On This Page

Introduction

Emerald Stone (Panna Stone – Markat Stone) – The Green King of the Gem World

Since ancient times, Ratna / Upratna (gemstones and semi-precious stones) have been a prized possession of human beings for their luster, beauty, and their healing properties. One such precious gemstone is emerald (Markat/ Taakshrya/ Panna). The word Emerald is derived from the French word- esmaraude which is a variant of the Latin word- esmaragdus. Emerald or Panna is an intense green color variety of Beryl mineral which is considered more valuable even than diamond. In gold mines, it takes approximately 21 years for the formation of Emerald. In ancient Babylon civilization, the Emerald was dedicated to Goddess Venus. In Vedas emerald is known as Panna and in Ayurvedic classical texts like Ras Ratna Sammuchya, Rasa Tarangini it is famous with the name Markat, Taakshrya, etc. Emerald represents faith and immortality. This gemstone acts as an excellent tonic, blood purifier, eye tonic, diuretic, etc. The best quality of Emerald is found in Columbia. Emerald is a variety of minerals beryl (beryllium mineral) with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. It also contains aluminum and silicon. It is colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. This beryllium mineral has a hardness of 7.5- 8 on the 10-point Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Its refractive index is 1.57. Most emeralds exhibit poor resistance to breakage, and they fade away when exposed to heat.

पन्ना हरिद्र  वर्ण का बुधग्रह का रत्न है। पन्ना का अंग्रेजी नाम एमराल्ड ईरानी भाषा का शब्द है। लैटिन में इसे “स्माराण्ड्स” कहते हैं। पन्ना हरी दूर्वा जैसा रंग  का एवं नेत्रों के लिए बहुत प्रिय रत्न हैं। पन्ना का पारदर्शक टुकड़ा अमूल्य एवं दुर्लभ होता है। ऐसा पन्ना हीरा से भी कीमती होता है। क्रौमिक आक्साइड के कारण पन्ना इतना नेत्राकर्षक सुन्दर एवं हरा दिखाई देता है। पन्ना बेरिलियम, अल्यूमिनियम, सिलिका और आक्सीजन का यौगिक है। इसका रासायनिक सूत्र Be3Al2(SiO3)6  है। नागराज वासुकी, दैत्य के पित्त को लेकर आकाश मार्ग से जा रहे थे, रास्ते में गरुड़ ने उन पर हमला कर दिया, तो नागराज ने दैत्य के पित्त को वहीं सुरभित माणिक्य पर्वत की गुफाओं में रखा । वहीं पर पन्ना की खानें उत्पन्न हो गयीं । हरिद्र वर्ण, भारी, सनिग्धं जिसमे रश्मि समूह चारों और फैलता है, चिकना, चमक्दार, और बड़ा इन सात लक्षणों वाला पन्ना ग्राह्य होता है।

Astrological View of Emerald

It is a green gem, whose master is the planet Mercury. This gem is called Panna in Hindi, and Jurmurand in Persian. This gem is produced in places like Himachal, Girnar, East Abu of Sindhudesh, East West, Turkistan, Mahanadi, Son River, etc. In these, both quality and non-quality gems are found. Only big industrialists or kings can wear it. A soft organ and a light-colored emerald like a Sangsirsa flower is the best. Peacock feathers are green like a parrot and emerald colored like a paddy field or neem leaf, especially bloom. An emerald-like green water should be worn by a Kshatriya, an emerald with feathers of a star should be worn by a Vaishya, a Brahmin with a color similar to that of a head flower, and an emerald similar to a peacock feather should be worn by a Shudra. Good luster and smooth, clean, good ghat and green colored emerald is of quality. When Moon and Mercury come for Virgo, they should be adorned with mantras and worn. The emerald which appears green when placed on the cloth in the sunlight, enhances intelligence, body, and strength. By wearing this, all the obstacles of magic, sorcery, wealth, family growth, snake ghosts, etc. are removed and there are no defects in dreams. Before wearing the Emerald stone, it should be tested. Keeping a glass pane on the eyes gives heat. It melts when kept on fire. Rubbing suppresses the aura. There is a feeling of heaviness when held in the hand. Tona Panna is contaminated. The one who loses the happiness of the father is guilty of double page. An emerald with a crisp rind is the culprit. The emerald is tainted with a dull complexion. An emerald having a Madhuk Mavind defect causes the death of parents. Swarnakanti Panna Defect, the destroyer of happiness, etc. are the defects of Panna. Flawless emerald is cool when applied to bright shining eyes. Feels light on hand. Emerald becomes shinier when it is ground. The cost of a flawless five-inch emerald is worth fifty lakhs. Like other gems, an emerald also cures many diseases and troubles. Emerald stone is used to pacify the planet Mercury. Wearing an ornament in a ring increases wealth and removes ghosts, insanity, epilepsy, witchcraft, etc. In the form of medicine, it destroys diseases like fever, diarrhea, typhus, vomiting, poison, asthma, etc.

यह हरे रंग की मणि होती है। जिसका स्वामी बुध ग्रह है । इस मणि रत्न को हिन्दी में पन्ना, फारसी में जुरमुरंद कहते हैं। यह रत्न हिमाचल, गिरनार , सिन्धुदेश के पूर्व आबू, पूर्व पश्चिम, तुर्किस्तान, महानदी, सोन नदी, आदि जगहों पर पैदा होता है । इनमें गुण और गुणरहित दोनों प्रकार के रत्न मिलते हैं । बड़े-बड़े उद्योगपति या राजा महाराजा ही इसको पहन सकते हैं । कोमल, अंग और नरम संगसिरस के फूल के समान हल्के रंग का पन्ना अति उत्तम होता है । मोर पंख, तोता के समान हरा व धान के खेत या नीम के पत्ती के समान रंग का पन्ना विशेषकर खिल उठता है। हरे जल के समान वाला पन्ना क्षत्रिय को, शुक पंख वाला पन्ना वैश्य को, सिरसपुष्प के समान रंग वाला ब्राह्मण को तथा मोर पंख के समान पन्ना रत्न शूद्र का धारण करना चाहिये। पन्ने के लाभ- अच्छी चमक व चिकना, साफ अच्छे घाट और हरे रंग का पन्‍ना गुणवान होता है । कन्या राशि के लिये चन्द्र ग्रह व बुध ग्रह आने पर इसे मन्त्रोभूषित कर धारण करना चाहिये। जो पन्ना सूर्य के प्रकाश में वस्त्र पर रखने से वस्त्र हरे रंग का दिखे वह बुद्धि, शरीरवर्द्धक, एवं बलवान होता है। इसके धारण करने से जादू, टोना, धन सम्पत्ति,वंश वृद्धि, सर्प भूतादि सब बाधायें दूर होती है तथा स्वप्न दोष नहीं होते । पन्ने के दोष- पन्ना  रत्न धारण करने से पहले परख लेना चाहिये। काँच का पन्ना नेत्रों पर रखने से गर्मी देता है। आँच पर रखने से गल जाता है। घिसने से आभा दब जाती है । हाथ पर रखने से भारीपन महसूस होता है । टोना पन्‍ना दूषित होता है । पिता के सुख हरने वाला दोरंगा पन्ना दोषी होता है। चुरचुरा अंग वाला पन्ना रुक्ष दोषी होता है। सुन्न वाला श्यामलता लिये पन्ना दूषित होता है। मधुक माविन्द दोष वाला पन्ना माता-पिता की मृत्यु का कारण बनता है । स्वर्णकान्ति पन्ना दोषित सुख हरने वाला आदि पन्ने के दोष हैं । दोष रहित पन्ना तेज चमकदार आँखों पर लगाने से ठंडक महसूस होती है । हाथ पर लेने से हल्का लगता है। पन्ना सान पर चढ़ाने पर और ज्यादा चमकदार होता है । दोष रहित पाँच ठाँक पन्‍ने की कीमत पचासों लाख की होती है।अन्य  रत्नों की भाँति पन्ना भी अनेक रोगों व कष्टों  को दूर करता है । पन्ना रत्न का उपयोग बुध ग्रह की शान्ति के लिये धारण किया जाता है। आभूषण में अंगूठी में जड़वाकर पहनने से धन- सम्पत्ति में वृद्धि व भूत-प्रेत, पागलपन, मिरगी, जादू-टोना आदि को दूर करता है। औषधि रूप में ज्वर नाशक, अर्श, सन्निपात, वमन, विष, दमा आदि रोगों को नष्ट करता है।

References of Markat / Taakshrya / Panna (Emerald)

References of Markat / Taakshrya / Panna (Emerald)
Ayurveda Classes and Courses Online

Benefits of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald) in Astrology

Ratna Indicated as per Astrological Science to Nullify the Maleficent Effect of Various Planets (Grahas) and to Treat the Roga (Disorders) Related to that Particular Planet.

Planet Gem Used
Sun (Surya)Manikya (Ruby)
Moon (Chandra)Mukta (Pearl)
Mars (Mangala)Vidruma (Coral)
Mercury (Buddha)Markat (Emerald)
Jupiter (Guru)Pushapraga (Topaz)
Venus (Shukra)Vajra (Diamond)
Saturn (Shani)Neelam (Blue sapphire)
Rahu Gomeda (Hessonite)
Ketu Vaidurya (Cat’s eye stone)

Diseases Induced by Maleficent Effects of Planets (Greha Roga) or Diseases Induced by Dushkarma (Sinful Deeds) Done by the Rogi (Patient) i.e Karma Vipaka Siddhanta

Planet Diseases caused
Sun Shoth (Inflammation in the body), Apsmar (Epilepsy), Paitikavikara, Jawara (Fever), Diseases of the eye, skin, and bone, rational fears, Bites from poisonous reptiles like snakes, weakening the digestive system, constipation.
Moon Sleep diseases such as Anidra (insomnia) or somnambulism (sleepwalking), Kaphaj Kasa, Atisara, Alsaya, Agnimandya (Loss of appetite), Aruchi (Disinterest in food), Kamala (Jaundice), Chitudvega, Grehani, Hydrophobia, Fear of animals with horns, Problems concerning women, Hallucinations
MarsTrishna (Excessive thirst), Bilious disorders, Flatulence, Excessive fear of fire, Gulma, appendicitis, Kustha (Leprosy), eye disorder, Apsmar (Epilepsy), Rakta Vikara, Majja Vikar (Bone marrow diseases), Kandu (Itching), Ruksha Twaka (Rough skin).
MercuryLack of self-confidence, Gala Rog (Throat problems like goiter, etc.), Nasagata Rog (Nose Diseases), Vata- Kaphaj Roga, Cold and Cough, Flatulence, Poisoning. Twaka Dosha (Skin diseases), Vicharchika. Jaundice.
Jupiter Gulma, Appendicitis, Karan Vedna (an ear disease), Sanyas.Frequent litigation, Problems with friends, parents, and relatives.
Venus Pandu (Anaemia), Netra Roga (Disorders of the eye), Flatulence, Cough, Mutrakrich (Urinary disease), Prameha (Diabetes), Syphilis, Shukra-Vyapati (Low sperm count), Impotence, Dryness of Mouth, Constipation, Irrational fears.
Saturn Flatulence, Cough, Pain in the legs, Excessive Fatigue, Illusion, Daha (Excessive heat in the body), Mental shocks, Personal calamities, and Accidents causing temporary or lasting wounds.
Rahu Heart diseases such as an attack, Shotha (Inflammation), Kushtha (Leprosy), illusions, hallucinations, disease due to poisoning, excessive hurt, and wounds.
Ketu Unknown mysterious diseases, cannot be easily found by doctors.

Rashi or a Zodiac Sign that Can Wear an Emerald

According to the astrological sign, the people with Mercury (Buddha) in a particular position in the horoscope can wear Emerald to get maximum benefits.

Markat/ Emerald Stone represents the Greha Mangala/ planet Mercury. Markat is very special and very popular among the Navratnas. Emerald gives immense energy to the person.

People with below mentioned Rashi or zodiac sign can also wear Emerald (Taakshrya) but with careful consultation with the astrological experts:

  • Vrishabh (Taurus)
  • Mithun Rashi (Gemini)
  • Kanya Rashi (Virgo)
  • Tula Rashi (Libra)
  • Makar Rashi (Capricorn)
  • Kumbh Rashi (Aquarius)

Vrishabha (Taurus): Vrishabh Rashi is ruled by Shukra Greha i.e. by the Venus planet which has an amicable relationship with the planet Budhha (mercury). Therefore Taurus can wear Markat (Emerald) with the advice of an astrologer for spiritual advancement, success, and great wealth.

Mithun (Gemini): The person with the Mithun Rashi and the Budha Greha (mercury planet) in the 1, 4, 5, 9, and 11 houses then he/ she can wear Markat/ Taakshrya throughout life. With astrological advice, the Taaksharya can also be worn if Buddha Graha is in the 8th house.

Kanya (Virgo): In Kanya Rashi wearing Taaksharya is highly beneficial as this zodiac sign is ruled by the Buddha Greha (mercury planet) only. This gives immense wealth, prosperity, and success to Kanya Rashi.

Tula (Libra): Shukra Greha (Venus’s planet) which rules Libra has a Friendly equation with Buddha Greha (Mercury’s planet). So, wearing as per astrological advice gives immense happiness to Tula Rashi.

Makar (Capricorn): Makar Rashi is ruled by the planet Saturn which has a healthy relationship with Buddha Greha (Mercury planet). So, it is advisable for Makar Rashi to wear Emeralds.

Kumbh (Aquarius): Kumbh Rashi is ruled by the planet Saturn like Makar Rashi, so they also have a good relationship with Buddha Greha (Mercury planet) and can wear Emerald.

Dr. Sahil Gupta - Famous Ayurvedic Allergy Specialist

Have A Health Issue?

Consult Online

- Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

Ayurvedic Allergy Specialist
CEO & Founder of IAFA®

Consult Now

Which Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald) is Best to Use in Astrology (Jyotisha Shastra)?

Astrological experts suggest that the person who is experiencing the cruelty of the Buddha Greha or Mercury in the Horoscope and the Zodiac sign that is ruled by or has a healthy relationship with the mercury planet should wear Markat/ Emerald with aura similar to green grass or transparency so that they get maximum benefits from the planet Buddha (Mercury).

So, to get certified and verified Emerald check out and buy our rare collection in Iafa….

In Rasa Grantha, no types of Emeralds are mentioned. But depending on the color the green king of gemstone is divided into three varieties:

  • Green Emerald (best variety)
  • Blue Emerald (medium variety)
  • White Emerald (common variety)

Different Varieties of Emerald

Colombian Emerald: Currently in the trade of Emeralds, Colombian emerald has held the crown. This is because Colombian emerald is right in the middle between yellowish-green and bluish color which make it a warm emerald hue and more attractive to consumers. The Colombian emerald is the rarest emerald in the world that has the highest clarity and that is glowing green. Along with this Colombian emerald has fewer fractions and inclusions.

Zambian Emerald: From Zambia in South Africa, the Emerald is mined and has a distinct appearance i.e., Bluish green emerald. Zambia is the second-largest producer of Panna/ Emerald in the world. This Zambian Emerald is darker and cooler in tone than the Colombian type of Emerald. Zambian Emerald has certain inclusion in it like during formation of flakes of minerals trapped inside the gem but shoppers desire these flakes as it gives a moody look to the stone.

Brazilian Emerald: Yellowish-green color gemstone is the Brazilian Emerald. This gemstone gives a less deep green color than Colombian Emerald. Brazilian emeralds are renowned for their clarity and due to their lighter tone, more light can pass through this stone.

Cat’s eye Emerald: Cat’s eye emerald has the special optic effect that is known as chatoyancy i.e., it has glowing lines throughout the stone which comes in this emerald due to aligned inclusion. This type of emerald is a rare occurrence but can be found in any part of the world. 

Trapiche Emerald: Of all the varieties of Panna/ Emerald, the Trapiche variety is the rarest. Six dark rays are observed in the trapiche emerald and this type of emerald is found in only a few mines in Colombia. How this type of emerald stone is formed is still unknown. This gemstone is full of impurities of shale that radiate from the core of the gemstone. This stone is given the name Trapiche on the name of the Spanish sugar mill, due to the resemblance of the pattern.

How to Wear Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)?

बुध रत्न पन्ना की धारण विधि 

यह नग शुक्ल पक्ष के बुधवार को आश्लेषा, ज्येष्ठा, रेवती, पू.फा., अथवा पुष्य नक्षत्रों में अथवा बुध की होरा में सोने की अंगूठी में दाएँ हाथ की कनिष्ठिका (छोटी) अंगुली में बुध ग्रह के बीज मन्त्र से अभिमन्त्रित करते हुए धारण करना चाहिए । इसका वजन ३, ६, ७ रत्ती होना चाहिए। 

This stone should be worn on the Wednesday of Shukla Paksha in Ashlesha, Jyeshtha, Revati, P.F., or Pushya Nakshatras or in the Hora of Mercury in a gold ring in the junior (little) finger of the right hand while invoking the Beej mantra of the planet Mercury. should do. Its weight should be 3, 6, 7 ratti.

बुध बीज मन्त्र – ओं ब्रां ब्रीं बौं : बुधाय नम: |

वृष, मिथुन, सिंह, कन्या, मकर व मीन राशि वालों को विशेष लाभप्रद रहता है।

It is especially beneficial for Taurus, Gemini, Leo, Virgo, Capricorn and Pisces people.

Ayurvedic Books on Allergies and Child Health

Vedic Siddhanta of Wearing Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)

अँगूठी में जड़वाने के लिये ३ रत्ती से जितना ऊपर अर्थात्‌ जितना अधिक वजन का पन्ना होगा उतना ही शुभकारी होता है । किसी भी दशा में पन्ना का वजन ३ रत्ती से कम नहीं होना चाहिये और अँगूठी का वजन भी ३ रत्ती से कम नहीं होना चाहिये । बुधवार के दिन मिथुन या कन्या राशि की प्रबलता पर अथवा आश्लेषा, ज्येष्ठा अथवा रेवती नक्षत्र व बुध के या सूर्य के नवमांश में बुध हो तो प्रात: सूर्योदय से लेकर मध्यान्ह दस बजे के बीच सोने की अँगूठी में पन्ना जड़वा कर तैयार करवानी चाहिये तथा अँगूठी इस प्रकार  बनी हो कि पन्‍ना का निचला भाग अँगुली त्वचा से स्पर्श करता रहे। जिस बुधवार को अँगूठी बनवाई जाये उसी बुधवार को दिन में ११ बजे सर्वतोभद्रचक्र बनाकर उसके ऊपर चाँदी से बना कलश स्थापित करें । कलश की विधिवत्‌ पूजा-अर्चना करने के बाद कलश के भीतर अँगूठी रख दें और निम्नलिखित मन्त्र द्वारा अँगूठी को अभिमन्त्रित करें-

ह्रं कौं द्रम ग्रह नाथाय बुधाय स्वाहा |

अथवा

 हवां हवीं बुं ग्रहनाथ बुधाय नम: |

६ तोले वजन के चाँदी के पत्र पर खुदे बुध यन्त्र का विधिवत्‌ पूजन करें । फिर   उद्बुधस्वाग्ने प्रति जा ग्रहीम  त्वमिष्टा पूर्तें सधूं  सृजेथा मयञ्च। अस्मिन्तसधस्ये अध्युत्तर स्मिन्विश्वेदेवा यजमानश्च सीदेत: | श्री बुधाय नम: मन्त्र द्वारा ४,००० आहुतियाँ देकर हवन करें । इसके बाद अँगूठी को कलश से निकाल कर यन्त्र पर रखकर कलश के जल द्वारा अभिषेक करते हुये अँगूठी में बुध की प्राण-प्रतिष्ठा करें। इसके उपरान्त फिर बुध मन्त्र से अँगूठी को अभिमन्त्रित करते हुये दायें हाथ की कनिष्ठका या अनामिका अँगुली में धारण करना चाहिये। अन्त में बुध यन्त्र, पन्ना का एक नग, स्वर्ण कंस्तूरी, कांस्य, चावल तथा नीला अथवा हरा रंग का वस्त्र यथाशक्ति दक्षिणा के साथ कर्मकाण्ड कराने वाले ब्राह्मण को दान कर देना चाहिये। उपरोक्त विधि अनुसार धारण करने से पन्ना जड़ित अँगूठी बुध द्वारा उत्पन्न कष्टों को नष्ट कर विद्या, बुद्धि एवं धन की वृद्धि कर जीवन को सुखमय बनाती है।

Emerald should be above 3 Ratti i.e., the higher the weight of the emerald, the more auspicious it is to get it set in the ring. In any case, the weight of the emerald should not be less than 3 Ratti and the weight of the ring should not be less than 3 Ratti. On a Wednesday, on the predominance of Gemini or Virgo or Ashlesha, Jyeshtha or Revati Nakshatra and Mercury in the Navamsa of Mercury or Sun, then between sunrise to ten in the afternoon, a gold ring should be prepared with an emerald embedded in it and the ring It should be made in such a way that the lower part of the emerald keeps touching the skin of the finger. On the Wednesday on which the ring is to be made, on the same Wednesday at 11 o’clock in the day, draw Sarvatobhadrachakra and install a silver urn on it. After duly worshiping the Kalash, keep the ring inside the Kalash and invoke the ring by chanting the following mantra- Hrim Koun Greh Nathaya Budhaaya Swaha or Om Hwam Hawim Bum Grehnaathaay Budhaay Namh ||Worship the Mercury Yantra engraved on a silver sheet weighing 6 tolas. Then Om Udbudhswagne Prati Ja Grahim Tvamishta Purtein Sadhu Srijetha Mayanch. Asmintasadhasye adhyuttar sminvishvedeva yajmanascha seedetah. Shri Budhay Namah. Perform Havan by offering 4,000 oblations through mantra. After this, taking out the ring from the urn and placing it on the yantra, anointing it with the water of the urn, consecrates the ring to Mercury. After this, the ring should be worn on the little or ring finger of the right hand while inviting the ring with the mantra of Mercury. In the end, Mercury Yantra, a piece of emerald, gold musk, bronze, rice, and blue or green cloth should be donated to the Brahmin who is performing the rituals along with Dakshina as per the capacity. By wearing according to the above method, the emerald studded ring destroys the troubles caused by Mercury and increases knowledge, wisdom, and wealth and makes life happy.

When to Wear Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)?

बुधवार के दिन मिथुन या कन्या राशि की प्रबलता पर अथवा आश्लेषा, ज्येष्ठा अथवा रेवती नक्षत्र व बुध के या सूर्य के नवमांश में बुध हो तो प्रात: सूर्योदय से लेकर मध्यान्ह दस बजे के बीच सोने की अँगूठी में पन्ना जड़वा कर तैयार करवानी चाहिये तथा अँगूठी इस प्रकार  बनी हो कि पन्‍ना का निचला भाग अँगुली त्वचा से स्पर्श करता रहे। यह नग शुक्ल पक्ष के बुधवार को आश्लेषा, ज्येष्ठा, रेवती, पू.फा., अथवा पुष्य नक्षत्रों में अथवा बुध की होरा में सोने की अंगूठी में दाएँ हाथ की कनिष्ठिका (छोटी) अंगुली में बुध ग्रह के बीज मन्त्र से अभिमन्त्रित करते हुए धारण करना चाहिए । इसका वजन ३, ६, ७ रत्ती होना चाहिए। 

On a Wednesday, on the predominance of Gemini or Virgo or Ashlesha, Jyeshtha or Revati Nakshatra and Mercury in the Navamsa of Mercury or Sun, then between sunrise to ten in the afternoon, a gold ring should be prepared with an emerald embedded in it and the ring It should be made in such a way that the lower part of the emerald keeps touching the skin of the finger. This stone should be worn on the Wednesday of Shukla Paksha in Ashlesha, Jyeshtha, Revati, P.F., or Pushya Nakshatras or in the Hora of Mercury in a gold ring in the junior (little) finger of the right hand while invoking the Beej mantra of the planet Mercury. should do. Its weight should be 3, 6, 7 ratti.

In the old times, only royal people like kings and queens or Aadhya (rich) people wore obnoxiously expensive gemstones. But today over time they are becoming affordable to successful business people, celebrities, and even the regular population also able to buy gemstones. But the certification and verification of Gems are important otherwise one cannot get its maximum benefits, or it just remains a waste of money. 

पन्ना रत्न का उपयोग बुध ग्रह की शान्ति के लिये धारण किया जाता है। आभूषण में अंगूठी में जड़वाकर पहनने से धन- सम्पत्ति में वृद्धि व भूत-प्रेत, पागलपन, मिरगी, जादू-टोना आदि को दूर करता है। औषधि रूप में ज्वर नाशक, अर्श, सन्निपात, वमन, विष, दमा आदि रोगों को नष्ट करता है।

Emerald stone is used to pacify the planet Mercury. Wearing an ornament in a ring increases wealth and removes ghosts, insanity, epilepsy, witchcraft, etc. In the form of medicine, it destroys diseases like fever, diarrhea, typhus, vomiting, poison, asthma, etc.

So, check out the certified and verified Ratna (gemstones) and Uparatna (semi-precious stones) in the IAFA Store.

Panna / Markat Merits and Demerits in Astrology

पन्ने के लाभ– 

अच्छी चमक व चिकना, साफ अच्छे घाट और हरे रंग का पन्‍ना गुणवान होता है । कन्या राशि के लिये चन्द्र ग्रह व बुध ग्रह आने पर इसे मन्त्रोभूषित कर धारण करना चाहिये। जो पन्ना सूर्य के प्रकाश में वस्त्र पर रखने से वस्त्र हरे रंग का दिखे वह बुद्धि, शरीरवर्द्धक, एवं बलवान होता है। इसके धारण करने से जादू, टोना, धन सम्पत्ति,वंश वृद्धि, सर्प भूतादि सब बाधायें दूर होती है तथा स्वप्न दोष नहीं होते । 

Good luster and smooth, clean, good ghat and green colored emerald is of quality. When Moon and Mercury come for Virgo, they should be adorned with mantras and worn. The emerald which appears green when placed on the cloth in the sunlight, enhances intelligence, body, and strength. By wearing this, all the obstacles of magic, sorcery, wealth, family growth, snake ghosts, etc. are removed and there are no defects in dreams. 

पन्ने के दोष 

पन्ना  रत्न धारण करने से पहले परख लेना चाहिये। काँच का पन्ना नेत्रों पर रखने से गर्मी देता है। आँच पर रखने से गल जाता है। घिसने से आभा दब जाती है । हाथ पर रखने से भारीपन महसूस होता है । टोना पन्‍ना दूषित होता है । पिता के सुख हरने वाला दोरंगा पन्ना दोषी होता है। चुरचुरा अंग वाला पन्ना रुक्ष दोषी होता है। सुन्न वाला श्यामलता लिये पन्ना दूषित होता है। मधुक माविन्द दोष वाला पन्ना माता-पिता की मृत्यु का कारण बनता है । स्वर्णकान्ति पन्ना दोषित सुख हरने वाला आदि पन्ने के दोष हैं । दोष रहित पन्ना तेज चमकदार आँखों पर लगाने से ठंडक महसूस होती है । हाथ पर लेने से हल्का लगता है। पन्ना सान पर चढ़ाने पर और ज्यादा चमकदार होता है । दोष रहित पाँच ठाँक पन्‍ने की कीमत पचासों लाख की होती है।अन्य  रत्नों की भाँति पन्ना भी अनेक रोगों व कष्टों  को दूर करता है ।

Before wearing the Emerald stone, it should be tested. Keeping a glass pane on the eyes gives heat. It melts when kept on fire. Rubbing suppresses the aura. There is a feeling of heaviness when held in the hand. Tona Panna is contaminated. The one who loses the happiness of the father is guilty of double page. An emerald with a crisp rind is the culprit. The emerald is tainted with a dull complexion. An emerald having a Madhuk Mavind defect causes the death of parents. Swarnakanti Panna Defect, the destroyer of happiness, etc. are the defects of Panna. Flawless emerald is cool when applied to bright shining eyes. Feels light on hand. Emerald becomes shinier when it is ground. The cost of a flawless five-inch emerald is worth fifty lakhs. Like other gems, an emerald also cures many diseases and troubles. 

Synonyms of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)

Reference: Rasa Trangini 23/ 104

गारुतंतम मरकतम ताक्षर्यं  गरूड़ संज्ञकं |

बुध रत्नम रौहिण्यं हरिद्रतनश्च तन्मतं ||

Garutmata, Markata, Garuda Mani, Buddha Ratna, Gouhineya, and Haridratna are the classic synonyms of the Ratna Taakshrya or Emerald. In Hindi Taakshrya is known as Panna.

Names of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald) in Different Language

  • Emerald, Beryl, Aqua Marine, Bhilurda (English)
  • Samarandua (Latin)
  • Panna, Panuaa (Hindi)
  • Garudapacca (Telugu)
  • Pacce (Kannada)
  • Pana (Bengali)
  • Hajr- i- Karim, Zumurrud (Arabic)
  • Zumurrud (Persian)
  • Harit, Harida Ratna, Tarksiya (Sanskrit)
  • Zumurrud (Sindhi)
  • Maragatham, Paccai (Tamil)
  • Maratakam (Malayalam)
  • Pac (Marathi)
  • Paaco (Gujrati)

History of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)

भारतीय मरकतमणि से प्राचीन काले से परिचित हैं। महाभारत एवं श्रीमद्भागवत में रत्नों के धारण क्रम में इसका वर्णन मिलता है। चरकसंहिता में विषघ्न  प्रयोग के लिए मरकतं धारण का विधान है। अतः कहा जा सकता है कि ५ हजार वर्षों से हमलोग मरकत मणि से परिचित है। परवर्ती साहित्य एवं रसशास्त्र में पन्ना का और भी अधिक वर्णन है।पन्ना  हरिद्वर्ण का रत्नपाषाण है। यह हमेशा खनिज रूप में प्राप्त होता है: पन्ना की एक और जाति है जिसे एक्वामेरिन  कहते हैं। वह शिलाओं से होता है। 

The Indians are familiar with the ancient black from turquoise. Its description is found in Mahabharata and Shrimad Bhagwat in the order of wearing gems. In Charak Samhita, there is a law of wearing emeralds for poisonous use. So, it can be said that we have been familiar with Emerald for 5000 years. There is even more description of emeralds in later literature and alchemy. Emerald is a gemstone of turmeric color. It is always found in mineral form. There is another variety of emeralds called aquamarine. It is made of rocks. Emerald is a variety of minerals beryl (beryllium mineral) with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. It also contains aluminum and silicon. It is colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium. This beryllium mineral has a hardness of 7.5- 8 on the 10-point Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Its refractive index is 1.57. Most emeralds exhibit poor resistance to breakage, and they fade away when exposed to heat.

Characteristics of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)

पन्ना हरिद्र  वर्ण का बुधग्रह का रत्न है। पन्ना का अंग्रेजी नाम एमराल्ड ईरानी भाषा का शब्द है। लैटिन में इसे “स्माराण्ड्स” कहते हैं। पन्ना हरी दूर्वा जैसा रंग  का एवं नेत्रों के लिए बहुत प्रिय रत्न हैं। पन्ना का पारदर्शक टुकड़ा अमूल्य एवं दुर्लभ होता है। ऐसा पन्ना हीरा से भी कीमती होता है। क्रौमिक आक्साइड के कारण पन्ना इतना नेत्राकर्षक सुन्दर एवं हरा दिखाई देता है। पन्ना बेरिलियम, अल्यूमिनियम, सिलिका और आक्सीजन का यौगिक है। इसका रासायनिक सूत्र Be3Al2(SiO3)6  है। इसका काठिन्य ७.५० है तथा आपेक्षिक घनत्व ३.७१ है। “प्लीनी” नामक रत्न वैज्ञानिक के शब्दों में न तो सूर्य- न छाया- न ही मोमवत्ती का प्रकाश पन्ना की घुति बदलने में समर्थ है। पन्ना के साथ बहुत से अन्धविश्वास जुड़े हैं। प्लीनी के शब्दों में- पन्ना जैसा न कोई रत्नपाषाण है और न कोई रत्न नेत्रों के लिए हितकर है। पत्ना नेत्रों के लिए अत्यधिक लाभग्रद रत्न है। पन्ना से नेत्रों को इतनी तृप्ति मिलती हैं कि दृष्टि इससे हटती ही नहीं। जिसकी दृष्टि मन्द पड़ जाती है, पन्ना को बराबर देखने से उसकी दृष्टि पुनः स्वस्थ हो जाती है।मूर नामक रत्न वैज्ञानिक का कहना है कि सर्पों को ज्योति के लिए पन्ना हानिकर है। यदि लगातार कुछ देर तक साँप पन्ना को देखता रहे तो वह अन्धा हो जाता हैं। 

Emerald derives its beautiful green color from the presence of chromium and vanadium. It has a hexagonal crystal system and possesses dichroic optical properties, i.e., it exhibits two colors viz. green and blackish green. It is a transparent gemstone. Emerald has 7.5 hardness as per Mohs’ scale and its specific gravity is 2.7 or 2.89. The refractive index of emeralds is 1.57. It fades out when exposed to heat. The chemical composition of Emerald is Be3Al2(SiO3)6. It contains beryllium, aluminum, and silicon in oxide form. In the words of a gemologist named “Pliny”, neither the sun nor the shadow nor the light of a candle is capable of changing the quality of an emerald. There are many superstitions associated with emeralds. In the words of Pliny – There is no other gemstone like emerald and no other gem is beneficial for the eyes. Panna is a very beneficial gem for the eyes. The eyes get so much satisfaction from emeralds that the vision does not go away from it. The one whose vision becomes dim; his vision becomes healthy again by looking at the emerald. A gemologist named Moore says that emerald is harmful to the light of snakes. If a snake keeps looking at an emerald continuously for some time, it becomes blind.

Chemical Composition of Emerald

  • Aluminum- 15.75%
  • Silica- 37.5 %
  • Berylium- 30 %
  • Glucina- 14 %
  • Lime – 0.25 %
  • Iron oxide- 1 %
  • Chromium oxide- 0.3 %

The green color of this precious stone is due to chromium oxide. The content of Beryl in this is considered to be poisonous and acts as an antidote to poisons. There are many myths attached to this stone. Its luster is not affected by any means. It is good for the eyes and is harmful to the sight of snakes. Mythologically it is attached to Garuda the vehicle-bird of Lord Visnu, who once stole the nectar and fell during the transit, in a place called Marakata mountain hence the names, “Garutmata” and “Marakata”. This is worn on the right little finger of the hand, on Wednesday when Ärdrä star shows up in the almanac in Magha masa during Budha hora. This is confused with zircon, dementite, peridot, jadeite, and green fluorspar-but the real emerald is identified by observing changelessness in its luster even after rubbing, exposing it to sun or heating and also by estimating the physical and chemical properties.

Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald) Yoni (Source)

In Rasa Grantha, no types of Emeralds are mentioned. But depending on the color the green king of gemstone is divided into three varieties:

  • Green Emerald (best variety)
  • Blue Emerald (medium variety)
  • White Emerald (common variety)

Grahaya Lakshana of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald) 

Reference: Rasa ratna Sammuchya. 4/ 21

हरिद्र वर्ण  गुरु स्निग्धं स्फुरद रश्मि चयं शुभम्‌ |

मसृणं भासुरं ताक्षर्यं गात्रं सप्तगुण स्मृतम्‌ ||

हरिद्र वर्ण , भारी, सनिग्धं जिसमे रश्मि समूह चारों और फैलता है, चिकना, चमक्दार, और बड़ा इन सात लक्षणों वाला पन्ना ग्राह्य होता है |

Reference: Ayurveda Parkash. 5/ 108

यच्छैवाल शिखण्डिशाडवल हरित्ववाधैश्च काकच्छदै: खद्योतेन बालकोरवपुषा शैरीषपुष्पेन | छायाभि: सतत दधाति तदिद निर्दिष्टमष्टात्मकं जात्यं यत्तपनातपैश्च परितो गारुत्मतं रञ्जयत ||

Reference: Rasa Tarngini. 23/ 105

छायं मसृणं स्वछं गुरु स्निग्धञ्च कोमलं

अव्यंगञ्च  हरिद्र वर्ण जातयम मरकतम मतम ||

The Taakshrya, which is radiant, lustrous, crystal clear, heavy, soft, and smooth to the touch, even and beautiful bodied and yellowish colored, such a sample of Emerald is considered fit and is selected for pharmaceutical purposes.

Agrahya Lakshna of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)

अग्राह्य लक्षण 

Reference: Rasa ratna Sammuchya. 4/ 22

कपिल कर्कशं नील पाण्डु कृष्ण मलान्वितम्‌ |

चिपटं विकटं रूक्षं लघु ताक्षर्यं  शस्यते ||

कपिल वर्ण, कर्कश, नील वर्ण, पाण्डु वर्ण, कृष्ण वर्ण, मलिन, चपटा, टेढ़ा- मेढा, रुक्ष और भार में लघु पन्ना त्याज्य माना जाता है |

Reference: Rasa Trangini. 23/ 106

रक्षन्तु विगत छायं विकृताङ्ग खरं लघु

सत्रासं चाति मलिनं हेयम मर्कतम मतम ||

The Takshrya, which is dry-bodied, non-radiant, uneven-bodied, sur-faced, weighted, has different colors (Trasa), and is unclean from within; such a sample of Takshrya (emerald) is considered unfit and is rejected for the pharmaceutical purposes.

Markat / Taakshrya / Panna Aayu (Lifespan of Emerald)

Reference: Rasa Jala Niddhi. 3/ 4, Ratna Dhatu Vigyana

न जरां यान्ति रत्नानि मौक्तिकं विद्रुमं बिना।

Though the gemstones of mineral origin are eternal, the Exception is Mukta (pearl) which has a limited lifespan, and also Vidruma- coral. After a few years, it grows old and eventually loses its character, but other gemstones are eternal, but they also need to be maintained and revitalization of them is necessary to get maximum benefits.

आयु- कुछ समय पश्चात्‌ काल प्रभाव से प्रवाल, मुक्ता खराब हो जाते है। किन्तु अन्य रत्नों पर काल का प्रभाव नहीं होता है।

Markat / Taakshrya / Panna Aayu after Dharana (Lifespan of Emerald After Assumption)

Reference: Astrologer Prakasha Prasada- Jyotish Evam Sadhna Parkasha

Ratna gives maximum benefits when they have a powerful life expectancy. A lot is dependent on how much you care about your emeralds as they need to be maintained to remain effective. The average effectiveness of Emerald is approximately 5- 8 years, but we can again revitalize the coral.

As Emerald is a Gem for the planet Mercury (Buddha) and its life span after assumption is approximately 5- 8 years after that it loses its Prabhava on the beholder.  Although the Emerald gemstone is eternal and forever, for astrological purposes and effectiveness, its revitalization is necessary.

Green arborvitae emerald has a lifespan of about 25 years.

Precious gemstones like Ruby, Emerald, all varieties of Sapphire like yellow sapphire (topaz), Hessonite Garnet, and Diamond have a long lifespan as they belong to the transparent group. Over a period of time, when they are worn these transparent gems start to get scratches on its surface, and even start losing their high polishing due to which sun rays stop to pass through the gems (Ratna).when these precious gems are wear for long period of time a greasy layer starts to deposit on their surface which is probably a mixture of lubricants, oils and other materials that a wearer come in contact with it. As the deposition starts to get thicker with time, it even blocks the rays (different wavelengths) that these precious stones receive from the planets to give effect. Although precious gemstones are forever but yes their effectiveness for astrological purposes falls and therefore proper and regular maintenance is important.

For more information regarding this please visit Iafa…….

Occurrence or Places of Availability of Vidruma / Taakshrya / Panna (Emerald) 

ये रूस, चीन, मध्य एशिया, ऑस्ट्रेलिया, मिश्र, दक्षिण अफ्रीका के कोलंबिया आदि देशो में तथा भारत में कश्मीर, पंजाब, बिहार और तमिलनाडु में अल्प मात्रा में प्राप्त होता है |

Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in India and Austria. Emeralds are also found in other countries, such as Afghanistan, Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Canada, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Italy, Kazakhstan, Madagascar, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Somalia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, Tanzania, United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe

How is Taakshrya / Markat / Panna / Emerald Formed?

Panna is full of various minerals called Beryls. These beryls that are present in Emeralds come in 7 colorations or varieties. In two ways Panna (Emerald) is formed and in both ways oxygen, beryllium, silicon, and aluminum elements are involved. When magma cools, Panna (emeralds) are formed from leftover elements or in hot, mineral-rich fluid that is heated by magma.

Purification of Emerald (Shodhana of Panna / Markat / Taakshrya)

Reference: Rasa Trangini. 23/ 107

सुरभीपयसा यामं दोलायन्त्रे विधानत: |

विपाचितं मरकत॑ विशुद्धयति सुनिश्चितम्‌ ||

दोला  यंत्र विद्धि से गोदुग्ध में ३ घंटे तक स्वेदन करने पर पन्ना शुद्ध हो जाता है |

The roughly pounded taakshrya (emerald) is tied in a Potali and subjected for 3 hours (one Yama) of swedana in Dola Yantra by keeping Go Dugdha (cow’s milk) as liquid media. Later the drug is washed, dried and stored in an airtight container as Suddha tarksya for further pharmaceutical use.

Incineration of Emerald or Bhasmikarana / Marana of Markat / Taakshrya / Panna

First Method of Markat Marana

Reference: Rasa Trangini. 23/ 108

माणिक्य मारणो द्विस्ट विद्धिभ्यामती यत्नत: |

अष्टद्वा  पुटीतम ताक्षर्यं मिर्यते अत्र संशयं |

The fine powders of any of the individual suddha Ratna (except Vajra) – 1 part, 2. Suddha manahsila – 1 part, 3. Suddha Gandhaka – 1 part and 4. Suddha Haratala – 1 part, all these are taken in a clean Khalva Yantra and subjected to 3 Bhavanas with Lakuca Swarasa. Later Chakrikas are prepared, dried, and enclosed in Sarava Samputa. This samputa is subjected to one Gaja Puta. This whole process is repeated for 8 times to obtain properly prepared Bhasma of six gemstones of mineral origin except vajra.

Second Method of Markat Marana

Reference: Rasa Ratna Sammuchya 4/ 66

लकुच द्राव समपिष्ते: शिला गंधक तालके: |

वज्रम विना अन्य रत्नानी मीरयन्ते अष्ट पुट्टै: खलु: ||

The fine powders of any of the individual suddha Ratna (except Vajra) – 1 part, 2. Suddha manahsila – 1 part, 3. Suddha Gandhaka – 1 part and 4. Suddha haratala – 1 part, all these are taken in a clean Khalva Yantra and subjected to 3 Bhavanas with Lakuca Swarasa. Later Chakrikas are prepared, dried, and enclosed in Sarava Samputa. This samputa is subjected to one Gaja Puta. This whole process is repeated for 8 times to obtain properly prepared Bhasma of six gemstones of mineral origin except vajra.

शुद्ध पन्ना को लोहे के इमाम दस्ते में कूट कर सूक्ष्म चूर्ण बनाकर उसके समान भाग शुद्ध गंधक, शुद्ध हरताल, एवं शुद्ध मनशिला,लेकर खल्व में डालकर लकुच स्वरस से मर्दन कर टिकिया बनाये | फिर टिक्कियों के सूखने के बाद शराव सम्पुट कर गज पुट में पाक करे | इस प्रकार ८ पुट देने पर पन्ना की भस्म हो जाती है | इसकी भस्म श्वेत वर्ण होती है |

Markat / Panna Pishti

Suddha Panna is taken in a clean Khalva Yantra and triturated to obtain it in fine powder form. It is added with the desired quantity of Gulaba Jala (rose water) and triturated thoroughly for 3 days to obtain a very fine powder or greenish-white color with rose fragrance. It is later stored in a suitable airtight container as Taakshrya Pishti.

पन्ना पिष्टी- शुद्ध पन्ना को इमाम दस्ते में कूटकर सूक्षम चूर्ण करे | फिर सीमाक पत्थर के खल्व में डालकर गुलाब जल के साथ ३ दिन तक प्रतिदिन ६-६ घंटे तक मर्दन करने पर पन्ना की किंचिद हरित वर्ण की पिष्टी हो जाती है |   

Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald) Properties: (Bhasma and Pishti)

Reference: Rasa Tarangini. 23/ 109- 110

मृतं मरकतम बालयम विषघ्नं वह्नि दीपनं |

ओजो विवर्धनम वृष्यं पाण्डु शोफ निषूदनम ||

श्वास चार्डी प्रशमनं गुदजा आम्या नाशनम |

समाख्यातम विशेषेण सन्निपात निबर्हणं ||

Properly prepared Panna bhasma when used judiciously for internal administration provides physical strength, nullifies the effects of ‘poison’ within the body, improves the appetite, and enhances the ‘oja’. It is an aphrodisiac and is indicated in pandu roga, sopha (edema), shwasa, chardi, diseases of the anal region, and in sannipataja jwara.

Reference: Rasa Ratna Sammuchya. 4/ 23

ज्वर छर्दि विष श्वास सन्निपात अग्निमांद्य नुत |

दुर्नाम पाण्डु शोफघनम  ताक्षर्यं ओजो विवर्धनम ||

पन्ना ज्वर, छर्दि, विष, श्वास, सन्निपात अग्निमांद्य, अर्श, पाण्डु, एवं शोष रोग को दूर करता है | ये ओज की वृद्धि भी करता है|

Reference: Ayurveda Parkasha. 5/ 105

मर्कतम विषघ्नं हि शीतलम मधुरं रसे |

अम्ल पित्त हरम रुच्यम पुष्टिदं बहुत नाशनम || 

ये मधुर रस  एवं शीत वीर्य होता है | ये अम्ल पित्त एवं भूत बाधा को नष्ट करता है/ ये रूचि कारक एवं पुष्टि कारक होता है |   

Dosage and Usage of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)

Reference: Rasa Tarangini. 23/ 111                         

आरभ्य गुन्जजा पादांशाद गुञ्जके एक प्रमितम परम् |

मृत मर्कटं युंज्जयात बल कालदया अपेक्षया ||

Quarter Ratti to one Ratti (31 to 125 mg) is the general dosage of Markat Bhasma. However, the dosage must be finalized after thoroughly considering all the relevant factors that affect the dosage.

Anupana (Adjuvant / Vehicle) for Use of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)

Honey, butter, or any other suitable medicine.

अनुपान- मधु, घृत |

Important Formulations of Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)

  • Nav Ratna Raj Mrigaank Rasa
  • Ratna Bhagotttar Rasa
  • Mani Parpati Rasa
  • Jvaahr Mohra Pisti 
  • Yaakuti

Some Unani formulations with their form, dosage, and indication

  • Habb-i-Jawahar Muwallif is used in a dosage of 2- 5 g/orally. This formulation is indicated as tonic, astringent, or expectorant. It exhibits wound-healing properties and is used for tuberculosis and diarrhea.
  • Jawaharmohra is used in a dosage of 60- 120 grams. This formulation of emerald is considered as a general tonic and has analgesic properties. It is used for the treatment of weakness of vital organs, Apsmara (epilepsy), etc.
  • Jawarish Aamla Lulvi is used in the dosage of 6 g after meal/ orally. This formulation of Panna is indicated in bilious diarrhea, stomach weakness, cardiac weakness, palpitation, etc.
  • Kushta Zumurrud is used in the dosage of 30 mg, and 60-125 mg. This formulation (Yoga) has heptatonic, and cardiac tonic activity and is used for renal weakness, vesical weakness, frequency of urination, and excessive urination (Ati Mutra).
  • Kushta Marian Jawahar wala is used in the dosage of 60 mg/ orally. This formulation of Emerald is used to cure weakness of the brain, cardiac weakness, cough, coryza, catarrh, and headache.
  • Khamira Gaozaban Ambari Jawhar wala is used in the dosage of 3-5 g/ orally. This unique formulation of Markat is used to cure weakness of the brain, cardiac weakness, palpitation, restlessness, melancholia, nerve weakness, and chronic catarrh.
  • Khamira Zumurrud is used in the dosage of 5 g orally. This formulation acts as a cardiotonic, exhilarant, anti-anxiety.

Recent Research on Markat / Taaksharya / Panna (Emerald)

  • Behura, Reshma. (2016). Characterization of low-grade natural emerald gemstones.
  • Kalam, Mohd & Baig, Wahid & Ahmad, Ansar & Ansari, Huzaifa & Rahman, Shafiqur & Haseeb, Abdul. (2021). Zumurrud (emerald): Medicinal Potential of a Gemstone from Jawaharat-i-tis ‘a (navratan), in the Perspective of Unani Medicine. JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN AYURVEDA, YOGA, UNANI, SIDHHA & HOMEOPATHY. 8. 5- 9. 10. 24321/ 2394. 6547. 202102.
  • Mohapatra, Sanjay. (2014). Emerald. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies. 1.
  • Pena, F. & Crabi, D. & Izidoro, Sandro & Rodrigues, Erick & Bernardes, G. (2022). Machine learning applied to emerald gemstone grading: framework proposal and creation of a public dataset. Pattern Analysis and Applications. 25. 10. 1007/ s10044- 021- 01041- 4.
  • Babb, L. A. (2013). Emerald City: The birth and evolution of an Indian gemstone industry. Emerald City: The Birth and Evolution of an Indian Gemstone Industry. 1- 220.
  • Groat, L.A. & Giuliani, Gaston & Marshall, D.D. & Turner, D. (2008). Emerald deposits and occurrences: A review. Ore Geology Reviews. 34. 87- 112. 10. 1016/ j. regeared. 2007. 09. 003.
  • Hwoang, Hye-Kyung & Ahn, Yong & Seo, Jin-Gyo & Park, Jong-Wan. (2010). Spectroscopic Characteristics of Synthetic and natural emerald by heat treatment. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial Cooperation Society. 11. 29- 36. 10. 5762/ KAIS. 2010. 11. 1. 029.
  • Schwarz, Dietmar & Giuliani, Gaston & Grundmann, Guenter & Glas, Maximilian. (2002). The Origin of Emerald – a Controversial Topic. Extra Lapis English No. 2 Emeralds of the World, ISBN 3- 921 656-58- 3. extraLapis English No. 2: Emerald. 18 – 23.
  • Murthy SR, Shenoy R. Gem therapy and epilepsy. Anc Sci Life. 1990 Apr; 9 (4): 185- 90. PMID: 22557696; PMCID: PMC 3331331.
  • Karampelas, Stefanos & Alshaybani, Bader & Mohamed, Fatima & Sangsawong, Supharart & Al-Alawi, Abeer. (2019). Emeralds from the Most Important Occurrences: Chemical and Spectroscopic Data. Minerals. 9. 561. 10. 3390/ min. 9090561.
  • Ishaque S, Saleem T, Qidwai W. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding gemstone therapeutics in a selected adult population in Pakistan. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Aug 26; 9: 32. doi: 10. 1186/ 1472-6882- 9- 32. PMID: 19709426; PMCID: PMC 2739841.
  • Murthy SR. Role of gems in Indian medicine. Anc Sci Life. 1991 Jan; 10 (3): 156- 64. PMID: 22556526; PMCID: PMC 3331284.
  • Tobias J. Editorial: The “GEnomics of MusculoSkeletal Traits Translational Network” (GEMSTONE). Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2022 Dec 23; 13: 1110170. doi: 10. 3389/ fendo. 2022. 1110170. PMID: 36619575; PMCID: PMC 9817095.
  • Araujo Neto, Jose & Barreto, Sandra & Carrino, Thais Andressa & Müller, Axel & Santos, Lauro. (2019). Mineralogical and gemological characterization of emerald crystals from Paraná deposit, NE Brazil: a study of mineral chemistry, absorption and reflectance spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Brazilian Journal of Geology. 10. 1590/ 2317-4889201920190014.
  • Mohapatra, Sanjay. (2014). Emerald. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies. 1.
  • Zhou Q, Chen M, Wu G, Chang JH, Jiang O, Cui JW, Han G, Lin Q, Fang J, Chen GY, Wu YL. GEMSTONE-301: a phase III clinical trial of CS1001 as consolidation therapy in patients with locally advanced/unresectable (stage III) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who did not have disease progression after prior concurrent/sequential chemoradiotherapy. Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2020 Oct; 9 (5): 2008- 2015. doi: 10. 21037/ tlcr- 20-608. PMID: 33209620; PMCID: PMC  7653154.
  • Aceto M, Cala E, Gulino F, Gullo F, Labate M, Agostino A, Picollo M. The Use of UV-Visible Diffuse Reflectance Spectrophotometry for a Fast, Preliminary Authentication of Gemstones. Molecules. 2022 Jul 23; 27 (15): 4716. doi: 10. 3390/ molecules 27154716. PMID: 35897892; PMCID: PMC 9330567.
  • Huang, Zixuan & Li, Geng & Weng, Liqun & Zhang, Meilun. (2023). Gemological and Mineralogical Characteristics of Emerald from Ethiopia. Crystals. 13. 233. 10. 3390/ cryst- 13020233.
  • Carlson S. Astrology. Experientia. 1988 Apr 15; 44 (4): 290- 7. doi: 10. 1007/ BF01961265. PMID: 3282904.
  • Ribeiro LC. Nautical astrology: a forgotten early modern tradition. Ann Sci. 2023 Feb 19:1- 33. doi: 10. 1080/ 00033790. 2023. 2179111. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36800934.
  • Saxena, Virendra. (2009). A guide for Astrology, gemstones, and rudraksha.
  • Janai S, Biviji AT, Naik DG, Lakhe RT, Rao VB. Astro Medicine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Anc Sci Life. 1991 Apr; 10 (4): 231- 3. PMID: 22556538; PMCID: PMC  3331291.
  • Lavekar, Gandhidas & Ravishankar, Basavaiah & Rao, S & Gaidhani, Sudesh & Bk, Ashok & Shukla, Vinay. (2009). Safety / Toxicity studies of ayurvedic formulation-Navratna rasa. Toxicology International. Vol- 16. 37- 42.
  • Hussain, Gazala & Kadibagil, dr. (2019). A review on Yakuti: A unique formulation. 1238- 1240.
  • Breeding, Christopher & Shen, Andy & Eaton-Magaña, Sally & Rossman, George & Shigley, James & Gilbertson, AI. (2010). Developments in Gemstone Analysis Techniques and Instrumentation During the 2000s. Gems and Gemology. 46. 10. 5741/ GEMS. 46. 3. 241.
  • Austin PC, Mamdani MM, Juurlink DN, Hux JE. Testing multiple statistical hypotheses resulted in spurious associations: a study of astrological signs and health. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006 Sep; 59 (9): 964- 9. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jclinepi. 2006. 01. 012. Epub 2006 Jul 11. PMID: 16895820.
  • Coffey, Lissa. (2017). 28 Nakshatras – The Real Secrets of Vedic Astrology (An e-book).
  • Travis F, Melzer A, Scharf D. Effects of Maharishi Light Technology with Gems: A random-assignment, placebo-controlled, blinded pilot study. SAGE Open Med. 2020 May 9; 8: 2050312120918272. doi: 10. 1177/ 2050312120918272. PMID: 32435483; PMCID: PMC 7222645.
  • Shang Y, Guo Y, Tang J. Spectroscopy and chromatic characterization of yellow to light-blue iron-containing beryl. Sci Rep. 2022 Jun 24; 12 (1): 10765. doi: 10. 1038/ s41598- 022- 11916- z. PMID: 35750690; PMCID: PMC 9232576.
  • Sharma, A. V (1989). Gems and their medicinal values. The ancient science of life. 9. 26- 7.
  • Grundmann, Guenter & Giuliani, Gaston. (2002). Emeralds of the World. Extra Lapis English ISBN 3- 921 656- 58- 3. extraLapis English. 25 – 35.
  • Kalam MA, Rahman S. Lajward (Lapis lazuli): Medicinal Potential of a High-Value Gemstone in the Light of Unani Medicine, IPPR.Human. 2020; 20 (1): 389- 99.
  • Seraj S, Monjur-E-Khudha M, Aporna SA, Khan SH, Islam F, Jahan FI, Mou SM, Khatun Z, Rahmatullah M. Use of Gemstones for Preventive and Curative Purposes: a Survey among the Traditional Medicinal Practitioners of the Bede Community of Bangladesh. Am Eur I Sustain Agri. 2011; 5 (2): 263- 9.
  • Strack, Elisabeth & Kostov, Ruslan. (2010). Emeralds, sapphires, pearls, and other geological materials from the Preslav gold treasure (X century) in Bulgaria. Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Petrology. 48. 103- 123.
  • Oomkens, T. (2014). Emerald sky: A semi-precious gemstone of rare beauty. Maritime by Holland. 63. 56- 61.
  • Puppim de Oliveira, Jose & Ali, Saleem. (2011). Gemstone mining as a development cluster: A study of Brazil’s emerald mines. Resources Policy. 36. 132- 141. 10. 1016/ j. resources. 2010. 10. 002.
  • Pardieu, Vincent & Sangsawong, Supharart & Cornuz, Léonard & Raynaud, Victoria & Luetrakulprawat, Sarocha. (2020). Update on Emeralds from the Mananjary-Irondro Area, Madagascar. The Journal of Gemmology. 37. 416- 425. 10. 15506/ JoG. 2020. 37. 4. 416.
  • Moroz, Inessa & Roth, Michael & Boudeulle, Micheline & Panczer, Gerard. (2000). Raman microspectroscopy and fluorescence of emeralds from various deposits. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy. 31. 485 – 490. 10. 1002/ 1097- 4555 (200006) 31: 6: 485: AID-JRS561: 3.0. CO; 2- M.
  • Kalam, Mohd & Baig, Wahid & Ahmad, Ansar & Ansari, Huzaifa & Rahman, Shafiqur & Haseeb, Abdul. (2021). Zumurrud (emerald): Medicinal Potential of a Gemstone from Jawaharat-i-tis ‘a (navratan), in the Perspective of Unani Medicine. JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN AYURVEDA, YOGA, UNANI, SIDHHA & HOMEOPATHY. 8. 5- 9. 10. 24321/ 2394. 6547. 202102.
  • Zellagui, Riadh. (2022). Afghan Emerald with Gota de Aceite Phenomenon. The Journal of Gemmology. 38. 115. 10. 15506/ JoG. 2022. 38. 2. 115.
  • Hoover, Donald & Williams, C. (2007). Better refractometer results with the Bright Line technique. The Journal of Gemology. 30. 10. 15506/ JoG. 2007. 30. 5. 287.
  • Krishina, Radhe & Chanda, Mutale & Ahmed, Hoda. (2014). Zambia s Zeal for Gemstones: A Review of Historical Development. 10. 2991/ msmi- 14. 2014. 2.
  • Mohapatra, Sanjay. (2014). Emerald. Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies.
  • Behura, Reshma. (2016). Characterization of low grade natural emerald gemstones.
  • Araujo Neto, Jose & Barreto, Sandra & Carrino, Thais & Müller, Axel & Santos, Lauro. (2019). Mineralogical and gemological characterization of emerald crystals from Paraná deposit, NE Brazil: a study of mineral chemistry, absorption and reflectance spectroscopy and thermal analysis. Brazilian Journal of Geology. 10. 1590/ 2317-4889- 201920- 190014.
  • Wang, Hao & Krzemnicki, Michael & Cartier, Laurent. (2016). GemTOF: A Pioneering Technique in Gemology.
  • B, Reshma & Ramasamy, Sakthivel & JK, Mohanty. (2017). Characterization of Low-Grade Natural Emerald Gemstone. Journal of Geology & Geophysics. 06. 10. 4172/ 2381- 8719. 1000271.
  • Zhang S, Li K, Pu J, Ni W. Preparation and Basic Properties of Praseodymium-Neodymium-Chromium Containing Imitation Gemstone Glass. Materials (Basel). 2022 Oct 20; 15 (20): 7341. doi: 10. 3390/ ma- 15207341. PMID: 36295409; PMCID: PMC- 9611999.
  • Day RN, Davidson MW. The fluorescent protein palette: tools for cellular imaging. Chem Soc Rev. 2009 Oct; 38 (10): 2887- 921. doi: 10. 1039/ b901966a. Epub 2009 Aug 4. Erratum in: Chem Soc Rev. 2011 Dec; 40 (12): 5923. PMID: 19771335; PMCID: PMC- 2910338.
  • Hansen A, Bannwarth C, Grimme S, Petrovic P, Werle C, Djukic JP. The thermochemistry of London dispersion-driven transition metal reactions: getting the ‘right answer for the right reason’. Chemistry Open. 2014 Oct; 3 (5): 177- 89. doi: 10. 1002/ open. 201402017. Epub 2014 Sep 4. PMID: 25478313; PMCID: PMC- 4234214.
  • Hunault MOJY, Harada Y, Miyawaki J, Wang J, Meijerink A, de Groot FMF, van Schooneveld MM. Direct Observation of Cr3+ 3d States in Ruby: Toward Experimental Mechanistic Evidence of Metal Chemistry. J Phys Chem A. 2018 May 10; 122 (18): 4399- 4413. doi: 10.1021/ acs. jpca. 8b00984. Epub 2018 Apr 26. PMID: 29660293; PMCID: PMC- 6023264.
  • Lasheen ESR, Rashwan MA, Azer MK. Effect of mineralogical variations on physico-mechanical and thermal properties of granitic rocks. Sci Rep. 2023 June 26; 13 (1): 10320. doi: 10.1038/ s41598- 023- 36459- 9. PMID: 37365229; PMCID: PMC- 10293192.
  • Zeug M, Nasdala L, Ende M, Habler G, Hauzenberger C, Chanmuang N C, Skoda R, Topa D, Wildner M, Wirth R. The parasite-(Ce) enigma: challenges in the identification of fluor carbonate minerals. Mineral Petrol. 2021; 115 (1): 1- 19. doi: 10. 1007/ s00710- 020- 00723- x. Epub 2020 Oct 10. PMID: 33519095; PMCID: PMC- 7831744.
  • Cooper RG, Harrison AP. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2009 Aug; 13 (2): 65- 76. doi: 10. 4103/ 0019- 5278. 55122. PMID: 20386622; PMCID: PMC- 2847329.
  • Khaleal FM, El-Bialy MZ, Saleh GM, Lasheen ESR, Kamar MS, Omar MM, El-Dawy MN, Abdelaal A. Assessing environmental and radiological impacts and lithological mapping of beryl-bearing rocks in Egypt using high-resolution sentinel-2 remote sensing images. Sci Rep. 2023 July 17; 13 (1): 11497. doi: 10. 1038/ s41598- 023- 38298-0. PMID: 37460601; PMCID: PMC- 10352251.
  • Jasso-Martinez JM, Donath A, Schulten D, Zaldívar-Riverón A, Sann M. Midgut transcriptome assessment of the cockroach-hunting wasp Ampulex compressa (Apoidea: Ampulicidae). PLoS One. 2021 Jun 24; 16 (6): e0252221. doi: 10. 1371/ journal. pone. 0252221. PMID: 34166422; PMCID: PMC- 8224941.
  • Schwartz FW, Lee S, Darrah TH. A Review of the Scope of Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining Worldwide, Poverty, and the Associated Health Impacts. Geohealth. 2021 Jan 15; 5 (1): e2020GH000325. doi: 10. 1029/ 2020GH000325. PMID: 33763625; PMCID: PMC- 7977029.
  • Karampelas, Stefanos & Alshaybani, Bader & Mohamed, Fatima & Sangsawong, Supharart & Al- Alawi, Abeer. (2019). Emeralds from the Most Important Occurrences: Chemical and Spectroscopic Data. Minerals. 9. 561. 10. 3390/ min- 9090561.
  • Itrat M. Methods of health promotion and disease prevention in Unani medicine. J Educ Health Promot. 2020 Jul 28; 9: 168. doi: 10. 4103/ jehp. jehp_ 618_ 19. PMID: 33015201; PMCID: PMC- 7497120.
  • Bottari T, Nibali VC, Branca C, Grotti M, Savoca S, Romeo T, Spano N, Azzaro M, Greco S, D’Angelo G, Mancuso M. Anthropogenic microparticles in the emerald rockcod Trematomus bernacchii (Nototheniidae) from the Antarctic. Sci Rep. 2022 Oct 14; 12 (1): 17214. doi: 10. 1038/ s41598- 022- 21670- x. PMID: 36241682; PMCID: PMC- 9568522.
  • Travis F, Melzer A, Scharf D. Effects of Maharishi Light Technology with Gems: A random-assignment, placebo-controlled, blinded pilot study. SAGE Open Med. 2020 May 9; 8: 2050312120918272. doi: 10. 1177/ 2050312120918272. PMID: 32435483; PMCID: PMC 7222645.
  • Shang Y, Guo Y, Tang J. Spectroscopy and chromaticity characterization of yellow to light-blue iron-containing beryl. Sci Rep. 2022 Jun 24; 12 (1): 10765. doi: 10. 1038/ s41598- 022- 11916-z. PMID: 35750690; PMCID: PMC- 9232576.
  • Giuliani G, Chaussidon M, Schubnel HJ, Piat DH, Rollion-Bard C, France-Lanord C, Giard D, de Narvaez D, Rondeau B. Oxygen isotopes and emerald trade routes since antiquity. Science. 2000 Jan 28; 287 (5453): 631- 3. doi: 10. 1126/ science. 287. 5453. 631. PMID: 10649992.

References    

  • Dr. Indradeva Tripathi, Rasaratna Samuchhaya of Vagbhatacharya, 4/8, Hindi translation, 3rd edition, published by Chaukhamba Sanskrit Bhawan, K 37/ 116, Gopal Mandir Lane, Varanasi – 221 001.
  • National Formulary of Unani Medicine. Part III. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine; 2001. 20 р.
  • National Formulary of Unani Medicine. Part I. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine; 2006. р. 46, 72, 78, 110, 231.
  • Dr. Harishankar Pathak, editor, ‘Jatak Parijat’ of Daivagya Vaidyanath, 2/21, Hindi translation, 1st edition, published by Chaukhamba Surabharati, Varanasi – 221001, 2012.
  • Khan A. Muheet-i-Azam. Vol 2. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine; 2013. p. 788- 90.
  • Hakim A. Bustanul Mufradat. New Delhi: Idara Kitabu Shifa; 2011. 112 p. Rafiquddin M. Kanzul Advia Mufrada. AMU, Aligarh: University Publication Unit; 1985. p. 389, 390
  • Harishankar Pathak, editor, ‘Faladipika’ of Mantreshwara, 2/29, 1st edition, Hindi translation, published by Chaukhamba Surabharati, Varanasi – 221001.
  • Dr. Vilas Dole, Dr. Parkasha Paranjpe, A textbook of Rasa Shastra, reprinted 2016, Chaukambha Sanskrit Pratishthana, Delhi.
  • National Formulary of Unani Medicine. Part V. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine; 2008. 
  • Qarabadin Sarkari. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine. 
  • Dr. Ravinder Angadi, A textbook of Rasa Shastra, Iatro- Chemistry and Ayurveda Pharmaceutics, First edition, Chaukambha Surbharti Parkashana, Varanasi.
  • P. Himsagara Chandra Murthy, Rasa- Shastra, the Mercurial system, Chaukambha Sanskrit series office, Varanasi.
  • Dr. Damodara Joshi, Rasa Amritam, Chaukambha Sanskrit Sansthana, Varanasi.
  • Kalam MA, Rahman S. Lajward (Lapis lazuli): Medicinal Potential of a High-Value Gemstone in the Light of Unani Medicine, IPPR.Human. 2020; 20 (1): 389- 99.
  • Seraj S, Monjur-E-Khudha M, Aporna SA, Khan SH, Islam F, Jahan FI, Mou SM, Khatun Z, Rahmatullah M. Use of Gemstones for Preventive and Curative Purposes: a Survey among the Traditional Medicinal Practitioners of the Bede Community of Bangladesh. Am Eur I Sustain Agri. 2011; 5 (2): 263- 9.
  • Baitar I.Al-Jami Li-Mufradatul Advia waAl-Aghzia. Vol. 2. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine; 2000. p. 348, 349.
  • Kabiruddin M. Makhzanul Mufradat. New Delhi: Idara Kitabus Shifa; 2014. p. 240, 241.
  • Ghani N. Khazainul Advia. New Delhi: Idara Kitabus Shifa; 2011. p. 765, 766.
  • Kabiruddin M. Bayaz-i-Kabir. 5thed. Vol. 2. New Delhi, India; Aijaz Publishing House; 1934. p. 426, 430, 452, 453.
  • Ashraf MH. Makhzanul Mufradat Ma Murakkabat wa Khwasul Advia. New Delhi: Aijaz Publishing House; 2011. 
  • Nasir MAH. Mufradat Nasiri Mae Takmila. India: Qaisari Publication. YNM.
  • Anandan AR, Thulasimani. Siddha Materia Medica (Mineral and Animal Kingdom). Department of Indian Medicine and Homeopathy, Chennai; 1985. 
  • National Formulary of Unani Medicine. Part VI. New Delhi: Central Council for Research in Unani Medicine, 2011. 
  • Qarabadin Majidi. Delhi: Alami Printing Press. YNM.

Dr. Sahil Gupta completed his Bachelor of Ayurveda in Medicine and Surgery (B.A.M.S.) and Master’s Degree in Health Administration (MHA) India. He is Registered Ayurvedic Doctor & Vaidya in India having Registration No. 23780. He is the CEO and founder of IAFA. After completing BAMS, Dr. Sahil Gupta started practicing Ayruveda by giving prime importance to allergic disorders management. He became the first Ayurvedic doctor to cure Food Allergies through Ayurveda. Read More About Dr. Sahil Gupta.

Was this Page Helpful?

    Read More Articles

    Contact IAFA Ayurveda - WhatsApp Live Chat