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Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa)

Lodhra - The Miraculous Wound Healer


Lodhra botanically known as Symplocos racemosa is a critically endangered medicinal plant that belongs to the Symplocaceae family i.e. Styraceae family. The Lodhra word is derived from the Sanskrit word that means Tilaka or propitious as the Tvaka i.e. bark of the Lodhra tree is used to mark Tilaka on the forehead in the ancient time. In Classical literature, Lodhra is also considered as Divya Aushadhi, and in various Ayurvedic classics and Nighantus, it is used to cure various disorders like Rakta Pitta, Atisara, Pradara, Sotha, Netra Roga, Pravahika, Yuvan Pidika, etc. Charaka Samhita Lodhra is considered Shonit Sthapana, Pureesha Sangrahniya, Sandhaniya herb, etc and in Sushruta Samhita, Lodhra is considered under Lodhradi Gana and Nyagrodhadi Gana. In recent research, Lodhra has various chemical constituents like saponin, beta-sitosterol, arabinose-galactan, loturine, loturidine, flavonol, phlorizin, etc. due to its exhibits various actions like antipyretic, anti- diabetic, cardiotonic, laxative, anthelmintic properties, etc. Lodhra is considered the magical remedy for the cure of various gynecological disorders.

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Basonym of Lodhra

रोध्र- रुणद्धि | रुधिर आवरण |

Lodhra has the property of stopping bleeding.

Synonyms of Lodhra

तिल्वतिलति स्निह्यति अङ्गम अनेनेति तिल्व: |

Lodhra produces smoothness to the organs of the body.

कर्मुक– क्रमति गच्छति कषायातां इति |

Lodhra has an astringent taste like that of Kramuka (Areca catechu).

तिरीट: – तिर्यति रोगान इति तिरीट: |

Lodhra cures many diseases.

पट्टिकाख्यपट्टो अस्यास्तीति पट्टी पट्टिका |

Bark is beautiful and has high medicinal values.

मार्जनमाधरयनेनमरीजो शुद्धो |

Lodhra when, used it cleanses the body.

Regional Names of Lodhra

  • Lodh tree (English)
  • Lodh (Hindi)
  • Pachettu (Kannada)
  • Pachotti (Malayalam)
  • Lodhra (Marathi)
  • Lodhra (Bengali)
  • Belli lotti (Tamil)
  • Lodduga (Telugu)
  • Lodhara (Gujarati)
  • Lodho (Oriya)

Scientific Classification of Lodhra

Kingdom Plantae
Class  Dicotyledonae
Sub-Class Gamopetalous
Series Heteromerae
Order Etepales
Family  Symplocaceae
Genus Symplocos 
Species  Racemosa

Botanical Name of Lodhra

Symplocos racemosa Roxb.

Symplocos means connection. Stamens united at the base, having an inflorescence with a long undivided axis.


Symplocaceae (Lodhra Kula)

Ayurveda reference for Lodhra (Symplocos racemosa Roxb.)

Classification of Lodhra - As Per Charaka and Sushruta

Charaka: Sandhaniya Mahakshaya, Pureesha Sangrahniya mahakshaya, Shonit Sthapana Mahakshaya

Sushruta: Lodhradi Gana, Nyagrodhadi gana.

Lodhra's Description in Brihtrayi (Pathani Lodhra)

There are two varieties of Lodhra. The first is S. racemosa which may be called Savara Lodhra and the second is S. crataegoides which may be recognized as Pattika Lodhra. The presence of easily separable plates of tissues in the inner bark may have been the reason for naming it above. The introduction of the names Tilvaka and Tilaka by later writers as synonyms of Lodhra created confusion which resulted in the merger of Tilvaka with Lodhra.


Charaka  Shusruta  Vagbhata 

(Ashtang Hridya)

C. S. Su. 3/ 11, 25, 28 S. S. Su. 16/ 27 A. H. U. 18/ 21
C. S. Su. 4/ 5, 31, 46 S. S. Su. 36/ 7 A. H. U. 34/ 4
C. S. Su. 5/ 18 S. S. Su. 46/ 432
C. S. Su. 25/ 49 S. S. Chi. 6/ 15
C. S. Vi. 8/ 151 S. S. Chi. 20/ 37
C. S. Sa. 8/ 73, 79 S. S. Chi. 21/ 6
C. S. Chi. 4/ 44, 65, 66, 72, 80, 88, 98, 103 S. S. Chi. 22/ 9
C. S. Chi. 6/ 26, 29, 30, 37, 40 S. S. U. 17/ 41
C. S. Chi. 7/ 92, 94, 128, 130 S. S. U. 19/ 15
C. S. Chi. 14/ 139, 160, 195, 197, 230 S. S. U. 21/ 48
C. S. Chi. 16/ 105 S. S. U. 39/ 297
C. S. Chi. 17/ 79 S. S. U. 40/ 69, 70, 72, 86, 120, 121, 122, 123, 144
C. S. Chi. 19/ 60, 97, 116
C. S. Chi. 21/ 54, 56, 75, 76, 96
C. S. Chi. 22/ 34, 42
C. S. Chi. 23/ 56, 245
C. S. Chi. 24/ 158
C. S. Chi. 25/ 65, 67, 90, 109, 112
C. S. Chi. 26/ 190, 194, 207, 215, 237, 268
C. S. Chi. 27/ 29
C. S. Chi. 29/ 110
C. S. Chi. 30/ 77, 90, 97, 116, 118
C. S. Ka. 9/ 3, 7, 8, 11, 15
C. S. Ka. 12/ 28
C. S. Si. 3/ 45, 46, 48
C. S. Si. 9/ 13
C. S. Si. 10/ 25, 30
C. S. Si. 12/ 56

Lodhra's Description in Brihtrayi as Savar Deshaja, Savaro Udbhava

Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. U. 16/ 4, A. H. U. 32/ 61

Lodhra's Description in Brihtrayi as Savar Lodhra, Shavar- k- Lodhra

Charaka Samhita: C. S.Chi. 15/ 158, C. S. Chi. 23/ 54, C. S. Chi. 26/ 231


Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 38/ 14, 46, 49, S. S. Chi. 22/ 17, S. S. Ka. 2/ 51, S. S. Chi. 18/ 101, S. S. Chi. 40/ 39


Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 26, 45, A. H. Su. 22/ 19, A. H. Chi. 2/ 16, A. H. Chi. 9/ 36, S. S. U.  11/ 38, S. S. U. 13/ 65, 93, A. H. U. 16/ 5

Lodhra's Description in Brihtrayi as Akshi Bhaishjya

Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 9/ 23

Lodhra's Description in Brihtrayi as Nayan Aushadha

Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 11/ 59

Lodhra's Description in Brihtrayi as Rodhra

Charaka  Shusruta  Vagbhata 

(Ashtang Hridya)

C. S. Su. 3. 4, 9 S. S. Su. 6/ 24 A. H. Su. 15/ 26, 38, 41
S. S. Su. 12/ 27 A. H. Su. 21/ 16
S. S. Su. 14/ 37 A. H. Su. 27/ 48
S. S. Su. 25/ 27 A. H. Su. 29/ 55
S. S. Su. 36/ 27 (2) A. H. Chi. 1/ 55, 134
S. S. Su. 38/ 14, 48 A. H. Chi. 2/ 16, 25, 27
S. S. Chi. 1/ 85 A. H. Chi. 8/ 65, 109, 112, 114, 117, 130
S. S. Chi. 2/ 38, 82 A. H. Chi. 9/ 63, 64, 65, 84
S. S. Chi. 3/ 60 A. H. Chi. 12/ 7, 8, 17, 25
S. S. Chi. 7/ 35 A. H. Chi. 17/ 26
S. S. Chi. 8/ 43 A. H. Chi. 19/ 67
S. S. Chi. 9/ 7, 10, 50 A. H. Ka. 2/ 39
S. S. Chi. 11/ 9 A. H. Ka. 4/ 11, 12, 14
S. S. Chi. 12/ 5, 10 A. H. U. 2/ 41, 50
S. S. Chi. 16/ 15, 42 A. H. U. 5/ 33
S. S. Chi. 17/ 10, 22, 28 A. H. U. 9/ 11, 32
S. S. Chi. 18/ 33, 41 A. H. U. 11/ 22, 39
S. S. Chi. 19/ 40 A. H. U. 13/ 3, 29, 74
S. S. Chi. 20/ 37 A. H. U. 14/ 26
S. S. Chi. 22/ 15, 16, 32 A. H. U. 16/ 7, 16, 17, 32
S. S. Chi. 25/ 17, 38 A. H. U. 18/ 8, 43
S. S. Chi. 38/ 54 A. H. U. 22/ 1, 6, 9, 15, 35, 36, 60, 64, 80, 85, 87, 91, 98
S. S. Ka. 5/ 67 A. H. U. 25/ 52, 58, 59
S. S. U. 10/ 4 (2), 10, 11, 12 A. H. U. 27/ 24, 25, 40
S. S. U. 12/ 7, 48 A. H. U. 28/ 35
S. S. U. 17/ 15, 91 A. H. U. 30/ 7
S. S. U. 21/ 46 A. H. U. 32/ 3, 17, 25
S. S. U. 30/ 5 A. H. U. 34/ 10, 46, 51
S. S. U. 39/ 176 A. H. U. 35/ 39
S. S. U. 40/ 64, 69 A. H. U. 37/ 74, 86
S. S. U. 45/ 25, 33, 34, 39

Lodhra's Description in Brihtrayi as Kramuka (Controversy)

Kramuka has been identified with Pugaphala, Pattika Lodhra, or Tuda by the Nighantukara and commentators. Its inclusion in the Salasaradi and Syamadi Ganas indicates that it is a tree species whose bark and wood have been or can be used and that it has purgative properties. Lodhra is astringent ( Samgrahi) and Sita Virya while Kramuka appears to be Usna and purgative. Tuda bark and Puga fruit may serve as substitutes and Lodhra bark may be used in the preparation of alcoholic preparations (Asava-area). The popular name Kimu of Tuda tree in sub -Himalayan tracts lends support to the view that Kramuka of Ayurveda was originally this Tada tree. The reported anthelmintic and purgative properties of its bark also support this view. One feels tempted to believe that during the copying of the manuscripts Tada might have been read as Pug. The word Pug, wherever it occurs in the texts, invariably indicates the use of fruit while the use of bark in the case of Kramuka has been emphasized and there is very little chance of the two being the names of the same drug.


Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 25/ 49, C. S. Chi. 4/ 74, C. S. Chi. 6/ 41, C. S. Chi. 7/ 80, C. S. Chi. 14/ 159, 164, C. S. Chi. 15/ 165, C. S. Chi. 16/ 107, C. S. Si. 7/ 36


Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 38/ 12, 29, S. S. Chi. 11/ 8, S. S. Ka. 5/ 70


Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Su. 15/ 19, 45, A. H. Chi. 12/ 25

Lodhra's Description in Brihtrayi as Tilaka (Controversy)

This is one of the Dohada Vriksha of Hindi and Sanskrit poets. It was wrongly identified with the Lodhra, Tilaka is Wendlandia exerta.


Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 30/ 72


Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Ka. 6/ 20


Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. U. 38/ 30

Lodhra's Description in Brihtrayi as Tilvaka (controversial)

Tilvaka is one of the important drug plants of ancient Ayurvedic literature, but it has suffered complete pushback due to its merger with another clinically similar drug Lodhra. It appears it had lost its individuality even before Drdhabala re-edited Caraka Samhita who equated it with Lodhra. It is an interesting instance of how a drug suffers total disappearance from view after its merger with another drug more commonly known and easily available. With the disappearance of Tilvaka from the minds of the pharmacists and practitioners in Ayurveda, one of its most important preparations mentioned as Tilvaka ghrta or Tailvaka has become unheard of. No argument is needed to show that Tilvaka and Lodhra have separate identities and have quite distinct and opposite effects on the digestive system, one being purgative and the other an astringent ( Grahi ) substance. The search for real Tilvaka was made by examining a plant called Thelka in some areas of Garhawal and that plant was botanically known as Viburnum nervosum D.  Don. Then, again it was found that Viburnum enters into a preparation together with Lodhra as both have nearly similar effects in the menstrual (Artava-related) diseases of women. Its utility in eye diseases just like those of Lodhra also finds mention in the literature. The idea just gained ground that the merger of the two must have come about due to the unavailability of Tilvaka and partial similarity in their actions in the above-mentioned diseases, however, poles apart they might have been in other respects. In the Gangotri side of the Himalayas, it was found that the same Viburnum species also called Tilena and grows side by side with Symplocos crataegoides Buch. Ham., called Loda by the local people there. An attempt was also made to examine the bark of the said Viburnum species which was found to have purgative action. On account of the above findings, it has been tentatively accepted as the genuine Tilvaka. There is another point of confusion. Tilvaka has also been considered a synonym of Tilaka which has now been identified with Wendlandia of the plains and the lower Himalayan hills. The properties of Tilvaka have also been claimed for Tilaka and it is not improbable that another substitute of Tilvaka was more easily available and better properties were found in Tilaka, but this too went the way of Tilvaka in losing its identity and playing the role of a synonym of Lodhra.


Charaka  Shusruta  Vagbhata 

(Ashtang Hridya)

C. S. Su. 1/ 114, 115 S. S. Su. 11/ 11 A. H. Su. 15/ 2
C. S. Su. 25/ 49 S. S. Su. 38/ 29 A. H. Su. 30/1 0
C. S. Su. 30/ 62 S. S. Su. 39/ 4 A. H. Chi. 1/ 92, 157
C. S. Vi. 7/ 26 S. S. Su. 44/ 3, 60 A. H. Chi. 3/ 153, 175
C. S. Vi. 8/ 144 S. S. Chi. 4/ 27 A. H. Chi. 6/ 11, 56
C. S. Chi. 3/ 266 S. S. Chi. 8/ 39 A. H. Chi. 10/ 24
C. S. Chi. 13/ 122, 156 S. S. Chi. 9/ 28 A. H. Chi. 11/ 41
C. S. Chi. 15/ 76 S. S. Chi. 10/ 12 A. H. Chi. 13/ 6, 24, 30
C. S. Chi. 18/ 150, 181 S. S. Chi. 14/ 5, 10 A. H. Chi. 14/ 66
C. S. Chi. 26/ 100 S. S. Chi. 16/ 26, 37 A. H. Chi. 15/ 13, 38, 54
C. S. Chi. 28/ 84 S. S. Chi. 18/ 46 A. H. Chi. 21/ 10, 32
C. S. Ka. 1/ 5 S. S. Chi. 19/ 5 A. H. Ka. 2/ 38, 41
C. S. Ka. 9/ 1 S. S. Chi. 23/ 15 A. H. U. 20/ 12
C. S. Si. 9/ 13 S. S. Chi. 31/ 5 A. H. U. 22/ 26
S. S. Ka. 6/ 3, 20
S. S. U. 10/ 14
S. S. U. 17/ 6
S. S. U. 24/ 29
S. S. U. 39/ 214
S. S. U. 42/ 40
S. S. U. 44/ 15
S. S. U. 49/ 22
S. S. U. 50/ 21
S. S. U. 52/ 19

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Historical Background of Lodhra

  • In Rigveda, Lodha is described, and it is Lodhra according to P.V. Sharmaji. Probably the red bark is the reason for the later commentator’s description of Raktavarna for this tree/ bark (P. U. Bhoja- 2/ 3/ 29). 
  • Charaka described this tree with the name Rodhra only twice i.e. in C. S. Su. 3/ 4 & 9. But he extensively quoted Lodhra for Grahi and Sandhana effect. Sushruta and Vagbhata have quoted the two varieties of Rodhra (Rodhra Yugma or Rodhra dvaya) viz Rodhra (red variety) or Rodhraka/ Sveta Rodhra white variety (S. S. Ci. 17/ 10 and 22),  A. H. Su. 15/ 41 & A. H.  Ci. 8/ 109). 
  • Vagbhata specifically indicated the white variety of Rodhra for the treatment of eye diseases (A. H. U. 34/ 4). Thakurji considers this variety as Tilaka.

Controversial Studies of Lodhra

क्रमुक और तिल्वक सुश्रुत के श्यामादि गण  में पठित हैं। इससे इनके रेचन कर्म का निर्देश  मिलता है क्रमुक शाल सार आदि गण में है अतः यह कोई सारवान्वृक्ष है। चरक ने सूत्र स्थान के २५ अध्याय में त्वक  आसव  सन्दर्भ में तिल्वक, लोध्र तथा क्रमुक तीनों का उल्लेख किया है जिससे इन तीनों के पार्थिकय  का पता चलता है। अतः जो टीकाकार या कोषकार क्रमुक और लोध्र  तथा तिल्वक और लोध्र को पर्यायवाची मानते हैं उनका कथन इससे खण्डित हो जाता है  




  • चरक ने त्वगासव के अतिरिक्त रक्तपित, प्रमेह, कुष्ठ, अर्श , ग्रहणी, पाण्डुकामला में इसका प्रयोग किया है बस्ति के प्रतिलोम होने पर क्रमुक का कल्क  पिलाने का विधान किया है जो उष्णता , तीक्ष्णता  तथा सरत्व के कारण अनुलोमन करता है (चरक सिद्धि स्थान / ३७)| इसका क्रमुक के गन कर्म पर प्रकाश पड़ता है |ये गुण कर्म लोध्रा के नितांत विपरीत पड़ता है अत: क्रमुक और लोध्रा की एकता नहीं हो सकती है |
  • सुश्रुत ने साल सार आदि तथा श्यामादि गण में उल्लेख के अतिरिक्त क्षौद्र मेह, सर्प विष में इसका प्रयोग किया है | वाग्भट ने प्रेम उक्त लोध्र आसव में क्रमुक का पाद किया हैउपर्युक्त उल्लेखों से क्रमुक के दो मुख्य कर्म प्रकाश में आते हैं एक रेचन तथा दूसरा मधुमेहघन |
  • क्रमुक शब्द वैदिक वांग्मय में भी बहुशः मिलता है | क्रमुक भी इसके लिए प्रयुक्त  हुआ है यहसारवान्‌ वृक्ष  विशेष है जिसकी लचीली शाखाओं से घनुष बनता था यज्ञ में इसके काष्ठ  के यूप बनते थे अतः यूप दारु  कहा जाता है।
  • टीकाकारो ने क्रमुक से लोध्रा या पूग लिया है |किन्तु कैसे की कहा जा चूका है लोध्रा और क्रमुक का एक साथ उलेख होने से तथा गुण कर्मा में भिनत्ता के कारण क्रमुक, लोध्र नहीं हो सकता | क्रमुक से पूग का ग्रहण करना भी उच्चित नहीं है क्यूंकि तवांग आसव तथा शाल सार आदि में सार वां वृक्ष होना चाहिए जिसकी त्वचा प्रयाप्त निकलती हो | पूग में ऐसा सम्भव नहीं है | इस प्रकार क्रमुक  कोई दक्ष होना चाहिए सा कोई वृक्ष होना चाहिए. जो सारवान्‌ , प्रभूतवल्कल हो तथा रेचन एवं मेघुमेहध्न होक्रमुक से तुद लेने का विचार प्रस्तुत किया गया है क्योंकि इसे पार्वतीय  क्षेत्रों में कीमू कहते हैं तथा इसमें रेचन कर्म भी है किन्तु मधुमेह में उसके कर्म का उल्लेख नहीं मिलता |


अतः  विचार है कि क्रमुक से जारुल (Lagerstroemia speciosaका ग्रहण करना चाहिए इसको स्थानीय नामजारुल‘ (यूप) दारु का अवशिष्ट रूप है। इसमें रेचन और मधुमेहघ्न कर्म  भी पाये जाते है इसकी लकड़ी भी दृढ़  होती है और वृक्ष सारवान्होता है | फल पूग वत  होते हैं | इसका वृक्ष ७०८० फीट तक ऊँचा तथा १० फीट परिधि का होता है छाल चिकनी, धूसर वर्ण  होती है पत्रआयताकारभालाक[, इंच लम्बे होते हैं पुष्प गुलाबी. रंग के, वह, बड़ी मंजरियों में आते है। फललगभग डेढ़ इंच  लंबे, अंडाकार या कुछ गोलाकार, स्थूल, काष्टीय, त्रि  खण्डयुक्त बाह्मकोष से युक्त होते हैं। सूखने पर ये फट जाते हैं। बोज हलके भूरे रंग के होते हैं। फूल वसन्तमें आते हैं फल उसके बाद प्रायः बराबर देखे जाते हैं यह प्रायः समस्त भारत में होता है विशेषतः पूर्वी तथा दक्षिण भारत में मिलता है   वृक्ष के अनेक अंगों में इनुलिन के  समान घटक पाया जाता है जिसके कारण मधुमेहघ्न क्रिया होती है पत्र और फल में यह क्रिया विशेष होतो है पत्र रेचन भी हैं।  यह ज्ञातव्य है कि संहितोत्तर काल में क्रमुक शब्द प्रायः पुग के लए प्रयुक्त हुआ है चक्रदत्त, शारंगधर आदि ग्रन्थों में देखा जा सकता है सहिताओं में पूग का प्रयोग अत्यल्प है। चरक में केवल मुख शुध्यर्थ  प्रयोग हुआ है सुश्रूत में इसके अत्तिरिक्त, विरेचन में प्रयोग हुआ हैं।


लोध्र और  तिल्वक


दृढ़बल  ने लोध्र  और तिल्वक को पर्याय कहा है किन्तु लोध्र ग्राही है  जबकि तिल्वक रेचन है और चरक के त्वगासव एवं सुश्रुत के श्यामादि गण में  निर्दिष्ट है इसके अतिरिक्त, चरक के त्वगासव ( सू–  २५) में ये दोनों एक साथ पृथक  पठित हैं अतः ये दोनों भिन्न द्रव्य हैं


  • तिल्वक Viburnum nervosum माना गया है।
  • लोध्र Symplocos racemosa  है


लोध्रद्वय या रोध्रयुग्म का उल्लेख भी मिलता है इसके किन दो वनस्पतियों  को ग्रहण किया जाय॑ यह विचारणीय है लोध्र  भौर तिल्वक के साहचर्य  के कारण  इन्हें लोध्र द्वय  माना जा सकता था किन्तु इन हद गुणक्मे परस्पर विरोधी है  जबकि लोध्रा द्वय  समान गुण कहे गए है | ऐसे परिस्थिति में लोध्र द्वय से  Symplocos की ही दो प्रजातियों का ग्रहण करना चाहिए |


  • Symplocos racemosa Roxb.
  • Symplocos paniculata Miq.


Charaka described Phalini and Mulini dravyas followed by three plants whose barks are used viz., Putika, Krsnagandha, and Tilvaka. He further quoted Putika and Tilvaka for purgation (C. S. Su. 1). Bapalalji considers Tilvaka as the synonym of Lodhra. Lodhra bark used by traditional practitioners and described in the texts is Grahi (astringent) in nature. Whereas Tilvaka is considered rechaka (purgative). Therefore, both drugs are different and maybe two varieties of Lodhra. Bhavamishra accepted the second variety of Lodhra with red bark as purgative. On the other hand charak, already highlighted the importance of Tilvaka in purgation in the Kalpa Sthana (Tilvaka Kalpa). It appears finally that the synonyms Tilvaka and Tilaka at later times created confusion between Tilvaka and Lodhra.

Dr. Sahil Gupta Allergy Specialist

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External Morphology of Symplocos racemosa (Savara Lodhra)

  • Habit – Lodhra (Savara Lodhra) is a small evergreen tree with stems up to 20 ft. in height and 15 cm in diameter.
  • Bark – The bark of the Savara Lodhra is dark gray, rough blaze 7-13 mm thick, shortly fibrous, pale yellow, and finely mottled with pale orange, and brown.
  • Leaves – Leaves of Savara Lodhra are 9 to 18 cm long and 3 to 5 cm wide, alternate, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, apex acute obtusely acuminate or obtuse, serrulate obscurely crenate or rarely entire, base acute cuneate, coriaceous, glabrous above and pubescent beneath when young but ultimately glabrous or with scattered spreading hairs mainly on the midrib, glossy on both surfaces, dark green above. When dry lateral nerves are indistinct, 5- 9 pairs. Petiole is 1 to 2 cm long.
  • Inflorescence – Inflorescence of Savara Lodhra is axillary pubescent racemes.
  • Flowers – Flowers of Savara Lodhra are 1 to 1.5 cm in diameter white fading yellow. Petals seen in 2 series stamens are usually numerous, and the ovary is inferior, 3 celled.
  • Fruit – The fruit of Savara Lodhra is a drupe, 1 to 1.3 cm long, oblong, glabrous, purplish black, crowned with persistent calyx.
  • Seeds – Seeds of Savara Lodhra are oblong, cotyledons much shorter than the radicle.

External Morphology of Symplocos crataegoides (Pattika Lodhra)

  • Habit: Pattika Lodhra is a large shrub or small tree.
  • Bark: The bark of Pattika Lodhra is light-gray, corky, with long vertical furrows. Wood is white, hard, and close-grained, but warps and splits in seasoning.
  • Leaves: Leaves of Pattika Lodhra are 2- 4 by 1- 1.5 in., broad- elliptic or ovate, acuminate, sharply glandular- serrulate towards the apex, membranous, pilose beneath, or glabrescent.
  • Flower: Flowers of Pattika Lodhra are white and 25 in. in diameter. Flowers are fragrant in cymose corymbs, forming dense terminal or axillary panicles bracts caducous. Calyx turbinate, lobes, ciliate. The Corolla of the Pattika Lodhra flowers is five -cleft nearly to the base. Stamens indefinite, connate in 5 bundles. Ovary inferior two-celled.
  • Fruit: The fruit of Pattika Lodhra is 12. 3 in. long, obliquely ovoid or obovoid, crowned with the remains of the calyx-limb, usually 1-seeded. Embryo curved, axile.

Flowering and Fruiting Time of Symplocos racemosa (Savara Lodhra)

Plant flowers in November-February.

Flowering and Fruiting Time of Symplocos crataegoides (Pattika Lodhra)

The plant bears new leaves and flowers in May-June and fruits in July- October. Flowers appear like hawthorn.

Distribution of Symplocos racemosa (Savara Lodhra)

It occurs in the Himalayan regions. In north-east India, the Kumaon region eastwards to Assam and Chota Nagpur; also in Upper Burma, the Andaman Islands, and in China. It is found in southern India (Malabar forests); the plant grows wild up to 761.5 meters or 2, 500 ft. Generally, the plant is found in the Himalayan region ascending to about 9,000 ft. altitude. Symplocos racemosa Roxb. is the chief source plant for Lodhra and the other two plants namely Symplocos crategoides Ham. and Symplocos spicata Roxb. are considered substitutes or adulterants in market drug material. Besides Symplocos crategoides Buch-Ham. Syn Symplocos paniculata known as Ludh, Lodha, Lojh (in Hindi) commonly Marang Ludma (Kola) and also Daukyat and loih (Upper Burma and Bushahar in Himachal Pradesh respectively), the bark of Symplocos spicata Roxb. which is a medium-sized or large shrub. It occurs generally in the Himalayan regions (from Kumaon to Bhutan and upto Assam, East Bengal, and other regions and Khasi hills, Cachar Chittagong hill tracts, Tenasserim, western ghats, Nilgiris, Shevarey hills. China, Japan, and the Malay Peninsula, Travancore Cochin (plains), Simhabhumi. In some regions, trees of Symplocos spicata Roxb. may sometimes attain (abnormal) height up to 18.6 meters or 60 ft. particularly where they get favorable ecological conditions (for thriving and developing well) resulting in a trunk of 1.8 meters or 6 ft. diam. Such trees provide good thick bark and normally thin branches bark 2.5 mm. or 1/10 in thickness as well as trunk bark (and also of thick branches) 1.25 cm. or 1/2 in. in thickness, and of ash or brownish color. Trees of Symplocos spicata Roxb. flower during the period from December to May and the fruiting stage is between April to June. Sometimes trees flower twice a year rarely.

Distribution of Symplocos crataegoides (Pattika Lodhra)

The plant occurs in the Himalayas at 3,000 to 9,000 ft. altitude; Outer Himalayan region and Uttar Pradesh hilly region (Kumaon and Garhwal zones). It is abundant on the Himalayas up to 9,000 ft. elevation, from the Indus to Assam and on the Khasia hills, and also Upper and Lower Burma.

The Useful Part of Lodhra

Stem Bark – The stem bark is curved, channeled, or arched and up to 1 cm thick. The outer surface is reddish brown, corky, and friable with deep transverse and longitudinal cracks. The corky covering breaks away frequently, excising a rusty brown granular surface. Internally, the bark is whitish or light brown and closely wrinkled longitudinally. On breaking the outer surface becomes a short piece but internally fibrous. Odor is characteristic and agreeable, having an astringent taste.

Varieties of Lodhra

Dhanwantri Nighantu Mentioned Two Varieties of Lodhra:


  • Lodhra
  • Kramuka


Bhavaprakasha Nighnatu Mentioned Two Varieties of Lodhra:


  • Lodhra
  • Pattika Lodhra


There are two varieties of Rodhra according to the Samhitas and Nighantus. The former is Savara Lodhra and the latter is Pattika Lodhra. The second variety is described with synonyms like- Kramuka, Jirna, Brihat Parna, Laksa Prasadana, Tirita, Marjana & Patti. Thakurji reported Savara Lodhra as S. racemosa and Pattika Lodhra as S. crataegoides.  P.V. Sharma ji opined that other species of symplocos viz., S. laurina, S. niculate, and S. summuntia are also used under the name Lodhra.

Important Phytoconstituent of Lodhra (S. racemosa)

The bark contains alkaloids up to 0.32 percent which mainly consist of three alkaloids namely loturine 0.24%, loturidine 0.06%, and collutrine 0.02% Among them, the first and third constituents are of crystalline form, and the remaining second principle is non-crystalline form or amorphous. The dilute acid solution of these alkaloids is with dark violet-blue color fluorescence. In addition, the bark contains an ample quantity of coloring matter and tannin.

Important Phytoconstituent of Pattika Lodhra (S. crataegoides / S. paniculata)

Stem Bark of Pattika Lodhra cyclohexane- 1- oic acid, and rost- 5 (6)- ene 17- one 3β- O- (β- d-glucopyranoside), 9β, 25- cyclo 3β- O- (β- D glucopyranosyl)- echynocystic acid, 9β,19- cyclo 24-methylcholan- 5, 22- diene 3β- O- {β- D- glucopyranosyl (1→6) α- L- rhamnopyranoside}.

Adulteration and Substitute of Lodhra

Symplocos spicata Roxb. are considered substitutes or adulterants in market drug material.


Symplocos spicata Roxb. is a middle-sized tree.


Leaves of S. spicata are coriaceous, glabrous, acuminate, serrulate, blade 1- 4, petiole 1/3- 1/2 in. Flowers cream- colored, sessile in paniculate axillary pubescent or glabrous spikes, each flower supported by 3 ovate bracts, ovary 3- celled, glabrous, as well as calyx-segments. Drupes sessile, nearly globose ribbed, 1/ 3 in. diameter. Flowering and fruiting in S. spicata occur in September- December.

Books Written by Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S, M.H.A.)

Recent Research on Lodhra (Savara Lodhra - S. racemosa)

  • The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Symplocos racemose (EESR) bark on carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)- induced hepatic damage in rats. It was therefore concluded that BESR bark is an effective hepatoprotective agent in CCl4- induced hepatic damage and has potential clinical applications for the treatment of liver diseases. Wakchaure D, Jain D, Singhai AK, Somani R. Hepatoprotective activity of Symplocos racemosa bark on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. J Ayurveda Integer Med. 2011 Jul; 2 (3): 137- 43. doi 10. 4103/ 0975- 9476. 85552. In this study, the in vivo effect of aqueous extracts of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Fam. Symplocaceae) on serum FSH and LH levels in immature female Sprague-Dawley rats under basal conditions are reported. 
  • Bhutani. KK, Jadhav AN, Kalia V. Effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. on gonadotropin release in immature female rats and ovarian histology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Sep; 94 (1): 197- 200.
  • One new phenolic glycoside named benzoylsalireposide (1) along with one known phenolic glycoside named salireposide (2) have been isolated from Symplocos racemosa. Four other known compounds i.e., beta-amyrin (3), oleanolic acid (4), beta-sitosterol (5), and beta-sitosterol glycoside (6) were also isolated from this plant. Ahmad VU, Abbasi MA, Hussain H, Akhtar MN, Farooq U, Fatima N, Choudhary MI. Phenolic glycosides from Symplocos racemosa: natural inhibitors of phosphodiesterase I. Phytochemistry. 2003 May; 63 (2): 217- 20.
  • The phytochemical investigation of the n-butanol soluble fraction of the bark of the stem of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. yielded two new phenolic glycosides of salirepin series, symplocuronic acid (1) and sympocemoside (2), while salirepin (3) was isolated for the first time from this plant. Ahmad VU, Rashid MA, Abbasi MA, Rasool N, Zubair M. New salirepin derivatives from Symplocos racemosa. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2007 Apr-Aug; 9 (3- 5): 209- 15. Phytochemical investigation of Symplocos racemosa resulted in the isolation of a new ethyl-substituted glycoside, 1-ethyl brachiose- 3 – acetate (1) along with four known compounds ketochaulmoogric acid (2), nonaeicosanol (3), triacontyl palmitate (4) and methyl triacontanoate (5).
  • Abbasi MA, Ahmad VU, Zubair M, Nawaz SA, Lodhi MA, Farooq U, Choudhary MI. Lipoxygenase inhibiting ethyl substituted glycoside from Symplocos racemosa. Nat Prod Res. 2005 Jul; 19 (5): 509- 15.
  • Vijayabaskaran, M & K R, Yuvaraja & Babu, Gopu & Sivakumar, Pravind & Perumal, Perumal & Jayakar, Balasundaram. (2010). Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Symplocos racemosa bark extract on DMBA induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. International Journal of Current Trends in Science & Technology. 1. This study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of Symplocos racemosa (EESR) in acute experimental liver injury induced by administration of 7, 12-dimethyl benzene anthracene (DMBA) (25 mg/ kg, b. wt.) orally. After 90 days of the tumor development period, the treatment was started with EESR at the doses of 100 mg/ kg and 200 mg/ kg, for 60 days, and biochemical parameters such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TB), direct bilirubin (DB), creatinine (CEA) and total proteins with enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant level were recorded. EESR at both doses prevented the increase in body weight when compared to the hepatotoxin-treated group. The higher dose (200 mg/ kg) of EESR was found to be more effective than the lower dose (100 mg/ kg) in DMBA-induced liver damage, in which it produced a significant (p< 0.001) hepatoprotective effect by decreasing the activity of serum enzymes such as SGOT, SGPT, ALP, TB, DB and lipid peroxidation (LPO), while it significantly (p< 0.001) increased the levels of total proteins, reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in a dose-dependent manner. The activity of EESR was compared with the normal group and was concluded that EESR possesses good hepatoprotective activity probably by its antioxidative potential on hepatocytes. Key Words: Symplocos racemosa, DMBA, hepatoprotective, antioxidant.
  • Wakchaure, Dhananjay & Jain, D. & Singhai, Abhay & Somani, Rahul. (2011). Hepatoprotective activity of Symplocos racemosa bark on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine. 2. 137- 43. 10. 4103/ 0975-9476. 85552. The present study aims to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanol extract of Symplocos racemosa (EESR) bark on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)- induced hepatic damage in rats. CCl4 with olive oil (1: 1) (0.2 ml/ kg, i.p.) was administered for ten days to induce hepatotoxicity. EESR (200 and 400 mg/ kg, p.o.) and silymarin (100 mg/ kg p.o.) were administered concomitantly for fourteen days. The degree of hepatoprotection was measured using serum transaminases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, albumin, and total protein levels. The metabolic function of the liver was evaluated by thiopentone-induced sleeping time. Antioxidant activity was assessed by measuring liver malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels. Histopathological changes in liver samples were also observed. Significant hepatotoxicity was induced by CCl4 in experimental animals. EESR treatment showed significant dose-dependent restoration of serum enzymes, bilirubin, albumin, total proteins, and antioxidant levels. Improvements in hepatoprotection and morphological and histopathological changes were also observed in the EESR-treated rats. It was therefore concluded that EESR bark is an effective hepatoprotective agent in CCl4- induced hepatic damage and has potential clinical applications for the treatment of liver diseases.
  • Niyati, Acharya & Shah, U.R. & Shah, R.G. & Acharya, Sanjeev & Hingorani, Lal. (2015). Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Symplocos racemosa bark against hepatocellular carcinoma. 7. 384-385. Objective: To investigate in vitro anticancer activity of different extracts of bark of Symplocos racemosa against hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: Different successive extracts of Symplocos racemosa bark were prepared using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water and were tested in vitro for cytotoxicity using (3-4, 5- dimethylthiazol- 2- yl)- 2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay in rat normal liver cells (BRL- 3A) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (Hep3B) cells. Results: Ethyl acetate and chloroform extract of Symplocos racemosa exhibited cytotoxicity against human hepatocellular carcinoma ( ) cells in vitro with IC50 value (μg/ ml) of 63.45 and 75.55 respectively and not affected the normal liver (BRL-3A) cells. Conclusion: Symplocos racemosa bark extracts showed potential cytotoxic effects on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The anticancer activity exhibited by ethyl acetate and chloroform extract might be due to the presence of phenolics and flavonoid constituents present in the bark. Ethyl acetate extract can further be explored for possible cytotoxic activity using in vivo models of liver cancer.
  • Bhutani, Kamlesh & Jadhav, Atul & Kalia, Vandana. (2004). Effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. on gonadotropin release in immature female rats and ovarian histology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 94. 197- 200. 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2004. 04. 022. In the present study we are reporting the in vivo effect of aqueous extracts of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Fam. Symplocaceae) on serum FSH and LH levels in immature female Sprague-Dawley rats under basal conditions. Symplocos racemosa is used in the Indian System of Medicine (ISM) for various female disorders. Aqueous extract on oral administration significantly stimulated serum FSH level (P < 0.016) along with the rise in serum LH level (P < 0.001). Moreover, histopathological studies revealed enhanced folliculogenesis, the presence of mature follicles, and detached oocytes, which are the result of increased FSH and LH levels. Further, an increase in the ovary weight of treated animals was found due to the observed FSH surge. These results are in concordance with the traditional use of the drug for female disorders.
  • Ahmad, Viqar & Abbasi, Muhammad & Hussain, Hidayat & Akhtar, Muhammad & Farooq, Umar & Fatima, Naheed & Choudhary, Muhammad. (2003). Phenolic glycosides from Symplocos racemosa: Natural inhibitors of phosphodiesterase I. Phytochemistry. 63. 217–220. 10. 1016/ S0031- 9422 (03) 00075- X. One new phenolic glycoside named benzoylsalireposide (1) along with one known phenolic glycoside named salidroside (2) have been isolated from Symplocos racemosa. Four other known compounds i.e., b- amyrin (3), oleonolic acid (4), b- sitosterol (5), and b-sitosterol glycoside (6) were also isolated from this plant. The structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was based primarily on 1D- and 2D- NMR analysis, including COSY, HMQC, and HMBC correlations. Compounds 1 and 2 showed inhibitory activity against snake venom phosphodiesterase I.
  • Symposide and (-) epifzelechin showed antifibrinolytic activity (Ind. J. Chem., 28 B, 982, 1989).
  • Glycosides from S. spicate showed spasmolytic activity and curare-like activity (Rao Y.V. et al., “Preliminary Pharmacological Studies On Glycosides of Symplocos Spicata Roxb. Ind. J. Pharmacology, 15: p. 349- 352, 1983).
  • Alpha- spinasterol isolated from the stembark of S. spicata showed significant activity against acute inflammation induced by carrageenin in rats was more potent than phenylbutazone but less potent than betamethasone (frotan M.H. et al., “Pharmacological Investigation on Alpha- Spinasterol Isolated from Symplocos Spicata” Ind. J. Pharmacology, 3: p. 1- 3, 1983).
  • Spinasterol obtained from S. spicata at a dose of 25 mg/ kg exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity (J. Res. Ay. & Siddha, 7: 146, 1986)
  • S. racemosa and Piper cubeba together administer to patients suffering from spermatorrhoea (N= 30) have shown significant improvement in a clinical study (Kabiraj T.K., 1989).
  • Jadhav, Mamata & Menon, Sasikumar & Shailajan, Sunita. (2015). Anti-androgenic effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. against letrozole-induced polycystic ovary using a rat model. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 1. 10. 12980/ JCLM. 1. 2013C79. Objective: To investigate the anti-androgenic properties of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (S. racemosa) in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia-associated polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a letrozole-induced PCOS rat model. Methods: The testosterone levels were used to evaluate the anti-androgenic effect of S. racemose in letrozole-induced PCOS rats for 21 d. The low (250 mg/ kg), mid (500 mg/ kg), and high dose (1000 mg/  kg) of S. racemosa was given to the PCOS-induced rats for 15 d post letrozole induction to determine the effective dose of S. racemosa in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia associated. PCOS. The hormones such as estrogen and progesterone were also assayed along with testosterone to determine the fluctuations in sex steroid levels in PCOS rats induced by letrozole. Results: S. racemosa treatment significantly decreased testosterone levels which were found to be elevated in PCOS rats induced by letrozole. S. racemosa significantly restored other blood biochemical parameters such as estrogen, progesterone, and cholesterol levels. It also restored the histology of ovarian tissue. The ovarian weights and uterine weights were also significantly recovered after the S. racemosa treatment. Conclusions: The mid dose (500 mg/ kg) and high dose (1000 mg/ kg) of S. racemosa were found to be effective in the treatment of hyperandrogenemia in PCOS. This effect of S. racemosa was found to be comparable with clomiphene citrate. Clomiphene citrate, which was being used as the major medicine in the treatment of PCOS, could now be replaced with S. racemosa in the management of PCOS.
  • Sood, Henna & Kumar, Yashwant & Gupta, Vipan & Arora, Daljit Singh. (2020). Bioprospecting the antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antiproliferative activity of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Bark phytoconstituents along with their biosafety evaluation and detection of antimicrobial components by GC- MS. BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. 21. 10. 1186/ s40360- 020- 00453- y. 
  • The best organic extractant and major groups of phytoconstituents were tested for their antimicrobial activity against reference microbial strains and drug-resistant clinical isolates. The anti-proliferative potential of the most active group of phytoconstituents was evaluated against cancerous cell lines. The in vitro biosafety of phytoconstituents was evaluated by Ames and MTT assay, while in vivo biosafety of the most active phytoconstituents, i.e., flavonoids, was determined by acute oral toxicity. Further, the probable antimicrobial components in the flavonoids were detected by TLC and GC-MS.
  • Ethyl acetate extract was the most effective among various organic extracts, whereas phytoconstituents such as flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, saponins, tannins, triterpenes, and phytosterols were the major groups present, with flavonoids being the most potent antimicrobials. The phytoconstituents displayed a significant antibiofilm potential, as exhibited by inhibition of initial cell attachment, disruption of the pre-formed biofilms, and reduced metabolic activity of biofilms. The phytoconstituents were significantly active against the drug-resistant strains of E. coli, MRSA, and Salmonella spp. Further, flavonoids showed significant cytotoxic effects against the cancerous cell lines but were non-cytotoxic against the Vero (normal) cell line. All the test preparations were safe, as depicted by the Ames test and MTT assay. Also, flavonoids did not induce any abnormality in body weight, clinical signs, biochemical parameters, and organ histopathology of the Swiss albino mice during in vivo acute oral toxicity studies. The flavonoids were resolved into 4 bands (S1-S4), where S3 was the most active and its GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of several compounds, where Bicyclo [2. 2. 1] heptane-2-one, 1, 7, 7- trimethyl, (1S)- was the most abundant. These findings suggest that the phytoconstituents from Symplocos racemosa bark could act as a potential source of antimicrobial as well as antiproliferative metabolites.
  • Vijayabaskaran, M. & Badkhal, A.K. & Babu, Gopu & Sivakumar, Pravind & Perumal, Perumal & Sivakumar, T. & Sampathkumar, R. & Jayakar, Balasundaram. (2010). Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Symplocos racemosa Roxb against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 1. 306- 314. The antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract (100 and 200 mg/ kg) of Symplocos racemosa (EESR) was evaluated against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing Swiss albino mice. Acute and short-term toxicity studies were performed initially to ascertain the safety of EESR. After 24 h of tumor inoculation, the extract was administered daily for 14 days intraperitoneally. After administration of the last dose followed by 18 h fasting, the mice were sacrificed for observation of antitumor activity. The effect of EESR on the growth of the transplantable murine tumor, the life span of EAC-bearing mice, the hematological profile, and liver biochemical parameters (lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes) were estimated. Treatment with EESR decreased the tumor volume and viable cell count thereby increasing the lifespan of EAC-bearing mice and bringing back the hematological parameter to a more or less normal level. The effect of EESR also decreases the level of lipid peroxidation and increases the levels of catalase (CAT). The present work indicates that the ethanol extract of Symplocos racemosa exhibited an antitumor effect by modulating lipid peroxidation and augmenting the antioxidant defense system in EAC-bearing mice.
  • Vijayabaskaran, M & K R, Yuvaraja & Babu, Gopu & Perumal, Perumal & Jayakar, Balasundaram. (2010). Isolation and Characterization of Phenolic Glycoside from the Bark of Symplocos Racemosa Roxb. E-Journal of Chemistry. 7. S255- S260. 10. 1155/ 2010/ 570736. A new phenolic glycoside, 3, 5 – dihydroxy – 2- (hydroxyl methyl) – 6- (3, 4, 5- tri methoxy phenoxy) tetrahydro- 2H- pyran- 4- yl, 4- hydroxy- 3- methoxy benzoate have been isolated from the dried bark of Symplocos racemosa. The structure was identified by extensive spectral analysis, especially FT- IR, GC- MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR techniques. The method of isolation was simple, cost-effective, and efficient. The preliminary bioactivity of the compound was also evaluated. The ethanolic extract of Symplocos racemosa (EESR) was investigated for its anti-pyretic activity against brewer’s yeast-induced pyrexia. The antipyretic effect of EESR (measured as a % reduction in body temperature) was compared with paracetamol (100 mg/ kg, orally). EESR in the dose of 200 mg/kg caused a significant decrease in the body temperature of rats. This study has established the antipyretic activity of Symplocos racemosa and thus, justifies the ethnic uses of the plant.
  • Bhuvan, Raval & Jignesh, Patel & Bhavik, Patel & Ganure, Ashok. (2009). POTENT IN VITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA BARK. Objective. Assessment of antitumor activity of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. (Symplococaceae) plant extracts. Methods: Plant bark was procured, identified, and verified. Chloroform, butanol, and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared, and their cytotoxic activity was determined using the XTT salt-based cytotoxicity assay in 96-microplate format against one leukemia and one cervical cancer cell line. Cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. Absorbance was measured after 48 h at 450 nm. Results. Total 3 extracts evaluated, butanol and ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated strong cytotoxic potential overall. Cell proliferation assay showed dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth. Butanolic extract was found cytotoxic against HL 60 (Human leukemia cell line, IC 50 = 27183 ng/ ml), HeLa (Human cervix cancer cell line, IC 50 = 22861 ng/ ml), Ethyl acetate extract was found to be less cytotoxic against HL 60 (IC 50 = 117084 ng/ ml), HeLa (IC 50 = 137151 ng/ ml). Chloroform extract displayed no cytotoxicity against both cell lines. Conclusion: S. racemosa shows potential anticancer activity.
  • Christudas, Sunil & Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu & Agastian, Paul. (2010). Antidiabetic effect of Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. Moore. in type 2 diabetic rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 134. 298- 304. 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2010. 12. 018. Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. Moore. is used in the Indian system of traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. The present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic efficacy of the hexane extract of Symplocos cochinchinensis leaves in high-fat diet-low streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic rats. The doses for the study were fixed based on the Irwin test. The hypoglycemic effect of the hexane extract of Symplocos cochinchinensis leaves was studied in normal rats. Oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests were carried out. The antihyperglycemic effect of the hexane extract at 250 and 500 mg/ kg was studied in a high-fat diet of low STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats for 28 days. The extracts showed no adverse effects up to 5 g/kg concentration. In the hypoglycemic study, after treatment with hexane extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg the blood glucose was mildly reduced. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the treatment with the hexane extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg showed a highly significant reduction of 12.07% and 23.58% in plasma glucose levels, respectively 30 min after glucose load. The insulin tolerance test also showed improved insulin sensitivity after 60 min of insulin treatment. In high-fat diet- low STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats, after 28 days of treatment with the hexane extract at 250 and 500 mg/kg reduced the plasma glucose level by 17.04% and 42.10%, respectively. A significant reduction in plasma insulin, plasma and hepatic total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and free fatty acids (FFA) and a significant increase in liver glycogen were observed in treated diabetic rats. This study demonstrated the potential antidiabetic property of hexane extract of Symplocos cochinchinensis leaves on type 2 diabetes mellitus, thus justifying its traditional usage.

Rasa Panchaka of Lodhra Twaka (Bark)

Rasa (Taste) Kashaya (Astringent)
Guna (Virtue) Ruksha (Dry)
Virya (Potency) Sheeta (Cold Potency) 
Vipaka (Post-Digestion) Katu (Pungent)

Rasa Panchaka of Lodhra Pushpa (Flower)

Rasa (Taste) Kashaya (Astringent), Madhura (Sweet), Tikat (Bitter)
Guna (Virtue) Ruksha (Dry)
Virya (Potency) Sheeta (Cold Potency) 
Vipaka (Post-Digestion) Katu (Pungent)

Dosha Karma of Lodhra

Kapha- Pitta Shamaka, Pitta Hara due to Sheeta Virya, Kashaya Rasa. Kapha Hara because of Kashaya Rasa, and Katu Vipaka.

Karma (Actions) of Lodhra

Aartava Sangrahniya, Garbhashya Shotha, Strava Hara, Stambhana, Sangrahi, Rakta Stambhana, Rakta Shodhaka, Shotha Hara, Kustha Ghana, Vrana Ropana, Sankochaka, Kapha Ghana, Chaksushya, Visha Ghana, Kandughana.

Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Lodhra

Garbhashya Shotha, Garbhashya Strava, pradara, Yoni Roga, Yoni Kshata, Parsuti Vikara, Rakta Vikara, Rakta Pitta, Shotha, Kasa, Atisara, Rakta Atisara, Pravahika, Kustha, Kandu, Charma Vikara, Vrana Kshata, Netra Abhishyanda, Netra Vikara, Karna Stravva, Dnata Vikara, Garbha Strava, Garbha Pata, Chalita Garbha

Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Lodhra

Rakta Strava (Haemorrhage): External application of lodhra powder acts as hemostatic. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Sutra Sthana. 14/ 36).


Mukh Dushika (Acne and pimples):


  • For acne, a paste of lodhra and Sphatika should be applied. (Ashtanga Sangraha Uttara Tantra. 37/ 5).
  • In pimples, the paste of lodhra, dhanyaka, and vacha is useful. Similarly, is used marica mixed with gorocana as face cream. (Vrinda Madhava. 57/ 34).


Netra Vikara (Eye diseases): 


  • Disorders of lids (Vartam Gata Roga) – After anointing with butter, the paste of white lodhra should be applied. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 9/ 11)
  • Clean corneal ulcer sprinkling with Lodha-pouch dipped in tepid water should be done. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tnatra. 1/ 39).
  • Conjunctivitis- White lodhra and madhuka fried in ghee should be powdered finely, softened with breast- milk, and kept in cloth. Its application alleviates conjunctivitis caused by pitta and rakta. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 16/ 16).




  • white lodhra fried in ghee and powdered finely is kept in a cloth- pouch and mixed with hot water. Sprinkling therewith removes pain. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra 16/ 32).
  • Lodhra fried in ghee and mixed with rock salt is pounded with sour gruel and kept in a cloth piece. Used as eye drops, it removes burning. itching and pain. (Vrinda Madhava 61/ 26)
  • Lodhra wrapped with Nimba leaves is heated on the fire and then powdered or pounded. It is an excellent remedy for pitta, rakta, and vata. (Vrinda Madhava. 61/ 29).
  • For the disease of the whole eye, Sabara lodhra fried in ghee should be applied on the lid as a paste. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 233, Chakra Dutta. 59/ 11)


Shveta Pradara (Leucorrhoea): Paste of lodhra should be taken with the decoction of nyagrodha bark (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 30/ 118)


Vrana (Wound): 


  • Powder of dhataki and lodhra promotes wound healing. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 67- 68)
  • Lodhra, nyagrodha bud, khadira, Triphala, and ghrta- this paste provides looseness and softness in wounds. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 110)


Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage): Lodhra is one of the drugs efficacious for checking hemorrhage. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 73- 77).


Kustha (Skin disorder): Powder of paste of lodhra, dhataki, indrayava, Karanja, and jati is useful as rubbing and pasting in kustha. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 7/ 95).


Dysentery (Atisara):  Lodhra with curd is useful in dysentery. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 120)


Stri Roga (Diseases of women):


  • In the eighth month, by taking lodhra, pippali, and honey mixed with milk, fetal movement becomes normal. (Harita Samhita. 3. 50. 5)
  • Alabu leaves and lodhra in equal parts should be pounded and applied as paste in the vagina. By this it becomes normal. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa 70/ 12)


Lodhrasava is a popular formulation for women’s diseases. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa. 12/ 24- 28)

Benefits of Lodhra

  • The drug Lodhra is an astringent, carminative, and uterine tonic. The bark is used in dysentery, hemorrhage, and uterine disorders. It is a reputed medicine for almost all diseases wherein the uterus is affected or involved. 
  • Mouthwash is recommended for strengthening the gum and to check bleeding from the gum. 
  • Plaster of the bark of Lodhra is used for softening the boils and abscesses. 
  • Medicinal properties of flowers (Lodhra Pushpa) are also specified in texts of materia medica (nighantu), though the bark is mostly used in medicine and pharmaceutics as a potent part (tvak) as the drug which is administered both externally as well as internally in ancient medicine. In leucorrhoea (Sveta pradara), the paste of Lodhra with the decoction of Nyagrodh bark (vata) is recommended (Caraka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 67- 68).  Lodhra is also advised to be taken in various recipes and forms in the treatment of leucorrhoea. Lodhrasava is a popular formulation prescribed for women’s diseases (Astanga Hrdaya, Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 24- 28), and other recipes containing Lodhra are also recommended for this group of female ailments. Lodhra is given for checking intrinsic hemorrhage as an efficacious drug.
  • Lodhra is incorporated in various recipes and indications for eye diseases (netra roga). It is used in the treatment of Kustha, dysentery, wound, and skin diseases.
  • Flowers and leaves of Lodhra (Symplocos crataegoides Ham.) are much used in native dyeing. Leaves of Lodhra are used as fodder for sheep and goats.

Benefits of Lodhra on Different Systems of Bodies

External uses: 


It removes edema and is antileprosy, hemostatic, and wound healing. Hence its paste is used in skin diseases, swelling, bleeding wounds, and ulcers. It reduces pain and edema. 


Ear discharge is treated with the Churna (Powder) of lodhra. Since it strengthens the gums, the powdered bark of lodhra is used in tooth powders.


Digestive system: Lodhra is Kashaya (astringent) and hence is useful in diarrhea, dysentery, and tenesmus.


Circulatory system: Lodhra is a Rakta Sthapaka (coagulant), it is used in bleeding disorders. It causes excellent vasoconstriction of capillaries thus stopping bleeding and reducing swelling.


Respiratory system: Lodhra reduces bronchial secretion (mucoid discharge) and kapha, useful in kaphaj- kasa (and related diseases).


Reproductive system: Especially useful in inflammation of the uterus and reduces leucorrhea and menorrhagia. The decoction is used for Uttara Baasti or douche in diseases of the uterus.


Diseases of the eyes: Externally useful in conjunctivitis. The decoction is used for eyewashes. A poultice prepared from lodhra is used to foment the eyes. Its paste is applied around the eyes. For this, it may be used with yashtimadhu (jyeshthamadha), rasanjan, and alum. This helps to set the paste and reduce edema.


Skin: Since Lodhra is a Kushtha Ghna, it is useful in skin diseases requiring purification of the skin.


Pyrexia: Lodhra is antipyretic, hence useful in fevers originating from kapha- pitta.


Pregnancy: When excessive fetal movements are felt in the 7th and 8th month of pregnancy, lodhra powder should be given orally with honey.

Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Lodhra

  • Churna (Powder): 1- 3 gm, 3- 5 grams
  • Kwatha (Decoction): 50- 100 ml

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Classical Reference of Lodhra

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 215


लोध्रस्तिल्वस्तिरीटश्च शाबरो गालवस्तथा |

द्वितीय: पट्टिका लोध्रः क्रमुकः स्थूलवल्कलः |

जीर्णपत्रो  बृहत्पत्रपट्टी लाक्षाप्रसादन: ||

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 216

Properties and Action

लोध्रो ग्राही लघुः शीतश्चक्षुष्य: कफपित्तनुत्‌ |

कषायो रक्तपित्तासृग ज्वरातीसार शोथ हत ||

Dhanwantri Nighantu Chandanadi Varga- 156

Properties and Action

लोध्र शीत: कषायश्च  हन्ति तृष्णामरोचकम्‌ |

विषविध्वंसन: प्रोक्तो रूक्षो ग्राही कफापह: ||

Dhanwantri Nighantu Chandanadi Varga- 158

Properties and Action

क्रमुक (लोध्रा विशेष

लोध्र युग्मं कषाय स्यात शीतं वाट कफस्र जित |

चक्षुष्यम विषहत्तत्र विशिष्टों वल्कल लोध्रक: |

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 1126- 1127

रोध्र: कषायश्च चक्षुष्य: कफ पित्त हर: सर: |

हिमशोफ अतिसार असृग ज्वरस्त्र अरुचि तरिंगविषम ||

निहंयत्स्य कुसुमं तुवरं मधुरं हिमम |

सतिक्तम कटुकं पाके संग्राही कफ पित्तनुत ||

Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga, 212

लोध्र द्रव्यम कषाय स्यात शीतं वाट कफस्र नुत |

चक्षुष्य विष हत तत्र विशिष्ट वॉक रोध्रक: ||

Priya Nighantu Haritkyadi varga, 143

शीतो ग्राही परम तुवर रक्त पित्ते अतिसार |

शस्त्रो नैत्यस्तवरूण  बहलो युज्यते वल्कलो अस्य ||

Chakra Dutta, Netra Roga Chikitsa, 59- 10

अक्षि रोग 

तथा शाबरकं लोध्रम   घृतभृष्टं विडालक: |

Harita Samhita, 3- 50- 5

चलित गर्भे 

अष्टमे मासि लोध्र॑ मधुभागधिकाक्ष सह  दुग्धेन |

पीतिवतीनां चलिते गर्मे स्त्रीणां सुखं संपद्यते ||

Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 13- 111


लोध्र जाम्ब कटफले: |

त्वच माश्वव गृहर्णान्त त्वक चूर्णिताव्रण: |

Chakra Dutta Netra Roga Chikitsa, 59/ 27

नेत्र विकार लोध्र रस योग

सैंधव लोध्रम अत्था आज्य भृष्टं सौवीर पिष्टम सीट वस्त्र बधं |

आश्च्योतनम  तन्न्यानस्य कुर्यात  कण्डुञ्च दाहञ्च रुजञ्च हन्यात ||

Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 7/ 128


लोध्रस्य कल्क: …… कुष्ठे उद्वर्तन लेप: |

Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 4

रक्त पित्तेउशीर कालयिक रोध्र पद्मक |

पृथक पृथक चन्दनतुल्या भागिका: ||

Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 30/ 115

श्वेत प्रदरे

न्यग्रोधात्वकषायेण लोध्रकल्क॑ तथा पिंबेत्‌ |


पत्रकल्क॑ घृतै भृष्टं  तिल्वकस्य सशर्करम्‌ |

पेया चोत्कारिकाच्छर्दि तृट्कासामातिसारनुत्‌ ||

Sushruta Samhita


भिल्लयुदकूकषायेण  तथैवामलकस्य वा।

प्रक्षालयेन्मुखं नेत्रे स्वस्थ: शीतोदकेन वा ||

नीलिकां मुखशोष॑ पिडकां व्यज्ञमेव |

रक्तपित्त कृतान्‌ रोगान्‌ सद्य  एवं विनाशयेत्‌ ||

Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 16/ 66

शुद्ध शुक्र रोग 

सेचनं रोध्र पोट्टल्यां कोष्णम्योमग्र अथवा |

Dhanwantri Nighnatu

लोध्र द्वयं 

लोध्र युग्मं कषाय तू शीतं वाट कफस्र जित |

चक्षुष्य विष हत तत्र विशिष्टों वल्कल रोध्रक: |

Raja Vallabha Nighnatu

लोध्रो अस्रिक कफ पित्तघ्न चक्षुष्य: शोथजित सर: |

तद्वसच्च  छावारक लोध्रो अपि चक्षुष्य मृदु रेचन: |

Chakradutta, Kshudra Roga Chikitsa, 55/ 42

तारुण्य पीडिकाहरो लोध्रादि लेप:

Chakradutta, Mukha Roga Chikitsa, 56/ 23

दन्त नाड़ी रोगे जात्यादि तैलं 

Chakradutta, Nasa Roga Chikitsa, 59/ 22

नेत्र आम्या लोध्रे सनिम्ब प्रयोग 

निंबस्य पत्रे: परिलिप्य लोध्रम स्वेदया अग्निना चूर्णम अथा अपि  कलकं |

आश्च्युतनम  मानुष दुग्धं मिश्रम पित्तास्त्र वातापहम अग्रतः युक्तं ||  

Ashtanga Hridya, Chikitsa Sthana, 12- 24/ 28

स्त्री रोग 


Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 14- 36

रक्त स्त्राव 

अथातिप्रवृत्ते रोध्र मधुक अवपीड़येत |

Ashtanag Sangreha, Uttara Tantra, 37- 5

 मूखदूषिकायाम्‌ (तारुण्यपिटकायाम्‌)

 मूखदूषिकां तु लोध्रतुवरिकास्यां वा प्रदिहयात्‌ |

Vrinda Madhava, 57- 34

लोध्रधान्य वचालेपस्तारुण्य पिटकापह: |

तद्वद गोरोचनायुक्त॑ मरिचं मुखलेपनात्‌ ||

Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 9- 11

नेत्ररोगे वर्त्मरोगे

अभ्यज्य नवनीतेन श्वेतरोध्रं प्रलेपयेत्‌

एरण्डमूलकल्केन पुटपाके पचेत्तत: ||

Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 11- 39

शुद्ध शुक्र 

रोचनं रोध्रपोट्टल्या कोष्णाम्भो अग्न्या अथवा |

Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 16/ 16

पित्त रक्त अभिष्यंद 

श्वेत रोध्र मधुकम घृत भृष्टं सुचूर्णितं |

वस्त्रस्तं स्तन्यम उदितं पित्त रक्त अभिघात जित |

Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 16/ 62

शुष्क अक्षि पाक 

श्वेत रोध्र घृत भृष्टं चूर्णितं तानत्व अवस्थतम |

उष्ण अम्बुना विमार्दितं सेक: शूलहर: परम् ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 233

सर्व अक्षि रोग 

तद्वत शावरक लोध्रम घृत भृष्टं विडालक: |

Vrinda Madhava, 61/ 26

दाह कण्डु शूलेषु 

सैंधव लोध्र अत्था आज्य भृष्टं सौवीर पिष्टम सित वस्त्र बधं |

अश्च्योतनम तन्न यस्य  कुर्याद दाहं कण्डू रुज हन्यात्‌  ||

Vrinda Madhavam, 61/ 29

पित्तस्त्र वात

निम्बस्थ पत्रे परिलिप्य लोध्रम स्वेद अग्निना चूर्ण अत्था अपि कलकं |

अश्च्योतनं मनुष्य दुग्ध युक्तं पित्तस्त्र वातापहम अग्रिम उक्तं ||

Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa sthana, 25/ 67, 68


धातकी लोध्र चूर्ण तथा रोहन्ति ते व्रण: |

Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 3/ 11

मनःशिलाले मरिचानि तैलमार्कं पयः कुष्ठहरः प्रदेहः|

तुत्थं विडङ्गं मरिचानि कुष्ठं लोध्रं  तद्वत् समनःशिलं स्यात्|

Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 3/ 25


प्रियङ्गुकालेयकचन्दनानि निर्वापणः स्यात् सघृतः प्रदेहः||

Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 3/ 28

शिरीषलामज्जकहेमलोध्रैस्त्वग्दोषसंस्वेदहरः प्रघर्षः|

पत्राम्बुलोध्राभयचन्दनानि शरीरदौर्गन्ध्यहरः प्रदेहः||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Rakta Pitta Chikitsa, 4/ 44

चन्दनोशीरलोध्राणां रसे तद्वत् सनागरे|

किराततिक्तकोशीरमुस्तानां तद्वदेव ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Rakta Pitta Chikitsa, 4/ 65

अटरूषकनिर्यूहे प्रियङ्गुं मृत्तिकाञ्जने|

विनीय लोध्रं क्षौद्रं  रक्तपित्तहरं पिबेत्|| 

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Rakta Pitta Chikitsa, 102- 104

भद्रश्रियं लोहितचन्दनं  प्रपौण्डरीकं कमलोत्पले |

उशीरवानीरजलं मृणालं सहस्रवीर्या मधुकं पयस्या||

शालीक्षुमूलानि यवासगुन्द्रामूलं नलानां कुशकाशयोश्च|

कुचन्दनं शैवलमप्यनन्ता कालानुसार्या तृणमूलमृद्धिः||

मूलानि पुष्पाणि  वारिजानां प्रलेपनं पुष्करिणीमृदश्च|

उदुम्बराश्वत्थमधूकलोध्राः कषायवृक्षाः शिशिराश्च सर्वे||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Pandu Roga Chikitsa, 16/ 105

मञ्जिष्ठा रजनी द्राक्षा बलामूलान्ययोरजः||

लोध्रं चैतेषु गौडः स्यादरिष्टः पाण्डुरोगिणाम्|

इति गौडोऽरिष्टः|

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Arsha Roga Chikitsa, Abhya Arishta, 14/ 139

हरीतकीनां प्रस्थार्धं प्रस्थमामलकस्य |

स्यात् कपित्थाद्दशपलं ततोऽर्धा चेन्द्रवारुणी||

विडङ्गं पिप्पली लोध्रं मरिचं सैलवालुकम्|

द्विपलांशं जलस्यैतच्चतुर्द्रोणे विपाचयेत्||

द्रोणशेषे रसे तस्मिन् पूते शीते समावपेत्|

गुडस्य द्विशतं तिष्ठेत्तत् पक्षं घृतभाजने||

पक्षादूर्ध्वं भवेत् पेया ततो मात्रा यथाबलम्|

अस्याभ्यासादरिष्टस्य गुदजा यान्ति सङ्क्षयम्||


कुष्ठशोफारुचिहरो बलवर्णाग्निवर्धनः||

सिद्धोऽयमभयारिष्टः कामलाश्वित्रनाशनः|



Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Arsha Roga Chikitsa, Kanka Arishta, 14/ 160

नवस्यामलकस्यैकां कुर्याज्जर्जरितां तुलाम्|

कुडवांशाश्च पिप्पल्यो विडङ्गं मरिचं तथा||

पाठां   पिप्पलीमूलं क्रमुकं चव्यचित्रकौ|

मञ्जिष्ठैल्वालुकं लोध्रं पलिकानुपकल्पयेत्||

कुष्ठं दारुहरिद्रां  सुराह्वं सारिवाद्वयम्|

इन्द्राह्वं भद्रमुस्तं  कुर्यादर्धपलोन्मितम्||

चत्वारि नागपुष्पस्य पलान्यभिनवस्य |

द्रोणाभ्यामम्भसो द्वाभ्यां साधयित्वाऽवतारयेत्||

पादावशेषे पूते  शीते तस्मिन् प्रदापयेत्|

मृद्वीकाद्व्याढकरसं शीतं निर्यूहसम्मितम्||

शर्करायाश्च भिन्नाया दद्याद्द्विगुणितां तुलाम्|

कुसुमस्य रसस्यैकमर्धप्रस्थं नवस्य || 


चूर्णयित्वा तु मतिमान् कार्षिकानत्र दापयेत्||

तत् सर्वं स्थापयेत् पक्षं सुचौक्षे घृतभाजने|

प्रलिप्ते सर्पिषा किञ्चिच्छर्करागुरुधूपिते||

पक्षादूर्ध्वमरिष्टोऽयं कनको नाम विश्रुतः|

पेयः स्वादुरसो हृद्यः प्रयोगाद्भक्तरोचनः||

अर्शांसि ग्रहणीदोषमानाहमुदरं ज्वरम्|

हृद्रोगं पाण्डुतां शोथं गुल्मं वर्चोविनिग्रहम्||

कासं श्लेष्मामयांश्चोग्रान् सर्वानेवापकर्षति|

वलीपलितखालित्यं दोषजं  व्यपोहति||

इति कनकारिष्टः|

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Visha Chikitsa, Mrit Sanjeevan Agad, 23



बृहती शिरीषपुष्पं श्रीवेष्टकपद्मचारटिविशालाः|





पुष्ये संहृत्य समं पिष्ट्वा गुटिका विधेयाः स्युः||

सर्वविषघ्नो जयकृद्विषमृतसञ्जीवनो ज्वरनिहन्ता|


भूतविषजन्त्वलक्ष्मीकार्मणमन्त्राग्न्यशन्यरीन् हन्यात्|


धनधान्यकार्यसिद्धिः श्रीपुष्ट्यायुर्विवर्धनो धन्यः|

मृतसञ्जीवन एष प्रागमृताद्ब्रह्मणा विहितः||

इति मृतसञ्जीवनोऽगदः|

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Madatya Chikitsa, 24/ 158

कल्पनीयानि भिषजा दाहे धारागृहाणि |

फलिनीसेव्यलोध्राम्बुहेमपत्रं कुटन्नटम्||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Urustambha Chikitsa, 27/ 30- 33

मुस्तं हरीतकीं लोध्रं पद्मकं तिक्तरोहिणीम्||

देवदारु हरिद्रे द्वे वचां कटुकरोहिणीम्|

पिप्पलीं पिप्पलीमूलं सरलं देवदारु ||

चव्यं चित्रकमूलानि देवदारु हरीतकीम्|

भल्लातकं समूलां  पिप्पलीं पञ्च तान् पिबेत्||

सक्षौद्रानर्धश्लोकोक्तान् कल्कानूरुग्रहापहान्|

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Arsha Roga Chikitsa, 6/ 15

पिप्पलीमरिचविडङ्गैलवालुकलोध्राणां द्वे द्वे पलेइन्द्रवारुण्याः पञ्च पलानिकपित्थमध्यस्य दशपथ्याफलानामर्धप्रस्थःप्रस्थो धात्रीफलानांएतदैकध्यं जलचतुर्द्रोणे विपाच्यपादावशेषं परिस्राव्यसुशीतं गुडतुलाद्वयेनोन्मिश्र्यघृतभाजने निःक्षिप्यपक्षमुपेक्षेत यवपल्लेततः प्रातः प्रातर्यथाबलमुपयुञ्जीत |

एष खल्वरिष्टः प्लीहाग्निषङ्गार्शोग्रहणीहृत्पाण्डुरोगशोफकुष्ठगुल्मोदरकृमिहरो बलवर्णकरश्चेति ||

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Kshudra Roga Chikitsa, Yuvana Pidika Chikitsa, 20/ 37, 38

यौवने पिडकास्वेष विशेषाच्छर्दनं हितम् |

लेपनं  वचारोध्रसैन्धवैः सर्षपान्वितैः ||

कुस्तुम्बुरुवचालोध्रकुष्ठैर्वा लेपनं हितम् |

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Shuk Dosha Chikitsa, 21/ 5, 6

स्वेदयेद्ग्रथितं शश्वन्नाडीस्वेदेन बुद्धिमान् |

सुखोष्णैरुपनाहैश्च सुस्निग्धैरुपनाहयेत् ||

कुम्भीकां पाकमापन्नां भिन्द्याच्छुद्धां तु रोपयेत् |

तैलेन त्रिफलालोध्रतिन्दुकाम्रातकेन तु ||

Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, Mukha Roga Chikitsa, 22/ 9

तुर्विधेन स्नेहेन मधूच्छिष्टयुतेन  |

वातजेऽभ्यञ्जनं कुर्यान्नाडीस्वेदं   बुद्धिमान् ||

विदध्यादोष्ठकोपे तु साल्वणं चोपनाहने |

मस्तिष्के चैव नस्ये  तैलं वातहरं हितम् ||

श्रीवेष्टकं सर्जरसं सुरदारु सगुग्गुलु |

यष्टीमधुकचूर्णं तु विदध्यात् प्रतिसारणम् ||

पित्तरक्ताभिघातोत्थं जलौकोभिरुपाचरेत् |

पित्तविद्रधिवच्चापि क्रियां कुर्यादशेषतः ||

शिरोविरेचनं धूमः स्वेदः कवल एव  |

हृते रक्ते प्रयोक्तव्यमोष्ठकोपे कफात्मके ||

त्र्यूषणं स्वर्जिकाक्षारो यवक्षारो विडं तथा |

क्षौद्रयुक्तं विधातव्यमेतच्च प्रतिसारणम् ||

मेदोजे स्वेदिते भिन्ने शोधिते ज्वलनो हितः |

प्रियङ्गुत्रिफलालोध्रं सक्षौद्रं प्रतिसारणम् ||

एतदोष्ठप्रकोपानां साध्यानां कर्म कीर्तितम् |

Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, Drishti Gata Roga Pratishedha, 17/ 41

उशीरलोध्रत्रिफलाप्रियङ्गुभिः पचेत्तु नस्यं कफरोगशान्तये ||

Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, Karna Gata Roga Pratishedha, 21/ 48

रसमाम्रकपित्थानां मधूकधवशालजम् |

पूरणार्थं प्रशंसन्ति तैलं वा तैर्विपाचितम् ||

प्रियङ्गुमधुकाम्बष्ठाधातकीशिलपर्णिभिः |

मञ्जिष्ठालोध्रलाक्षाभिः कपित्थस्य रसेन वा ||

पचेत्तैलं तदास्रावमवगृह्णाति पूरणात् |

Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, Pakva Atisara Pratishedha, 40/ 69

समङ्गा धातकीपुष्पं मञ्जिष्ठा लोध्रमुस्तकम् |

शाल्मलीवेष्टको रोध्रं वृक्षदाडिमयोस्त्वचौ ||

आम्रास्थिमध्यं लोध्रं  बिल्वमध्यं प्रियङ्गवः|

मधुकं शृङ्गवेरं  दीर्घवृन्तत्वगेव  ||

चत्वार एते योगाः स्युः पक्वातीसारनाशनाः |

उक्ता  उपयोज्यास्ते सक्षौद्रास्तण्डुलाम्बुना ||

Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, Kpaha- Pittaja Udara Roga Pratishedha, 40/ 86- 88

लोध्रचन्दनयष्ट्याह्वदार्वीपाठासितोत्पलान् ||

तण्डुलोदकसम्पिष्टान् दीर्घवृन्तत्वगन्वितान् |

पूर्ववत् कूलितात्तस्माद्रसमादाय शीतलम् ||

मध्वाक्तं पाययेच्चैतत् कफपित्तोदरामये |

Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 40/ 121- 123

मञ्जिष्ठां सारिवां लोध्रं पद्मकं कुमुदोत्पलम् ||

पिबेत् पद्मां  दुग्धेन छागेनासृक्प्रशान्तये |

शर्करोत्पललोध्राणि समङ्गा मधुकं तिलाः ||

तिलाः कृष्णाः सयष्ट्याह्वाः समङ्गा चोत्पलानि  |

तिला मोचरसो लोध्रं तथैव मधुकोत्पलम् ||

कच्छुरा तिलकल्कश्च योगाश्चत्वार एव  |

आजेन पयसा पेयाः सरक्ते मधुसंयुताः ||

लोध्रं विडं बिल्वशलाटु चैव लिह्याच्च तैलेन कटुत्रिकाढ्यम् |

Specific Formulation of Lodhra

  • Lodhradi Kwatha for Pittaja Jwara
  • Lodhra Asava for Garbhashya Vikara, Grahani
  • Lodhra Utpaladi Kshaya for Pittaja Jwara
  • Brihat gangadharadi Churna for Parvahika, Atisara
  • Pushyanaga Churna for Atisara and Yoni Dosha
  • Irimedadi tailam
  • Dashmularishta

Contraindication and Side Effects of Lodhra

  • Don’t use the Churna of Lodhra in excess amounts or Abhakta i.e. empty stomach as it may lead to abdominal heaviness, nausea, constipation, etc.
  • Lodhra can be used in pregnancy but not for long intervals of time. It is best to take the advice of your doctor before intake of Lodhra in any kind of formulation.

Suggestive Reading Regarding Symplocos racemosa

  • Singh, & Ramachandra Reddy, Konduru. (2015). Management of Diabetes mellitus and its complications by Lodhra: A review Review Article. Int J Ayurvedic Med. 6. 305- 309. 10. 47552/jam. v6i4. 701.
  • P. v, Sreekutty & Ballal, Shrinidhi & Hebbar, Chaithra & Shubha, P. (2022). Lodhra Sheethadi Agada in Mandali Visha -A Review. 10. 47191/ ijpbms/ v2- i10- 08.
  • Acharya N, Acharya S, Shah U, Shah R, Hingorani L. A comprehensive analysis of Symplocos racemosa Roxb.: Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Apr 2; 181: 236- 51. doi 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2016. 01. 043. Epub 2016 Feb 3. PMID: 26851499.
  • Singh, Varun Kumar, Avinash Narwaria, and Chandra Kant Katiyar. “Study of Lodhradi Kashaya and its role in the management of Diabetes Mellitus.” Education 2016 (2015).
  • Huong, Tran Thu, Tran Thi Minh, Nguyen Van Thong, Nguyen Hai Dang, and Nguyen Tien Dat. “Investigation of anti-inflammatory lignans from the leaves of Symplocos sumuntia Buch-Ham ex D Don (Symplocaceae).” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 16, no. 9 (2017): 2191- 2196.
  • Sharma, Naishadh, Prakash Kumbar, and Arpit Jani. “ALLERGIC RHINITIS IN AYURVEDIC PERSPECTIVES-CASE STUDY.” (2020).
  • Nile, Shivraj Hariram, and Young Soo Keum. “Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and enzyme inhibitory activities of 10 selected Unani herbs.” Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology 12, no. 2 (2017): Online-May.
  • Sood, Henna, Yashwant Kumar, Vipan Kumar Gupta, and Daljit Singh Arora. “Bioprospecting the antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antiproliferative activity of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Bark phytoconstituents along with their biosafety evaluation and detection of antimicrobial components by GC- MS.” BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology 21 (2020): 1-20.
  • Bhusnar, Hanumant & Nagore, Dheeraj & Nipanikar, Sanjay. (2014). Phytopharmacological Profile of Symplocos racemosa: A Review. Pharmacologia. 5. 76- 83. 10. 5567/pharmacologia.2014. 76. 83.
  • Niyati, Acharya & Acharya, Sanjeev & Shah, Unnati & Shah, Ripal & Hingorani, Lal. (2016). A comprehensive analysis of Symplocos racemosa Roxb.: Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 181. 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2016. 01. 043.
  • Wakchaure D, Jain D, Singhai AK, Somani R. Hepatoprotective activity of Symplocos racemosa bark on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2011 Jul; 2 (3): 137- 143. doi 10. 4103/ 0975-9476. 85552. PMID: 22022156; PMCID: PMC 3193685.
  • Menghani, Ekta, C. K. Ojha, R. S. Negi, Yukta Agarwal, and Arvind Pareek. “Screening of Indian medicinal plants and their potentials as antimicrobial agents.” Global Journal of Science Frontier Research 11, no. 2 (2011): 1-7.
  • Bhutani KK, Jadhav AN, Kalia V. Effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. on gonadotropin release in immature female rats and ovarian histology. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Sep; 94 (1): 197- 200. doi 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2004. 04. 022. PMID: 15261983.
  • Jung M, Choi J, Chae HS, Cho JY, Kim YD, Htwe KM, Lee WS, Chin YW, Kim J, Yoon KD. Flavonoids from Symplocos racemosa. Molecules. 2014 Dec 26; 20 (1): 358- 65. doi 10. 3390/molecules 20010358. PMID: 25549060; PMCID: PMC 6272286.


  • Rashid, M., Zulfiqar Ali, M. Abbasi, N. Rasool, M. Zubair, M. A. Lodhi, M. I. Choudhary, I. A. Khan, and V. U. Ahmad. “Chymotrypsin inhibiting benzyl derivatives from Symplocos racemosa [J].” Planta Med 74, no. 3 (2008): 111.
  • Niyati, Acharya & Shah, U.R. & Shah, R.G. & Acharya, Sanjeev & Hingorani, Lal. (2015). Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Symplocos racemosa bark against hepatocellular carcinoma. 7. 384- 385.
  • Kar, Dattatreya & Panda, Manoj. (2017). In vitro Antioxidant Potential of Methanolic Extract of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 29. 2271- 2274. 10. 14233/ ajchem. 2017. 20747.
  • Sreejit, Dr. (2016). WOUND HEALING PROPERTIES OF SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA. International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science. 1. 10. 23958/ ijirms/ vol 01 – i01/ 04.
  • Gupta, Mradu & Karmakar, Nandita & Sasmal, Saswati. (2017). In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extracts of Polyherbal Formulation Consisting of Ficus glomerata Roxb. and Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Stem Bark Assessed in Free Radical Scavenging Assays. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research. 9. 10. 25258/ phyto. v9i2. 8060.
  • Anand, Uttpal, Champa Keeya Tudu, Samapika Nandy, Kumari Sunita, Vijay Tripathi, Gary J. Loake, Abhijit Dey, and Jarosław Proćków. “Ethnodermatological use of medicinal plants in India: From ayurvedic formulations to clinical perspectives–A review.” Journal of Ethnopharmacology 284 (2022): 114744.
  • Barma, Manali Deb, and Srisakthi Doraikanan. “Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of Selenium Nanoparticles with Clitoria Ternatea on Oral Pathogens.”
  • K, Nirubama & S, Rajeshkumar. (2020). Enhanced Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Symplocos Racemosa. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 11. 4120- 4125. 10. 26452/hijras. v11i3. 2615.
  • Ashwini, K. & Shanmugam, Rajeshkumar & Roy, Anitha & Thangavelu, Lakshmi. (2021). Symplocos racemosa bark-assisted copper nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacilli species. RESEARCH JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND TECHNOLOGY. 14. 300- 302. 10. 5958/ 0974- 360X. 2021. 00054. 8.
  • Devmurari, V. P (2010). Antibacterial evaluation and phytochemical screening of Symplocos Racemosa Roxb. International Journal of PharmTech Research. 2. 1359- 1363.
  • Siddiqui, Nazish & Latif, Abdul & Rehman, Dr. Sumbul & Abdullah, (2011). Antimicrobial Screening and Spectral studies of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. Hamdard Medicus.
  • Kar, Dattatreya & Kuanar, Dr & Panda, Manoj & Pattanaik, Pratap. (2016). Analysis of Antimicrobial Activities of Different Parts of Symplocos racemosa: an Endangered Medicinal Plant of Eastern Ghats of India. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science. 42. 10.1007/s40995-016-0118- 4.
  • Bhutani, Kamlesh & Jadhav, Atul & Kalia, Vandana. (2004). Effect of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. on gonadotropin release in immature female rats and ovarian histology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 94. 197- 200. 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2004. 04. 022.
  • Vijayabaskaran, M. & Badkhal, A.K. & Babu, Gopu & Sivakumar, Pravind & Perumal, Perumal & Sivakumar, T. & Sampathkumar, R. & Jayakar, Balasundaram. (2010). Antitumor activity and antioxidant status of Symplocos racemosa Roxb against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 1. 306- 314.
  • Bhusnar, Hanumant & Nagore, Dheeraj & Nipanikar, Sanjay. (2014). Phytopharmacological Profile of Symplocos racemosa: A Review. Pharmacologia. 5. 76- 83. 10. 5567/pharmacologic. 2014. 76. 83.
  • Raval, Bhuvan & Suthar, Maulik & Patel, Rakesh. (2009). Potent in vitro Antitumor Activity of Symplocos racemosa against Leukaemia and Cervical Cancer.
  • Acharya, Sanjeev & Niyati, Acharya. (2015). EVALUATION OF IN-VITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF SYMPLOCOS RACEMOSA BARK AGAINST HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 7. 384.

Suggestive Reading Regarding Symplocos Crataegoides (Pattika Lodhra)

  • Chitra, Subramani. (2018). Symplocos paniculata Miq. – A Review. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology. 5. 7- 20. 10. 20546/ ijcrbp. 2018. 503. 002.
  • Liu, Qiang & Sun, Y. & Chen, J. & Li, P. & Li, C. & Jiang, L. & Niu, G. (2017). Symplocos paniculata: a new ornamental plant species. Acta Horticulturae. 11-20. 10. 17660/ Acta Hortic. 2017. 1185. 3.
  • Saqib, Fatima & Al-Huqail, Arwa & Asma, Memona & Chicea, Liana & Hogea, Mircea & Irimie, Marius & Gavris, Claudia. (2022). Dose-dependent Spasmolytic, Bronchodilator, and Hypotensive Activities of Panicum miliaceum L. Dose-Response. 20. 155932582210795. 10. 1177/ 15593258221079592.
  • Liu Q, Sun Y, Chen J, Li P, Li C, Niu G, Jiang L. Transcriptome analysis revealed the dynamic oil accumulation in Symplocos paniculata fruit. BMC Genomics. 2016 Nov 16; 17 (1): 929. doi 10. 1186/ s12864- 016- 3275- 0. PMID: 27852215; PMCID: PMC 5112726.
  • Govindarajan, Nartunai & Maheswara, Uma & Cheekala, Reddy & Arcot, Shantha & Sundaramoorthy, Susikumar & Shanmugam, Murugammal & Duraisamy, Ramasamy & Narasimhaji, Venkata & Raju, Ilavarasan. (2019). Comparative Powder Microscopic and HPTLC Studies on Stem barks of Symplocos racemosa Roxb. and Symplocos crataegoides Ham.
  • Janbaz, Khalid & Akram, Saba & Saqib, Fatima & Khalid, Mamoona. (2016). The antispasmodic activity of Symplocos paniculata is mediated through the opening of an ATP-dependent K+ channel. Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology. 11. 495. 10. 3329/ bjp. v11i2. 24667.
  • G.Kusuma, & Badathala, Vijayakumar & S.Chitra,. (2018). Symplocos paniculata Miq. – A Review. International Journal of current research in Biosciences and plant biology. 5. 7- 20.
  • Kim HY, Park SH, Zuo G, Kim KH, Hwang SH, Suh HW, Lim SS. Effect of Extract and Synthesized Derivatives of Isolated Compound from Symplocos chinensis f. Pilosa Ohwi on Neuropathic Pain in Mice. Molecules. 2021 Mar 15;26(6):1639. doi 10. 3390/ molecules 26061639. PMID: 33804199; PMCID: PMC 7999106.
  • Cao, Huifang & Lin, Qiang & Li, Peiwang & Chen, Jingzhen & Li, Chang-Zhu & Jiang, Lijuan & Xia, Li & Chen, Mei. (2019). Genetic diversity of Symplocos paniculata of Hunan province revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 51. 10. 30848/ PJB2019- 5 (41).
  • Semwal, Ruchi & Semwal, Deepak & Kothiyal, Sudhir & Rawat, Usha. (2010). Chemical constituents and biological applications of the genus Symplocos. Journal of Asian Natural Products Research. 12. 1069- 1080. 10. 1080/ 10286020. 2010. 532789.


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Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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