investigate the possible anti-angiogenic and antioxidant activity and to find the different phytochemicals present in Cyperus rotundus ethanol extract that may have anti-angiogenic activity. Methodology: Qualitative analysis of various secondary metabolites by specific chemical tests was carried out on the ethanol extract. The ex vivo rat aorta ring assay was used to screen the extract for possible anti-angiogenic activity, this assay was also used to determine the dose-response effect of the active extract. Six concentrations of crude extract were tested (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25, and 3.125 µg mL-¹) on rat aortic rings to determine the dose-response curve. The free radical scavenging activity of the extract was determined by 1, 1- Diphenyl- 2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Results: Cyperus rotundus ethanol extract showed significant dose-dependent blood vessel inhibition in comparison to the negative control (p< 0.05). Ethanol extract showed significant free radical scavenging activity. Phytochemical investigation of alcoholic extract indicated the presence of various chemical constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, tannins, carbohydrates, and flavonoids. Conclusion: The anti-angiogenic activity shown by the ethanol extract may be due to the presence of antioxidant compounds.
Recent Research on Cyperus scariosus
- Alam, Md. Asraful & Jahan, Rownak & Rahman, Shiblur & Das, Asish & Rahmatullah, Mohammed. (2011). The antinociceptive and anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanol leaf extract of Cyperus scariosus. Pakistan Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 24. 53- 6. The objective of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanolic leaf extract of Cyperus scariosus. Antinociceptive activity was determined using a model of acetic acid-induced gastric pain in mice and anti-hyperglycemic activity through a glucose tolerance test using glucose-loaded mice. In writhing assays induced by acetic acid, the methanolic leaf extract showed dose-dependent significant pain inhibition compared to the control. The maximum writhing inhibition (46.62 %) was found at a dose of 200 mg/ kg body weight which was less than that of the positive control, aspirin (56.74%) when used at the same dose. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extract was also found to be significant in mice loaded with glucose at doses of 200 and 400 mg/ kg body weight. Maximum tolerance (42.86 %) was shown at 400 mg extract/ kg body weight, which compared favorably with that of glibenclamide at 10 mg/kg body weight (57.62 %). In summary, the methanol extract of C. scariosus leaves has had beneficial effects as a pain reliever and also in reducing the elevated blood glucose level of hyperglycemic mice.
- Kakarla, Lavanya & Katragadda, SureshBabu & Tiwari, AshokK & Kotamraju, KSrigiridhar & Madhusudana, K & Kumar, DAnand & Botlagunta, Mahendran. (2016). Free radical scavenging, α- glucosidase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory constituents from Indian sedges, Cyperus scariosus R.Br and Cyperus rotundus L. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 12. 488. 10. 4103/ 0973- 1296. 191467. Background: Cyperus scariosus R. Br and Cyperus rotundus L are widely used in ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes and other diseases. The early literature, so far, does not indicate the presence of any bioactive principle isolated from these plants. Objective: To identify free radical scavenging, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory principles from these two species.Materials and methods: The bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of active constituents were done by chromatographic techniques. They also evaluated their antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS. The anti-diabetic activity was screened by α- glucosidase and α- amylase assays. Also, the further evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using THP- 1 monocytic cell and in vivo anti-inflammatory activity, was confirmed by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema as a model. Results: The activity-guided isolation led to the isolation of twelve compounds Which are: Stigmasterol (), β- sitosterol (), Lupeol (), Gallic acid (), Quercetin (), β- amyrin (), Oleanolic acid (), β- amyrin acetate (), 4- hydroxyl butyl cinnamate (), 4- hydroxyl cinnamic acid (), Caffeic acid, () and Kaempferol () respectively. Among the isolates, compounds 4 and 5 displayed potent radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 0.43 and 0.067 g/ ml. Compounds 4, 5, and 10 showed significant anti-diabetic activities. while lupeol () showed potent IL- 1 β activity inhibition in THP- 1 monocytic cell and also displayed significant (p< 0.0025) in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. Conclusion: In brief, we isolated twelve compounds from both species. Collectively, our results suggested that aromatic compounds showed good anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic activities. Summary: The study investigates the free radical scavenging, α-glucosidase inhibitory, and anti-inflammatory effects of constituents isolated from Indian sedges viz. C. scariosus and C. rotundus. The results indicated that phenolic compounds displayed potent free radical scavenging activity and alpha-glucosidase inhibition activity. While terpene constituent, Lupeol  showed good IL-1(β) activity inhibition in THP-1 monocytic cells and also displayed significant (p< 0.0025) in vivo anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. However, further studies are required to know the exact molecular mechanism. Abbreviations used: DPPH: 2, 2- Diphenyl- 1- 1- picryl hydroxyl, ABTS: 2, 2- Azinobis- 3- ethyl benzo thiazoline- 6- sulfonic acid, THP- 1: Human leukemia monocytic cell line, IL-1β: Interleukin-1β, IC50- Inhibitory concentration 50%.
- Gilani, Anwar-ul & Janbaz, Khalid & Zaman, M. & Lateef, A. & Tariq, S. & Ahmad, H. R. (1994). Hypotensive and spasmolytic activities of crude extract of Cyperus scariosus. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 17. 145- 149. 10. 1007/ BF02974249. Intravenous administration of hydro-methanolic extract of Cyperus scarious (3– 10 mg/ kg) produced hypotensive and bradycardiac effects. These effects remained unaltered in atropine animals indicating that the cardiovascular effects of the plant extract are not mediated through the activation of muscarinic receptors. In the in vitro studies, it suppressed the spontaneous contractions of guinea-pig paired atria, rat uterus, and rabbit jejunum in a concentration-dependent (0.1–1 mg/ ml) manner. It also inhibited histamine or acetylcholine-induced contractions of guinea pig ileum indicating non-specific spasmolytic action. In rabbit aorta, it inhibited norepinephrine (10 μM) as well as K+ (80 mM)-induced contractions at similar concentrations (0.1–1mg/ml). These data indicate that Cyperus scariosus contains Ca2+ channel blocker-like constituent(s) which may explain the hypotensive effect observed in vivo and the general spasmolytic activity of the plant may explain its folkloric use in diarrhea.
- Rocha, Fernanda & Brandenburg, Margareth & Pawloski, Priscila & Soley, Bruna & Costa, Simone & Meinerz, Cristiane & Baretta, Irineia & Otuki, Michel & Cabrini, Daniela. (2020). Preclinical study of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Cyperus rotundus L. extract (Cyperaceae) in models of skin inflammation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 254. 112709. 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2020. 112709. Ethnopharmacological relevance:
- Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae) is considered one of the most widely distributed plant species in the world, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. In addition, it is commonly used in India, China, and Japan in traditional medicine to treat different diseases, including dermatitis and other skin disorders. Aim of the study: To investigate the topical anti-inflammatory activity of C. rotundus rhizome ethanolic extract in models of acute and chronic dermatitis. Materials and methods: Phytochemical analysis was carried out using High-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/ UV) to determine the presence of quercetin and chlorogenic acid in C. rotundus extract. Topical anti-inflammatory effects of C. rotundus extract were evaluated on arachidonic acid (AA) and 12- O- tetra- decanoylphorbol- 13- acetate (TPA)-induced skin inflammation in mice. Skin biopsies were collected and submitted to histological and enzymatic analysis to evaluate the C. rotundus effect in leukocyte migration into inflamed tissue. The antiproliferative activity of C. rotundus was confirmed by PCNA immunostained cell analysis. Systemic and possible adverse effects of topical treatment with C. rotundus were evaluated by the skin atrophy and same organ weights. In addition, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist mifepristone was used to investigate possible GR-mediated mechanisms of action. Results: The phytochemical analysis shows that C. rotundus ethanol extract contains 45 μg/ g of chlorogenic acid. Topical treatment with C. rotundus extracts reduced ear edema and cellular infiltrate in acute and chronic skin inflammation models. Moreover, mice topically treated with C. rotundus exhibited a decrease in TPA-induced keratinocyte hyperproliferation. Relevantly, topical treatment with C. rotundus did not cause skin atrophy or changes in lymphoid organ weight. The anti-inflammatory effect of C. rotundus was not influenced by the GR antagonist. Conclusion: The results here demonstrate for the first time the topical anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative efficacy of C. rotundus extract, suggesting that the extract could be a potential new therapeutic tool for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders.
- Farrag, Abdel Razik & Abdallah, Heba & Khattab, Amira & Elshamy, Abdelsamed & El Gendy, Abd El Nasser & Mohamed, Tarik & Farag, Mohamed & Efferth, Thomas & Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir. (2019). Antiulcer activity of Cyperus alternifolius about its UPLC- MS metabolite fingerprint: A mechanistic study. Phytomedicine. 62. 10. 1016/ j. phy- med. 2019. 152970. Background: Gastric ulcer is one of the main prevalent gastrointestinal multi-etiological disorders with many associated complications and adverse effects. We aimed to develop safer antiulcer therapies based on methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of tubers and aerial parts from Cyperus alternifolius. Methods: Gastric ulceration was experimentally generated by the administration of single oral doses of indomethacin (30 mg/kg) to fasted rats. The animals received methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of C. alternifolius tuber and methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of aerial parts at two dose levels (50 or 100 mg/ kg). Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was used as a standard anti-ulcer drug. After 4 h, the ulcer number and the total ulcer score were determined and TNF-α was assessed. Also, pathological and histochemical examinations for gastric mucosa were performed. The metabolome heterogeneity of the different extracts was explored using (UPLC- MS) aided by supervised pattern recognition, i.e. orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis (OPLS- DA). A second OPLS-DA model was employed to link the UPLC- MS derived metabolome of the different extracts to their antiulcer activity to identify activity-mediating metabolites. Results- The extracts significantly reduced ulcer number, total ulcer score, and TNF-α content in the stomach. Methanol or ethyl acetate extracts of tubers were most effective even more than ranitidine. In parallel, the histopathological examination showed an improvement in damaged mucosa. A high PAS reaction was observed in the treated groups indicating relief of the mucosal layer. A mechanistic clue of the C. alternifolius antiulcer potential was provided by the identification of its bioactive compounds using OPLS-DA. Both methanol extracts of tubers and aerial parts were enriched in phenolic acids. The ethyl acetate extract of the aerial part was more abundant in two aldehydes. A mechanism of action was postulated based on their reported actions viz. α-carbonic anhydrase inhibition, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity by its antioxidant activity, and downregulation of several inflammatory mediators. Conclusion This is the first study to report on the antiulcer activity of C. alternifolius tubers with the identification of the key bioactive compounds and the mode of action. Future phytochemical and biological evaluations of the identified bioactive compounds are needed to confirm the plant tubers as a safer alternative or adjunct therapy compared to conventional antiulcer drugs.
Recent Research on Cyperus esculentus
- Prakash, N & Ragavan, B. (2009). Phytochemical observation and antibacterial activity of Cyperus esculentus L. Ancient science of life. 28. 16-20. In the present study, various extracts of Cyperus esculentus L. such as acetone, 50% ethanol, chloroform, and petroleum ether were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against several human pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella sp, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Citrobacter freundii, by using disc diffusion method. The activity of the samples was compared with that of standard antibiotics. The qualitative phytochemical analysis was also carried out with all the extracts of the sample. Of all the extracts 50 % ethanol and acetone extract were found to be rich in phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, and glycosides. Acetone extract showed the highest inhibitory activity against S. aureus,pneumoniae, and P.vulgaris. 50 % ethanolic extract showed maximum activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella sp. Chloroform extract maximally inhibited the growth of S.aureus whereas petroleum ether extract showed positive results against Salmonella sp. respectively. All extracts were sensitive to C. freundii.
- Saeed, Marwa & Fernández Ochoa, Álvaro & Saber, Fatema & Sayed, Rabab & Cádiz-Gurrea, María & Elmotayam, Amira & Leyva-Jiménez, Francisco & Segura Carretero, Antonio & Nadeem, Rania. (2022). The Potential Neuroprotective Effect of Cyperus esculentus L. Extract in Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Rats: Extensive Biological and Metabolomics Approaches. Molecules. 27. 7118. 10. 3390/ molecules. 27207118. The present study aims to investigate the phytochemical composition of tiger nut (TN) (Cyperus esculentus L.) and its neuroprotective potential in scopolamine (Scop)-induced cognitive impairment in rats. The UHPLC- ESI- QTOF- MS analysis enabled the putative annotation of 88 metabolites, such as saccharides, amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and flavonoids. Treatment with TN extract restored Scop-induced learning and memory impairments. In parallel, TN extract succeeded in lowering amyloid beta, β-secretase protein expression, and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity in the hippocampus of rats. TN extract decreased malondialdehyde levels, restored antioxidant levels, and reduced proinflammatory cytokines as well as the Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Histopathological analysis demonstrated marked neuroprotection in TN-treated groups. In conclusion, the present study reveals that TN extract attenuates Scop-induced memory impairments by diminishing amyloid beta aggregates, as well as its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-AChE activities.
- Jing, Siqun & Ouyang, Weiqi & Ren, Zhiyan & Xiang, Hengxu & Ma, Zexin. (2013). The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of Cyperus esculentus oil from Xinjiang, China. Journal of the science of food and agriculture. 93. 10. 1002/js. 5927. Cyperus esculentus oil is also known as the new healthcare oil. This study aimed to analyze the fatty acid profile and content of C. esculentus oil by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and to assess the antioxidant activity of C. esculentus oil. These properties were evaluated based on the reducing power, hydroxyl radical and diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging, and a combination of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant experiments.
- Composition analyses showed that C. esculentus oil contained more than 800 g kg−1 unsaturated fatty acid, of which oleic acid accounted for 691.4 g kg−1, linoleic acid accounted for 107.0 g kg−1 and palmitic acid accounted for 158.0 g kg−1. In vitro, results showed that the total antioxidant activity and the scavenging capacity of hydroxyl radicals and diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radicals increased with increasing concentration. The in vitro antioxidant ability increased as the concentration of C. esculentus oil, with 15 mL kg−1 BW Day−1 being established as the optimal dose. Taken together, the results of this study indicate that C. esculentus oil has good antioxidant properties.
- Adewuyi, Adewale & Otuechere, Chiagoziem & Oteglolade, Zaynab & Bankole, Oluwabukola & Unuabonah, Emmanuel. (2015). Evaluation of the safety profile and antioxidant activity of fatty hydroxamic acid from the underutilized seed oil of Cyperus esculentus. Journal of Acute Disease. 4. 10. 1016/ j. joad. 2015. 04. 010. Objective: To evaluate the safety profile and antioxidant activity of fatty hydroxamic acid (FHA) from the seed oil of Cyperus esculentus (C. esculentus). Methods: FHA was synthesized from the seed oil of C. esculentus via a two-step reaction system. The FHA was later subjected to an antioxidant activity test using 2, 2- diphenyl- 1- picyrl hydrazyl assay. Additionally, adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of five rats each and were orally administered with FHA at 0, 5, 15, and 50 mg/kg for seven days. Clinical observations and serum biochemical parameters were assessed to monitor treatment–related adverse effects in the rats. Results: Fourier transform infrared spectra showed that FHA was synthesized from the seed oil of C. esculentus. The antioxidant property of FHA increased as the concentration reduced below 0.05 μg/ mL. The result of oral administration of FHA revealed no adverse effect levels at the dose of 5 mg/ kg/ day. However, the adverse effects seen in rats receiving 15 mg/kg/day (the least observed adverse effect level) were a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity, triglycerides, and creatinine levels. Moderate hyperalbuminemia and hypoalbuminemia resulted in an increased albumin/globulin ratio. These effects might be the result of a physiological response to exposure to a very high level of FHA which is not part of the normal diet and are most likely not toxicologically relevant. Conclusions: C. esculentus has been presented as a potential source of feedstock for the synthesis of a relatively cheap and nontoxic FHA which has antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity.
- Odumosu, Patricia & Raymond, Dashe & Ali, Alice. (2019). TLC PROFILE AND EFFECTS OF TIGER NUT METHANOL EXTRACT ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES. 8. 1268-1278. 10. 20959/ wjpps- 201910- 14886. Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus) also known as chufa sedge, nut grass, yellow nutsedge, edible galingale, water grass, or earth almond is an edible tuber belonging to the Family Cyperaceae. It can be consumed raw, roasted, dried, baked, or as tiger nut milk or oil. Tiger nuts are reported to be rich in nutrients, especially vitamin C, E, and many other phenolic compounds that are antioxidant in nature in addition to having several health benefits. Because of these, the methanol extract was profiled using thin layer chromatography (TLC) for in vitro antioxidant assay and investigations of behavioral studies and enzymatic studies involving catalase, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and total thiol content in Drosophila.
- Biradar, Sandeep & Kangralkar, V.A. & Mandavkar, Y. & Thakur, Megha & Chougule, N. (2010). Antiinflammatory, antiarthritic, analgesic, and anticonvulsant activity of cyperus essential oils. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2. 112- 115. The present study aimed to evaluate the Anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, analgesic, and anticonvulsant activity of Cyperus esculentus Linn. and Cyperus rotundus Linn. Essential oils. The oils were subjected to phytochemical tests and the flavonoids, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, and proteins were found. In India, it has been popularly used for the treatment of wound healing, as an antimicrobial, antidote, antimutagenic, and antidiarrhoeal. In this study, we evaluate the effects of oils in anti-inflammatory (carrageenan-induced), antiarthritic (formaldehyde-induced), analgesic (formalin-induced writhing), and anticonvulsant (MES-produced convulsion). The results showed dose-dependent activity, indicated by the reduction in paw edema in anti inflammatory and antiarthritic activity, and a significant reduction (p< 0.01) in the MES-induced convulsion in comparison to the control. From the literature survey as well as the experimental performed, it can be said that essential oil possesses good Anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, analgesic, and anticonvulsant activities.
- Jing, Si-Qun & Wang, Sai-Sai & Zhong, Rui-Min & Zhang, Jun-Yan & Wu, Jin-Zi & Tu, Yi-Xian & Pu, Yan & Yan, Liang-Jun. (2020). Neuroprotection of Cyperus esculentus L. orientin against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. Neural Regeneration Research. 15. 548. 10. 4103/ 1673- 5374. 266063. Orientin is a flavonoid monomer. In recent years, its importance as a source of pharmacologically active substance is growing rapidly due to its properties such as anti-myocardial ischemia, anti-apoptosis, anti-radiation, anti-tumor, and anti-aging. However, the neuroprotective effects of Orientin on stroke injury have not been comprehensively evaluated. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the neuroprotective capacity and the potential mechanisms of Cyperus esculentus L. orientin (CLO) from Cyperus esculentus L. leaves against ischemia/reperfusion (I/ R) injury using standard orientin as control. For in vitro studies, we treated HT22 cells with CoCl2 as an in vitro ischemic injury model. HT22 cells in the control group were treated with CoCl2. For in vivo studies, we used rat models of middle cerebral artery occlusion, and animals that received sham surgery were used as controls. We found that CLO protected CoCl2-induced HT22 cells against ischemia/reperfusion injury by lowering lipid peroxidation and reactive oxygen species formation as well as decreasing protein oxidation. However, CLO did not reduce the release of lactate dehydrogenase nor increase the activity of superoxide dismutase. Results showed that CLO could decrease neurological deficit score, attenuate brain water content, and reduce cerebral infarct volume, leading to neuroprotection during cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Our studies indicate that CLO flavonoids can be taken as a natural antioxidant and bacteriostatic substance in the food and pharmaceutical industry. The molecular mechanisms of CLO could be at least partially attributed to the antioxidant properties and subsequently inhibiting activation of casepase.
- Olukanni, Olumide & Abiola, Temitope & Olukanni, Adedayo & Ojo, Abosede. (2022). Chemical Composition, In Silico and In Vitro Antimutagenic Activities of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus). Preventive Nutrition and Food Science. 27. 198- 211. 10. 3746/ pnf. 2022. 27. 2. 198. Tigernut, also known as Cyperus esculentus, is considered high in nutritional and medicinal value. The purpose of this study was to determine C. esculentus’s antimutagenic activity. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the nut were analyzed for chemical constituents, antioxidants, ultraviolet-visible, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using standard procedures. The extracts contained a total of 17 major compounds that were docked against human RecQ-like protein 5 (RECQL5) helicase protein. The antimutagenic property of the ethanolic extract in vitro was assessed using the Allium cepa chromosome assay. Onion bulbs were pre-treated with 200 mg/ kg of ethanolic extract of C. esculentus for 24 h and then grown in NaN3 (250 μg/ L) for 24 h; onion bulbs were also first exposed to NaN3 (250 μg/ L) for 24 h before treatment with 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of the ethanolic extract respectively. Standard methods were used to determine the mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations. Results revealed that C. esculentus ethanolic extract contained flavonoids (22.47 mg/ g), tannins (0.08 mg/ g), alkaloids (19.71 mg/ g), glycosides, phenol, and tannin and showed high scavenging activity against 2, 2- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyland H2O2. Docking with RECQL5 showed good binding energies (ΔG> −7) of five compounds in C. esculentus ethanolic extract. The A. cepa assay results revealed a significant (P< 0.05) reduction in chromosomal aberrations and a higher mitotic index in groups treated with the C. esculentus ethanolic extract. The antimutagenic activity of C. esculentus ethanolic extract was attributed to its high levels of phytosterols and phenolic compounds.
Rasa Panchaka of Mustaka
|Rasa (Taste)||Tikta (bitter), Kashaya (astringent), Katu (pungent)|
|Guna (Virtue)||Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)|
|Virya (potency)||Sheeta (cold potency)|
|Vipaka (post-digestion)||Katu (pungent)|
Dosha Karma of Mustaka
Pitta- Kapha Samaka. Pitta Shamaka due to Sheeta Virya, Tikta, Kashaya Rasa. Kapha Shamka because of Katu Viapaka and Tikta, Kashaya rasa.
Karma (Actions) of Mustaka
Sheet Grahi, Jwaraghana, Trishna Hara, Rochaka, Krimighana, Atisara Ghnaa, Pachaka, Deepana, Mutrala, Balya, Medhya, Nadi balya, Lekhana, Stanyajanana, Stanya Shodhana, Kusthaghana, Aartava Janana.
Jwaraghana, Atisaraghna, rochaka, Daha Shamaka, Trishna Nigrehana, Shramahara.
Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication)
Atisara, Aruchi, Jwara, Daha, Trishna, Krimi, Kasa, Swasa, Dourbalya, Visa, Mastishka Dourbalya, Vata rakta, Madatya, Kamla, Halimaka, Rajo rodha, Kandu, Visphota.
Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Mustaka
- Musta and parpata are excellent remedies for fever. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 40/ 48)
- Water boiled with musta, parpata, ushira, Chandana, balaka, and sunthi and cooled should be given to pacify thirst and fever. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3. 145)
- Parpata mixed with musta or sunthi or duralabhā should be given in the form of decoction or cold infusion. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 45)
- Decoction of musta alone should be mixed with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 72)
- Mustaka rhizomes twenty (in number) should be boiled in milk with three times water reduced to milk. It’s intake checks mucus and pain. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 47, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 39/ 60, Chakra Dutta. 130)
- The patient should be given to drink water processed with vacha and prativisa or musta and parpata or haridra and Sunthi. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 22)
- Mustaka is crushed and boiled in equal milk, reduced to one-fourth, when cooled it is mixed with honey and taken. It checks diarrhea with mucus and blood. (Vaidya Manorma .6/ 9)
- Crushed mustaka 2 kg. is cooked in 640 ml milk. Add sufficient water till only milk remains. Then the remaining portions of mustaka are removed and the milk is curdled. Curd obtained alleviates diarrhea and other abdominal disorders. (Vaidya Manorma .6/ 19)
Halimaka: Lauha- bhasma mixed with musta powder should be taken with the decoction of khadira in the case of halimaka. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 8/ 45)
Visarp (Erysipelas): Use of parched grain flour prepared with musta and bhallataka, maksika, devadaru, guduci, and shilajit is efficacious in glandular erysipelas. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 21/ 130)
- In vatarakta predominant in kapha, a decoction of musta, draksha, and haridra mixed with honey should be taken. Similarly, that of Triphala or guduci is useful. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 14)
- Decoction of musta, amalaka, and haridra should be taken with honey, it alleviates vatarakta associated with kapha. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 29/ 78)
Madatya (Alcoholism): Water boiled with musta digests the pathos. It should be used in all types of alcoholism. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 167)
Chal Danta (Loose teeth): Mustaka is the main drug in Mustadi vati. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 66/ 44) useful in the disease.
Kasa (Cough): Sarkaradi formulation should be given mixed with musta and marica in cough caused by pitta associated with kapha. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 90)
Chardi (Vomiting): To control vomiting caused by kapha, powder of sour badara mixed with jambu seeds, karkatasrgi, mixed with musta or duralabha, and mixed with honey should be taken. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 20/ 38)
Trishna (Thirst): In thirst as a complication of visucika, water processed with bhadramusta should be given. (Chakra Dutta. 6/ 91)
Apsmara (Epilepsy): The root of mustaka from the eastern direction should be taken out and pounded. Taken with the milk of a cow having a calf of similar color, it alleviates epilepsy. (Vanga Sena. apasmara. 34)
Abhighaataj Vrana (Accidental wound): One root of mustaka pounded finely with cow ghee is applied as a paste on the wound. (Chakra Dutta. 44/ 53)
Netra Vikara (Eye diseases): Bhadramusta rubbed with goat’s urine is applied as a collyrium. It destroys chronic corneal opacity and redness. (Gada Nigreha. 3. 3. 200)
Bhadramusta is an ingredient in Nagarjuna gutika II. It alleviates blindness and defects of vision. (Gada Nigreha. 3. 3. 299- 302)
Benefits of Mustaka
- The drug Mustaka is tubers obtained from Cyprus rotundus Linn. It is used as an anthelmintic, anti-poisonous, astringent, attenuate, carminative, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, galactagogue, lithontriptic, nervine tonic, sedative (intestinal), stomachic and tonic.
- It is medicinally utilized in appeasing thirst, disorders of the stomach, irritation of the bowels, and febrile and dyspeptic ulcerations.
- Mustaka heals wounds and ulcers and cures abdominal pain.
- Mustaka is also used in scorpion stings.
- Mustaka is an important drug of Ayurveda, and the drug is used in classical formulations and some of the reputed classical formulations viz. Karpuradyarka, Kantakaryavaleha, Chyavanaprasa, Chaturbhadra kvatha-curna, Punarnavadi kvatha- Churna, Kunkunadi taila, Kacchuradi churna-lepa, Kayasthadi vati, Punarnavadi mandura, Karpura rasa and Candanadi louha. Besides classical formulations, the drug Mustaka is commercially exploited for use in various medicinal products in the pharmaceutical field.
- The therapeutic utility of Mustak is wide-ranging and is mainly based on its chief action as Sangrahaka, dipana, and pacana (and amapacana) according to pharmaco-clinical considerations in Indian medicine. The drug Mustaka is prescribed for vomiting, dyspepsia, anorexia, flatulence, diarrhea, chronic dysentery, colitis, excess thirst, worms, and allied ailments of the digestive system.
- Decoction of the drug rhizome mixed with honey is prescribed for diarrhea. Rhizomes of the drug Mustaka are boiled in milk and the liquid (water) is reduced, and this preparation is given for treating diarrhea. A decoction of rhizomes of this plant drug is prepared (by crushing the rhizomes and boiling them in water or milk and reducing it by one-fourth), after mixing honey or other suitable adjuvants, in diarrhea with mucous and blood. The water processed with the drug Mustaka and Parpata (Fumaria indica) is given as a drink to diarrheal patients.
- Rhizomes of the drug Mustaka (2 Kg.) are crushed and cooked in milk (640 ml.) adding sufficient water till only the milk portion remains in the boiling vessel, the remaining quantity of medicated and cooked milk (ksirapaka), after removing crushed (Mustaka) rhizomes, is curdled. This medicated curd (mustaka dadhi) prepared with the drug Mustaka is recommended for use in diarrhea and other abdominal disorders.
- The drug Mustaka is effectively prescribed for fever due to its certain medicinal properties resulting in checking temperature, thirst, burning sensation, weakness, and other symptoms and complications. Mustaka boiled in water is prescribed for fever and the addition of Parpata (and also other drugs needed in different conditions and stages) makes decoction or cold infusion more efficacious in cases of fever. It is useful to alleviate pitta and kapha jara and other diseases in particular. In the condition of alcoholism due to overdrinking (or excess intake of alcohol), the drug Mustaka is prescribed.
- Water is boiled with the rhizome of Mustaka and the same is given orally to all types of alcoholism (madatyaya). Mustaka rhizomes are ground to prepare powder and Lauha bhasma is properly mixed. This preparation is given with the decoction of Khadira (Acacia catechu) in Halimaka (an advanced stage of Kamala or jaundice).
- In glandular erysipelas (granthivisarpa), the use of parched grain flour prepared with Mustaka and other drugs is classically prescribed.
- The powder of rhizome of the drug Mustaka mixed with Karkatasrngi (Pistacia integerrima Stew ex Brandis) or Durabha (Fagonia cretica Linn.) added with honey is taken to check to vomit caused by kapha (kaphacchardi).
- The decoction of rhizomes of Mustaka with Draksha (Vitis vinifera) and Haridra (Curcuma domestica), mixed with honey, is taken orally in vatarakta-predominant kapha.
- Similarly, this preparation was further added with Amalaka (Emblica officinalis (Gaertn.). In the treatment of gout and rheumatic complaints, the rhizome of Mustaka is considered efficacious by using in various forms and as an ingredient of medicinal preparations.
- In the disease of epilepsy (apasmara), the drug is recommended. Roots (rhizome) of Mustaka are suggested to be taken out (collected or uprooted) from the northern direction (Uttara diggatamülam) and pounded which is taken with cow’s milk (milching cow mother having calf of similar color: ‘goh savarnavatsayah’).
- The root of Bhadramustaka rubbed with goat’s urine is applied as netranjana (collyrium) and it cures chronic corneal opacity and redness of the eye. In Nagarjuna gutika prescribed for ophthalmic diseases, Bhadramusta is an ingredient that helps in the alleviation of blindness and defects of vision.
- The root of Mustaka is pounded with cow ghee and this paste is applied on the wound, especially accidental wounds (agantuka or sadyojata Vrana). The drug is externally applied to skin affections as it is good for the skin and the drug is a blood purifier (raktasodhaka). It is useful for various skin ailments (pama, kacchu, and Charma vikara).
- The drug Mustaka is employed as a major component of Mustadi vati which is prescribed for the condition of loose teeth (chala danta) and teeth ailments. Mustadi Taila is prescribed in dental carriers (danta krimi). Sarkaradi formulation mixed with Must and Marica in cough caused by pitta associated with kapha.
- The rhizomes of the drug are ground and paste is applied over the mammal or breast of females (Stana Vriddhi Kara and stanyajanana) to develop the organ and to promote the secretion of latex or lactation (galactagogue).
- In the treatment of abdominal colic (sula and ama dosa janya vikara), Mustadiyoga is prescribed against ama dosha. Mustaksira is given in stage of Ama Atisara. Drug rhizome is useful in general debility and poison or toxic conditions (visa).
- In general, the drug Mustaka possesses various medicinal properties and is recommended to be useful as anthelmintic, aromatic, astringent, demulcent, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, stimulant, and galactagogue medicine. It is given in anorexia, cough diarrhea, fever, and hemophilic conditions. An infusion or water of the drug (processed with roots of Mustaka) is prescribed for frequent oral use for fever, diarrhea, and some other ailments.
Benefits of Mustaka in Different Systems of the Body
- External Uses: Mustaka acts as a good deodorant, corrosive when applied and rubbed on the skin, and as a galactagogue when applied on the breast. In obese patients, powder is used for massage. The local application helps in pruritus and other skin disorders as well as in eye diseases.
- Nervous System: Mustaka acts as a brain and nervine tonic, hence its paste along with milk is given for brain impairment and convulsions.
- Digestive System: Mustaka is the best medicine for the digestive system. Being bitter, it is an appetizer, digestive, astringent, and anthelmintic. Hence it is used in anorexia, vomiting, indigestion, sprue, and diarrhea. A large dose is required for expelling worms. A mixture of mustak, karkatshringi, and ativisha is good for infantile digestive disorders (balsanjivani churna).
- Circulatory System: It is useful in blood disorders by enhancing Raktagni and reducing Kleda.
- Respiratory System: It is found to be useful in respiratory disorders arising out of gastrointestinal pathology.
- Urinary System: Diuretic, hence useful in dysuria, mainly when it is associated with digestive disorders.
- Reproductive System: It is known to promote uterine muscle contractions and is also a breast milk purifier and promoter. Hence it is used in treating many gynecological and post-partum conditions.
- Skin: Mustaka is useful in several skin disorders viz. pruritus, scabies and eczema etc.
- Temperature: Mustaka is one of those very few dravyas which act on all the components of samprapti (pathogenesis) of fever. Even the Ayurvedic texts and senior Ayurvedic physicians say that mustak is the first drug that should be used for any type of fever.
- Satmikaran: Useful as a general tonic and antidote. It is used as a rasayan in the teething period with karkatshringi, ativisha, and pippali.
Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Mustaka
- Churna (Powder): 3- 6 gms
- Kwatha (Decoction): 50- 100 ml
Classical Reference of Mustaka
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 92- 93
मुस्तकं न स्त्रियां मुस्तं त्रिषु वारिदनामकम् |
कुरुविन्दश्च संख्यातोऽपरः क्रोडकसेरुकः |
भद्रमुस्तञ्च गुन्द्रा च तथा नागरमुस्तकः ||
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 93- 94
Action and Properties
मुस्तं कटु हिमं ग्राहि तिक्तं दीपनपाचनम् |
कषायं कफपित्तास्रतृड्ज्वरारुचिजन्तुहृत् ||
अनूपदेशे यज्जातं मुस्तकं तत्प्रशस्यते |
तत्रापि मुनिभिः प्रोक्तं वरं नागरमुस्तकम् ||
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 95, 96
कुटन्नटं दासपुरं बालेयं परिपेलवम् |
प्लवगोपुरगोनर्दकैवर्तीमुस्तकानि च ||
मुस्तावत्पेलवपुटं शुक्राभं स्याद्वितुन्नकम् |
वितुन्नकं हिमं तिक्तं कषायं कटु कान्तिदम् |
Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 41- 45
Properties and actions
मुस्ता चाम्बुधरो मेघो घनो राजकसेरुकः |
भद्रमुस्तो वराहोऽब्दो गाङ्गेयः कुरुविन्दकः ||
जीमूतोऽथ वृषध्वाङ्क्षी जलदोऽथ जलावहः |
नादेयः पिण्डमुस्तोऽन्यो नागरः परिकीर्तितः ||
मुस्ता तिक्तकषायाऽग्निशिशिरा श्लेष्मरक्तजित् |
पित्तज्वरातिसारघ्नी तृष्णाकृमिविनाशिनी ||
Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 46- 47
जलमुस्तं दाशपुरं वानेयं परिपेलवम् |
कैवर्तिमुस्तं शैवालं जलजं जाविताह्वयम् ||
जलजं तिक्तकटुकं कषायं कान्तिदं हिमम् |
मेध्यं वातान्ध्यवीसर्पकण्डूकुष्ठविषापहम् ||
Kaiydeva Nighantu, Aushadhi Varga, 1358- 1359
मुस्ताम्भोदो घनो मेद्योगाङ्गेयी कुरुविन्दकः |
भद्रमुस्तो वराहाब्दः पिवरं पिण्डमुस्तकम् ||
पूर्णकोष्ठो भद्रहंसो प्राच्यो राजकसेरुकः |
मुस्तं तिक्तं हिमं ग्राहि दीपनं पाचनं कटु ||
कषायं कफपित्तास्रतृड्ज्वरारुचिजन्तुजित् |
Raja Nighnatu Pipplyadi Varga, 138- 140
मुस्ता भद्रा वारिदाम्भोदमेघा जीमूतोऽब्दो नीरदोभ्रं घनश्च |
गाङ्गेयं स्याद्भद्रमुस्ता वराही गुञ्जा ग्रन्थिर्भद्रकासी कसेरुः ||
क्रोडेष्टा कुरुविन्दाख्या सुगन्धिर्ग्रन्थिला हिमा |
वन्या राजकसेरुश्च कच्छोत्था पञ्चविंशतिः ||
भद्रमुस्ता कषाया च तिक्ता शीता च पाचनी |
पित्तज्वरकफघ्नी च ज्ञेया सङ्ग्रहणी च सा ||
Raja Nighnatu Pipplyadi Varga, 141- 143
अपरा नागरमुस्ता नागरोत्था नागरादिघनसञ्ज्ञा |
चक्राङ्का नादेयी चूडाला पिण्डमुस्ता च ||
शिशिरा च वृषध्वाङ्क्षी कच्छरुहा चानुकेसरोच्चटा |
सा पूर्णकोष्ठसञ्ज्ञा कलापिनी सागरेन्दुमिता ||
तिक्ता नागरमुस्ता कटुः कषाया च शीतला कफनुत् |
पित्तज्वरातिसारारुचितृष्णादाहनाशनी श्रमहृत् ||
Priya Nighnatu, Shatpushpadi Varga, 143
मुस्तं तिक्तम कटु ग्राही दीपन आम पाचनं |
ज्वारे दाहे अरूचावामे ग्रहणयाञ्च प्रशसिते |
Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 25
मुस्ता संग्राहक दीपनीय पाचनीयानाम् |
क्वाथश्च मुस्तककृत: समधु: सुशीतः |
पीत: प्रवृद्धमतिसारगदं निहन्ति |
मुस्ता तिक्त कषायातिशिशिर: शेष्मरक्तजित् |
पित्तज्वरातिसारघ्नी तृष्णा कृमि विनाशिनी ||
Chakra Dutta, Atisara Chikitsa, 3- 32
पयस्युत्क्काथ्य मुस्ता वा विंशतिं भद्रकाह्नया: |
क्षीरावशिष्ट तत् पीतं हन्यादामं सवेदनम् ||
Chakra Dutta, Vata Vyadhi Chikitsa, 22/ 289- 290
मुस्तक शुद्धि: (तैलकल्पना )
मुस्तकन्तु मनाक् क्षुण्णं काञ्जीके त्रिदिनोषितम् |
पंञ्च पल्लवपानीयस्विन्नमातपशोषितम् ||
गुडाम्बुना सिच्यमानं भर्जयेच्चूर्णयेत ततः |
आजशोभाजनजलैर्भावयेच्चेति शुध्यति ||
Chakra Dutta, Sula Chikitsa, 26- 45
शूलचिकित्सायाम– आमदोषपाचनार्थ मुस्तादियोगः |
Chakra Dutta, Visarpa- Visphota Chikitsa, 53- 18
सर्वविसर्पे ( त्रि दोषजविसर्पातिरिक्त॑ ) मुस्तकादिक्काथ:
मुस्तारिष्ट पटोलानां क्वाथ: सर्वविसर्पनुत् |
Chakra Dutta, Mukha Roga Chikitsa, 56- 39
Ashtanga Hridya, Uttara Tantra, 40/ 48
मुस्ता पर्पटक: ज्वरे
मुस्ता पर्पटकोशीरचन्दन उदीच्या नागरै: |
शृत शीतं जलं दद्यात पिपासा ज्वर शांतये ||
Charka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 3
मुस्तया पर्पट युक्त शुण्ठ्या दुःस्पर्शयापि वा।
पाकयं शीतकषायं वा ||
Bhava Parkasha, Chikitsa Sthana, 1/ 75
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 18/ 90
पित्ते समुस्तमरिच: सकफे |
Gada Nigreha, 3- 3, 200
छागमूत्रेण सड्यूष्टभद्रमुस्ताज्नेन हि।
चिरकालोद्धवं पुष्प रक्तत्वज्ञापि नश्यति ||
……निर्चष्ट वा वारिणा भद्रमुस्ता |
आन्ध्यं सद्यस्तैमिरं हन्ति पुंसामत्युद्गाढनेत्रयोरज्नेन ||
Vanga Sena, Apsmara, 34
उत्तरदिग्गतमुस्तकमूल॑ बुद्ध्या समुद्धत॑ पेयम्।
Charaka samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 24/ 167
जल मुस्तै: श्रृत॑ वापि दद्याद् ‘दोषविपाचनम् ।
एतदेव च पानीयं. सर्वश्रापि. मदात्यये ॥
Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 22/ 14
मुस्तद्राक्षाहरिद्राणां पिंबेतू क्वाथ कफोल्वणे।
Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa, 8/ 45
मारित॑ चायसं चूर्ण मुस्ताचूर्णन संयुतम्।
खदिरस्य कषायेण पिबेदधन्तुं हलीमकम्।।
Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa, 20/ 38
सजाम्बवं वा बदराम्लचूर्ण मुस्तायुतं कर्कटकस्य शृंगीम।
दुरालभा वा मधुसम्प्रयुक्ता लिह्यात कफच्छर्दि विनिप्रहार्यम्।।
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 1. 1. 46
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 1. 1. 62
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 5/ 118
जले दशगुणे साध्यं त्रायमाणा चतुष्पलम्| पञ्च भागस्थितं पूतं कल्कैः संयोज्य कार्षिकैः || रोहिणी कटुका मुस्ता त्रायमाणा दुरालभा| कल्कैस्तामलकी वीरा जीवन्ती चन्दनोत्पलैः || रसस्यामलकानां च क्षीरस्य च घृतस्य च| पलानि पृथगष्टाष्टौ दत्त्वा सम्यग्विपाचयेत् || पित्त रक्तभवं गुल्मं वीसर्पं पैत्तिकं ज्वरम्| हृद्रोगं कामलां कुष्ठं हन्यादेतद्घृतोत्तमम् ||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 6/ 25
दार्वीं सुराह्वां त्रिफलां समुस्तां कषायमुत्क्वाथ्य पिबेत् प्रमेही| क्षौद्रेण युक्तामथवा हरिद्रां पिबेद्रसेनामलकी फलानाम्|| हरीतकी कट्फल मुस्त लोध्रं पाठा विडङ्गार्जुन धन्वनाश्च| उभे हरिद्रे तगरं विडङ्गं कदम्ब शालार्जुन दीप्यकाश्च||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 8/ 99
खर्जूरं पिप्पली द्राक्षा पथ्या शृङ्गी दुरालभा| त्रिफला पिप्पली मुस्तं शृङ्गाटगुडशर्कराः||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 10/ 46
कायस्थां शारदान्मुद्गान्मुस्तोशीरयवांस्तथा| सव्योषान् बस्तमूत्रेण पिष्ट्वा वर्तीः प्रकल्पयेत्|| अपस्मारे तथोन्मादे सर्पदष्टे गरार्दिते| विषपीते जलमृते चैताः स्युरमृतोपमाः||
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 12/ 22- 28
Sushruta Samhita. 5/ 12
Vata Rakta Chikitsa
Sushruta Samhita. Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 8, 9
Maha Tikta, Tikta Ghritam
सप्तपर्णारग्वधातिविषेक्षुर पाठा कटुरोहिण्यमृता त्रिफला पटोल पिचुमर्द पर्पटक दुरालभा त्रायमाणा मुस्ता चन्दन पद्मक– हरिद्रोपकुल्या विशाला मूर्वा शतावरी सारिवेन्द्रयवाटरूषक षड्ग्रन्था मधुक भूनिम्ब गृष्टिका इति समभागाः कल्कःस्यात्, कल्काच्चतुर्गुणं सर्पिः प्रक्षिप्य तद्द्विगुणो धात्री फल रसस्तच्चतुर्गुणा आपस्तदैकध्यं समालोड्य विपचेत्, एतन्महातिक्तकं नाम सर्पिः कुष्ठ विषम ज्वर रक्त पित्त हृद्रोगोन्मादापस्मार गुल्म पिडका सृग्दर गलगण्ड गण्डमाला– श्लीपद पाण्डु रोग विसर्पार्शःषाण्ढ्य कण्डू पामादीञ्छमयेदिति || त्रिफला पटोल पिचुमन्दाटरूषक कटुरोहिणी दुरालभा त्रायमाणाः पर्पटकश्चैतेषां द्विपलिकान् भागाञ्जलद्रोणे प्रक्षिप्य पादावशेषं कषायमादाय कल्कपेष्याणीमानि भेषजान्यर्धपलिकानि त्रायमाणा मुस्तेन्द्रयव चन्दन किराततिक्तानि पिप्पल्यश्चैतानि घृतप्रस्थे समावाप्य विपचेत्, एतत्तिक्तकं नाम सर्पिः कुष्ठ विषम ज्वर गुल्मार्शो ग्रहणी दोष शोफ पाण्डु रोग विसर्प षाण्ढ्य शमनमूर्ध्वजत्रुगतरोगघ्नं चेति ||
Sushruta Samhita. Chikitsa Sthana. 10/ 4
Vata Rakta Chikitsa
क्षुण्णान् यवान्निष्पूतान् रात्रौ गोमूत्रपर्युषितान् महति किलिञ्जे शोषयेत्, एवं सप्तरात्रं भावयेच्छोषयेच्च, ततस्तान् कपालभृष्टान् शक्तून् कारयित्वा, प्रातः प्रातरेव कुष्ठिनं प्रमेहिणं वा सालसारादि कषायेण कण्टकि वृक्षकषायेण वा पाययेद्भल्लातक प्रपुन्नाडावल्गुजार्क चित्रक विडङ्ग मुस्त चूर्ण चतुर्भाग युक्तान्; एवमेव सालसारादि कषाय परिपीतानामारग्वधादि कषाय परिपीतानां वा गवाश्वाशकृद्भूतानां वा यवानां शक्तून् कारयित्वा भल्लातकादीनां चूर्णान्यावाप्य खदिराशन निम्ब राजवृक्ष रोहीतक गुडूचीनामन्यतमस्य कषायेण शर्करामधुमधुरेण द्राक्षायुक्तेन दाडिमामलक वेतसाम्लेन सैन्धव लवणान्वितेन पाययेत्; एष सर्वमन्थकल्पः||
Sushruta Samhita. Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 11
Vata Rakta Chikitsa
Sushruta Samhita. Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 4
Vataja Visarpa Chikitsa
मुस्ताशताह्वासुरदारुकुष्ठवाराहिकुस्तुम्बुरुकृष्णगन्धाः | वातात्मके चोष्णगणाः प्रयोज्याः सेकेषु लेपेषु तथा शृतेषु || यत् पञ्चमूलं खलु कण्टकाख्यमल्पं महच्चाप्यथ वल्लिजं च | तच्चोपयोज्यं भिषजा प्रदेहे सेके घृते चापि तथैव तैले ||
Specific Formulation of Mustaka
- Mustakadi Kwatha for Jwara, Aruchi
- Mustaka Arishta for Ajirna, Grehani
- Mustadi Churna for Kpahaja Shula, Ama Pachaka
- Mustakadi Leha for Kasa, Kshaya
- Mustaka Parpatadi Kwatha for Jwara
Contraindication and Side Effects of Mustaka
- It is advised to avoid the use of Mustaka if you are suffering from Vivandha (constipation), as it may worsen the condition.
- Mustaka can be used in lactation and children under medical supervision.
- For use of Mustaka in pregnancy, consult an Ayurvedic physician.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Cyperus rotundus
- Dwita, Lusi & Dewanti, Ema & Ladeska, Vera & Sediarso, Sediarso & Muntashir, Adnan & Safni, Ulfa & Sari, Rahma. (2018). Neuropharmacological Activity of Nut Grass (Cyperus Rotundus L.) Rhizome Fraction. Pharmacia. 8. 224. 10. 12928/ pharmaciana. v8i2. 8938.
- Mannarreddy, Prabu & Denis, Maghil & Munireddy, Durgadevi & Ranjani, Pandurangan & Kalaichelvan, Puthupalayam & Thangavelu, & Kaviyarasan, Venkatesan & Devi, Durga. (2017). Cytotoxic effect of Cyperus rotundus rhizome extract on human cancer cell lines. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy. 95. 10. 1016/ j. biopha. 2017. 09. 051.
- Kamala, Arunagiri & Middha, SushilKumar & Gopinath, Chitra & Sindhura, HS & Karigar, Chandrakant. (2018). In vitro Antioxidant Potentials of Cyperus rotundus L. Rhizome Extracts and Their Phytochemical Analysis. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 14. 261. 10.4103/pm. pm_ 228_ 17.
- Kabbashi, Ahmed & Eldeen, Seif & Mohammed, A & Almagboul, Asha & Ahmed, Ibrahim. (2015). Antimicrobial activity and Cytotoxicity of Ethanolic Extract of Cyperus rotundus L. Am. J. Pharma. Phaceut. Sc. 2. 1- 13.
- Ibrahim, Sabrin & A. Mohamed, Gamal & Khayat, Maan & Zayed, Mohamed & El-Kholy, Amal. (2018). Anti-inflammatory terpenoids from Cyperus rotundus rhizomes. Pakistan Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 31. 1449- 1456.
- Khamees, Amjed & Abdulhussein, Ali & Sahib, Hayder & Fawzi, Hayder. (2018). Anti-angiogenic and Antioxidant Activity of Iraqi Cyperus rotundus Ethanol Extract. International Journal of Pharmacology. 14. 546- 552. 10. 3923/ ijp. 2018. 546. 552.
- Simorangkir, Delisma & Masfria, Masfria & Harahap, Urip & Satria, Denny. (2019). Activity Anticancer n-hexane Fraction of Cyperus Rotundus l. Rhizome to Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 7. 3904- 3906. 10. 3889/ oamjms. 2019. 530.
- Alqaesi, Sulaiman & Latef, Safaa & Al-Shammari, Ahmed. (2019). The cytotoxic activity of local Cyperus rotundus phenolic extract on human breast cancer cell lines. 12. 21 – 30.
- Puratchikody, Ayarivan & Albert, Jaswanth. (2001). Antibacterial activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 63. 326- 327.
- Masfria, & Permata, Yade. (2018). Total Phenolic Content and Antibacterial Activity of Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus L.) Extract. Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 1. 28- 36. 10. 32734/ idjpcr. v1i1. 202.
- Asaduzzaman, Md & Kabir, Imonul & Biswas, Subir & Molla, Md & Rafe, Md. Rajdoula. (2019). Neurobehavioral activity study of methanolic whole plants extract of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results. 10. 36- 40. 10. 4103/ jpnr. JPNR_ 11- 19.
- Sharma, Sk & Singh, Ajay. (2011). Antimicrobial investigations on rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Der Pharmacia Lettre. 3. 427- 431.
- Manivannan, Rajamanickam & Rajamanickam, Aeganathan. (2016). Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts from Cyperus rotundus Linn rhizomes. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science. 6. 197- 203. 10. 7324/ JAPS. 2016. 60929.
- Jeurkar, Maroti & Kosalge, S. & Sheikh, Dr & Telrandhe, Umesh. (2022). Cyperus rotundus L Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities. Annals of Phytomedicine: An International Journal. 11. 186- 196. 10. 54085/ ap. 2022. 11. 2. 20.
- Khalid, Karzan & Shnawa, Bushra & Abdullah, Shorish. (2017). Antimicrobial Activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. Extracts and Phytochemical Screening. Eurasian Journal of Science and Engineering. 3. 10. 23918/ eajse. v3i2p82.
- Garg, Har Govind. (2017). EVALUATION OF ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF THE PLANT CYPERUS ROTUNDUS IN POLOXAMER-INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC RATS. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 1355- 1363. 10. 20959/ wjpr201710- 9416.
- Okwu, G. & Abanobi, S. & Nnadi, U. & Cosmas, Ujowundu & Chinedu, Ene. (2015). Hypolipidemic Properties of Ethanol Extract of Cyperus rotundus Rhizome. International Journal of Biochemistry Research & Review. 7. 132- 138. 10. 9734/IJBCRR/ 2015/ 17158.
- Zhang, Liang-Liang & Zhang, Li-Fang & Hu, Qing-Ping & Hao, Dong-Lin & Xu, Jian-Guo. (2017). Chemical composition, the antibacterial activity of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus via membrane disruption and apoptosis pathway. Food Control. 80. 290- 296. 10. 1016/ j. food cost. 2017. 05. 016.
- Nagulendran, Kr & Ramalingam, Mahesh & Vava Mohideen, Hazeena. (2007). Preventive role of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes extracts on age-associated changes in glucose and lipids. Pharmacologyonline.
- Chandratre, R & Chandarana, Shubham & Mengi, S. (2011). The lipid-lowering activity of alcoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus. IJRPC.
- Athesh, Kumaraswamy & Divakar, Megha & Brindha, Pemaiah. (2014). Anti-obesity potential of Cyperus Rotundus L. aqueous tuber extract in rats fed on high-fat cafeteria diet. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 7. 88- 92.
- Agustini, Sulistyo & Widjajanto, Edi & Rifa’i, Muhaimin & Haryana, Sofia & Nurdiana, & Lyrawati, Diana & Sukorini, Usi & Lestari, Noviana. (2023). The anti-leukemic activity of Cyperus rotundus L. on human acute myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research. 11. 191- 197. 10. 56499/ jppres22. 1502_ 11. 1. 191.
- Singh, V. & Gunjan, & Ali, M.. (2017). Acyl and Stigmasterol esters from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus L.. Indian Drugs. 54. 34- 39. 10. 53879/ id. 54. 12. 11214.
- Sundaram, M.S. & Sivakumar, T. & Balamurugan, G.. (2008). Anti-inflammatory effect of Cyperus rotundus Linn. leaves on acute and subacute inflammation in experimental rat models. Biomedicine. 28. 302- 304.
- MAKBUL, SHAIKH & Mushir, Ansari & Bano, Humaira & Kumar, B.N. & Jahan, Nasreen. (2019). Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Cyperus rotundus L. Rhizome against Ethylene Glycol and Ammonium Chloride‑Induced Urolithiasis in Male Sprague‑Dawley Rats. 10. 4103/ UROS. UROS_ 136_ 1.
- Sivapalan, Sri Ranjani Sivapalan. (2012). PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PHYTO-CHEMICAL STUDY OF RHIZOME of Cyperus rotundus LINN. International Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Technology (IJPPT), ISSN: 2277 – 3436, Volume- 1, Issue- 2, 2012. 1. 42- 46. 13140/ 2. 1. 2036. 2888.
- Daswani PG, Brijesh S, Tetali P, Birdi TJ. Studies on the activity of Cyperus rotundus Linn. tubers against infectious diarrhea. Indian J Pharmacol. 2011 May; 43 (3): 340- 4. doi: 10. 4103/ 0253- 7613. 81502. PMID: 21713044; PMCID: PMC- 3113391.
- Ying J, Bing X. Chemical constituents of Cyperus rotundus L. and their inhibitory effects on uterine fibroids. Afr Health Sci. 2016 Dec;16(4):1000-1006. doi 10. 4314/ ahs. v16i4. 16. PMID: 28479892; PMCID: PMC- 5398446.
- Taheri Y, Herrera-Bravo J, Huala L, Salazar LA, Sharifi-Rad J, Akram M, Shahzad K, Melgar-Lalanne G, Baghalpour N, Tamimi K, Mahroo-Bakhtiyari J, Kregiel D, Dey A, Kumar M, Suleria HAR, Cruz-Martins N, Cho WC. Cyperus spp.: A Review of Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activity, and Health-Promoting Effects. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021 Sep 7- 2021: 4014867. doi 10. 1155/ 2021/ 4014867. PMID: 34539969; PMCID: PMC- 8443348.
- Taheri Y, Herrera-Bravo J, Huala L, Salazar LA, Sharifi-Rad J, Akram M, Shahzad K, Melgar-Lalanne G, Baghalpour N, Tamimi K, Mahroo-Bakhtiyari J, Kregiel D, Dey A, Kumar M, Suleria HAR, Cruz-Martins N, Cho WC. Cyperus spp.: A Review of Phytochemical Composition, Biological Activity, and Health-Promoting Effects. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021 Sep 7; 2021: 4014867. doi 10. 1155/ 2021/ 4014867. PMID: 34539969; PMCID: PMC- 8443348.
- Lawal OA, Oyedeji AO. Chemical composition of the essential oils of Cyperus rotundus L. from South Africa. Molecules. 2009 Aug 6; 14 (8): 2909- 17. doi 10. 3390/ molecules- 14082909. PMID: 19701133; PMCID: PMC- 6254851.
- Khojaste M, Yazdanian M, Tahmasebi E, Shokri M, Houshmand B, Shahbazi R. Cell Toxicity and inhibitory effects of Cyperus rotundus extract on Streptococcus mutants, Aggregatibacter actino- mycetemcomitans, and Candida albicans. Eur J Transl Myol. 2018 Nov 30; 28 (4): 7917. doi 10. 4081/ ejtm. 2018. 7917. PMID: 30662703; PMCID: PMC- 6317140.
- Shakerin Z, Esfandiari E, Razavi S, Alaei H, Ghanadian M, Dashti G. Effects of Cyperus rotundus Extract on Spatial Memory Impairment and Neuronal Differentiation in Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease. Adv Biomed Res. 2020 Apr 22; 9: 17. doi 10. 4103/ abr. Apr- 173- 19. PMID: 32775310; PMCID: PMC- 7282694.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Cyperus esculentus.
- Odumosu, Patricia & Raymond, Dashe & Ali, Alice. (2019). TLC PROFILE AND EFFECTS OF TIGER NUT METHANOL EXTRACT ON ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER. WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES. 8. 1268-1278. 10. 20959/ wjpps- 201910- 14886.
- Saeed, Marwa & Fernández Ochoa, Alvaro & Saber, Fatema & Sayed, Rabab & Cádiz-Gurrea, María & Elmotayam, Amira & Leyva-Jiménez, Francisco & Segura Carretero, Antonio & Nadeem, Rania. (2022). The Potential Neuroprotective Effect of Cyperus esculentus L. Extract in Scopolamine-Induced Cognitive Impairment in Rats: Extensive Biological and Metabolomics Approaches. Molecules. 27. 7118. 10. 3390/ molecules- 27207118.
- Jing, Si-Qun & Wang, Sai-Sai & Zhong, Rui-Min & Zhang, Jun-Yan & Wu, Jin-Zi & Tu, Yi-Xian & Pu, Yan & Yan, Liang-Jun. (2020). Neuroprotection of Cyperus esculentus L. orientin against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury. Neural Regeneration Research. 15. 548. 10. 4103/ 1673- 5374. 266063.
- Olukanni, Olumide & Abiola, Temitope & Olukanni, Adedayo & Ojo, Abosede. (2022). Chemical Composition, In Silico and In Vitro Antimutagenic Activities of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus). Preventive Nutrition and Food Science. 27. 198- 211. 10. 3746/ pnf. 2022. 27. 2. 198.
- Biradar, Sandeep & Kangralkar, V.A. & Mandavkar, Y. & Thakur, Megha & Chougule, N. (2010). Antiinflammatory, antiarthritic, analgesic, and anticonvulsant activity of cyperus essential oils. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2. 112- 115.
- M, AbdelKarim & A, FathEl- Rahman. (2016). GC-MS ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SUDANESE CYPERUS ESCULENTUS (CYPERACEAE) FIXED OIL. International Journal of Advanced Research. 4. 1712- 1718. 10. 21474/ IJAR01/ 1631.
- Jing, Siqun & Ouyang, Weiqi & Ren, Zhiyan & Xiang, Hengxu & Ma, Zexin. (2013). The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of Cyperus esculentus oil from Xinjiang, China. Journal of the science of food and agriculture. 93. 10. 1002/JSF. 5927.
- Prakash, N & Ragavan, B. (2009). Phytochemical observation and antibacterial activity of Cyperus esculentus L. Ancient science of life. 28. 16- 20.
- Zhang S, Li P, Wei Z, Cheng Y, Liu J, Yang Y, Wang Y, Mu Z. Cyperus (Cyperus esculentus L.): A Review of Its Compositions, Medical Efficacy, Antibacterial Activity, and Allelopathic Potentials. Plants (Basel). 2022 Apr 21; 11 (9): 1127. doi 10. 3390/ plants- 11091127. PMID: 35567128; PMCID: PMC- 9102041.
- De Castro O, Gargiulo R, Del Guacchio E, Caputo P, De Luca P. A molecular survey concerning the origin of Cyperus esculentus (Cyperaceae, Poales): two sides of the same coin (weed vs. crop). Ann Bot. 2015 Apr; 115 (5): 733-45. doi 10. 1093/AOB/MCV- 001. Epub 2015 Feb 17. PMID: 25694438; PMCID: PMC- 4373285.
- Yang X, Niu L, Zhang Y, Ren W, Yang C, Yang J, Xing G, Zhong X, Zhang J, Slaski J, Zhang J. Morpho-Agronomic and Biochemical Characterization of Accessions of Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus) Grown in the North Temperate Zone of China. Plants (Basel). 2022 Mar 29; 11 (7): 923. doi 10. 3390/ plants- 11070923. PMID: 35406903; PMCID: PMC- 9003375.
- Yu Y, Lu X, Zhang T, Zhao C, Guan S, Pu Y, Gao F. Tiger Nut (Cyperus esculentus L.): Nutrition, Processing, Function, and Applications. Foods. 2022 Feb 19; 11 (4): 601. doi 10. 3390/ foods- 11040601. PMID: 35206077; PMCID: PMC- 8871521.
- Kakarla L, Katragadda SB, Tiwari AK, Kotamraju KS, Madhusudana K, Kumar DA, Botlagunta M. Free radical scavenging, α-glucosidase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory constituents from Indian sedges, Cyperus scariosus R. Br and Cyperus rotundus L. Pharmacogn Mag. 2016 Jul; 12 (Suppl 4): S488- S496. doi 10. 4103/ 0973- 1296. 191467. PMID: 27761080; PMCID: PMC- 5068129.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Cyperus scariosus
- Alam, Md. Asraful & Jahan, Rownak & Rahman, Shiblur & Das, Asish & Rahmatullah, Mohammed. (2011). Antinociceptive and anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanol leaf extract of Cyperus scariosus. Pakistan Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 24. 53- 6.
- Gilani, Anwar-ul & Janbaz, Khalid & Zaman, M. & Lateef, A. & Tariq, S. & Ahmad, H. R. (1994). Hypotensive and spasmolytic activities of crude extract of Cyperus scariosus. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 17. 145- 149. 10. 1007/ BF02974249.
- Kakarla, Lavanya & Katragadda, SureshBabu & Tiwari, AshokK & Kotamraju, KSrigiridhar & Madhusudana, K & Kumar, DAnand & Botlagunta, Mahendran. (2016). Free radical scavenging, α-glucosidase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory constituents from Indian sedges, Cyperus scariosus R. Br and Cyperus rotundus L. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 12. 488. 10. 4103/ 0973- 1296. 191467.
- Farrag, Abdel Razik & Abdallah, Heba & Khattab, Amira & Elshamy, Abdelsamed & El Gendy, Abd El Nasser & Mohamed, Tarik & Farag, Mohamed & Efferth, Thomas & Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir. (2019). Antiulcer activity of Cyperus alternifolius about its UPLC-MS metabolite fingerprint: A mechanistic study. Phytomedicine. 62. 10. 1016/ j. phymed. 2019. 152970.
- Rocha, Fernanda & Brandenburg, Margareth & Pawloski, Priscila & Soley, Bruna & Costa, Simone & Meinerz, Cristiane & Baretta, Irinéia & Otuki, Michel & Cabrini, Daniela. (2020). Preclinical study of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Cyperus rotundus L. extract (Cyperaceae) in models of skin inflammation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 254. 112709. 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2020. 112709.
- Kakarla, Lavanya & Katragadda, SureshBabu & Tiwari, AshokK & Kotamraju, KSrigiridhar & Madhusudana, K & Kumar, DAnand & Botlagunta, Mahendran. (2016). Free radical scavenging, α-glucosidase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory constituents from Indian sedges, Cyperus scariosus R. Br and Cyperus rotundus L. Pharmacognosy Magazine. 12. 488. 10. 4103/ 0973- 1296. 191467.
- Kaur, Komalpreet & Utreja, Divya & Sharma, Pooja & Bedi, Seema & Grewal, Inderjit. (2019). Terpenoid from the essential oil of Cyperus scariosus and its biological activity on chili. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 51. 40. 10. 5958/ 0974- 8164. 2019. 00009. 1.
- Farrag, Abdel Razik & Abdallah, Heba & Khattab, Amira & Elshamy, Abdelsamed & El Gendy, Abd El Nasser & Mohamed, Tarik & Farag, Mohamed & Efferth, Thomas & Hegazy, Mohamed Elamir. (2019). Antiulcer activity of Cyperus alternifolius concerning its UPLC- MS metabolite fingerprint: A mechanistic study. Phytomedicine. 62. 10. 1016/ j. phymed. 2019. 152970.
- Kakarla L, Katragadda SB, Botlagunta M. Morphological and Chemoprofile (Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectroscopy) Comparisons of Cyperus scariosus R. Br and Cyperus rotundus L. Pharmacogn Mag. 2015 Oct; 11 (Suppl 3): S439- 47. doi 10. 4103/ 0973-1296. 168975. PMID: 26929579; PMCID: PMC 4745215.
- Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009.
- Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
- Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
- Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009.
- Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
- Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006.
- Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
- Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
- Priya Nighantu by P. V. Sharma, Shatpushpadi Varga Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
- Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy.
- K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
- Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
- Rasa Taringini. 24. 172- 173
- Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sanskrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.
Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)