Eranda- The castor oil plant


Eranda has botanically known as Ricinus communis Linn. a perennial or annual soft wooded small tree that is very famous for its oil i.e castor oil. Eranda is widely cultivated in tropical and warm regions for its Bija (seed), from which oil is extracted. As per Ayurvedic classical texts, two varieties of Eranda have been mentioned Shweta Eranda and Rakta Eranda. Both the varieties are sweet in taste, hot in potency, and destroy or diminish colic, edema, pain in the Sacro-iliac region, headache, fever, herniation, dyspnea, Kapha diseases, distension, cough, skin diseases, and Ama Vata (Rheumatoid arthritis). The leaf of Eranda reduces Vata and Kapha and acts as a vermifuge. It controls difficulty in micturition and increases Pitta and Rakta diseases. Its tender leaf reduces Vata, intestinal growths, and renal colic. Acharaya Charaka “The father of medicine” considered Eranda as the best drug for Vrishya and Vata Hara and its oil is regarded as the best among purgative oils. Recent research revealed that Eranda contains various chemical constituents like ricinoleic acid and an alkaloid ricinine, leaves- ricinine, N- dimethyl ricinine, 3-0 beta- D- glucopyranosides, and 3- 0- beta -D rutinosides of kaempferol and quercetin, arachidic, ricinoleic, palmitic and stearic acids due to which it exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, stimulant, anti-microbial, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, antifungal activity, etc.

Basonym of Eranda

आ समन्तादीरयति क्षिप्ति अपसारयति वायु मिति रारम रार मंड बीजमस्य |

Eranda is a very efficacious drug in Vata vyadhi.

Synonyms of Eranda

  • According to morphology

वर्धमान- आशु वर्धति |

The Eranda plant grows very fast.

उत्तान पत्रक:  – उत्तानं पत्रमस्य |

Leaves of Eranda facing upwards.

गन्धर्व हस्त: – गान्धर्वस्य हस्त इव पत्रं अस्य |

Eranda leaves are palmately lobed and resemble the palm of Gandharva.

पंञ्चाङ्गुल:  – पंचांगुली वद विभक्तं पत्रमस्य |

Leaves of Eranda are palmately lobed.

हस्तिपर्णक: बृहत्‌ पत्रमस्य |

The leaves of Eranda are large.

दीर्घदण्ड- दीर्घ दण्ड पत्रकृन्तमस्य |

Leaves of Eranda has got long petiole.

आमण्ड: – आ समन्तान्मण्डयति भूषयति पुष्पैरिति |

The flower when the blossomed plant appears very attractive.

व्यडम्बक: – विडम्बयति नट मंग भंगेरवायु वेगेन | 

When the wind blows the inflorescence of Eranda appears like dancing.

व्याघ्र पुच्छ: – व्याघ्रस्य पुच्छ इव पुष्पदण्डो अस्य |

The Inflorescence of Eranda is raceme and resembles the tiger’s tail.

चित्रबीज: – चित्रितं बीजमस्य |

Eranda has mottled seeds.

  • According to properties and action

वातारिः – वातविकाराणामरिः शत्रुनशिक इत्यर्थ: |

Eranda is regarded as the best drug in Vata Vyadhi.

शूलशत्रुः – शूलनाशकः ।

Eranda relieves pain.

Regional names of Durva

  • Castor plant (English)
  • Endi, Arand (Hindi)
  • Haralu (Kannada)
  • Chittamanakku, Avanakku (Malayalam)
  • Erendi (Marathi)
  • Rehri, Bherenda (Bengali)
  • Amudamu, Arandama, Amadam (Telugu)
  • Amanakku (Tamil)
  • Diveligo (Gujrati)
  • Ved Anjir (Persian)
  • Khirba (Arab)

Botanical Name

Ricinus communis Linn.

Ricinus means little tick (seeds are resembling), Communis means common.


Euphorbiaceae (Eranda Kula)

Ayurveda reference for Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.)

Scientific classification of Eranda

Kingdom Plantae
Class  Dicotyledons 
Subclass Monochlamydae
Order  Unisexual
Family  Euphorbiaceae
Genus Ricinus
Species  communis

Classification of Eranda as per Charaka and Sushruta

  • Charaka: Bhedniya Mahakshaya, Swedopaga Mahakshaya, Angamarda Prashmana Mahakshaya.
  • Sushruta: Vidarigandhadi Gana.

Eranda’s description in Brihtrayi

Shveta and Rakta, two varieties of Eranda are mentioned by the commentators and they are identified with names occurring in the texts without any uniformity. Where Eranda Dwaya or Eranda and Urubuka have been mentioned as separate entities; separate specification of each is not possible. Botanically two forms of R. communis may be recognized but the possibility of two different generic sources for the two kinds may not be overruled.

Charaka  Shusruta  Vagbhata 

(Ashtang Hridya)

C. S. Su. 2/ 11, 13 S. S. Su. 16/ 6, 22 A. H. Su. 5/ 57, 58
C. S. Su. 4/ 22, 44 S. S. Su. 20/ 14 A. H. Su. 6/ 169
C. S. Su. 13/ 9, 11 S. S. Su. 38/ 3 A. H. Su. 7/ 43
C. S. Su. 14/ 30 S. S. Su. 39/ 3, 6 A. H. Su. 17/ 2, 7
C. S. Su. 25/ 39 S. S. Su. 44/ 4, 74, 76 A. H. Chi. 1/ 112, 139
C. S. Su. 26/ 118, 131 S. S. Su. 45/ 114 A. H. Chi. 3/ 170, 171
C. S. Su. 27/ 284 S. S. Chi. 1/ 26, 112 A. H. Chi. 4/ 10
C. S. Vi. 8/ 146 S. S. Chi. 2/ 93 A. H. Chi. 8/ 12
C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 41 S. S. Chi. 5/ 7 A. H. Chi. 9/ 39
C. S. Chi. 3/ 234, 266 S. S. Chi. 8/ 13, 15 A. H. Chi. 10/ 24
C. S. Chi. 5/ 92, 140, 149 S. S. Chi. 14/ 10 A. H. Chi. 11/ 2
C. S. Chi. 7/ 107 S. S. Chi. 19/ 5. 6, 29, 53 A. H. Chi. 13/ 30, 41, 43
C. S. Chi. 13/ 171 S. S. Chi. 20/ 28 A. H. Chi. 14/ 14, 39, 43, 48, 49, 50, 87, 90
C. S. Chi. 14/ 45 S. S. Chi. 22/ 69 A. H. Chi. 15/ 2, 47
C. S. Chi. 15/ 78 S. S. Chi. 23/ 14, 15 A. H. Chi. 17/ 28, 29
C. S. Chi. 17/ 76 S. S. Chi. 31/ 5 A. H. Chi. 19/ 2, 81
C. S. Chi. 18/ 170 S. S. Chi. 37/ 19, 37, 41 A. H. Chi. 21/ 11, 32
C. S. Chi. 19/ 51 S. S. Chi. 38/ 92, 99 A. H. Chi. 22/ 9, 11, 34, 62
C. S. Chi. 26/ 28, 45, 134, 181, 235, 238 S. S. U. 9/ 11 A. H. Ka. 4/ 5, 7, 28, 31, 37, 55, 65
C. S. Chi. 28/ 83, 113, 114, 159, 195 S. S. U. 18/ 35, 36, 103 A. H. U. 9/ 12
C. S. Chi. 29/ 60, 80, 82, 102, 139, 140 S. S. U. 21/ 6 A. H. U. 13/ 50, 54, 90
C. S. Chi. 30/ 196 S. S. U. 40/ 41, 130 A. H. U. 16/ 11
C. S. Ka. 11/ 10 S. S. U. 42/ 112, 122 A. H. U. 18/ 2, 23, 40
C. S. Si. 3/ 35, 37, 59, 63 A. H. U. 20/ 7
C. S. Si. 4/ 3, 14, 17 A. H. U. 22/ 4, 22
C. S. Si. 7/ 49 A. H. U. 30/ 9
C. S. Si. 8/ 12
C. S. Si. 11/ 31
C. S. Si. 12/ 31

Eranda’s description in Brihtrayi as Vardhman

Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 17/ 19, C. S. Si. 10/ 18

Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Ka. 6/ 3

Rakta Eranda’s description in Brihtrayi

Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 5/ 58

Eranda’s description in Brihtrayi as Buka

Buka and Siva Mallika have been described as synonyms of Vasuka and have also been called Brihad Bakula by some. Based on comments given by Dalhana, Sivamalli appears to be Osmanthus fragrans Lour. popularly known as Bagahula which is an equivalent name for Bakapuspa. It has been found that Silanga or Silang is the more common name given to Osmanthus by Garhvalis. Moreover, it is considered by the local Vaidyas as their Bakula. These data collected by us in the Guptakashi area of Garhwal led us to the identification of Bakapuspa and Sivamalli etc. mentioned in the Ayurvedic literature. Buka has sometimes been considered to be Urubuka (Eranda) by some authors. 

Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 30/ 18

Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 24, A. H. U. 30/ 38

Eranda’s description in Brihtrayi as Panchangula

Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 14/ 41, C. S. Su. 27/ 106

Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 18/ 7, 29, S. S. U. 17/ 29

Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 9

Eranda’s description in Brihtrayi as Tailphala

It is a group name of useful oil- seeds such as Eranda (castor) and Tila (sesame), etc.

Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 3/ 7

Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 11/ 4

Eranda’s description in Brihtrayi as Chitra

Chitra has been used side by side with Urubuka (C. S. Su. 4/ 4), Eranda (C. S. Su. 13/ 9), and Danti (S. S. Ci. 10. 14). It has been identified by the commentators variously with Citrandika (Trichosanthes anguina Linn.), Danti, Dravanti or Eranda. Thus, the name is either multi- meaning indicating plants of the Cucurbitaceae family with striped fruit surface or Euphorbiaceae with variegated seed surface.

Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 4, C. S. Su. 13/ 9, C. S. Chi. 10/ 33, C. S. Ka. 12/ 2

Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 39/ 2, S. S. Chi. 2. 48, 63, S. S. Chi. 10/ 14, S. S. Chi. 14/ 5

Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 1, A. H. U. 26/ 49, 53

Eranda’s description in Brihtrayi as Gandharava Hastaka

Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 4/ 30, S. S. Chi. 33/ 7, S. S. Chi. 38/ 66, S. S. U. 35/ 3

Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 11/ 21

Eranda’s description in Brihtrayi as Urubuka

Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 4, C. S. Su. 14/ 41, C. S. Su. 25/ 49, C. S. 27/ 106, C. S. Chi. 3/ 266, C. S. Chi. 12/ 24, 27, C. S. Chi. 13/ 69, C. S. Chi. 26/ 61, C. S. Ka. 7/ 49

Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 254, 262, S. S. Chi. 5/ 18, 63, S. S. Chi. 38/ 42, S. S. U. 42/ 46, 127, S. S. U. 51/ 50

Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 24/ 18, A. H. Chi. 15/ 57, 62, A. H. U. 16/ 10, A. H. U. 20/ 15

Historical background of Eranda

Eranda Mani Dharana is mentioned in the Vedic literature (Sa. Ara. 12/ 8; K.P 481). Charaka considered Eranda Mula (the root of castor plant) as Vrishya and Vatahara (C. S. Su. 25). Susruta emphasized the role of Eranda Taila in the diet (S. S. Su. 45). Charaka quoted Eranda (Urubuka), Chitra (Danti) and Chitraka (Dravanti or Rakta Eranda) under Bhedaniya group of drugs. Some scholars debate that Eranda Dwaya is not known to Charaka. It is important to note that Caraka mentioned Urubuka (Sveta Eranda) and Panchangula (Rakta/ Citra Eranda) under Saka Varga (vegetables). Therefore, Chitraka of Bhedaniya is not Plumbago zeylanica. It may be Draven (Euphorbia acaulis Roxb. or Croton tiglium) or Rakta Eranda. The later variety of Eranda may be due to the color variation rather than species variation. Vagbhata also quoted Eranda Gwaaya (A. H. Ci. 1/ 139). Ricinus communis leaves yield a highly toxic substance “ricin” for which no specific antidote is available even today. This was used as a poison by the military/army of various countries during World War II.

External morphology of Ricinus communis

  • Habit- Eranda is a tall glabrous annual shrub.
  • Stem- The stem of Eranda is erect, herbaceous above and woody below, cylindrical branched, and solid.
  • Leaf- Alternate, broad, palmately lobed and veined, lobes usually 7-8, simple, serrate, acute, gland-dotted, green or reddish, petiolate with multi- costate reticulate venation.
  • Inflorescence- Terminal raceme inflorescence is present in the Eranda plant.
  • Flower- Monoecious, apetalous, female flowers hypogynous, bracteate, pedicellate and incomplete, male towards the lower portion of the inflorescence and female towards the upper portion. Male flowers have 5 stamens and female flowers have tri- carpellary syncarpous gynoecium with a superior ovary.
  • Fruit- Globose oblong explosively dehiscent, 3-seeded capsule, 1-2 cm long, septicidal dehiscent or splitting into 3 two valved cocci. The fruit when young will be green and turns to an ash color on drying. The fruit is usually covered with short or long fleshy prickles.
  • Seed- Carunculata, oblong, 1 to 1.5 cm long with smooth mottled surface and hard crustaceous Testa. The endosperm part of the seed of Eranda is oily.

Flowering and fruiting time

Autumn season to the spring season.

Distribution of Eranda

It is widely cultivated in tropical regions and naturalized near the inhabitants.

Varieties of Eranda

According to Bhava Parkasha Nighantu, Dhanwantri Nighantu, Shodhala Nighantu, and Kaiydeva Nighantu two varieties of Eranda are mentioned:

  • Shukla Eranda
  • Rakta Eranda

According to Raja Nighantu by Raja Narahari Pandit

  • Shukla Eranda
  • Rakta Eranda
  • Sthula Eranda

Besides the varieties prevalent in castor seeds farming with regional and oil-yield considerations. There are two (textual) varieties of the plant drug viz. red (Rakta Eranda) and white (Shukla Eranda). The stem and leaves of the former variety are of red color, and the oil of red seeds is mostly used. The latter variety i.e., white contains two kinds small and big; and the seeds, leaves, roots, etc. of the small type are considered useful in medicine. According to the age factor, the plants are two types viz. annual and perennial: and the quantity of oil is higher in bigger seeds.

The useful part of Eranda

Root & Seed. 

The root of Eranda: Roots of Eranda will be tough and cylindrical 1.5 to 3.5 cm in diameter. The outer surface consists of closely adhering bark which is slightly wrinkled longitudinally and grayish brown. The transversely cut surface shows a creamish yellow surface with radiating medullary rays, enclosed within a concentric ring of cambium. On breaking thin roots become short pieces while thick roots become fibrous. Roots are having a resinous odor and a slightly acid taste.

Seeds of Eranda: Seeds are oval-shaped, somewhat laterally compressed, up to 1.5 cm in length and 4 to 7 mm in thickness, Surface of the testa is smooth and glossy, brownish gray, more often mottled with dark brown or black. There is a prominent caruncle at one extremity of the seed from which the raphe runs along the ventral surface to the other extremity. The caruncle terminates in a raised Chalaza. The Testa is hard and enclosed in a white oily endosperm. Seeds have a disagreeable odor.

Important phytoconstituent of Eranda

  • Seeds contain fixed oil (45 to 52%), proteins 20%, Starch, Mucilage, Albumin, Ricin, Uric acid, and hydrocyanic acid. The seed hull contains a bitter substance, some resin, pigments, and Ricinine (alkaloid). Ricin is a toxic substance. Root and Root bark contains inorganic materials like potassium, sodium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, iron, aluminum, manganese, and calcium.
  • Leaves contain lysine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, threonine tyrosine, histidine, cysteine, tartaric acid, B-sitosterol, ricinine, gallic acid, and rutin.
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Recent research on Ricinus communis (Eranda)

  • Ricin toxin A chain (RTA) is the cytotoxic component of the dimeric protein, ricin, one of the most potent and deadly plant toxins extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis. RTA has been investigated as a potential candidate for cancer chemotherapy, in the form of immunotoxins, and as a method for depleting macrophages in vivo. These data suggest that i.v. administration of RTA resulted in organ injuries that were associated with inflammation and OS. Alipour M, Pucaj K, Smith MG, Suntres ZE, Toxicity of ricin toxin A chain in rats Drug Chemistry Toxicology. 2012 Sep 5.
  • The present study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activities of various extracts of aerial parts of Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis. The present study provides evidence that Periploca aphylla and Rici-nus communis prove to be potent natural antioxidants and could replace synthetic antioxidants. Igbal J, Zaib S, Farooq U, Khan A, Bibi 1, Suleman S. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Free Radical Scavenging Potential of Aerial Parts of Periploca aphylla and Ricinus communis. ISRN Pharmacol. 20122, 2012: 563267. Epub 2012 Jul 11
  • The present study aimed to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections. Zarai Z, Chobba, Mansour RB, Bakir A, Gharsallah N, Kadri A. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L. In vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties.Rapids Health Diseases, 2012 Aug 13: 11: 102. doi: 10. 1186/ 1476- 51 1X- 1 1- 102.
  • The study was carried out to ascertain the anti-bacterial properties inherent in fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis. The active antimicrobial ingredients in fermented R. communis seeds should be identified while their medicinal value to humans is properly investigated. Jombo GT, Enenebe Aku MN. Anti-bacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis: findings from a preliminary analysis. Niger J Physiology Sci, 2008 Jun-Dec; 23 (12) 55-9.
  • The antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of roots of Ricinus communis (RCRE) along with its bioassay-guided purification was evaluated. Thus R. communis seems to have a promising value for the development of a potent phytomedicine for diabetes. Shokeen P, Anand P, Murali YK, Tandon V. Antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis and its purified fractions. Food Chem Toxicol, 2008 Nov; 46 (11) 3458- 66. Epub 2008 Aug 28.
  • The crude alcoholic extract of root (100 mg/100 gm) showed 72.2% inhibition of carrageenan-induced rat paw edema. The fraction II of the crude alcoholic extract (10 mg /100 gm) produced 65.12% inhibition. Acetylsalicylic acid showed 62.1% inhibition when used in the dose of 30 mg/ 100 gm (Sharma et al., 1969).
  • Fresh leaves protected against liver injury induced by CCl4 in rats while cold aqueous extract provided partial protection (Ind. J. Pharmacol. 1977, 9, 265).
  • Gavage administration of castor oil to rats produced large amounts (5- 6 fold greater than in control) of platelet-activating factor in the duodenum and jejunum but not in the ileum and colon. Intraluminal release of acid phosphate (AP) was also increased (5- 6-fold greater than in control) in the duodenum and jejunum of such rats (British J. Pharmacology. 1989, 96, 872). 
  • Anti-inflammatory effects of root extract investigated against carrageenin-, 5-HT-, dextran-, bradykinin- and PGE1- induced rat hind paw edema. Extract (0.15 g/ kg) given orally two hours before injection of the above phlogistic agents exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity against all the agents except PGE1 (Ind. J. Pharmaco1. 1990, 22, 239).
  • N- Demethyl Ricinine (1.5-12.0 mg/ kg p.o. for 7 days) showed dose-dependent anti-cholestatic and hepatoprotective activities against paracetamol-induced hepatic damage and choleretic activity in rats. An increase in the volume of bile was evidence of choleretic and anti-cholestatic activities, while the hepatoprotective effect was shown by the increase in percent viability of hepatocytes and by reversal of altered SGOT, SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase levels towards normal (Drug Der. Res. 1992, 26, 183).

Rasa Panchaka of Eranda

Rasa (Taste) Madhura (sweet), Katu (pungent), Kashaya (astringent)
Guna (Virtue) Guru (heavy), Snigdha (oily), Teekshna (sharp), Sukshma (micro)
Virya (potency) Ushna (hot potency) 
Vipaka (post-digestion) Madhura (sweet)

Dosha Karma of Eranda

Tridosha Shamaka, Vata Hara due to Ushna Virya and Madhura Vipaka, Kapha Hara because of Ushna Virya and Pitta Hara due to Madhura Vipaka.

Karma (Actions) of Eranda

Krimighna, Kriminih Saraka, Snehana, Hrdya, Sothahara, Kaphaghna, Mutravisodhana, Vrsya, Stanyajanana, Shukra Sadhana, Garbhasayasodhana Balya, Vaya Sthapana, Visaghna, Svedopaga, Kusthaghna, Svedajanana, Jvaraghna.

Karma (Actions) of Eranda’ s different parts (Paryojyanga)

Eranda Moola- Vrsya, Sulahara, Sothahara, Sirapida hara, Jwarahara, Anahahara, Rasanasaka, Kusthaghna.

Eranda Phala- Bhedana, Sulahara, Dipana, Arsoghna, Udarapaha, Krmighna, Mutrakrcchrahara.

The Eranda Patra- Krmighna, Mutradosahara, Bastisulahara.

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Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Eranda

Nadisula, Pakshaghata, Ardita, Kampavata, Grdhrasi, Amavata, Katisula, Parsva Sula, Sandhisotha, Vatarakla, Vatayadhi, Nadi Durbalta, Sirahsula, Angamarda, Udararoga, Sula, Gulma, Agnimandya, Arsa, Krmiroga, Yakarta-Palihakkara, Hrdayasula, Sotharoga, Kasa, Svasa, Mutrakrcchra, Bastisula, Mutravikara, Stana Sotha, Kantha Sotha, Kapha Vata Roga, Vatavikara, Paittika Vikara, Jvara, Sukrameha, Sukra Vikara, Stanyadosa, Yonivyapat, Vrddhiroga, Kustha, Raktavikara, Charmavikara.

Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Eranda’s different parts

  • Erandamula- Sula, Katisula, Basti Sula, Amavata, Gradrasi, Pakshaghata, Sotha, Sirasula, Jwara, Gulma, Anaha, and Kustha.
  • Erandaphala- Malabaddhata, Agnimandya, Arsas, Udara, Mutrakrcchra.
  • Eranda Patra- Krimi, Mutra Dosha, Bastisula.
  • Erandapuspa- Mutradosa

Indications of different varieties of Eranda

  • Rakta Eranda- Swasa, Kasa, Kampa, Arsas, Pandu.
  • Shweta Eranda- Arti, Jwara, Kasa.

Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Eranda

Jwara (Fever)

  • By taking milk cooked with Eranda root one is freed from the fever associated with griping. A similar effect is produced by taking milk cooked with unripe Bilva fruits. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 235)
  • By taking milk cooked with Eranda root or tender Bilva fruit or warm milk one recovers from constipated bowels, diarrhea with blood, and mucus attended with thirst, pain, and tenesmus. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 112)
  • The leaves of Eranda should be placed on the pasted ground and then wrapped on the body of the patient suffering from fever with a burning sensation. Thus, fever and burning sensation are alleviated. When the burning sensation is pacified and cold is experienced, the leaves should be removed. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 785- 786)

Atisara (Diarrhea): 

  • Milk cooked with Eranda root or tender fruits of Bilva is efficacious. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 48)
  • The patient should be given only milk cooked with Eranda. Moreover, gruels processed with Vata-alleviating and appetizing drugs should be served. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 131)
  • Ghee and oil mixture should be given followed by warm milk or that cooked with Eranda root or tender fruits of Bilva. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 38)

Arsha (Piles)

  • Hemorrhoids should be sprinkled with the decoction of the leaves of Vasa, Arka, Eranda, and Bilva. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 44)
  • Castor oil with the decoction of Triphala is a good evacuative remedy. it carries down feces, bile, mucus, and wind and thus destroys piles. (Gada Nigreha. 2. 4. 103)

Kasa (Cough): One should take the alkali of Eranda leaves mixed with Trikatu, oil, and jaggery. The same method, that of Tulasi and Eranda should be used. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 172, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 169)

Vaksha Shool (Chest pain): Eranda root 80 gm should be boiled in water eight times and made into a decoction. This decoction added with Yava Kshara alleviates pain in the chest, heart, and stomach. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 101)

Vivandha (Constipation)

  • Castor oil mixed with a double quantity of Triphala decoction or milk acts as a quick purgative. (Shanrangdhara Samhita. 34/ 20)
  • For purgation, castor oil is the best one (in Udararoga). (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 13/ 12)

Gulma (Abdominal tumor)

  • One suffering from Vatika Gulma should take castor oil mixed with clear wine or milk. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 92, Vrinda Madhava. 30/ 9).
  • Castor oil should be taken with wine, curd water, milk, and meat soup. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 42/ 122)

Shool (Colic)

  • Castor oil mixed with a decoction of Madhuka alleviates Paittika Sula and Gulma. (Chakra Dutta. 26/ 32)
  • One should take the decoction of Sunthi, the root of Bilva and Eranda and Chitraka added with Hingu and rock salt. It always colic instantaneously. (Bhava Parkasha Chiktsa Sthana. 30/ 57)
  • Decoction of Eranda, Methika, and jaggery pacifies all types of abdominal colic. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4/ 507)

Medo Roga (Obesity)

  • To avoid and to treat Medo Roga (obesity), one should take Eranda Patra Kshara (alkali of Eranda leaves) mixed with Hingu. The diet should be rice with scum. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 39/ 21)
  • Eranda Mool smeared with Madhu (honey) is kept overnight in water. By taking this extract (water) the enlarged abdomen is reduced. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 39. 25)

Udara Roga (Abdominal disorder)

  • When the patient regains strength and digestive power, he should be purgated with milk added with Trivrit paste or cooked with Eranda (root). (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 13/ 69)
  • One should use daily for a month or two castor oil alone or mixed with cow’s urine or milk abstaining, during the period, from intake of water. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 10)
  • The patient should be given castor oil mixed with cow urine or milk. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 2)
  • In case Kapha is covered with Vata or Pitta with the same or Vata covered with Kapha and Pitta and the patient is strong he should take castor oil mixed with respective drugs. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 47)
  • Castor oil mixed with (decoction) of Dashamula or decoction of Triphala added with cow’s urine or decoction of Dashamula mixed with cow’s urine alleviates Vadodara, edema, and pain. (Vrinda Madhava. 38/ 2)

Shotha (Oedema)

  • If there is difficulty in passing stool and flatus one should take castor oil mixed with milk or meat soup before the meal. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 28)
  • In edema caused by Vata, the mixture of ghee, oil, and fat or castor oil should be used for a month or a fortnight. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 23/ 11)
  • One should take castor oil mixed with milk or cow urine. By this remnant, Dosa is removed, and edema subsides. (Kashyapa Samhita Purva Khanda. 342)

Shleepada (Filaria); One should take castor oil mixed with cow’s urine or a mixture of ghee, oil, and fat with the decoction of Sunthi keeping on a diet of rice and milk. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 53- 54, Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 30/ 9)

Vrishna Vriddhi (Scrotal enlargement)

  • Castor oil mixed with milk should be taken for a month. (Vrinda Madhava. 40/ 2)
  • By taking castor oil cooked with Bala and mixed with milk one overcomes scrotal enlargement associated with tympanites and colic. (Vrinda Madhava. 40/ 12)

Vatavyadhi (Vataja Disorder)

  • In disorders of Vata, Patralavana is recommended which is prepared as follows- fresh leaves of Eranda, Muskaka, Karanja, Vasa, Putika, Aragvadha, Chitraka, etc. are mixed with salt and pounded in a mortar, then kept in a jar smeared with ghee which is pasted with cow dung and then put in the fire. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 30)
  • One should take castor oil mixed with cow’s urine for a month, this alleviates sciatica and stiffness in the thighs. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 60)
  • The patient with sciatica, by taking gruel cooked with castor seeds, regains his normal movement. (Vanga Sena, Vata. 588)
  • Castor seeds are purified, pounded, and cooked in milk. This ‘Payasa’ (a preparation of milk) is a good remedy for lumbago and sciatica. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 50)
  • In all types of lumbago, one should take castor oil mixed with a decoction of Dasamula or Sunthi. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 63, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 55)
  • By intake of castor oil mixed with an equal quantity of Nirgundi juice, one overcomes Vata situated in the waist and regains health. (Vaidya Manorma. 12/ 8)
  • In Vata situated in faces, castor oil is efficacious. (Ashtanga Hridya chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 62)

Vata Kantaga (Sprained ankle): In Vatakantaka (sprained ankle), frequent bloodletting or intake of castor oil or cauterization with needles is prescribed. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 61)

Vatarakta (Gout)

  • To relieve the pain the paste of linseed or castor seed pounded with milk or Satapuspa should be applied to the part in case of the predominance of Vata. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 140)
  • In the case of plenty of Dosas, one should take castor oil with milk for purgation followed by a diet of milk and rice. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 11)

Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis): 

  • The patient suffering from Amavata, sciatica, and scrotal enlargement should regularly take Haritaki mixed with castor oil. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 11)
  • Lion-like castor oil is the only destroyer of elephant-like Amavata moving in the forest-like body. (Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 50)
  • The part affected should also be sprinkled with the decoction of Eranda. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 28)
  • Paste of Sunthi mixed with a decoction of Eranda root should be cooked in closed- heating. The juice thereof mixed with honey alleviates severe pain caused by Amavata. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 40- 41)

Vrana (Wound): In a wound caused by Vata, it should be covered with the leaves of Eranda, Bhurja, Putika, Ashvabala, and Kasmari. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 113)

Netra Vikara (Eye diseases): Conjunctivitis caused by Vata

  • The eye should be sprinkled with lukewarm goat’s milk cooked with leaf, root, or bark of Eranda or Kantakari root. (Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 9/ 11, Vrinda Madhava. 61. 7, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 63/ 141)
  • Tender leaves and roots of Eranda are pounded and cooked in goat’s milk. It alleviates pain caused by Vatika Abhisyanda instantaneously. Similarly acts the warm lump of parched grain flour. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 16. 10)
  • In Vatika Abhisyanda, an unctuous and hot lump made of leaf, root, and bark of Eranda is wholesome. It destroys Vata and pacifies Abhisyanda. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 13. 25)

Timira (defects of vision): In Timira caused by Vata, castor oil mixed with milk is efficacious. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 17/ 29)

Naktandhya (Night-blindness): The patient should eat tender leaves of Jivanti, Madhavi, Eranda, Sephali, and Satavari. Moreover, ghee processed with leaves of Agastya should be taken. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara tantra. 13. 88- 89)

Eye disease caused by Vatarakta: Root, seed, and root fibers of Eranda are pounded and mixed with cow’s milk. This eye drop alleviates severe Vatarakta. (Gada Nigreha. 3. 3. 126)

Karn Shool (Earache): 

  • Juice of Eranda leaves cooked in closed heating and equal quantity of fresh ginger juice mixed with Madhuka are heated and added with oil and salt. This lukewarm liquid instilled into the ear removes earache instantaneously. (Vanga Sena Karna Roga. 38)
  • Erandadi Taila (Vanga Sena Karna Roga, 57- 58)

Mole: Lime taken at the end of the petiole of Eranda is rubbed on the mole. By this, it bleeds and is dried up. (Gada Nigreha. 4. 10. 87)

Yoni Shool (Vaginal pain)

  • Tampons made of Eranda seeds should be put in the vagina. It relieves vaginal pain. (Gada Nigreha. 6. 6. 8)
  • A cotton swab impregnated with castor oil should be put into the vagina. It relieves pain immediately. Similarly does the paste of Munditika. (Gada Nigreha. 6. 6. 16)

Garbha Dharana (For conception):  For conception, one should take seeds of Eranda and Matulunga pounded with ghee. (Gada Nigreha. 6. 5. 4)

Benefits of Eranda

  • The seeds are a purgative and counter- irritant, they are the antidote to scorpion-sting and fish poison. Taila (oil) from the Beeja (seeds) is Rechaka (purgative). 
  • The leaves are applied to the head for relieving headaches and as a poultice applied to boils.
  • The Patra Swarasa (leaf juice) is given as a Vaamaka Dravya (emetic) in narcotic poisoning. A decoction of the leaves is a purgative, lactagogue, and emmenagogue. 
  • A poultice of the leaves is applied to boils and swellings. The warm leaves, coated with some bland oil, are applied over the abdomen of children to relieve flatulence. 
  • The leaves are applied to the pubic region of women to promote the menstrual flow.
  • The decoction of the roots alone or with the addition of other suitable ingredients drugs is given in various conditions of nervine, joints, and muscular disorders. 
  • The root bark is a powerful purgative. A paste of the roots is applied to toothache.
  • A poultice of the leaves is applied to boils and swellings after oleation as the leaves coated with oil are warmed up and put on lesions. Similarly, the leaves may be applied to swollen breasts during lactation to settle the mammary glands and they are also applied over a guinea-worm sore for extracting the worms.
  • The seeds (containing ricinine, ricin, and a potent vegetable toxin that remains in the oil cake after oil is extracted) are used in various diseases. A paste of the kernel of the seed (after eliminating the embryo) is first boiled in milk and water and a recipe is prepared and given for rheumatism, lumbago and sciatica, and other similar diseases. 
  • Externally, the poultice of the seeds is applied to scrofulous sores, boils and the swellings of gout and rheumatic disorders. 
  • The kernel of the seeds is purgative and useful against the diseases caused by the vitiation of Vata and Kapha humor (dosha).
  • The oil extraction from the seeds (castor seeds), is of mainly two types, one cold method and another, hot method (Sita Taila and Usna Taila Vidhi) firstly the seeds are expressed without heating or boiling-ordinarily to obtain oil, which is colorless or light yellowish, odorless and slightly pungent and secondly, the seeds are boiled in water or little heat is given after expressing the seeds and the quantity of the oil obtained is higher. The castor oil (Eranda Bija Taila) is produced with developed techniques of extraction, collection, refining, etc., and utilized commercially on the scale and it is variously used in medicine and cosmetics.
  • The oil of the seeds is used as purgative, and it is used as an emulsion (with gum acacia) in dysentery (in old pharmaceutics/ dispensing). The oil is little warmed up and topically used for applying over swellings and pains of joints and body organs in different ailing conditions.
  • Various parts of the plant such as seeds, seeds-oil, roots, root bark, flowers, and leaves are used in different forms in the treatment of several diseases; they also enter in several formulations or recipes prescribed for the treatment of various ailments.
  • The herbal drug (source plant is one of the common oil yielding seed-plants) belongs to an important group of medicines and it is generally useful mainly in gout, rheumatism, arthritis, sciatica, neuralgia, paralysis, nervine complaints, headache, edema, heat troubles including angina, abdominal disorders, colic, hemorrhoids, worms, liver and splenic, disorders, Vibandha (Baddhakostha), cough, asthma, spermatorrhoea, seminal diseases, vaginal complaints, general debility, insect-bites poisoning, lactation disorders, skin diseases, throat affections, urinary and calculus complaints, ophthalmic troubles, earache, wounds and ulcers, obesity, fever, corn and warts, trauma and other ailing conditions and recommended in medical texts under suitable modes of administration. 

Benefits of Eranda on different systems of bodies

  • External uses: It alleviates Vata, swelling, and pain, therefore it is used in conditions like backache, sciatica, chest pain, cardiac pain, rheumatic pain, neuralgia, Kustha, uremia, mastitis, flatulence, laryngitis. Warm leaves or oil is locally applied. Carbon particles prepared by castor oil flame mixed with cow ghee and camphor are used to cure conjunctivitis. Foreign bodies are removed by this oil drop. Massaging is done by applying oil to the gymnastic bar.
  • Nervous system: Due to its properties of decreasing Vata, rejuvenating, analgesic, Medhya, and relieving body ache it is used in diseases due to Vata such as hemiplegia, facial palsy, sciatica, tremors as well as headache and body ache. Castor oil is best as a purgative.
  • Digestive system: It is Deepan being Ushna Veerya, Bhedan by Tikshna Guna, and anthelmintic by its property of Snigdha. Therefore, it is used in ascites, abdominal colic, tumors, hepatosplenomegaly, and piles. Oil taken at breakfast cures chronic constipation. To make Eranda Taila palatable, oil is always taken by preparing Phanta (emulsion with hot water). Black masala prepared from castor roots is a very good carminative.
  • Circulatory system: It is useful in cardiac pain as well as in edema.
  • Respiratory system: It is Kapha Ghana by its Ushna and Tikshna property; therefore, it is useful in bronchitis and asthma with a predominance of Kapha. This effect is attributed to the presence of Kapha in the stomach while castor oil effectively removes Kapha by purgation.
  • Urinary system: Mutra Kriccha (Dysuria) and Basti Toda (bladder) pain are relieved by reducing pain and diuretic action.
  • Reproductive system: Aphrodisiac together with the Shodhan property of the drug is a rare combination that is found in castor oil. It is Madhur, Snigdha, aphrodisiac (root also), lactogenic, Shukrashodhan (Tikshna), and uterine Shodhan. Therefore, it is used in conditions of Shukraja Vyadhi (spermatorrhoea), Satnaya Janana Vyadhi (lactogenic disorders), and Yoni Roga (vaginal disorders). It is best in rheumatic arthritis.
  • Satmikaran: Balya and antiaging, antidote and reduces general debility. Paste of tender leaves prepared in water is given in snakebite. Its emetic and purgative effect removes the snake poison from the body. (Paste is locally applied at the site of snake bite). This action can also be seen in aconite and opium poisoning. Juice of castor leaves is given in jaundice where bile is drained into the intestine.
  • Skin: In skin diseases, it is given to Shodhan.
  • Temperature: When Kapha pitta doshas are in the lower part of the intestine (or colon), the purgative property of castor oil helps to relieve the fever.
  • Rasa Dhatu: Castor oil is excreted through breast milk in lactating women. Castor oil massage and castor leaves are applied locally to act as a galactagogue. It reduces excessive thirst and acts as an appetizer.

Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Eranda

  • Mula Kalka (paste) – 3- 6 grams
  • Mula Kwatha (decoction) – 50- 100 ml
  • Patra Kalka (paste) – 10- 20 ml
  • Taila (oil) – 20- 40 ml
  • Bija Churna (powder) – 3- 6 grams

Toxicology of Eranda

The entire plant is strong and contains toxalbumin ricin ( a water-soluble glycoprotein) and a powerful allergen. Seeds also have yellow-colored purgative oil. Toxalbumin is a toxic protein, which resembles a bacterial toxin in action and causes agglutination of red cells with some hemolysis. Ricin blocks the protein synthesis through the inhibition of RNA polymerase, Ricin has a special binding protein that allows it to gain access to the endoplasmic reticulum in gastrointestinal mucosal cells causing severe diarrhea.

An important point to know about Eranda

Unbroken seeds is non-poisonous when swallowed or cooked.

Fatal dose

5 to 10 crushed seeds.

Fatal period

2 to several days.

Treatment of toxicity of Eranda

  • Gastric lavage with plain water.
  • Demulcents to prevent intestinal mucosal irritation.
  • Turpentine hot water fomentation.

In case of severe hemolysis and severe anemia

  • Blood transfusion
  • Hematinic orally
  • Oral steroid administration
  • Symptomatic treatment
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Classical reference of Eranda

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchiadi Varga- 60- 61

Shukal Eranda

शुक्ल एरण्ड आमण्ड श्च चित्रों गन्धर्व हस्तक: |

पंञ्चाङ्गुलो वर्धमानो दीर्घ दण्डो व्यडंबक: |

वातारि तरुण श्चापि रुबकश्च निगद्यते ||

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchiadi Varga- 61- 62

Rakta Eranda

रक्तो अपरो रूबूक: स्यादुरुबको रुबुस्तथा । |

व्याप्रपुच्छश्च वातारिश्च उत्तानपत्रक: ||

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchiadi Varga- 62- 66

एरण्ड युग्मं मधुरमुष्ण गुरु विनाशयेत्‌ |

शूलशोथकटीबस्ति शिरःपीडोदर ज्वरान्‌ |

ब्रध्नश्वासकफानाहकास कुष्ठाममारुतान्‌ ||

एरण्डपत्रं वातघ्न॑ कफकृमि विनाशनम्‌ |

मूत्रकृच्छ हरं चापि पित्तरक्त प्रकोपणम्‌ |

वातार्यग्रदल्म गुल्म बस्तिशूलहरम परम्‌ |

कफवात कृमीन्हन्ति वृद्धि सप्त विधामपि |

एरण्डफलमत्युष्णं गुल्मशूलानिलापहम्‌ |

यकृत्प्लीहोदर अर्शोघं कटुकं दीपनं परम |

तट्वन्मज्जा च विड्भेदी वातश्लेष्मोदरापह: |

Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga, 287- 289

एरण्डस्तु रसे तिक्त:  स्वादूष्णो अनिल नाशन: |

उदावर्तप्लीह गुल्मबस्तिशूलात्रं बृद्धिनुत ||

गुरुवर्तिप्रशमनों विकाराव्शौणितञ्चयेत्‌ |

फलं स्वादु च सक्षारं लघु उष्णं भेदि वातजित्‌ ||

एरण्डयुगल वृष्यं स्वादु पित्त अश्मरीजित ||

एरण्ड मधुरो वृष्यो गुरुष्णो मार्गशोधन: |

कफ पित्तानिलधासकासवर्थ्मश्मनाशन: ||

गुल्मप्लीहोद्रानाहकटीबस्ति शिरो रुजि |

मेह ज्वर आम वातस्त्र शूल शोफेषु शष्यते | 

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 115- 121

Erand Patra

एरण्ड पत्रं वातघ्नं कफ कृमि विनाशनम |

रक्त पित्त प्रकोपि स्यात मूत्र दोषम जयेदपि | 

गुल्मं च वस्तिशूलं च वृद्धिं सप्त विद्यम तथा |

कफवातकृ्मी श्चापि हन्यादेरण्ड पल्लवं || 

Eranda Pushpa

एरण्डपुष्प- एरण्ड पुष्पम वातघ्नं कफपित्त विनाशनम्‌ |

मूत्रदोषहरं ज्ञेय रक्त पित्त प्रकोपणम ||

Eranda Phala

एरण्ड फल- एरण्डफलमत्युष्णं गुल्मशूलानिलापहम्‌ |

यकृतप्लीहोदर अर्शोघनम दीपनंपरम्‌ ||

तद्दन्मज्जा च विड्भेदी वातश्लेष्मोदरापह: ||

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 123

Rakta Eranda

रक्त एरण्ड – रक्त पंञ्चाङ्गुल स्तिक: कषाय: कटुको रसे |

वातश्र्लेष्मश्वासकासकम्पार्शोवर्ध्मनाशन: ||

Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 58

Shveta Eranda and Rakta Eranda

श्वेत एरण्ड- श्वेत एरण्ड:  सकटुकरस्तिक्त उष्णः कफार्ति |

ध्वंस धत्ते ज्वरहरमरुत्कासहारी रसाहः ||

रक्त एरण्ड – रक्तैरण्ड: श्वयथुपचनः वान्तिरक्तार्तिपाण्डु-

भ्रान्ति श्वासज्वरकफहरो आरोचकघ्नो लघुश्च |

Raja Nighantu Shalmalyadi Varga, 58

Sthula Eranda

स्थूल एरण्ड – स्थूलैरण्डो गुणाठ्य: स्याद्रसवीर्य्य विपाकेषु |

Priya Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, 71- 72

एरण्डमूलं वातघ्नं बीजं भेदनरेचनम्‌ ।

तत्पन्रं शोथहारी स्यात शुंगम शूलहरम परम् ||   

एरण्डलैलमहिमं मधुर सतिक स्वादे कषाय कटु सहितं सतीक्ष्णम्‌ ।

दोषम हरत्य धर भागपथा मलञ्च त्वाचीम भवत्य अनल कृत्यावना हच्च ||

Charaka Samhita

एरण्ड मूलं वृष्यवातहराणाम्‌ ॥ (च.सू. २५)

लघुभिन्नशकृत्तिक लांगलक्युरुबूकयोः (शाकम्‌) | (च.सूं. २७)

Sushruta Samhita

एरण्डतैल्म मधुर्मुष्ण तीक्ष्णं कटु कषायानु रसं सूक्ष्म स्रोतीविशोधनं त्वच्य वृष्य॑ मधुर विपाकम |

वयःस्थापनम योनि शुक्र विशोधनमारोग्यमेधाकान्ति स्मृति बलकरं वातकफहरमधोभागदोषहरं च ||

Dhanwantri Nighantu

एरण्ड: तरुण: शुक्लश्च चित्रो गंधर्व हस्तक: | 

पंञ्चाङ्गुलो वर्धमान आमण्डो दीर्घदण्डक: ||

रक्तो अपरो, हस्तपर्णों व्याघ्रो व्याघ्र दलो रुबू: | 

रुबको हस्तिकर्णी च चतुर उतानपत्रक: ||

एरण्डस्तुरसे तिक्त: स्वादृष्णो अनिलनाशन: | 

उदावर्तप्लीहगुल्मबस्तिशूलान्त्रवृद्धिनुत्‌ ||

गुरुर्वातप्रशमनो विकारा शौणिता जयेत्‌ | 

फल स्वादु च सक्षारं लघूष्ण भेदि वातजित्‌ ||

एरण्डयुगलं वृष्य॑ स्वादु पित्तसमीरजित्‌ | (ध. नि)

Shodhala Nighnatu

एरण्डे तरुण: ……. दीर्घदंडक: || 

वातारिशित्रबीजश्च रूबुः स्नेहप्रदस्तथा ||

रक्तैरण्डे हस्तिपर्णी व्याघ्रो व्याघ्रकरो. रुबु: || त्रिपुत्री चोरुबूकश्च चंचुरुत्तानपत्रक: ||

एरण्ड: शोष शूलघ्नो वृष्यो वातहर: परम्‌ || (शो. नि.)

Kaiydeva Nighantu

एरण्डको यक्षहस्तो रुबुरुत्तानपत्रक: || 

पंञ्चाङ्गुलो व्याघ्र पुच्छो वर्द्धमानस्तु चित्रक: |

गन्धर्वस्तरुण: शुक्लोरुबुको दीर्घदण्डक: || 

एरण्डो मधुरो वृष्यो गुरूष्णो मार्गशोधन: |

कफपित्ताविल श्वास कास वर्ध्मश्मनाशन: || 

गुल्मप्लीहोदरानाहकटीवस्तिशिरोरुजि |

मेहज्वरामवाता्रशुलंशोफेषु शस्यते || (कै नि)

एरण्ड पत्रं: वातघ्नं कफ़ क्रिमि विनाशनम्‌ | 

रक्त पित्त प्रकोपि स्यात्‌ मूत्रदोष॑ जयेदपि ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 29/ 83


क्षीरेणेरण्डतैल वा प्रयोगेण पिबेन्नर: |

बहुदोषो विरेकार्थ जीर्णे क्षीरोदनाशन: ||

Vrinda Madhava, 22/ 63, Chakra Dutta, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa, 26/ 55

कटि शूल 

दशमूलकषायेण पिबेद्वा नागराम्भसा |

कटिशूलेषु सर्वेषु तैलमेरण्डसंभवम्‌ ||

Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa, 26/ 50


आमवात गजेन्द्रस्य शरीरवनचारिण: |

एक एव निहन्तायमेरण्डस्रेहकेसरी: ||

Bhava Parkasha


निष्कुष्यैरण्डबीजानि कटुकं दीपनं परम्‌ |

तद्वन्मज्जा च विड्भेदी वातश्लेष्मोदरापहा ||

Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 25

एरण्डमूल वातहराणां श्रेष्ठत्वम्‌ 

एरण्डमूलं वृष्यवातहराणाम्‌ |

Chakra Dutta, 40/ 2

वृद्धिरोगे एरण्ड तैलपानम्‌

सक्षीरं वा पिबेत्‌ तैलं मासमेरण्डसम्भवम्‌ |

Chakra Dutta, Vata Vyadhi chikitsa, 22/ 47

गृध्रसी- कटिशूले एरण्ड फल पायसः 

पिष्टवैरण्डफलं क्षीरे सविश्व वा फल रुबो: |

पायसो भक्षित: सिद्धो, गुध्रसीकटिशूलनुत्‌ ||

Chakra Dutta, 26/ 32

पैत्तिकशूल- गुल्मे एरण्ड तैल प्रयोगः

तैलमेरण्ड्जम वा अपि मधुक्वाथसंयुतम्‌ |

शूलं पित्तोद्धवं हन्याद्‌ गुल्मं पैत्तिकमेव च ||

Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 3/ 235

ज्वर परिकर्तिका एरण्डमूलादि क्षीर पाक

एरण्डमूलोत्व क्वथितं ज्वरात्‌ सपरिकर्ततितात्‌ |

पयो विमुच्यते पीत्वा तद्विल्व शलाटुभि ||

Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 29/ 141, 144

वात रक्ते मधु प्रलेपः

समूल प्रच्छाद ऐरण्डक्वाथे द्विप्रास्थिक पृथक |

घृतं तैल वसा मज्जा च आनूप मृग पक्षिणाम | 

कल्कार्थे जीवनीयानि गव्य क्षीरमयाजकम्‌ |

बिल्व…. दद्याच्छीतेडवतारिते ||

शूलेनैषो अर्दिता अङ्गानां लेप: संधि गते अनिले |

वातरक्तेच्युते भग्रे खनन्जे कुब्जे च शस्यते ||

Chakra Dutta, 40/ 1

वातजवृद्धिविकारे एरण्डतैलम्‌

गुग्गुलु रुबुतैल वा गोमूत्रेण पिबेनन नर: |

वातवृद्धिं निहन्त्याशु चिरकालानुबन्धिनीम्‌ ||

Charaka Samhita, Siddhi Sthana, 12/ 16

एरण्डमूलपलाशादि यापन बस्ति

Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 21/ 816

एरण्डादि योग

Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 182

एरण्डादि वर्त्ति

Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 26/ 57

आमवाते एरण्डबीजक्षीरम

विशोध्यैरण्डबीजानि पिष्ट्वा क्षीरे विपाचयेद्‌ |

तत्पायसं कटीशूले गृध्रस्यां परमौषधम्‌ ||

Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, Shula Adhikara, 30/ 36

शूल निवारणार्थ एरण्ड- शुण्ठी क्वाथम्‌

विश्वम ऐरण्डजं मूल॑ क्वाथयित्वा जल॑ पिबेत्‌ |

हिज़ु सौवर्चलोपेत सद्य: शूलनिवारणम्‌ ||

Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, Stholya Adhikara, 39/ 21

स्थौल्ये एरण्डपत्र क्षारम्‌

क्षारं वातारिपत्रस्य हिंगु युक्तं  पिबेन्नर: |

मेदोवृद्धिविनाशाय भक्त मण्डसमन्वितम्‌ ||

Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, Vriddhi Braghna Adhikara, 43/ 15

जीर्णवातजन्यवृद्धधि रोगे

गुग्गुल्वेरण्डजं तैले गोमूत्रेण पिबेन्नर: |

वातवृद्धि जयत्याशु चिरकालानुबन्धिनीम्‌ ||

Chakra Dutta, 26/ 11

शूल शान्त्यर्थ रुबुकादि क्वाथ:

तद्वबुयव क्वाथो हिंगु सौवर्चलान्वित: |

Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 43/ 16

वातवृद्धौ पिबेत्‌ स्निग्धं यथाप्राप्त विरिचनम |

सक्षीरज पिंबेततैल मासमेरण्ड सम्भवम्‌ ||

Chakra Dutta, 26- 71

शूले एरण्डसप्तक क्वाथ:

Charaka Samhita

लघु भिन्न शकृत्तिक्त॑ लांगक्युरबूकयो (शाकम्‌) |

Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana , 45

ऐरण्डतैल॑ मधुरमुष्णं तीक्ष्णं कटु कषायानुरसं सूक्ष्म

स्त्रोतोतोविशोधन त्वच्य॑ वृष्य॑ मधुरविपाकं वय:स्थापन

योनिशुक्र- विशोधन मारोग्यमेधाकन्तिस्मृतिबलकरम 

वातकफहरमधो भागदोषहरं च |

Dhanwantri Nighantu

रक्तैरण्ड: श्वयथु पवनश्चान्तिरक्तार्तिपाण्डु भ्रान्ति 

श्वासज्वर कफहरो आरोचकघ्नो लघुश्च |

Shodhala Nighnatu

एरण्डो हन्ति वृष्यो गुरुमधुरतरः शोधन: श्वास वर्धमान |

गुल्मानाहोदरार्श:कसनकफमरुत पित्तमेहामवातान्‌ |

हन्यात्‌ पक्‍त्याख्यशूलकृमि पवनरुजान्‌ गुल्म शूलो उर्ध्व वातान्‌ |\

Dhanwantri Nighnatu

श्वेतैरण्ड सकटुकश्तिकत: उष्ण: |

कफार्तिध्वंसं धत्ते ज्वरहरमरुत्कासहारी रसाह: ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 27, 29

विविध रोगाणां एरण्ड तैल (प्रयोग ) पानम्‌

गुल्मोदरबर्नार्श: प्लीहोदावर्तोनिशुक्रगदे |

मेद: कफ संसृष्टे मारुतरक्ते अवगाहे च ||

गुध्नांसपक्षवधादिषु विरेचनारहेषु वातरोगेषु |

वाते विबद्धमार्गे मेद: कफपित्तरक्तन ||

पयसा मांसरसैर्वात्रिफला रस यश मूत्रमदिराभिः |

दोषानुबन्धयोगात्‌ प्रशस्तमेरण्डजं तैलम्‌ ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 30, 31

एरण्डतैल गुणकर्माणि 

तद्वातनुत्स्वभावात्‌ संयोगवशाद्धिरिचनाच्च भवेत्‌ |

मेदो असृक्‌ पित्तकफोन्मिश्चानिलरोगजित्तस्मात्‌ ||

बलकोष्ठव्याधिवशादापञ्च पला भवेन्मात्रा |

मूदुकोष्ठाल्पबलानां सहभोज्य॑ तत्प्रयोज्य स्यात्‌ ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 5/ 92, 93, Chakra Dutta, Gulma Chikitsa, 30/ 9

वातगुल्मे एरण्डतैलम्‌

पिबेदेरण्डजं तैल वारुणीमण्डमिश्रितम्‌ |

तदेव तैल॑ पयसा वातगुल्‍मी: पिबेन्नर: |

श्लेष्मायनुबले पूर्वहित॑ पित्तानुगे परम्‌ ||

Chakra Dutta, Vata Vyadhi Chikitsa, 20/ 44

गृधसी- ऊरुस्तम्भ रोगे एरण्ड तैलम्‌

तैलमेरण्डजंवा अपि गोमूत्रेण पिबेन्नर: |

मासमेकं प्रभोगोज्य॑ गृध्रस्यूरुग्रहापह: ||

Chakra Dutta, 40/ 11

साध्मानशूलसहित वृद्धिरोगे एरण्ड तैलम्‌

तैलमेरण्डजं पीत्वां बलासिद्धपयो अन्वितम्‌ |

आध्मान शूलोपचितामन्त्रवृद्धि जयेन्नर: ||

Chakra Dutta, Kshudra roga Chikitsa, 55- 40

मशकोपचारार्थ एरण्डनालक्षार प्रयोग:

…. रुबुनालस्य चूर्णन घर्षों मशकनाशन: |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 48


शृतमेरण्डमूलेन बालबिल्वेन वा पय: | 

Ashtanga Hridya, Chikitsa, 9/ 38

यमकस्योपरिक्षीरं धारोष्ण॑ वा ‘प्रयोजयेत्‌ |

शृतमेण्णमूलेन बालबिल्वेन वापुन: |

 Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 40/ 131

अथैवरण्ड सिद्धेन पयसा केवलेन वा |

यवागूर्विरेच्चास्य वातघ्ने दीपनै:  कृता ||

Ashtanga Hridya, Chikitsa Sthana, 22/ 62


एरण्डतैल॑ वर्च:स्थे |

Vrinda Madhava, 22/ 60

गृधसी ऊरुस्तम्भे

तैलमेरण्डजं वापि गोमूत्रेण पिबेन्नर: |

मासमेकं प्रयोगोड्य॑ गृधस्यूरुग्रापह: ||

Vanga Sena Vata Vyadhi, 588

अश्नाति यो नर: सिद्धामेरण्डफलमिश्रिताम्‌ |

यवागूं गृध्रसीखिन्न पूर्वामाप्रोत्वसी गतिम्‌ ||

Vrinda Madhava, 22/ 50

गृधसी कटिशूले

विशोध्वैरण्ड बीजानि पिष्ट्वा क्षीरं विपाचयेत्‌ |

तत्‌ पायसं कटीशूले गुध्रस्यां परमौषधम्‌ ||

Vaidya Mnaorma, 12/ 8


एरण्डतैले निर्गुण्डीस्वरसं च पृथक समम |

पीत्वा कटीप्रदेशस्थं वात॑ जित्वा सुखी भवेत्‌ ||

Gada Niogreha, 3- 3- 126

एरण्डमूलं सफलप्ररोहं….क्षीरयुतं गवां च |

स्याद्‌ वातरक्त पहमुग्रेमेतदाश्च्योतन॑ सदभिषजांवदन्ति ||

Vrinda Madhava, 12/ 8

वात कंटके 

रक्तावसेचन कुर्याद्भीक्षणं वातकण्टके |

पिबेदरेण्डेतैल॑ वा दहेत सूचीभिरेव वा ||

Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Adhikara, 1/ 785- 786


ऐरण्डस्य तु पत्राणी लिप्त भूमौ निधायेत्‌ |

दाहादिज्वरिणो देहे तानि पत्राणि धारयेत |

तेन नश्यति दाहो अस्य ज्वरशैवापशाम्यति |

दाहे शान्ते यदा शैत्य॑ तच्च युक्त्या निवारयेत्‌ ॥

Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 1/ 112

शृतमेरण्ड मूलेन बालबिल्वेन वां ज्वरात्‌ |

धारोष्णं वा पय: पीत्वा विबद्धानिलवर्चस: ||

सरक्तपिच्छातिसूतै: सतृद्शूलप्रवाहिकान्‌ ||

Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 17/ 29



पयोविमिश्रं पवनोद्धवेहित॑ वदन्ति पंञ्चाङ्गुल तैलमेव तु |

Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 9/ 99


एरण्डपल्लवेमूले त्वचि वाज॑ पय:  श्रृतम् |

कण्टकार्याश्च मूलेषु सुखोष्ण॑ सेवने हितम्‌ ||

Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Adhikara, 63/ 141

एरण्ड मूलत्वकं शृत माज॑ पयो हितम्‌ |

सुखोष्ण नेत्रयो: सिक्ते वाताभिष्यन्दनाशनम्‌ ||

Sharangdhara Samhita, 3- 13- 25

वाताभिष्यन्दशान्त्यर्थ सिग्धोष्णा पिण्डिका भवेत्‌ |

एरण्डपत्र मूलत्वकनिर्मिता वात नाशिनी ||  

Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 16/ 10

तरुणसुरुबुक पत्रं मूलञ्च विभिद्या सिद्ध मंत्रे क्षीरे | 

वाताभिष्यन्दरुजं सदयो विनिहन्ति सक्तुपिण्डिका चोष्णा ||

Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 13/ 88, 89


घृतेसिद्धानि जीवन्त्या: पल्ल्वानी च भक्षेत | 

तथातिमुक्तकैरण्ड शेफाली अभिरुजानी च ||

भृष्टं घृतं कुम्भ योनि: पत्रे: पाने च पूजितं |

Vrinda Madhava, 25/ 11

आमवात रोगे

एरण्डतैलयुक्तां हरीतकीं भक्षये नरो विधिवत्‌ |

आमानिलार्त्तियुक्तो गुध्रसिवृदव्यर्दितो नित्यम्‌ ||

Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Adhikara, 26/ 28

सेश्चनामवातस्य रुबूकपयसा अपि वा |

Sharangdhara Samhita, 2- 1- 40/ 41

आमवाते पीडायाम्‌

शुण्ठीकल्क॑ विनिक्षिप्य सरैरण्डमूलजै: |

विपचेत्‌ पुटपाकेन तद्रसः क्षौद्रसंयुततः ||

Vrinda Madhava, 40/ 12


तैलमेरण्डजं पीत्वा बालसिद्ध॑ पयोन्वितम्‌ |

आध्मान शूलोपचितमन्त्रवृद्धिं जयेन्नर: ||

Vrinda Madhava 40/ 12

सक्षीरं वा पिबेतैल॑ मासमेरण्ड सम्भवम्‌ |

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 1/ 113

व्रणे पत्र दानार्थम्‌

एरण्डभूर्जपूतीक हरिद्राणां तु वातजे |

पत्रमाश्वबल॑ यच्च काश्मरीपत्रमेव च ||

Vanga Sena, Karna Roga, 38

कर्ण शूल 

एरण्ड पत्र पुटपाक विपचिताम्बु तुल्या्द्रकस्य सलिलं मधुकेन मिश्रम्‌ |

पक्त्वा च तैललबणेन युतं सुखोष्ण नंरुज॑ हरति तत्‌ क्षणमेवदत्तम्‌ ||

Vanga Sena, Karna Roga, 57- 58

एरण्डादितैलम्‌ |

Sharangdhara Samhita, 2- 2- 101

पार्श्व शूल 

एरण्ड मुलम द्विपलम जले अष्ट गुणिते पचेत्‌ |

तत्क्वाथो यावशू काढय पार्श्व हत्‌ कफशूलहा ||

Sharangdhara Samhita, 3- 4- 20

विबन्धे दवा त्रिफला क्वाथेन द्विगुणेन च |

युक्त पीत॑ पयोभिर्वा न॑ चिरेण विरिच्यते ||

Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 42/ 122


एरण्डतैलमथवा मद्यमस्तुपयोरसै: |

Siddha Bhaishjya Mannimala, 4/ 507


एरण्डमेथिकागुडनिर्यूहो हरतिजठरशूलानि |

Kashyapa Samhita, page 342


एरण्डतैल॑ पयसा गवां मूत्रेण वा पिबेत्‌ |

तेनास्य दोष शेषश्च श्वयथुश्च निर्वर्तते ||

Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 22/ 11

वात रक्त 

क्षीरणैरण्डतैलञ्च  प्रयोगेण पिबेन्नर: |

बहुदोषो विरेकार्थ जीर्ण क्षीरोदनाशन: ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 29/ 140

क्षीरपिष्टमुगालेपमेरण्डस्यफलानि च |

कुर्याच्छूलनिवृत्तर्थ शताह्मनिले अधिके || 

Gada Nigreha, 6- 6- 8


योनिशूलहां नारी योन्या प्रक्षिप्य धारयेत |

पिचुमेरण्डबीजं तु परिगृह्म विधानत: ||

Gada Nigreha, 6- 6- 16

एरण्डतैलेन परिप्लुता स्यात्‌ कार्पासपिण्डी यदि योनिमध्ये |

शूलं तदानीं शमयेत्तदीयं संभावकौ मुण्डितिकाकृतो वा ||

Sharangdhara Samhita, 2- 2- 101

पार्श्व शूल 

ऐरण्डमूलं द्विपलं जले अष्टगुणिते मचेत्‌ |

तत्क्वाथो यावशूकाढ्य: पार्थहतकफशूलहा ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 44


वृषार्कैरण्ड बिल्वानां पत्रनोत्सक्वाथश्च सेचयेत्‌ |

Gada Nigreha, 2- 4- 103

एरण्डतैल॑ त्रिफला रसेन च विशोधनम्‌ |

विट्पित्तश्लेष्म वातानुलोमनाद्‌ गुदजापहम्‌ ||

Sharangdhara Samhita, 3- 4- 20

कोष्ठबद्धता निवारणार्थम्‌

एरण्डतैले त्रिफला क्वाथेन द्विगुणेन च।

युक्त पीतं पयोर्भिवा न चिरेण विरच्यते ||

Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 13/ 12

च अग्र्यं मैरण्डं तु विरेचने |

Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Adhikara 39/ 25


यद्वोरुबुक मूलं मधुदिग्ध॑ स्थाप्यते निश॑ सकलम्‌ |

तस्य सलिलस्य: पानाजठरे वृद्धि: शमं याति ||

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 53, 54


मासमेरण्डजं तैल॑ पिबेन्‌ मूत्रेण संयुत्तम्‌ |

पयसौदनमश्नीयान्नागर॑ क्वथितेन च ||

Gada Nigreha, 6- 5- 4


एरण्डस्य तु बीजानि मातुलुङ्गस्य चैव हि |

सर्पिषा परि पिष्टानि पिबेदं गर्भप्रदानि: च ||

Gada Nigreha, 4- 10- 87 (Mashake)

वातारिपत्रवृन्तप्रान्तेनादाय चूर्णकं बहुशः |

निर्धस्तैन मष: प्रस्खुतरुधिरः क्षय॑ याति ||

Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra, 55- 25

एरवारु बीजं   तोयेन पिबेद्‌ वा अलवणीकृतम्‌ |

Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Adhikare, 35- 37

अश्मरी मूत्राघाते मूत्र कृच्छे च 

एरवारु बीजंकल्कश्च श्लक्ष्ण   पिष्टो अक्षसंमित: |

धान्याम्ललवणै: पेयो मूत्रकृच्छ विनाशन: ||

Ashtanga Hridya, Chikitsa Sthana, 11/ 8

एरवारु बीजयश्याह्वदार्वीवां तण्डुलाम्बुना |

तोयेनकल्कं द्राक्षाया: पिबेत्‌ पर्युषितेन वा ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 52, 53

एवरु बीज त्रपुषात्‌ कुसुम्भात्‌ स कुंकुम: स्याद्‌ वृषकश्च पेय: |

द्वाक्षारसेनाश्मरिशर्करासु सर्वेषु कृच्छेषु प्रशस्तः एव: ||

एवरुबीजं मधुकं सदारु पित्ते पिबेत्तण्डुलधावनेन |

Specific Formulation of Eranda

  • Erandadi Taila for Kati Shula, Udara shula
  • Eranda Saptaka Kwatha for Kati Shula, Stana Shula
  • Eranda Phala Payasa for Gradrasi, Kati Shula
  • Erandadi kwatha for Gradrasi, Shula
  • Eranda Ksara for Medo Roga
  • Rasna Panchaka Kwatha 
  • Eranda Paka
  • Sinhanada Guggulu
  • Hingu Triguna Taila
  • Vatari Guggulu
  • Erannda Sunthi Kvatha
  • Erandadi Varti
  • Rubukadi Kwatha

Contraindication and side effects of Eranda

Eranda (mainly Eranda oil) may result in abdominal cramps, nausea, low blood pressure, pelvic congestion, diarrhea, dizziness, etc. It is advised to take Eranda in precise dosage under medical supervision to avoid any kind of adverse effects. Castor oil may also result in skin irritation, skin rashes, itching, swelling, etc. most common side effects reported from the use of Eranda Taila are skin irritation and rashes.l Avoid the use of Eranda during pregnancy and lactation.

Suggestive reading regarding Ricinus communis

  • Doshi, Krunal & Acharya, Rabinarayan & Scholar, (2013). THERAPEUTIC IMPORTANCE OF ERANDA (Ricinus communis Linn.) IN AYURVEDA -A REVIEW. Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci. 22. 281- 295.
  • Jena, Jitendra & Gupta, Ashish. (2012). Ricinus communis Linn: A phytopharmacological review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 4. 25- 29.
  • Singh, Dr & Singh, Bhavna. (2020). A clinical study of some Vishaghana dravya and eranda taila in the management of Amavata. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 6. 855- 869.
  • Jayan, Sreekutty & Deepa, M.s. (2017). PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF LEAVES OF ERANDA (RICINUS COMMUNIS LINN). International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy. 8. 42- 45. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4343. 085240.
  • Worbs S, Köhler K, Pauly D, Avondet MA, Schaer M, Dorner MB, Dorner BG. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases. Toxins (Basel). 2011 Oct; 3 (10): 1332- 72. doi: 10. 3390/ toxins 3101332. Epub 2011 Oct 24. PMID: 22069699; PMCID: PMC3210461.
  • Taur DJ, Waghmare MG, Bandal RS, Patil RY. Antinociceptive activity of Ricinus communis L. leaves. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2011 Apr; 1 (2): 139- 41. doi: 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (11) 60012- 9. PMID: 23569744; PMCID: PMC3609173.
  • Sousa, Natália & Cabral, Glaucia & Aragão, Francisco. (2022). Herbicide tolerance and gene silencing stability over generations in the ricin bio-detoxicated castor bean. Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology. 20. 10. 1186/ s43141- 022-00303- w.
  • Rana, M. & Dhamija, Hitesh & Prashar, B. & Sharma, S. (2012). Ricinus communis L. – A review. International Journal of PharmTech Research. 4. 1706- 1711.
  • Chouhan, Hitendra & Swarnakar, Gayatri & Jogpal, Babita. (2021). MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF RICINUS COMMUNIS: A REVIEW. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 12. 3632- 3642. 10. 13040/ IJPSR. 0975- 8232. 12 (7). 3632- 42.
  • Bhakta, Sonali & Shonkor, & Das, Shonkor. (2015). IN PRAISE OF THE MEDICINAL PLANT RICINUS COMMUNIS L.: A REVIEW. 4. 95- 105.
  • Naz R, Bano A. Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Dec; 2 (12): 944- 7. doi: 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (13) 60004- 0. PMID: 23593573; PMCID: PMC3621469.
  • Mohammed Abdul, Waseem & , Abdul & Hajrah, Nahid & Sabir, Jamal & Al-Garni, Saleh & Sabir, Meshaal & Kabli, Saleh & Saini, Kulvinder & Bora, Roop. (2018). Therapeutic role of Ricinus communis L. and its bioactive compounds in disease prevention and treatment. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 11. 10. 4103/ 1995- 7645. 228431. 
  • Salihu, Bolaji & Gana, A.K. & Apuyor, Benson. (2014). Castor oil plant (Ricinus communis L.): Botany, ecology, and uses. Int J Sci Res. 3. 1333- 1341. 
  • Ahmad, Nesar & Mishra, Anuradha & Ahsan, Farogh & Mahmood, Tarique & Hasan, Noorul & Khan, Zafar. (2016). RICINUS COMMUNIS: PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS AND MARKETED MEDICINAL PRODUCTS. World Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences. 2. 179- 188. 
  • Majumder M, Debnath S, Gajbhiye RL, Saikia R, Gogoi B, Samanta SK, Das DK, Biswas K, Jaisankar P, Mukhopadhyay R. Ricinus communis L. fruit extract inhibits migration/invasion, induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells and arrests tumor progression in vivo. Sci Rep. 2019 Oct 10; 9 (1): 14493. doi: 10. 1038/ s41598- 019-50769- x. PMID: 31601896; PMCID: PMC6787038.
  • Morya, Gyan Chand. (2020). Ayurvedic Approach of Eranda (Ricinus communis Linn.) on Vata Vyadhi for Green Pharmacology.
  • Rodrigues DA, Sales JF, Vasconcelos Filho SC, Rodrigues AA, Guimarães Teles EM, Costa AC, Reis EL, Andrade de Carvalho Silva T, Müller C. Bioindicator potential of Ricinus communis to simulated rainfall containing potassium fluoride. PeerJ. 2020 Jul 1; 8: e9445. doi: 10. 7717/ peerj. 9445. PMID: 32676226; PMCID: PMC7334979.
  • Ramos-Lopez, Miguel & Pérez, Suamy & Rodríguez-Hernández, C & Guevara, Patricia & Zavala, Miguel. (2010). Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY. 9. 1359- 1365. 10. 5897/ AJB10. 1621. 
  • Al-Tamimi FA, Hegazi AE. A case of castor bean poisoning. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2008 Mar; 8 (1): 83- 7. PMID: 21654963; PMCID: PMC3087745.
  • Ramanjaneyulu, Anumula & Anudradha, G & Venkata Ramana, Maparla & Vishnu, A & Reddy, D. & Gopal, N. (2018). Multifarious Uses of Castor (Ricinus communis L.).  
  • Zarai Z, Ben Chobba I, Ben Mansour R, Békir A, Gharsallah N, Kadri A. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties. Lipids Health Dis. 2012 Aug 13; 11: 102. doi: 10. 1186/ 1476- 511X- 11-102. PMID: 22888805; PMCID: PMC3492038.
  • Damayanthie Fernando KP, Thakar AB, Shukla VD. Clinical efficacy of Eranda Muladi Yapana Basti in the management of Kati Graha (Lumbar spondylosis). Ayu. 2013 Jan; 34 (1):36- 41. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 115444. PMID: 24049403; PMCID: PMC3764877.
  • Waris M, Nasir S, Rasule A, Yousaf I. Evaluation of Larvicidal Efficacy of Ricinus communis (Castor) Plant Extract and Synthesized Green Silver Nanoparticles against Aedes albopictus. J Arthropod Borne Dis. 2020 Jun 30; 14 (2):162- 172. doi: 10. 18502/ jad. v14i2. 3734. PMID: 33365344; PMCID: PMC7738929.  
  • Final report on the safety assessment of Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Glyceryl Ricinoleate, Glyceryl Ricinoleate SE, Ricinoleic Acid, Potassium Ricinoleate, Sodium Ricinoleate, Zinc Ricinoleate, Cetyl Ricinoleate, Ethyl Ricinoleate, Glycol Ricinoleate, Isopropyl Ricinoleate, Methyl Ricinoleate, and Octyldodecyl Ricinoleate. Int J Toxicol. 2007; 26 Suppl 3: 31- 77. doi: 10. 1080/ 10915810701663150. PMID: 18080873.
  • Ediriweera ER, Gunathilka HD, Weerasinghe KD, Kalawana OT. Efficacy of traditional treatment regimen on Kati Shoola with special reference to lumbar spondylolisthesis. Ayu. 2013 Jan; 34 (1): 86- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520.115435. PMID: 24049411; PMCID: PMC3764887.
  • Sousa NL, Cabral GB, Vieira PM, Baldoni AB, Aragão FJL. Bio-detoxification of ricin in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds. Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 13; 7 (1): 15385. doi: 10. 1038/ s41598- 017- 15636- 7. PMID: 29133924; PMCID: PMC5684206.
  • Asma MA, Jithesh MK. Ayurveda management of infertility associated with Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome: A case report. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2022 Apr-Jun; 13 (2): 100513. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jaim. 2021. 08. 006. Epub 2021 Dec 31. PMID: 34980524; PMCID: PMC8814398.               
  • Dhiman KS. Shushkakshipaka (dry eye syndrome): A case study. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2011 Jan; 2 (1): 53- 5. doi: 10.4103/ 0974- 7788. 83185. PMID: 21897644; PMCID: PMC3157110.                                  
  • Singh SK, Rajoria K. Ayurvedic approach for management of ankylosing spondylitis: A case report. J Ayurveda Integrated Med. 2016 Mar; 7 (1): 53- 6. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jaim. 2015. 10. 002. Epub 2016 May 24. PMID: 27297511; PMCID: PMC4910574.


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Ayurveda is an Indian system of medicine that is popular since ancient times. Dr. Gupta’s IAFA® has been conducting research studies to find out different phytoconstituents of herbs and their action in the body. Such knowledge acquired by our experts is used in the preparation of medicines and providing the treatment facilities safely and effectively. IAFA® is the provider of safe and effective treatment for a wide range of diseases, mainly allergic diseases all based on Ayurveda.

Dr. Sahil Gupta completed his Bachelor of Ayurveda in Medicine and Surgery (B.A.M.S.) and Master’s Degree in Health Administration (MHA) India. He is Registered Ayurvedic Doctor & Vaidya in India having Registration No. 23780. He is the CEO and founder of IAFA. After completing BAMS, Dr. Sahil Gupta started practicing Ayruveda by giving prime importance to allergic disorders management. He became the first Ayurvedic doctor to cure Food Allergies through Ayurveda. Read More About Dr. Sahil Gupta.

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