Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Jeeraka Dwaya (Shweta Jeeraka, Krishna Jeeraka)

Jeeraka Dwaya (Shweta Jeeraka, Krishna Jeeraka) – Cuminum cyminum Linn., Carum carvi Linn.

Jeeraka Dwaya: The Digestive herbs


Jeeraka is the earliest cultivated herb in Asia. As per Ayurvedic classical texts, different varieties of Jeeraka are mentioned. “Acharaya Sushruta ” the father of Surgery, described Jeeraka Dwaya in which he mentioned two types of Jeeraka: Shweta Jeeraka and Krishna Jeeraka. Shweta Jeeraka is Cyminum cuminum and Krishan Jeeraka is Carum carvi. Both are a rich source of essential oil and belong to the Apiaceae family. Different authors also mention one another variety i.e Kalajaji in Nighantu like Bhavaprakasha Nighantu, Dhanwantri Nighantu, Shodhala Nighantu, etc. In Shodhala Nighantu, Kalajaji has been mentioned under Jeeraka Dwaya instead of Krishana Jeeraka. Shweta and Krishna Jeeraka are drying, have a pungent taste, are heat-generating, appetizers, and are easy to digest. They are absorbent and increase Pitta. They act as brain tonics and purifiers of the uterus. They are antipyretics, digestants, aphrodisiacs, strength-giving taste promoters, and reduced Kapha. They are good for the eyes and cure Vata diseases, abdominal distension, intestinal growths, vomiting, and diarrhea. As per recent research Shweta Jeeraka consists of Cuminin, apigenin, apiin, diacylglycerol, imperatorin, isoimperatorin, isoimpeuelline, oxypeucedanin, etc and Krishna Jeeraka consists of Sterols, cuminal, Carvone, limonene, germacrene-D trans cis- carveol, carveol, etc due to which it exhibits antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic, anti-diabetic, diuretic, immunomodulatory activity, etc.

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Basonym of Jeeraka

जिनाति भुक्तं परिणमयति, ज्या वयोहानौ ||

Jiraka is a very good digestive system.

Synonyms of Jeeraka

  • According to habitat

औत्तरापथम्‌- उत्तरापथे भवम्‌ |

Jiraka is cultivated in the northern part of India.


  • According to morphology

दीर्घकम्‌- दीर्घाकारत्वात्‌ |

Fruit of Jiraka is long.

पीताभम- पीता आभा अस्य |

Fruit is yellowish in color. 


  • According to properties and actions.

दीपक:- दीपयत्य अग्निमिति |

Jiraka stimulates appetite.

अजाजी- अज॑ जठरा अग्निमजति प्रेरयतीति |

Jiraka improves appetite.

जरण- जरयति भुक्तमिति |

Jiraka is a very good digestant.

रुच्यम्‌- रुचिकरम्‌ ।

Jiraka improves the taste.

मेध्यम्‌- मेधाये हितम्‌ ।

Jiraka improves memory.

Basonym of Krishna Jeeraka

कृष्णवर्णो जीरकवत्‌ ।

Fruit is like Jiraka but black in color.

Synonyms of Krishna Jeeraka

  • According to habitat

काश्मीरजीरक- कश्मीरदेशे भवा जीरका |

Krishna Jiraka grows in Kashmir state.


  • According to morphology

कालि- कृष्णवर्ण: |

Fruits are black in color.


  • According to properties and action

बहुगन्धा – प्रभूत गंध त्त्वात्‌ |

Fruits of Krishna Jeeraka have a very strong odor.

सुंगन्ध- शोभनो गन्धो अस्य |

Krishna Jiraka increases taste.

उदगार शोधन- उदगार शोधयति निरहरतीति ।

It expels the air and induces clear eructations.

रुच्या- रूचिवर्धनी |

Krishna Jeeraka increases taste.

जरणा- जीरयति अनेनान्नमिति ।

It is very good digestive, like Jiraka.

Regional names of Shweta Jeeraka

  • Cumin seed (English)
  • Safed Jeera (Hindi)
  • Jirigi (Kannada)
  • Jeerakam (Malayalam)
  • Jeera (Marathi)
  • Jire (Bengla, Gujarati)
  • Zira (Persian)
  • Chirkam (Tamil)
  • Jikori (Telegu)

Regional names of Krishna Jeeraka

  • Caraway seed (English)
  • Kala Jeera (Hindi)
  • Jkari irigi (Kannada)
  • Sheema Jeerakam (Malayalam)
  • Vilaiti Zirah (Marathi)
  • Sa- Jira (Bengali)
  • Karuma swad (Arabic)
  • Jirya- riza (Persian)
  • Simai- sargam (Tamil)
  • Sima- Jitar(Telegu)

Regional names of Kalajaji

  • Nutmeg flower (English)
  • Kalounji, Mangrella (Hindi)
  • Karuncheeragam (Malayalam)
  • Kalonji (Marathi)
  • Mungrela, Kalajira (Bengali)
  • Shinij (Arabic)
  • Syahadan (Persian)
  • Karunajiragam (Tamil)
  • Nallajila Kair (Telegu)

Scientific classification of Shweta Jeerka

Kingdom Plantae
Class  Dicotyledons 
Subclass Polypetalae 
Series  Calyciflorae
Order Umbellales
Family  Apiaceae
Genus Cuminum
Species  Cyminum 

Scientific classification of Krishna Jeeraka

Kingdom Plantae
Class  Dicotyledons 
Subclass Polypetalae 
Series  Calyciflorae
Order Umbellales
Family  Apiaceae
Genus Carum 
Species  Carvi

Scientific classification of Kalajaji

Kingdom Plantae
Class  Dicotyledons 
Order Ranunculales
Family  Ranunculaceae
Genus Nigella 
Species  Sativa 

Botanical Name of Shweta Jeeraka

Cuminum cyminum Linn.

Cuminum is derived from the Greek word that means it is useful for cooking.

Family – Apiaceae (Shatpushpa Kula)

Botanical Name of Krishna Jeeraka

Carum carvi Linn.

Carum word is derived from caria where it was discovered, roots, as well as seeds, are edible.

Carvi means caraway (Karawia name in Arab).

Family – Apiaceae (Shatpushpa Kula)

Botanical Name of Kalajaji (Upkunchika)

Nigella sativa Linn.

Family – Ranunculaceae (Vatsnaabh Kula)

Classification of Shweta Jeeraka as per Charaka and Sushruta

Charaka: Shula Prashamana Mahakshaya

Sushruta: Pipplyadi Gana

Ayurveda reference for Shweta Jeeraka (Cuminum cyminum)

Ayurveda reference for Krishna Jeeraka (Cuminum cyminum)

Ayurveda reference for Kalajaji (Nigella sativa)

Classification of Krishna Jeeraka as per Charaka and Sushruta

  • Charaka: Not mentioned in Mahakshaya
  • Sushruta: Not mentioned in Gana

Classification of Kalajaji (Upkunchika) as per Charaka and Sushruta

  • Charaka: Not mentioned in Mahakshaya
  • Sushruta: Not mentioned in Gana

Jeeraka's description in Brihtrayi

Jeeraka Tritya


  • Shveta Jeeraka: Cuminum cyminum
  • Krishna Jeeraka/ Kala Jeera/ Syaaha Jeera: Carum carvi
  • Mangrella/ Upkunchika: Nigella sativa


By Jiraka dwaya, the first two varieties i.e., Shveta and Krishna varieties are understood. Upakuncika and Karavi are exclusively used for the third and second varieties respectively. Ajaji, it seems, has been used for either of the first two, and Prithvika, if used for any variety of Jiraka, should indicate the third variety.


  • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 2- 1/ 42, C. S. Chi. 2- 4/ 15, 20, C. S. Chi. 13/ 125, C. S. Chi. 14/ 103, C. S. Chi. 18/ 101, C. S. Chi. 19/ 30, C. S. Ka. 7/ 52
  • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 230
  • Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 34, A. H. Chi. 1/ 77, A. H. Chi. 3/ 115, 123, A. H. Chi. 8/ 83, A. H. Chi. 14/ 35, A. H. U. 1/ 49, A. H. U. 20/ 14, A. H. U. 32/ 18

Jeeraka's description in Brihtrayi as Asit Jeeraka (Krishna Jeeraka)

  • Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 14/ 17

Jeeraka's description in Brihtrayi as Karvi

It is usually considered to be Carum carvi Linn. or C. bulbocastanum Kock., but it appears that it has been used as a name for other Umbelliferous aromatic fruits such as Yavani, Ajmodo, and Satapuspa, etc. as well Karavi C. S. Chi. 24/ 180 has been taken to be a type of grape, Gostanika. Here Karani Raga may be a preparation for Karavi.


  • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 9/ 52, 63, C. S. Chi. 10/ 44, 46, C. S. Chi. 17/ 140, C. S. Chi. 26/ 82
  • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 230
  • Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 4/ 51, A. H. Chi. 6/ 28, A. H. U. 2/ 53, A. H. U. 6/ 36


Jeeraka’s description in Brihtrayi as Vashpa Dwaya


This version is changed by some from Vashpa to Varshabhu. In the case of Vashpa Dwaya, it seems to be red and white varieties of Marisha or Jeeraka.


  • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 4/ 32


Jeeraka’s description in Brihtrayi as Upkunchika (Kalonji, Mangrella)


  • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Sa. 8/ 70, C. S. Sa. 13/ 124, C. S. Sa. 26/ 60, 137, C. S. Ka. 12/ 23, C. S. Si. 9/ 13
  • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 46/ 230
  • Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 8/ 45, A. H. Chi. 14/ 103, A. H. Chi. 15/ 14, A. H. U. 20/ 5, A. H. U. 34/ 30, 32


Jeeraka’s description in Brihtrayi as Sushvi


It has been identified as a variety of Karvellaka or a variety of Jeeraka.


  • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, 150, C. S. Chi. 15/ 83, C. S. Ka. 1/ 25
  • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 38/ 5, S. S. Chi. 5/ 7, 12
  • Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 17, A. H. Chi. 8/ 13, A. H. Chi. 14/ 13


Jeeraka’s description in Brihtrayi as Kunchika


This may be the same as Upkunchika or Krishna Jeeraka or Methi. Methi is usually used with Upkunchika as one of the important spices and the plant as a pot herb.


  • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 27/ 302, C. S. Chi. 14/ 73, C. S. Chi. 15/ 107, C. S. Chi. 30/ 53, 55


Jeeraka’s description in Brihtrayi as Prithvika


Prithvika has been considered to be a synonym of Hingu- Patrika, Ela Brihat (Greater cardamom), and Upakuncika Hingupatrika may be Gardenia gummifera Linn. f., Dikamali, and the gum formed in the leaf-buds is used. Where the Prithvika fruits are meant to be used, any of the other two drugs may be used. For external application, the seeds of Entada scandens Benth., Gilagacha, may also be examined.


  • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 2/ 3, C. S. Su. 5/ 17, C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, 158, C. S. Chi. 3/ 266, C. S. Chi. 5/ 71, C. S. Chi. 7/ 121, C. S. Chi. 26/ 237
  • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 45/ 115, S. S. Chi. / 89, S. S. Ka. 5/ 73, S. S. Ka. 6/ 18, S. S. U. 42/ 25, 95, S. S. U. 47/ 25
  • Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 4, A. H. Su. 21/ 16, A. H. Chi. 1/ 138, 123, A. H. Chi. 14/ 11, A. H. U. 2/ 19


Jeeraka’s description in Brihtrayi as Ajaji


Charaka  Shusruta  Vagbhata 

(Ashtang Hridya)

C. S. Su. 2/ 3 S. S. Chi. 5/ 28 A. H. Su. 14/ 25
C. S. Su. 4/ 45 S. S. U. 40/ 78 A. H. Su. 15/ 33
C. S. Su. 23/ 19 S. S. U. 42/ 25, 32, 95 A. H. Sa. 1/ 88
C. S. Su. 27/ 302 S. S. U. 43/ 21 A. H. Chi. 3/ 20, 142, 144
C. S. Vi. 8/ 158 S. S. U. 47/ 30, 45 A. H. Chi. 4/ 23, 27
C. S. Chi. 5/ 68, 71, 79, 87 A. H. Chi. 5/ 56
C. S. Chi. 8/ 141 A. H. Chi. 6/ 33
C. S. Chi. 11/ 73, 85, 87 A. H. Chi. 7/ 13, 40, 44
C. S. Chi. 12/ 39, 53, 58 A. H. Chi. 8/ 45, 50, 60
C. S. Chi. 13/ 102, 104 A. H. Chi. 9, 12, 26, 50, 111, 114
C. S. Chi. 14/ 64, 69, 73, 90 A. H. Chi. 10/ 12, 27
C. S. Chi. 15/ 87, 101, 113 A. H. Chi. 14/ 9, 11, 18, 32, 36, 113
C. S. Chi. 17/ 100 A. H. Chi. 15/ 15, 127, 129
C. S. Chi. 18/ 172 A. H. Chi. 17/ 20, 39
C. S. Chi. 19/ 47, 114 A. H. Ka. 2/ 17, 26
C. S. Chi. 23/ 77, 94, 230 A. H. U. 20/ 5, 6
C. S. Chi. 24/ 120, 175, 179, 181 A. H. U. 34/ 30
C. S. Chi. 26/ 21, 137, 214, 216, 217
C. S. Chi. 30/ 53
C. S. Ka. 7/ 39, 56
C. S. Si. 8/ 41

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Historical background of Shweta Jeeraka

Jiraka is extensively used in Ayurvedic therapeutic preparations both individually as well as in combination. Caraka quoted it among the Shula Prasamana group while Sushruta was under the Pippalyadi group. It is mainly used as a carminative and digestive. However, it is also used for several conditions including those related to Garbhasaya, Hridaya, Netra, etc. In the texts usually, Jiraka dvaya (Sveta and Krishna) are described. C. cyminum and Carum carvi Linn. are the respective botanical sources. There is another variety, Carum bulbocastanum Koch. which is known as traditional medicine. This may be the white variety of Jiraka while C. cyminum is the normal variety of Jiraka.

Historical background of Krishna Jeeraka

Krsna Jiraka is as famous as Jiraka in the Ayurvedic texts since Sushruta mentioned Jiraka Dvaya. Chakrapani commented that Karavi means Krishna Jiraka. Charaka described it as Rocana and Pacana in nature. Krishna Jiraka is mainly indicated for Jirna Jvara (chronic fevers) and Grahani disorders.

Historical background of Upkunchika

It is an annual herb that grows up to 60cm. height. Its flowers are light blue colored. Chakrapani quoted that Kunchika is Sthula Jirakam. Bhavamisra used Kalajaji, Brihat Jiraka, Karavi, and Prithvika as synonyms for Upakuncika. Irrespective of these controversies, N. Sativa is used traditionally as Kalonji or Upakuncika. It is one of the ingredients in Chaturbija. 

Controversial Studies

Under Jeeraka, Dwaya Shukla and Krishna Jeeraka are considered but Shodhla is considered Upkunchika under Jeeraka Dwaya.


  • Sushruta quoted Jeeraka Dwaya in (S. S. Su. 46)
  • Bhavaprakasha Nighantu has mentioned three varieties of Jeeraka:
  1. Jeeraka (Cuminum cyminum)
  2. Krishan Jeeraka (Carum carvi)
  3. Kalajaji (Nigella sativa)
  • Dhanwantri Nighantu has mentioned four varieties of Jeeraka:
  1. Jeeraka 
  2. Shukla Jeeraka
  3. Krishna Jeeraka
  4. Brihatpalli (Vanya Jeeraka)
  • Shodhala described the varieties as Upkunchika, Shukla Jeeraka, and Krishna Jeeraka. Under Jeeraka Dwaya Shodhala omitted Up Kunchika (Kalajaji/ Prithvika).
  • Kaiydeva Nighantu mentioned Jeeraka Tritya i.e three varieties of Jeeraka.

External morphology of Shweta Jeeraka (Cuminum cyminum)

  • Habit- A slender annual plant.
  • Leaves- Leaves of Shweta Jeeraka thrice or thrice 3- partite, ultimate segments are filiform.
  • Inflorescence- Compound umbel, rays are few, has several bracts and bracteoles. Bracts are linear and rigid. Petals are white, and often unequal.
  • Fruit- Cylindric with a narrow tip. Primary ridges are filiform, and distinct and secondary ridges are usually hispidulous. Vittae is large. Solitary under each secondary ridge. Carpophores are 2-partite or bifid.
  • Seed- Convex-concave, dorsally compressed.

External morphology of Krishna Jeeraka (Carum carvi)

  • Habit- Biennial but occasionally forming a perennial stock.
  • Stem- Erect, branched, 35- 50 cm tall.
  • Leaves- Leaves of Krishna Jeeraka have long sheathing foot stalks, pinnate, with several pairs of segments which are sessile, but once or twice pinnate with short linear lobes. In a leaf 6 or 8 cm long, the lowest or next to the lowest segments are 0.75 cm (7.5 mm), the others diminishing gradually to the top. Upper leaves of Krishna Jeeraka are smaller and less divided.
  • Inflorescence- Umbel having 8 to 10 rays, either without involucres or with one or two small linear bracts.
  • Fruit- Caraway seeds are 5 mm long, linear-oblong, and usually curved, with prominent ribs.

External morphology of Upkunchika (Nigella sativa)

  • Habit- A pretty herb, 30- 60 cm. high. 
  • Leaves- Leaves of Upkunchika are 2- 3- pinnatisect, 2.5- 5 cm. long cut into linear or linear-lanceolate segments. 
  • Flowers- Flowers 2- 2.5 cm. across, pale blue on solitary long peduncles. Sepals are ovate, acute, and clawed. Petals- 8, nectarial, geniculate, with a saccate-gland in the knee, one on the face and one on the apex of each lobe; carpels 5-7, inflated, warty at the sides, united to the top; beak as long as the ovary. 
  • Seeds: Seeds of Upkunchika are trigonous, rugulose-tubercular. Seeds are small black, 3- 1 angled, pointed at the micropylar end and rounded at another end with an uneven surface, dicotyledonous, mostly of the same size, measuring 2- 3 x 1- 2 mm. in diam. Seeds black oily, 3- 4-angled with an uneven surface, irregular distribution of large circular and small polygonal thick-walled cells with papillate to the epidermis segment cells with characteristic scalariform pitted wall thickenings, fatty and proteinaceous food matters present in the cotyledon cells.

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Flowering and fruiting time of Shweta Jeeraka

Post winters, farming time.

Flowering and fruiting time of Krishna Jeeraka

Rainy season to autumn and cold season. It is a winter-season crop.

Flowering and fruiting time of Upkunchika

Between June to September.

Substitute of Krishna Jeeraka

Fruit of Bunium persicum Boiss.

Adulterant of Krishna Jeeraka

Cuminum cyminum Linn.

Substitute and adulterant of Upakunchika

The market samples of the seeds of Nigella Sativa Linn. are often adulterated. The seeds of Argemone mexicana Linn. are often adulterated by mixing with black cumin seeds. According to the prevention of food Adulteration Rules, black cumin must conform to the following standards foreign organic matter 5% total ash 7%, HCL insoluble ash 1.25%, and volatile oil 0.5%. Black cumin supply needs to consist of whole seeds and not in broken or powder form and the total alcohol soluble acidity (oleic acid) should exceed 6.5% according to standards.

Distribution of Krishna Jeeraka

Cultivated throughout India, but more in Rajasthan and Punjab. Mostly cultivated as a cold season crop.

Distribution of Shweta Jeeraka

Krishna Jeeraka is extensively cultivated in Kashmir and Gadwal.

Distribution of Upakunchika

The plant grows wild in forest areas. It is also an occasional wild cultivation. The plant is cultivated under farming practices for flavoring material, food additives, and the medicinal item produced in rural regions in certain states in the country i.e., Bihar, Punjab, H.P., Assam, and other provinces. Cultivation is suitably taken particularly in areas generally with dry soil, increasing the level of salinity in irrigation water decreases the vegetative growth and seeds yield. The produce of seeds is marketed as the dried seeds are available in the market as a spice, aromatic, and medicinal herbal raw material. Farming is generally taken in western parts.

The useful part of Shweta Jeeraka



Fruits are elongated, greenish, or grayish brown, measuring 4 to 6 mm in length and up to 2.5 mm in width. The fruit is a Cremo carp, consisting of two mericarps that remain united together when dry. Each mericarp has five primary ridges which run from base to apex. Alternating with these are secondary ridges which are flat and conspicuous. It has a characteristic odor and pungent taste.

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The useful part of Krishna Jeeraka



Fruits are oblong, laterally compressed, and slightly curved, up to 5 mm long, 1 mm broad, tapering towards both ends. The mericarp is yellowish-brown and shows five equal sides with five narrow ridges which are very distinct, the endosperm is brown and somewhat oily. It has a characteristic odor and pungent taste.

The useful part of Upkunchika



Seeds are small black, 3- 1 angled, pointed at the micropylar end and rounded at another end with an uneven surface, dicotyledonous, mostly of the same size, measuring 2- 3 x 1- 2 mm. in diameter. Seeds black oily, 3- 4-angled with an uneven surface, irregular distribution of large circular and small polygonal thick-walled cells with papillate to the epidermis segment cells with characteristic scalariform pitted wall thickenings, fatty and proteinaceous food matters present in the cotyledon cells.

Important phytoconstituent of Cuminum cyminum

Seeds yield essential oil which contains cuminol. Its volatile oil, thiamine 3.2-5.2 percent is responsible for taste and odor. It contains carvone consisting of 5.6 percent cuminol or cumic aldehyde. Seeds also contain fixed oil, resin, mucilaginous matter, protein compounds, and other substances. Seeds of Shweta Jeeraka are a rich source of thymol.

Important phytoconstituent of Carum carvi

Seeds yield a volatile oil which is responsible for its intense dour. The essential oil contains 45- 65% carvone, a mixture of ketone carvone, terpene, and traces of carvacrol.

Important phytoconstituent of Nigella sativa

  • Some non-protoplasmic cell contents like alkaloids, saponin, sugar, fat, volatile oil, protein, mucilage, lignin, and cutin present in crude drugs react positively with different concentrations of acids, alkalies, salts, and dyes.
  • Chemical analysis of black cumin gave the values (in percentage): total ash 3.8-5.3; ash insoluble HCL 0.5, volatile oil 0.5- 1.6, ether soluble extractive (fatty oil) 35.6-  41.6 and alcoholic acidity (as oleic acid) 3.4- 6.3. 
  • The seeds gave on steam distillation a yellowish-brown volatile oil with an unpleasant odor. The seeds contain volatile oil as the active constituent. It contains carvone, an unsaturated ketone, terpene or d-limonene also called carvene and cymene.
  • Extraction with benzene and subsequent steam-distillation of extract to remove the volatile oil gave 31% of a reddish brown and semi-drying oil. The oil has the following characteristics: specific gravity (350) 0.9152, 21°, 1.4862, acid value 42.83, saponification value 199.6, iodine value 117.6, acetylation value 89.6, RM. value 3.9 and saponified matter 0.03. 
  • The fatty acids of the oil are as follows: myristic 0.26, palmitic 6.31, stearic 2.45, and linoleic 35. 99. The components of glycerides of the oil are as follows: tridonoleine 25, oleodinoleine 25, dioleodinolein 12, palmitoleic-linoleum stereo-oleolinolein 7. Glycerides of some volatile acids are also present in the oil in small quantities. The chemical analysis of black cumin oil has been conducted under various studies and data are reported.
  • A saponin was also isolated and characterized from the ethanolic extract of the seeds of Nigella sativa. The structure of nigellicine, an unusual alkaloid from seeds of Nigella sativa, was determined by x-ray diffraction and spectroscopic technique. Earlier chemical screening isolated and characterized two isomeric octadecenoic acids (Petroselanic acid) and oleic acid which occur in black cumin seed fat.
  • Chromatographic studies have been carried out on the seeds Nigella sativa Linn. (Upakuncika) and results are shown in the data in detail on record. From the spectral data, it was indicated that nigellicine, the crystalline alkaloid, was a highly conjugated molecule of an unfamiliar structural type. Nigellicine could be recrystallized from aqueous methanol or ethanol in a form suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition to nigellicine, two alkaloids have been isolated from Nigella sativa Linn. in very small quantities.
  • The ethanol extract of the seeds of Upakuncika or Nigella sativa Linn. afforded a fraction containing saponin after partition between HCL and n-butanol. A saponin was isolated from this fraction. The saponin was analyzed by H and C NMR spectroscopy which showed that it contained triterpenoid acid and six sugars. Acid hydrolysis of the saponin yielded hederagenin. The monosaccharides released were also analyzed as their alcohol acetate (by GC MS) and their absolute configuration (by GC) after reaction with (-) -2- butanol and trimethylation L-Rhamnose, D-Glucose, D-xylose and L-Arabinose on the relative portions 2:2:1:1 was the only sugar detected. The linkages by which the sugar residues are connected were determined by methylation analysis. Alkaline hydrolysis of the saponin followed by reduction yielded a prosapogenin and a reduced trisaccharide analyzed by sugar and methylation analysis.
  • Mainly the chemical profile of seeds of the drug Upakuncika or Kalajaji contains a yellowish brownish volatile oil of 0.5- 1.6% and a brownish-reddish fixed oil of 31% and they also contain albumin, sugar, carbonic acid, toxic saponin, melanthin, aerobic acid, a bitter principle nigellin, resin, tannin, and ash 7%. Volatile oil consists of carvone 45- 60%, d-cymene, and nigellone which is a broncho-dilator.

Recent research on Cuminum cyminum

  • In the present study, the effect of intraperitoneal (IP) administration of different doses of cumin fruit essential oil (FEO) on the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference (GPP) in L-arginine-treated mice was investigated. The study suggested that some components of the Cuminum cyminum L. seed attenuate the excessive effect of L-arginine on morphine-induced CPP through the NOS inhibitory mechanism. Kermani M, Azizi P, Haghparast A. The role of nitric oxide in the effects of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) fruit essential oil on the acquisition of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in adult male mice. Chin J Integr Med. 2012 Jan 12.
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum (Jeera) seeds if male albino rats. The present study shows that C. cyminum treatment resulted in the inhibition of spermatogenesis and fertility without producing apparent toxic effects. Gupta RS, Saxena P, Gupta R, Kachhawa JB. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive activities of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats. Contraception. 2011 Jul; 84 (1): 98-107. doi: 10. 1016/ j. contraception. 2010. 10. 013. Epub 2011 Feb 16.
  • To investigate the effects of various concentrations of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. seed alone and in combination with nisin on the survival of vegetative forms of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis in a food model (commercial barley soup) and their ultrastructure. The essential oil of C. cyminum L. seed showed the most bactericidal effects on B. cereus at 8 °C. Ultrastructure studies of vegetative cells confirmed the synergistic destructive effects of the essential oil and nisin on the membrane and cell wall of the bacteria. Pajohi MR, Tajik H, Farshid AA, Hadian M. Synergistic antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Cuminum cyminum L. seed and nisin in a food model. J Appl Microbial. 2011 Jan 12. doi:10. 1111/ j. 1365- 2672. 2011. 04946. x. 
  • The essential oil of fruits of Cuminum cyminum L. (Apiaceae), from India, was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and its antifungal activity was tested on dermatophytes and phytopathogens, fungi, yeasts, and some new Aspergilli. Antifungal testing showed that Cuminum cyminum is active in general on all fungi but in particular on the dermatophytes, where Trichophyton rubrum was the most inhibited fungus also at the lowest dose of 5 microL. Less sensitive to treatment were the phytopathogens. Pharm Biology. 2010 Jul; 48 (7): 834-8. doi: 10. 3109/ 13880200903283715. Antifungal activity of essential oil from fruits of Indian Cuminum cyminum. Romagnoli C, Andreotti E, Maietti S, Mahendra R, Mares D
  • Alcoholic extract of seeds at 150 mg/ kg showed 1009, antifertility effects in early pregnancy in female rats (Ind. J. Mej Res. 1976, 64, 1133).
  • Seeds significantly decreased the incidence of both bengu [a] pyrene-induced neoplasia in Swiss mice and 3′- methyl. Dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatomas in Wistar rats (Food Chem. Toxicology. 1992, 30, 953).

Recent research on Carum carvi

  • The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of an aqueous extract of Carum carvi seeds on diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Carum carvi aqueous seeds extract decreases lipid levels in diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Saghir MR, Sadiq S, Nayak S, Tahir MU. Hypolipidemic effect of aqueous extract of Carum carvi (black Zeera) seeds in diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2012 Apr; 25 (2): 333- 7.
  • To evaluate the effect of oral administration of caraway (Carum carvi) on the blood glucose level, lipid profile, and weight of diabetic rats. Caraway has both antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in diabetic rats. Haidari F, Seyed- Sadjadi N, Taha- jalali M, Mohammed-Shahi M. The effect of oral administration of Carum carvi on weight, serum glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Saudi Med J. 2011 Jul; 32 (7): 695- 700.
  • The present study investigates the direct effects of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) ethanol extract on dispersed intestinal smooth muscle cells (SMC) of guinea pigs. The data obtained indicate a dose-dependent inhibition of the contraction induced by Ach. This response may explain, in part, the beneficial effect of caraway in relieving gastrointestinal symptoms associated with dyspepsia. Al- Essa MK, Carum carvi on dispersed intestinal smooth 48 (1): 76- 80. doi: 10. 3109/ 138802009030- 46161.
  • Essential oils of Carum carvi L. fruits were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed for their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect against carbon tetrachloride (CCI4) damage. Caraway essential oil strongly inhibited LP in both systems of induction, the essential oil of caraway appeared promising for safe use in folk medicine and the pharmaceutical and food industries. Samojlik1, Lakic N, Mimica-Dukic N, Dakovic-Svajcer K, Bozin B. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) (Apiaceae). J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Aug 11: 58 (15): 8848-53. doi: 10. 1021/ jf101645n.
  • The present study aimed to evaluate the diuretic potential of aqueous extracts of Carum carvi fruit (Caraway). From the pattern of exception of water, sodium, and potassium, it may be deduced that there are at least two types of active principles present in these extracts, one having a furosemide-like activity and the other a thiazide-like activity. Lahlou S, Tahraoui A, Israeli Z, Lyoussi B. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare in normal rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Apr 4; 110 (3): 458- 63. Epub 2006 Oct 19.
  • Nasraldeen Abdalaziz, Mohamed & Ali, Mahmoud & Garbi, Mohammed & Kabbashi, Ahmed. (2017). Physiochemical and proximate analysis of Carum carvi. L. Medicinal Plant Research. 5. 21-28. Carum carvi. L. was used traditionally in different populations for many medical complaints. The seeds are used for culinary purposes and medicinal treatment. The study aimed to investigate the proximate analysis of Carum carvi and the physiochemical properties of seed oil. The oil was extracted by petroleum ether (60 to 80°C) using a Soxhlet apparatus. Carum carvi L. seeds oil showed a 4.5% yield of fixed oil. Some of the proximate analyses of seeds such as aSh, fatty acid, fiber, moisture, protein, and carbohydrate were given (9.29 ± 0.52, 1.67 ± 0.16, 46.85 ± 0.49, 3.205 ± 0.021, 31.12 ± 0.46 and 7.87 ± 0.67, respectively). The physicochemical properties of the extracted fixed oil such as density, refractive index, viscosity, color, acid value, peroxide value, saponification value, un saponification matter, and iodine value were given (35.133 ± 0.208, 0.916 ± 0.02, 56.947 ± 0.002, 1.465 ± 0.002, 0.63 ± 1.14, 98.737 ± 0.78, 188.303 ± 1.38, 3.01 ± 0.47 and 4.45 ± 0.48, respectively). It was concluded that physio-chemical parameters were analyzed and can be used to determine the quality of fixed oils.
  • Chauhan, Vivek & Devi, Sunita & Sonaxi, Sharma & Kanwar, Shamsher. (2021). Phytochemical characterization of Caraway (Carum carvi) seed extract and its use as a potent medicinal agent. Research Journal of Biotechnology. 16. 102-110. 10.25303/1610rjbt102110. Carum carvi (Caraway) is a member of the Apiaceae family which originated in Asia. Due to its economic importance, it is widely cultivated. Caraway is the only annual species, commonly present in arable land, moist meadows, and lowlands to mountains. Caraway has different applications in the pharmaceutical and food industries. Phytochemical screening of different medicinal plants helps identify new sources of industrially and therapeutically important compounds. In this study, Caraway obtained from the forest surrounding the village Goherman, Lahaul, and Spiti, Himachal Pradesh (India) was used. The seed extract of caraway extracted in methanol (MSE) and distilled water (WSE) was used for phytochemical analysis to determine the constituents of caraway seeds. Further, caraway seeds extract was checked for antibacterial activity [Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Salmonella typhimurium (NCTC 74), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228)], antioxidant activity and acid neutralizing activity. After analyzing the results, it can be said that caraway seeds possess many medicinal properties and can be used in enhancing human health.
  • Khan, Rizwan & Ahmad, Wasim & Ahmad, Minhaj & Hasan, Azhar. (2016). Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Carum carvi. European journal of pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 3. 231-236. Carum carvi, Linn (Zeera Siyah) is one of the earliest cultivated herbs in Asia, Africa, and Europe. It is an annual or biennial glabrous herb, 30-100 cm in height with narrow-tip cylindrical fruits. The fruits have an aromatic, warm, and sharp taste with a characteristic odor and they have been used since the ancient era to treat digestive disorders. The seeds are widely used as a spice for flavoring and seasoning foods like bread, pickles, sauces, and salads because of their pungent and anise-like flavor and aroma. Medicinal use of caraway fruit has been widespread in several ethnomedicinal systems. It has shown diverse biological and pharmacologic activities. It has been used in Unani medicine (Tibb-e-Unani) and other traditional systems of medicine from time immemorial. Keeping in view the medicinal importance of the drug in Unani Medicine, an attempt has been made to review the available literature on traditional uses and pharmacological properties of the plant.
  • Goyal, Munish & Gupta, Vivek & Singh, Navjeet & Sharma, Mrinal. (2018). Carum Carvi-An Updated Review. 6. 14- 24. 10. 30750/ ijpbr. 6. 4. 4. Carum carvi (Caraway) is a biennial plant (Family Apiaceae), native to western Asia, Europe, and North Africa. It is a reputed and extensively ayurvedic plant used for various therapeutic purposes. It contained a wide range of chemical constituents like essential oils, volatile oils, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and trace elements. The previous studies showed that its chemical constituents exerted anti-diabetic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiulcerogenic, antimicrobial, Insecticidal, diuretic, analgesic, Renoprotective, molluscicide, endocrine, anti-cholinesterase, Immunomodulatory properties. This review is a step to open insight into the therapeutic efficacy of Carum carvi.
  • Carvel showed antihistamine and anti-anaphylactic effects in guinea pigs (Zhejiang like Daxue xuebow 1988, 17, 115).

Recent research on Nigella sativa

  • Beheshti F, Khazaei M, Hosseini M. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2016 Jan- Feb; 6 (1): 104- 16. PMID: 27247928; PMCID: PMC 4884225. The aqueous and methanol extracts of NS seeds were shown to possess potent CNS depressant effects and analgesic activities, especially depressant action in the case of the methanolic extract (Al-Naggar et al., 2003). In a neuropathic pain model of rats with chronic compressive injury of the sciatic nerveNS ethanolic extract 50 mg/kg showed a significant analgesic effect (Bashir & Qureshi, 2010). Also, TQ (1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg, i.p. once a day for 14 days) showed anti-nociceptive properties which were accompanied by antioxidant effects and inhibition of microglia activity (Amin et al., 2014). The hot-plate test evaluates the pain response in animals, similar to the tail flick test. It is used in basic pain research and in testing the effectiveness of analgesics by observing the reaction to pain caused by heat (Eddy and Leimbach, 1953). An oral administration of NSO (50-400 mg/kg) dose-dependently suppressed the nociceptive response in the hot-plate test, tail-pinch test, and acetic acid-induced writhing test and the early phase of the formalin test (Abdel-Fattah et al, 2000). The systemic administration (2.5-10 mg/kg, p.o. and 1-6 mg/kg, i.p.) and the i.c.v. injection (1-4 µg/mouse) of TQ attenuated the nociceptive response not only in the early phase but also during the late phase of the formalin test (Abdel-Fattah et al., 2000).  Results suggested that NSO and TQ produce anti-nociceptive effects through indirect activation of the supraspinal mu- and kappa-opioid receptor subtypes (Abdel-Fattah et al., 2000). In another study, NS seeds essential oil, at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 µL/kg did not exert a significant anti-inflammatory effect in the carrageenan test while i.p. injection of the same doses significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema (Hajhashemi et al., 2004). At doses of 10 and 20 µL/ear, it could also reduce croton oil-induced edema (Hajhashemi et al., 2004). It is suggested that mechanism(s) other than opioid receptors are included in the pain analgesic effect of NS since naloxone could not reverse this effect (Hajhashemi et al., 2004). It can be noted that the aqueous, methanol, and ethanol extract of NS as well as NSO and TQ can relieve pain. The effectiveness of these drugs may be mediated through the mu- and kappa-opioid receptors. Also, this effect could be due to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and microglia inhibitory activity of this plant.
  • Khan, Zafar & Hasan, Noorul & Ahmad, Nesar & Vartika, S. & Khalid, Maad & Singh, Prashant Kumar & Ahmad, Zeeshan & Zohrameena, Shaikh. (2016). Pharmacological Activity of Nigella Sativa: A Review. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 4. 234- 241. Nigella sativa (NS) is dark, thin, and crescent-shaped, a seeded shrub belonging to the family Ranunculaceae, commonly growing on Mediterranean coasts in Saudi Arabia, northern Africa, and Asia. It is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. It contains many active components including nigellicine, nigellimine, nigellidine and alpha hederin, thymoquinone, thymohydroquinone, dithymoquinone, thymol, and carvacrol. It was reported to possess numerous pharmacological effects related to several organs of the body. Most of the potent and fruitful activity resides in its volatile oil and protein component. However, the volatile oil suffers the drawback of the bronchoconstriction effect of thymoquinone. The positive roles of Nigella sativa (NS) have been suggested to have antioxidants on brain development and learning and memory and neuroprotective effects. It has been recommended for use on a regular basis in Tibb-e-Nabawi (Prophetic Medicine). It has been widely used as an antihypertensive, liver tonic, diuretics, digestive, and anti-diarrheal, Extensive studies on N. sativa have been carried out a wide spectrum of its pharmacological actions which may include antidiabetic, anticancer, immunomodulator, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, bronchodilator.
  • Kanter, Mehmet, Omer Coskun, and Mustafa Budancamanak. “Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats.” World journal of gastroenterology: WJG 11, no. 42 (2005): 6684. Fifty-six healthy male Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly allocated into one of the four experimental groups: A (CCl4-only treated), B (CCl4+UD treated), C (CCl4+NS treated), and D (CCl4+UD+NS treated), each containing 14 animals. All groups received CCl4 (0.8 mL/kg of body weight, sc, twice a week for 60 d). In addition, B, C, and D groups also received daily i.p. injections of 0.2 mL/ kg NS and 2 mL/ kg UD oils for 60 d. Group A, on the other hand, received only 2 mL/kg normal saline solution for 60 d. Blood samples for the biochemical analysis were taken by cardiac puncture from randomly chosen-seven rats in each treatment group at the beginning and on the 60th d of the experiment. In this study, the result is that CCl4 treatment for 60 d increased the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes, and also decreased the antioxidant enzyme levels. NS or UD treatment (alone or in combination) for 60 d decreased the elevated lipid peroxidation and liver enzyme levels and also increased the reduced antioxidant enzyme levels. The weight of rats decreased in group A and increased in groups B, C, and D. NS and UD decrease the lipid peroxidation and liver enzymes and increased the antioxidant defense system activity in the CCl4-treated rats.
  • Essential oil (Nigellone) protected guinea pigs against histamine-induced bronchospasm (J. Pharm. Sci. U.A.R. 1960, 1, 9).
  • Ether extract injected into lactating rats showed more powerful galactagogue action than estrogen (0.05 ug/ 100g) (Ind. J. Med. Sci. 1971, 25, 535).
  • Essential oil was active against Esch. Coli, Sal. paratyphi, Staph. aureus, Asp. flavus and Fusarium tenuis (Ind. Perfume. 1978, 22, 232).
  • Seed extract showed anti-tumor activity (Cancer Lett., 1992, 63, 41)

Rasa Panchaka of Shweta Jeeraka

Rasa (Taste) Katu (pungent) (Madhura by Dhanwantri Nighantu)
Guna (Virtue) Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
Virya (potency) Ushana (hot potency)
Vipaka (post-digestion) Katu (pungent)


Rasa Panchaka of Krishna Jeeraka


Rasa (Taste) Katu (pungent)
Guna (Virtue) Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
Virya (potency) Ushana (hot potency)
Vipaka (post-digestion) Katu (pungent)


Rasa Panchaka of Upkunchika


Rasa (Taste) Katu (pungent), Tikta (bitter)
Guna (Virtue) Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry), Teekshna (sharp)
Virya (potency) Ushana (hot potency)
Vipaka (post-digestion) Katu (pungent)

Dosha Karma of Shweta Jeeraka

Kapha Vata Shamaka, Vata Hara because of its Ushna Virya. Kapha Hara because of Katu Vipaka, Ushna Virya and Katu Rasa.


Dosha Karma of Krishna Jeeraka


Kapha Vata Shamaka, Vata Hara because of its Ushna Virya. Kapha Hara because of Katu Vipaka, Ushna Virya and Katu Rasa.


Dosha Karma of Upkunchika


Kapha Vata Shamaka and Pitta Vardhaka

Karma (Actions) of Shweta Jeeraka

Dipana, Pacana, Vata Anulomana, Sulaprasamana, Grahi, Krmighna, Uttejaka, Raktosodhaka, Mutrala, Stanyajanana, Jvaraghna, Katupoustika, Vrsya, Lekhana, Sothahara, Vedanasthapana, Tvagdosahara, Kusthaghna, Garbhasaya Visuddhikara, Balya, Visaghna, Caksusya, Chardi Nigrahana


Karma (Actions) of Krishna Jeeraka


Dipana, Pachana, Rocana, Durgandhanasana, Vata Anulomana, Grahi, Chardinigrahana, Hrdya, Sothahara, Garbhasayasodhana, Stanyajanana, Jvaraghna, Caksusya, Balya, Vrishya, Medhya, Kaphavata Vikara.


Karma (Actions) of Upkunchika


Garbhashaya San Kocaka, Apara Patana, Stanyajanana, Dourgandhyahara, Rocana, Dipana, Pacana, Anulomana, Grahi, Krmighna, Arsoghna, Kaphanihsaraka, Mutrala, Svedajanana, Jvaraghna, Sitaprasamana, Lekhana, Sothahara, Vedanasthapana Uttejaka

Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Shweta Jeeraka

Agnimandya, Ajirna, Adhmana, Udararoga, Udara Shula, Amlapitt, Jathara Sula, Arsoghnam, Krmighna, Atisara, Amatisara, Grahani, Hrdroga, Raktavikara, Mutraghata, Puyameha, Ashmari, Shweta Pradara, Sutikaroga-Garbhasaya Vikara, Stanyavikara, Stanya Kshaya, Charmavikara, Varnadosa, Jwara- Navyapurana, Vatikajvara, Dourbalya, Visa-Vrscikadansa, Kustha- Kandu- Pama, Netravikara.


Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Krishna Jeeraka


Agnimandya, Ajirna, Aadhmana, Mukhdourgandhya, Asyavairasya, Sangrahani, Vamana, Hrddourbalya, Shotha, Prasutivikara, Garbhasaya Vikara, Stanyavikara, Jirnajvara, Vishamajvara.


Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Upkunchika


Aruchi, Agnimandya, Ajirna, Aadhmana, Udarashula, Udara Roga, Gulma, Krmiroga, Gandupadakrimi, Vatavyadhi, Sandhisotha, Kastaprasava, Prasavottara Vikara, Makkalasula (Aparapatana), Yoni shoola, Mutraghata, Ashmari, Tvagdosa, Charmavikara, Khalitya, Sirahsula, Kasa, Shvasa, Parvasula, Pratishyaya, Visamajvara, Sitajvara, Raktapitta.

Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Jeeraka Varieties

Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Shweta Jeeraka


Jwara (Fever)


  • Malaria with rigor: The patient should take Jiraka powder with jaggery or Guduchi juice with jaggery or juice of Varttaka mixed with honey. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 2. 93)
  • Jiraka combined with jaggery alleviates irregular fever. It improves Pachana Shakti (digestion) and various kinds of Vataja disorders. (Vrinda Madhava. 1. 228)
  • Fever caused by Vata- Kapha: The patient should take Jiraka with jaggery or honey followed by intake of buttermilk. Thereafter he should sit in the sun until he perspires. Thus, he becomes free from the fever caused by Kapha and Vata. (Gada Nigreha. 2. 1. 346- 347)


Chardi (Vomiting): Sauvarcala, Jiraka, sugar, and Marica- this linctus with honey is an excellent anti-emetic. (Vrinda Madhava. 15/ 18)


Amal Pitta (Acid gastritis):  Ghee 640 gm, should be cooked with a paste of Jiraka and Dhanyaka. It removes Kapha, Pitta, and anorexia, improves digestion, and checks to vomit. (Chakra Dutta. 52/ 51)


Vrishchika Visha (Scorpion-sting):  Paste of Jiraka mixed with ghee and rock salt applied warmly removes the pain of scorpion-sting. (Chakra Dutta. 65. 23)


Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Krishna Jeeraka


Chaturthika Jwara (Malarial fever): Intake of Krishna Jeeraka with equal jaggery and a bit of Maricha checks quotidian fever immediately. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 1. 755)


Aruchi (Anorexia): Krsnajiraka, Marica, Jiraka, Draksha, Vrikhsmala, Dadima, and Sauvarcala mixed with jaggery, and honey alleviates all types of anorexia. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26. 212)


Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Upkunchika


Visham Jwara (Irregular fever): Kalajaji taken with jaggery controls irregular fever. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 1/ 753)


Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage): In intrinsic hemorrhage, when a metallic smell appears in breath and eructations, the patient should take Prithvika in the dose of 2.5 gm. mixed with double sugar. (Vrinda Madhava. 9. 25)


Arsha (Piles): Upakuncika is one of the ingredients in Takrarishta useful in piles. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 8. 45- 47)


Gulma (Abdominal tumor): It also enters into the composition of Ksharaguda beneficial in Gulma. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 14. 102- 106)


Udararoga (Gastrointestinal disorder): Upakuncika participates in the formulation of Narayana Churna, a well-known remedy for Udara Roga. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 13. 125- 32)


Ashmari (Calculus): One should take powder of Upakuncika, Hingu, and Amlavetasa, two types of Brihati, Hapusha, and Vacha, and also ghee prepared with them. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 61)


Pratishaya (Coryza): In coryza, the powder of Rohisa, Jiraka, Vacha, Tarkari, and Choraka or Tvak, Patra, Marica, Ela, and Upakunchika should be inhaled. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 138)


Apara Paatan (For expelling placenta): The paste of Ela, Devadaru, etc, containing Upakuncika is administered to the woman. (Charaka Samhita Sharira Sthana. 8. 41)


Yoni Shool (Pain in female genitals): 


  • Vacha, Upakuncika, etc. should be pounded with clear wine and fried with ghee. It should be taken to remove pain in female genitals and sides, Cardiac disorder, Gulma, and piles. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 34. 30- 31)
  • One should take Vasa, Matulunga root, and Madayantika with wine added with salt, pippali, and Upakuncika. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 34/ 32)

Benefits of Jeeraka Varieties

Benefits of Cuminum cyminum (Shweta Jeeraka)


  • It is anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, astringent, carminative, cooling, digestive, diuretic, febrifuge, ophthalmic, stimulant, stomachic, and tonic. It is useful in irritation and pain in stomach aches, chronic diarrhea and dyspepsia, eye troubles, skin diseases, and worms.
  • It is an important spice commonly used as a condiment in cooking. They are also given veterinary medicine.
  • Fruits (seeds) are given in dyspepsia, diarrhea, and hoarseness of voice. They are recommended to a pregnant woman for checking bilious nausea and promoting the secretion of milk.
  • The cumin seeds are also suggested to give to mothers shortly after delivery. Seeds are mixed with butter (ghee) and smoked through a pipe in a hiccup. A poultice of the seeds is applied as a resolvent to swelling of the breast and testicles.
  • In case of acute diarrhea in adults and similar infantile bowel complaints, the seeds (half quantity fried and half unfried or fully fried) duly mixed with sugar, are powdered and the same powder is given thrice a day with water. Cumin seeds water, being carminative, is repeatedly orally given in conditions of flatulence, gripping, and other gastrointestinal troubles.
  • Seeds are useful in snakebites. A paste of the seeds mixed with ghee and rock salt is applied warm to remove the pain of a scorpion sting.
  • The seeds mixed with other suitable drugs and vehicles are given for malarial fever, Vata- Kapha fever Jvara), vomiting, and acid gastritis.
  • The oils prepared with the seeds and other suitable drugs are applied externally to scabies and other skin affections.


Benefits of Carum carvi (Krishna Jeeraka)


  • The fruits are useful as stomachic, carminative, and galactagogue. It is abortifacient, anthelmintic, aromatic, astringent, cardiac, febrifuge, lactagogue, purgative, stimulant, stomachic, and tonic.
  • They are useful in amenorrhea, blood vomiting with bile, general debility, and dyspepsia.
  • It is useful as an eyewash for strengthening vision (sight weakness). 
  • It is given intermittent fever, painful swellings, and protruding piles.
  • It is used in rheumatism and worms.
  • It is a flavoring agent; it is one of the important ingredients in curry powder; they have a powerful odor and flavor.
  • The seeds with Sharkara (jaggery), mixed with a bit of Maricha (Piper nigrum), are given in Vishama Jwara (malarial fever). The seeds mixed with other suitable drugs and vehicles are given to check all types of anorexia.


Benefits of Nigella sativa (Upkunchika, Mangrella)


  • The seeds of black cumin are bitter with a sharp and pungent taste. The seeds are used as the drug Upakuncika or Kalajaji. It is aromatic, appetizer, stimulant, carminative, diuretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, and anthelmintic and used in the treatment of mild cases of puerperal fever. 
  • The powdered seed mixed with sesame oil is often externally applied on the eruptions of the skin. The seeds of black cumin in combination with other drugs are suggested for the treatment of snakebite as per classical texts and also in scorpion-sting.
  • The seeds are considered, hot and dry, slightly bitter, with a sharp taste and they are used as a diuretic, emmenagogue, abortifacient, vermifuge or anthelmintic.
  • Seeds are useful in ascites, lung complaints, cough, jaundice, hydrophobia, tertian fever, paralysis, and eyesores.
  • They are used as a good adjunct to purgative and for piles. 
  • The antibacterial activity of alcoholic extracts of the seeds of the drug Kalajaji has been observed. Similarly, the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of seeds drug has also been found. The drug Upakuncika has been indicated as an antibacterial agent. Upakuncika Bija Taila (black cumin seeds oil) has been microbiologically studied and the results find that the seed oil is effective against gram-positive and Stam-negative bacteria. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (0.50 MCL/disc) was found against Bacillus polymyxa. According to another investigation on the antibacterial aspect of the drug, the essential oil from the seeds of Upakuncika (Nigella sativa Linn,) was found to potentiate pentobarbitone-induced sleeping increase ambulation scores in open field arena test with no appreciable effect on rearing and grooming increase immobility time of rats in PST and exhibited significant analgesic activity in rats and mice. Fertility of Male fat was inhibited by treatment for 20 days with 25 mg. of ethanol extract from the seeds of the drug plant on alternate days, Alcoholic extract of the seeds of Upakuncika showed cytotoxic activity in a concentration of 25 mg, which is equivalent to dry powder against Dalton lymphoma ascites cells. Alcoholic extracts of the seeds show antibacterial activity. micrococcus pyogenesis var. aureus and Escherichia coli. The antibacterial efficacy of the drug is useful therapeutic utility in different ailments.
  • Therapeutically the seeds of Upakuncika are administered for different diseases and the seeds of the drug show pharmacological action against some ailing conditions and effect on the human body variously.
  • In the stage of difficult labor or abnormal delivery (Mudha Garbha), the decoction or powder of the seeds is given to the expecting mother. 
  • Seeds are similarly recommended for oral administration during the puerperal period (Sutika Kala) given its galactagogue, protective and health-promoting action on the uterus, genital organs, reproduction system, and woman’s body as a whole. 
  • The paste of Upakuncika seeds mixed with Ela (Lesser cardamomum) and Devadaru (Cedrus deodara) is classically prescribed to be applied for expelling placenta (for Apara Patan) in process of complete delivery (Prasava), given drug’s action on uterus (Garbhashaya Sanko chaka and Garbhasaya Visodhana). In cases of female genitals (yoni shool), the drug seeds with Vacha (Acorus calamus) etc. may be pounded with clear wine and fried with ghee. This recipe is prescribed to be taken for removing pain in female genitals and the medicine also checks cardiac disorders, gulma, and piles. 
  • The seeds are orally used in females with menstrual disorders (Rajorodha- Kastartava) given their emmenagogue action.
  • The fine powder of seeds is snuffed in jaundice and headache. 
  • Seeds oil is locally applied to affected joints and organs in Vata Vyadhi and Sandhi Sotha, and the paste seeds are also topically applied to inflamed and painful joints. 
  • The seeds are burnt for using their smoke medicinally as fumigation is suggested in cases of hemorrhoids and coryza. Seeds are externally applied to skin affections and baldness (Khalitya).
  • In malarial fever (Visama Jvara), the seeds powder with Gur is given orally. Seeds are suggested in scanty urine (Mutraghata). 
  • Seeds are useful in cough, chest pain and asthma as the seeds have expectorant properties. Seeds are useful in various ailments of the digestive system such as dyspepsia, loss of appetite, foul smell of the mouth, flatulence, abdominal colic, diarrhea, and worm affections. Seeds are suggested to be used in roundworms’ affection (Gandupada Krimi). Seeds are especially mixed with other anthelmintic and purgative medicine to check for grip.
  • In the treatment of gulma, Arsa, and Udara Roga the compound formulations (Yoga) of Ksharagada, Takrarista and Udaravikara are respectively prescribed, these all formulations contain seeds of the drug Upakuncika. The drug is useful in Kapha- Vata Roga in general. In irregular fever, Upakuncika or Kalajaji seeds are taken. The seeds of the drug are 2.5 gm. mixed with double quantity sugar in intrinsic hemorrhage (Raktapitta) with the condition of metallic smell appearing in the breath.
  • Besides the therapeutic utility of the drug Upakuncika, the seeds are commonly used as a household aromatic and flavoring item and particularly in Achar and other dietetic preparations.
  • In the Unani system of medicine, the drug known as Habbutusouda and Syahdan, etc. is recommended as potent medicine and used in various diseases owing to the medicinal properties of seeds and seeds oil of drug.

Benefits of Shweta Jeeraka on different systems of the body

  • External uses: The paste is an anti-inflammatory and an analgesic, hence it is applied in painful edema. Useful in skin diseases, in depigmentation. The paste is used in Kachhu and Pama (types of scabies). The decoction of cumin seeds is used for cleansing skin disorders. Paste also helps in hemorrhoids and pain due to scorpion stings. Chewing cumin seeds is useful in stomatitis and pharyngitis by alleviating inflammation and soreness. This action is done by the cumin oil.
  • Digestive system: Being palatable, appetizer, digestant, carminative, analgesic, astringent and anthelmintic, it is used in disorders caused by a disturbance in Agni like anorexia, emesis, loss of appetite, indigestion, flatulence, pain in the abdomen, sprue, and hemorrhoids, etc. Powder of roasted Jeeraka with honey is given for licking. Hiccups are relieved by smoking cigarettes made with ghee and cumin seeds.
  • Circulatory system: It is a Uttejaka (stimulant) and Rakta Shodhak (blood purifier). It is useful in cardiac and blood disorders.
  • Urinary system: Diuretic. Cumin seed powder along with sugar is given in renal colic, gonorrhea, and calculi. Juice made of Shweta Jeeraka in water is also useful in various disorders related to the urinary system.
  • Reproductive system: It alleviates the inflammation of the uterus. It is also a galactagogue and aphrodisiac. It is used in leucorrhea. Jaggery and cumin seed powder is used as a galactagogue. Jeerak is used for Prasuti Stri (postpartum women) as it is a Stanya Janana (galactagogue), improves lactation, and gives strength (Balya).
  • Skin: It is used in most skin disorders.
  • Temperature: Febrifuge. In acute and chronic fever, particularly in Vata dominant fever, it is very useful.
  • Satmikaran: It acts as a Rasayana being a bitter tonic.

Benefits of Krishan Jeeraka on different systems of the body

  • Digestive system: It is a deodorant, that improves taste, appetite and digestion, constipation, and anti- flatulent, therefore useful in bad breath, anorexia, vomiting, loss of appetite; diarrhea, indigestion, flatulence, and dysentery (duodenitis).
  • Circulatory system: Cardiotonic and Anti-inflammatory, therefore useful in cardiac debility and anasarca (edema).
  • Reproductive system: It is used in postpartum conditions to improve uterine involution and breast milk secretion.
  • Temperature: It is used in chronic fever to improve appetite, digestion, and absorption, reduce fever, and acts as a tonic.

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Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Shweta Jeeraka

  • Churna (powder)- 1- 3 grams

Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Krishna Jeeraka

  • Churna (powder)- 1- 2 grams
  • Taila (oil)- 5- 15 drops

Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Upkunchika

  • Churna (powder)- 1- 3 grams

Classical reference of Jeeraka

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 84- 85

जीरको त्रितयं रुक्ष॑ कटु उष्णं दीपन॑ लघु |

संग्राही पित्तलं मेध्य॑ गर्भाशय विशुद्धिकृत्‌ ||

ज्वरघ्नंपाचन वृष्य॑ बल्य॑ रुच्य॑ कफापहम | 

चक्षुष्य॑ पवनाध्मानगुल्म छर्दि अतिसार हत्‌ |

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 57


जीरक: कटुरुष्णश्च वातकृद्दीपन: पर: |

गुल्माध्मानातिसारघ्नो ग्रहणी क्रिमिहत्पर: ||

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 59


गौरजाजी हिमा रुच्या कटु मधुर दीपनी |

कृमिघ्नी विषहन्री च चक्षुष्याध्मान नाशिनी ||

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 62


जरणा कटु उष्ण च कफशोफ निकृन्तनी |

रुच्या अजीर्णज्वरघ्नी च चक्षुष्या ग्राहिणी हरा ||

Bhava Prakasha Yoni Roga Adhikara, 70/ 58- 162

सूतिका रोगे पंच जीरकपाकम्‌

Chakra Dutta Amla pitta Chikitsa Adhikara, 52- 54

अम्लपित्त चिकित्सायां-कफपित्तारुचिनाशार्थम्‌ जीरकाद्यघृतम्‌

पिष्ट्वा आजाजीं सधन्याक॑ घृतप्रस्थ॑ विपाचयेत्‌ ||

कफपित्तारुचिहरं मन्दानलवमी जयेत्‌ ||

Bhava Prakasha Visha Adhikara, 67- 90

वृश्चिक दंश विषे 

जीरकस्य कृत: कल्को घृतसैन्धव संयुत: |

सुखोष्णो मधुना लेपो वृश्चिकस्य विष॑ हरेत्‌ ||

Dhanwantri Nighantu

जीरकत्रय गुणकर्माणि 

जीरक॑ कटु रूक्ष॑ च वातहद्दीपन॑ परम्‌ |

गुल्माध्मानातिसारघ्नं ग्रहणीकृमिहत्परम्‌ ||

गौराजाजी, हिमा रुच्या कटु मधुरः दीपनी: |

कृमिघ्ना विष हन्त्री च चक्षुष्य आध्माननाशिनी ||

Bhava Prakasha Chikitsa, 1- 753

कालाजाजी तु सगुडा विषमज्वरनाशिनी |


Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 27

रोचनं दीपनं वातकफदौर्गन्ध्यनाशनम्‌ |

Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 46

तीक्ष्णोष्ण कटुकं पाके रुच्यं पित्ताग्नि वर्धनम्‌ |

कटु: श्लेष्मानिलहरं गन्धाढयं जीरकद्वयम्‌ ||

Bhava Parkasha Kushta Roga Adhikara, 54/ 133

पामाचिकित्सायां जीरकाद्य तैलम्‌

जीरकस्य पल पिष्ट॑ सिन्दूर अर्धपलं तथा |

कटुतैल॑ पचेदाभ्यां सर्वपामाहरं परम्‌ ||

Vrinda Madhava, 15- 18


सौवर्चलमजाजी च शर्करा मरिचानि च |

युक्तोयं मधुना सट लेह: श्रेष्ठ छर्दि निबर्हण: ||  

Chakra Dutta, Vrinda Madhava, 52- 51


पिष्ट्वा अजाजी सधान्यकं घृतप्रस्थं विपाचयेत्‌ |

कफपित्तारुचिहरं मन्दानलवमि जयेत ||

Shodhala Gada Nigreha, 2- 1- 246, 247

वात श्लेष्म ज्वर 

अजाजी सगुडां खादेत कल्क॑ वा मधुना पिबेत्‌ |

तक्रम चानुपिबेनज्वरी ||

तत्पीत्वा चात हि यावत् स्वेद आगमो भवेत्‌ |

कफ मारुतजान क्षिप्रं ज्वरादेव परमुच्यते || 

Bhava Parkasha Snayuka Roga Adhikara, 57- 8

स्नायुक रोग 

मूल सुषव्यां हिमवारिपिष्टं पानादिदं तन्तुरोवामुग्रम |

Chakra Dutta, 65- 23, Visa Chikitsa, 23


जीरकस्य कृत: कल्को घृतसैन्धवसंयुतत: |

सुखोष्णो वृश्चिकाणां सुखलेपो व्यथापह: ||

Chakra Dutta, Vrinda Madhava, 1- 228

विषम ज्वर 

अजाजी गुडसंयुक्ता विषमज्वरनाशिनी।

अग्रिसादं जयेत्सम्यक्‌ वातरोगांश्च नाशंयेतत ||

Nighantu Ratnakara

शुभ्र जीरं कटु ग्राहि पाचकं दीपनं लघु |

किश्चिदुष्णं च मधुरं चक्षुष्य॑ रुचिकृन्मतम्‌ ||

गर्भाशयशुद्धिकर रूक्ष॑ बल्य॑ सुगन्धिकम्‌ |

Classical reference of Shweta Jeeraka

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 81

जीरको जरणो अजाजी कणा स्याद अर्घ जीरक: | 

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 84- 85

जीरको त्रितयं रुक्ष॑ कटु उष्णं दीपन॑ लघु |

संग्राही पित्तलं मेध्य॑ गर्भाशय विशुद्धिकृत्‌ ||

ज्वरघ्नंपाचन वृष्य॑ बल्य॑ रुच्य॑ कफापहम | 

चक्षुष्य॑ पवनाध्मानगुल्म छर्दि अतिसार हत्‌ |

Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi Varga, 72

गौरजाजी हिमा रुच्या कटु मधुर दीपनी |

कृमिघ्नी विषहन्त्री च चक्षुष्या आध्माननाशिनी ||

Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi Varga, 72

बृहत्पाली (जीरक विशेष:)

वन्य जीर: कटु शीतो ब्रणहा जन्तुनाशकः |

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1188

जीरक॑ कटु तिक्तोष्ण॑ रुक्षं पाकोष्ण॑ लघु |

रुच्य॑ संग्राहि चक्षुष्य॑ गर्भाशय विशोधनम ||

पित्तल॑ दीपन॑ मेध्य॑ हद्य॑ वातकफापहम्‌ |

सुगन्धिं पाचन छर्दि गुल्माध्मानातिसारजित्‌ ||

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 59

गौरजाजी हिमा रुच्या कटु मधुर दीपनी |

कृमिघ्नी विषहन्री च चक्षुष्याध्मान नाशिनी ||

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 66

सामान्य जीरक गुण

जीरका: कटुका: पाके कृमिघ्ना वन्हिदीपना: |

जीर्णज्वरहरा रुच्या ब्रणहाध्मान नाशना: ||

Priya Nighnatu, Shatpushpadi varga, 6

जीरका:  कटु रूक्षोष्ण:  पित्तल: कफवातहत्‌ |

दीपन: पाचनों रुच्यो गर्भाशय विशोधन: ||

Classical reference of Krishna Jeeraka

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 82

कृष्णजीर: सुगन्धश्च तथेव उद्गार शोधन: |

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 84- 85

जीरको त्रितयं रुक्ष॑ कटु उष्णं दीपन॑ लघु |

संग्राही पित्तलं मेध्य॑ गर्भाशय विशुद्धिकृत्‌ ||

ज्वरघ्नंपाचन वृष्य॑ बल्य॑ रुच्य॑ कफापहम | 

चक्षुष्य॑ पवनाध्मानगुल्म छर्दि अतिसार हत्‌ |

Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpadi Varga, 71

जरणा कटु उष्ण च कफशोफ निकृन्तनी |

रुच्या अजीर्णज्वरघ्नी च चक्षुष्या ग्राहिणी परा ||

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1188

जीरकम कटु तिक्तोष्ण॑ रुक्ष॑ पाकोष्ण॑ लघु |

रुच्य॑ संग्राहि चक्षुष्य॑ गर्भाशय विशोधनम्‌ ||

पित्तलं दीपनं मेध्य॑ हृद्यं वातकफापहम्‌ |

सुगन्धि पाचन छर्दिगुल्माध्मानतिसारजित्‌ ||

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 62

जरणा कटुरुष्णा च कफशोकनिकृतनी |

रुच्या अजीर्णज्वरघ्नी च चक्षुष्या ग्रहणी परा ||

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 64

पृथ्वीका पृथ्वीका तिक्तोष्ण वातगुल्मामदोषनुत्‌ |

श्लेष्माध्मानहरा जीर्णा जन्तुघ्नी दीपनी परा ||

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 65

बृहत्पाली (काली जीरा)

वन जीरा:  कदुः शीतो व्रणहा पञ्च नामक: ||

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 66

सामान्य जीरक गुण

जीरका: कटुका: पाके कृमिघ्ना वन्हिदीपना: |

जीर्णज्वरहरा रुच्या ब्रणहाध्मान नाशना: ||

Priya Nighnatu, Shatpushpadi varga, 7

कृष्ण जीर: सुगन्धि स्था तथा हेम वत: स्मृत: |    

जीरात प्रशस्त गुण युक्त सदा: राज्ञां तु पूजित: ||              

Classical reference of Upkunchika

Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 83

कलाजजी  तु  सुषवी कलिका च उपकलिका | 

पृथ्वीका  कारवी  पृथ्वी  पृथु  कृष्ण  उपकुन्च्चिका |           

उपकुंचि च कुञ्चि च बृहत्  जीरक  इत्यपि ||  

Raja Nighantu Pippalyadi Varga, 64

पृथ्वीका कटु तीक्ष्णोष्णा वातगुल्मामदोषनुत्‌ |

श्लेष्माध्मानहरा जीर्णा जन्तुष्नो दीपनी परा ||

Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 46

तीक्ष्णोष्ण॑ कटुक॑ पाके रुच्यं पित्ताग्निवर्धनम्‌ |

कटु श्लेष्मानिलहरं गन्धाढ्यं जीरकद्वयम्‌ ||

कारवी करवी तदवत्‌ विज्ञेया सोपकुञ्चिका ||

Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala`

कल्वज़िका पाचनदीपनी परा सन्धानयोग्या कफवातहारिणी |

प्रवर्तयस्या् आर्तवमुष्णवीर्या भक्ते अपि भक्ति बहुलीकरोति ||

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1183

कालिका कारवी पृथ्वी पृथ्वीका सोपकुञ्चिका ||

सुषवी वाष्पिका कुञ्चि वरकृष्णोपकालिका ||

Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1187- 1188

जीरक त्रितयं (शुक्लकृष्णजीरके कारवी च)

जीरक॑ कटु तिक्तोष्णं रूक्षं पाकोषणं लघु |

रुच्य॑ संग्राही चक्षुष्यं गर्भाशयविशोधनम्‌ ||

पित्तलं: दीपनं मेध्यं हृद्यं वातकफापहम्‌ |

सुगन्धि पाचन छर्दि गुल्माध्मानातिसारजित्‌ ||

Charaka Samhita Sharira Sthana, 8/ 41

अपरा पातन 

तथा सूकष्मैलाकिलिम कुष्ठ नागर विडंग पिप्यलीकाला-

गुरुचव्यचित्रकोपकुञ्चिका कल्क॑ पाययेदेनाम्‌ |

Vrinda Madhava, 9- 25


लोहगन्धिनि नि: श्वास उद्गारे धूमगन्धिनि |

पृथ्वीकां शाणमात्रं च खादेद्‌ द्विगुणशर्कराम ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26- 61


उत्कञ्चिका हिंगु सेवतसाम्लं स्वादूदेवृहत्यौ हपुषा वचा च |

चूर्ण पिंबेदश्मरीभेद पक्वं सर्पिश्च गोमूत्रचतुर्गुण तैः ||

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26- 138


घैर्यश्च रोहिषाजाजीवचातर्कारिचोरका: ।

त्वक पत्र मरिचैलानां चूर्णा वा सोपकुञ्चिका || 

Ashtanga Hirdya, Chikitsa Sthana, 14- 102, 106


क्षारागदः |

Ashtanga Hirdya, 8/ 45, 47


तक्रारिष्ट: |

Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 13- 125, 132

उदार रोग 


Ashtanga Hirdya, Uttara tantra, 34- 32


वृषकं मातुलुङ्गस्य मूलानि मदयन्तिकाम्‌ |

पिबेत्‌ मद्यै: सलवणैस्तथा कृष्णोपकुश्चिकै: ||

Ashtanga Hirdya, Uttara tantra, 34- 30/ 31

वचोप कुञ्चिकाजाजीकृष्णावृषकसैन्धवम्‌ |

अजमोदायवक्षारशर्कराचित्रकान्विताम |

पिष्ट्वा प्रसन्नया अलोड्य खादेत घृतभर्जितम्‌ |

योनिपाश्चार्त्तिहद्रोगगुल्मार्शो विनिवृत्तये ||

कुञ्चिका रोचनं दीपनं वात दौर्गंध्य  नाशनम | 

Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala

क्लवंज्जिका पाचनी दीपनी परम संधान योग्या कफ वात वारिणी |

प्रवर्त्य अति आर्तवं उष्ण वीर्य भक्ते अपि भक्तिम बहुली करोति ||   

Specific Formulation of Shweta Jeeraka

  • Jiraka Ghrita for Agni Dagdha Vrna
  • Jirakadi Modaka for Atisara, Grahani
  • Jirakadya Churna for Grahani
  • Jirakadya Taila for Pama Kustha
  • Jirakadya Arista for Atisara, Sutika Vikara
  • Jirakadya Leha for Rajyakshma and Jwara

Specific Formulation of Krishna Jeeraka

  • Lavana Bhaskara Churna for Shula, Agnimandya
  • Lavangadi Churna for Kasa, Agni Mandya
  • Ajaji Guda Yoga for Visham Jwara, Agnimandya
  • Hingwastak Churna for Agnimandya, Shula
  • Yogaraja Guggulu for Amavata, Udara Roga

Specific Formulation of Upkunchika

  • Takra Arishta (A. H. Chi. 8)
  • Kshara Agada (A. H. Chi. 14)
  • Narayana Churna (C. S. Chi. Udara Roga)

Contraindication and side effects of Shweta Jeeraka

  • Sensitive people may be allergic to Shweta Jeeraka which may also result in stomach upset.
  • Shweta Jeeraka might decrease blood sugar, so if you are taking any medication for diabetes, monitor your blood glucose level closely.      
  • Avoid use during pregnancy and lactation periods.

Contraindication and side effects of Krishna Jeeraka

  • Krishna Jeeraka is likely safe to use when taken orally for up to 8 weeks.
  • Carum carvi oil (caraway oil) when used with peppermint oil may result in heartburn, belching, nausea, etc. In Sensitive people, it may result in itching and skin rashes.

Contraindication and side effects of Upkunchika

  • Upkunchika may result in allergic rashes in sensitive people.
  • Upkunchika may result in stopping or slowing down the uterus from contracting.  So, Upkunchika is safe to use in food amounts but stay on the safe side and avoid the medicinal use of Kalaajaji during pregnancy.

Suggestive reading regarding Cuminum cyminum

  • Alabeed, Abdulmutalib & Sidik, Norrizah & Abdul-Aziz, Aziyah & Ahmed, Idris. (2020). Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.): A review of its ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry. Biomedical Research and Therapy. 7. 4016- 4021. 10.15419/ bmrat. v7i9. 634.
  • Sahoo HB, Sahoo SK, Sarangi SP, Sagar R, Kori ML. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats. Pharmacognosy Res. 2014 Jul; 6 (3): 204- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8490.132596. PMID: 25002800; PMCID: PMC 4080500.
  • Dayani Siriwardene SA, Karunathilaka LP, Kodituwakku ND, Karunarathne YA. Clinical efficacy of Ayurveda treatment regimen on Subfertility with PolyCystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS). Ayu. 2010 Jan; 31 (1): 24- 7. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974-8520. 68203. PMID: 22131680; PMCID: PMC 3215317.
  • Neethu S, Veena SK, Indulekha VC, Eapen J, Radhakrishnan VK. Phytoconstituents assessment and development of standardization protocol for ‘Nayopayam Kwatha’, a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2021 Jul-Sep; 12 (3): 489- 499. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jaim. 2021. 05. 002. Epub 2021 Aug 2. PMID: 34353694; PMCID: PMC 8377188.
  • Al-Snafi, Ali. (2016). The pharmacological activities of Cuminum cyminum -A review. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy. 6. 46- 65.
  • Karunagoda KPKR, Perera PK, Senanayake H, De Silva Weliange S. Efficacy and Safety of the Two Ayurveda Drug Regimens in Uterine Fibroids: A Randomized Single-Blind Clinical Trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2021 Jun 28; 2021: 4325502. doi: 10. 1155/ 2021/ 4325502. PMID: 34257678; PMCID: PMC 8260316.
  • Nadeem, Muhammad & Riaz, Asad. (2012). Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a potential source of antioxidants. Pakistan Journal of Food Science. 22. 101- 107.
  • Singh, Rudra Pratap & Gangadharappa, H. & Kenganora, Mruthunjaya. (2017). Cuminum cyminum – A Popular Spice: An Updated Review. Pharmacognosy Journal. 9. 292- 301. 10. 5530/ PJ. 2017. 3. 51.
  • Mohammadpour H, Moghimipour E, Rasooli I, Fakoor MH, Alipoor Astaneh S, Shehni Moosaie S, Jalili Z. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Cuminum cyminum L. Essential Oil from Alborz Mountain Against Aspergillus species. Jundishapur J Nat Pharm Prod. 2012 Spring;7 (2): 50- 5. Epub 2012 May 28. PMID: 24624154; PMCID: PMC 3941858.
  • Mollazade, Kaveh, Hojat Ahmadi, Jalal Khorshidi, Ali Rajabipour, and Seyed Saeid Mohtasebi. “Moisture-dependent physical and mechanical properties of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed.” International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering 2, no. 2 (2009): 49- 56.
  • Rafique, Sania & Hassan, Syeda & Mughal, Shahzad & Afzal, Nosheen & Shafi, Asma & Kamran, Sehrish. (2020). A review on potential antioxidant effects of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum), phytochemical Profile, and its uses. 8. 2020.
  • Taghizadeh M, Memarzadeh MR, Abedi F, Sharifi N, Karamali F, Fakhrieh Kashan Z, Asemi Z. The Effect of Cumin cyminum L. Plus Lime Administration on Weight Loss and Metabolic Status in Overweight Subjects: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016 May 23; 18 (8): e34212. doi: 10. 5812/ ircmj. 34212. PMID: 27781121; PMCID: PMC5065707.
  • Jirovetz, Leopold & Buchbauer, Gerhard & Stoyanova, Albena & Georgiev, Evgenii & Damyanova, Stanka. (2005). Composition, quality control, and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds from Bulgaria that had been stored for up to 36 years. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 40. 305 – 310. 10. 1111/ j. 1365- 2621. 2004. 00915. x.
  • Baghizadeh, Amin, and Maryam Shahbazi. “Effect of Zn and Fe foliar application on yield, yield components and some physiological traits of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) in dry farming.” Intl J Agron Plant Prod 4 (2013): 3231- 3237.
  • EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (EFSA FEEDAP Panel), Rychen G, Aquilina G, Azimonti G, Bampidis V, Bastos ML, Bories G, Cocconcelli PS, Flachowsky G, Gropp J, Kolar B, Kouba M, López Puente S, López-Alonso M, Mantovani A, Mayo B, Ramos F, Saarela M, Villa RE, Wallace RJ, Wester P, Branton P, Dusemund B, Van Beelen P, Westendorf J, Gregoretti L, Manini P, Chesson A. Safety and efficacy of cumin tincture (Cuminum cyminum L.) when used as a sensory additive for all animal species. EFSA J. 2018 May 17; 16 (5): e05273. doi: 10. 2903/ j. efsa. 2018. 5273. PMID: 32625910; PMCID: PMC7009619.
  • Johri RK. Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi: An update. Pharmacogn Rev. 2011 Jan; 5 (9): 63- 72. doi: 10. 4103/ 0973- 7847. 79101. PMID: 22096320; PMCID: PMC 3210012.
  • Al-Snafi, Ali Esmail. “Medicinal plants to control oral pathogens and oral biofilms: A review.” (2022).
  • Al-Snafi, Ali Esmail, Muayad Hussein Amer, and Kareema Helal Shnawa. “Medicinal plants for the treatment of obesity and overweight: A review.” (2022).
  • Abbaszadegan A, Gholami A, Ghahramani Y, Ghareghan R, Ghareghan M, Kazemi A, Iraji A, Ghasemi Y. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Cuminum Cyminum as an Intracanal Medicament Compared to Chlorhexidine Gel. Iran Endod J. 2016 Winter;11 (1): 44- 50. doi: 10. 7508/ iej. 2016. 01. 009. Epub 2015 Dec 24. PMID: 26843877; PMCID: PMC 4731533.
  • Pandey S, Patel MK, Mishra A, Jha B. Physio-Biochemical Composition and Untargeted Metabolomics of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Make It a Promising Functional Food and Help in Mitigating Salinity Stress. PLoS One. 2015 Dec 7; 10 (12): e0144469. doi: 10. 1371/ journal. pone. 0144469. PMID: 26641494; PMCID: PMC 4671573.
  • Kim, Jong-Bo, Spandana Rajendra Kopalli, and Sushruta Koppula. “Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae) extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease.” Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 15, no. 4 (2016): 765- 772.
  • Gohari, Ahmad & Saeidnia, Soodabeh. (2011). A Review on Phytochemistry of Cuminum cyminum seeds and its Standards from Field to Market. Pharmacognosy Journal. 3. 1- 5. 10. 5530/ PJ. 2011. 25. 1.
  • Gotmare, Sulekha & Tambe, Esha. (2018). Chemical Characterization of Cumin Seed Oil (Cuminum Cyminum) by Gcms and its Comparative Study. International Journal of Scientific Research in Biological Sciences. 5. 36- 45. 10. 26438/ ijsrbs/ v5i3. 3645.
  • Pandey S, Patel MK, Mishra A, Jha B. Physio-Biochemical Composition and Untargeted Metabolomics of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Make It Promise Functional Food and Help in Mitigating Salinity Stress. PLoS One. 2015 Dec 7; 10 (12): e0144469. doi: 10. 1371/ journal. pone. 0144469. PMID: 26641494; PMCID: PMC 4671573.
  • Bose, Debajyoti. (2018). POTENTIALS OF CUMINUM CYMINUM IN MICROBIAL CONTROL. International Journal of Advancement in Life Sciences Research. 1. 8- 12. 10. 31632/ ijalsr. 2018v01i02. 002.
  • Gulzar, Beenish. (2018). Antioxidant potential and health benefits of cumin. 232-236.
  • Sharifi A, Mohammadzadeh A, Salehi TZ, Mahmoodi P, Nourian A. Cuminum cyminum L. Essential Oil: A Promising Antibacterial and Antivirulence Agent Against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Front Microbiol. 2021 Aug 4; 12: 667833. doi: 10. 3389/ fmicb. 2021. 667833. PMID: 34421837; PMCID: PMC 8371328.
  • Wei J, Zhang X, Bi Y, Miao R, Zhang Z, Su H. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 474509. doi: 10. 1155/ 2015/ 474509. Epub 2015 Sep 6. PMID: 26425131; PMCID: PMC4575746.
  • Morovati A, Pourghassem Gargari B, Sarbakhsh P. Effects of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) essential oil supplementation on metabolic syndrome components: A randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2019 Dec; 33 (12): 3261- 3269. doi: 10. 1002/ ptr. 6500. Epub 2019 Sep 2. PMID: 31478290.
  • Nirmala MJ, Durai L, Rao KA, Nagarajan R. Ultrasonic Nanoemulsification of Cuminum cyminum Essential Oil and Its Applications in Medicine. Int J Nanomedicine. 2020 Feb 5; 15: 795- 807. doi: 10. 2147/ IJN. S230893. PMID: 32103937; PMCID: PMC 7008196.
  • Kaatabi, Huda, Abdullah Omar Bamosa, Ahmed Badar, Abdulmohsen Al-Elq, Bodour Abou-Hozaifa, Fatma Lebda, Akram Al-Khadra, and Sameeh Al-Almaie. “Nigella sativa improves glycemic control and ameliorates oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: placebo-controlled participant blinded clinical trial.” PloS one 10, no. 2 (2015): e0113486.
  • Abbasnezhad, Abbasali, Saeed Niazmand, Maryam Mahmoudabady, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Mohmmad Soukhtanloo, Razieh Mosallanejad, and Parichehr Hayatdavoudi. “Nigella sativa L. seed regulated eNOS, VCAM-1 and LOX-1 gene expression and improved vasoreactivity in the aorta of diabetic rats.” Journal of ethnopharmacology 228 (2019): 142- 147.
  • Parekh D, Makwana S, Bedarkar P, Patgiri B. Comparative pharmaceutical-analytical study of Rasamanikya prepared by two different Shodhana media of Haratala (orpiment). Ayu. 2020 Jul- Sep; 41 (3): 197- 207. doi: 10. 4103/ ayu. AYU_261_19. Epub 2022 Feb 24. PMID: 35370377; PMCID: PMC 8966759.
  • Shukla K, Dwivedi M, Kumar N. Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: A herbal remedy for puerperal women. Int J Ayurveda Res. 2010 Jan; 1 (1): 25- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 7788. 59940. PMID: 20532094; PMCID: PMC2876929.

Suggestive reading regarding Carum carvi

  • Keshavarz A, Minaiyan M, Ghannadi A, Mahzouni P. Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Res Pharm Sci. 2013 Jan; 8 (1): 1- 8. PMID: 24459470; PMCID: PMC 3895295.
  • Johri RK. Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi: An update. Pharmacogn Rev. 2011 Jan; 5 (9): 63- 72. doi: 10. 4103/ 0973- 7847. 79101. PMID: 22096320; PMCID: PMC 3210012.
  • Nasraldeen Abdalaziz, Mohamed & Ali, Mahmoud & Garbi, Mohammed & Kabbashi, Ahmed. (2017). Physiochemical and proximate analysis of Carum carvi. L. Medicinal Plant Research. 5. 21- 28.
  • Showraki A, Emamghoreishi M, Oftadegan S. Anticonvulsant Effect of the Aqueous Extract and Essential Oil of Carum Carvi L. Seeds in a Pentylenetetrazol Model of Seizure in Mice. Iran J Med Sci. 2016 May;41 (3): 200- 8. PMID: 27217604; PMCID: PMC 4876298.
  • Yousefi SS, Sadeghpour O, Hamzehgardeshi Z, Sohrabvand F. The Effects of Carum Carvi (Bunium Persicum Boiss) on Early Return of Bowel Motility After Caesarean Section: Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Family Reprod Health. 2019 Mar; 13 (1): 35- 41. PMID: 31850096; PMCID: PMC 6911146.
  • Mahboubi M. Caraway as Important Medicinal Plants in Management of Diseases. Nat Prod Bioprospect. 2019 Jan; 9 (1): 1- 11. doi: 10. 1007/ s13659- 018- 0190- x. Epub 2018 Oct 29. PMID: 30374904; PMCID: PMC 6328425.
  • Fang R, Jiang CH, Wang XY, Zhang HM, Liu ZL, Zhou L, Du SS, Deng ZW. Insecticidal activity of essential oil of Carum Carvi fruits from China and its main components against two-grain storage insects. Molecules. 2010 Dec 20; 15 (12): 9391- 402. doi: 10. 3390/ molecules 15129391. PMID: 21173724; PMCID: PMC 6259201.
  • Miraj, Sepide & Kiani, Sara. (2016). Pharmacological activities of Carum carvi L. 8. 135- 138.
  • Eddouks, Mohamed. “Contribution to the study of medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes, obesity, and hypertension in Tafilalet region (Morocco).” Arabian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants 3, no. 2 (2017): 124- 161.
  • Gujarathi, Jasmine & Gujarathi, Ritesh. (2018). Amenorrhoea – An Ayurveda Perspective. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 7. 509- 519. 10. 20959/ wjpr201818- 13545.
  • Al-Snai, A., H. Mousa, and Wajdi J. Majid. “Medicinal plants possess hepatoprotective activity.” IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 9, no. 8 (2019): 26- 56.
  • Singh, Bhoj R., R. K. Agarwal, K. P. Singh, A. M. Pawde, D. K. Sinha, Sakshi Dubey, and Monika Bhardwaj. “Antibacterial activity of Caraway essential oil against bacteria isolated from veterinary clinical cases.” Nat Prod: An Indian J 11 (2015): 69- 74.
  • Baeshen, Mohammed. “In Vivo and In Vitro Evaluation of Genotoxicity of Four Common Umbelliferous Plants. Azimi, Azra Ataei. “CURRICULUM VITAE (CV) AZRA ATAEI AZIMI.” Ph.D. diss., University of Tehran, Tehran, 1989.
  • Urooj, Shaista, Umar Jahangir, Mohammad Maaz, and Roohi Azam. “Dyslipidemia from Unani perspective and its management with Safoof e Muhazzil: An update.” Phytomedicine Plus 1, no. 4 (2021): 100103.
  • AYDIN, Ebru. “Review of traditionally consumed antidiabetic fruits in the diet.” Bilge International Journal of Science and Technology Research 3 (2019): 58- 76.
  • Sachan, Anupam & Das, Doli & Kumar, Mukesh. (2016). Carum carvi-An important medicinal plant. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 8. 529- 533.
  • Swathi, V., Abdul Rahaman SK, Anjana Male, and T. Varalakshmi. “In-vivo screening of Analgesic and Antiulcer Activity on Carum carvi Seeds.” International Journal of Drug Development and Research 9, no. 3 (2017): 0- 0.
  • Christova-Bagdassarian, V. Lubomirova, K. Samvel Bagdassarian, and M. Stefanova Atanassova. “Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity in Bulgarian plans (dry seeds).” International Journal of Advanced Research 1, no. 9 (2013): 186- 197.
  • Hajlaoui H, Arraouadi S, Noumi E, Aouadi K, Adnan M, Khan MA, Kadri A, Snoussi M. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Anti-Acetylcholinesterase, Antidiabetic, and Pharmacokinetic Properties of Carum carvi L. and Coriandrum sativum L. Essential Oils Alone and in Combination. Molecules. 2021 Jun 13; 26 (12): 3625. doi: 10. 3390/ molecules 26123625. PMID: 34199316; PMCID: PMC 8231812.
  • Es-Safi I, Mechchate H, Amaghnouje A, Jawhari FZ, Al Kamaly OM, Imtara H, Grafov A, Bari A, Bousta D. An Insight into the Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-Like Proprieties of Carum carvi L. and Their Association with Its Antioxidant Activity. Life (Basel). 2021 Mar 5; 11 (3): 207. doi: 10. 3390/ life 11030207. PMID: 33807960; PMCID: PMC 8000502.
  • Nasiri S, Shams Ghahfarokhi M, Razzaghi Abyaneh M. Effect of Carum carvi essential oil on ERG6 gene expression and virulence factors in Candida albicans. Curr Med Mycol. 2020 Jun; 6 (2): 30- 36. doi: 10. 18502/ CMM. 6. 2. 3628. PMID: 33628979; PMCID: PMC 7888518.
  • Samojlik I, Dakovic-Svajcer K, Bozin B, Mikov M. Herb-drug interactions: the influence of essential oil of caraway (Carum carvi L.) on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2012 Sep 17; 13 (Suppl 1): A27. doi: 10. 1186/ 2050- 6511- 13- S1- A27. PMCID: PMC3506285.
  • Chauhan, Vivek & Devi, Sunita & Sonaxi, Sharma & Kanwar, Shamsher. (2021). Phytochemical characterization of Caraway (Carum carvi) seed extract and its use as a potent medicinal agent. Research Journal of Biotechnology. 16. 102- 110. 10. 25303/ 1610rjbt102110.
  • Bhatt N, Deshpande M. A Critical Review and Scientific Perspective on Contraceptive Therapeutics from Ayurveda and Allied Ancient Knowledge. Front Pharmacol. 2021 Jun 3; 12: 629591. doi: 10. 3389/ fphar. 2021. 629591. PMID: 34149405; PMCID: PMC8210421.
  • Al-Snafi, Ali. (2015). THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF CARUM CARVI-A REVIEW. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Research. 5. 72- 82.

Suggestive reading regarding Nigella sativa

  • Khan, Zafar & Hasan, Noorul & Ahmad, Nesar & Vartika, S. & Khalid, Maad & Singh, Prashant Kumar & Ahmad, Zeeshan & Zohrameena, Shaikh. (2016). Pharmacological Activity of Nigella Sativa: A Review. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 4. 234- 241.
  • Tavakkoli A, Mahdian V, Razavi BM, Hosseinzadeh H. Review on Clinical Trials of Black Seed (Nigella sativa) and Its Active Constituent, Thymoquinone. J Pharmacopuncture. 2017 Sep; 20 (3): 179- 193. doi: 10. 3831/ KPI. 2017. 20. 021. Epub 2017 Sep 30. PMID: 30087794; PMCID: PMC 5633670.
  • Maiden NMP. Prophetic Medicine-Nigella Sativa (Black cumin seeds) – Potential herb for COVID-19. J Pharmacopuncture. 2020 Jun 30;23(2):62-70. doi: 10. 3831/ KPI. 2020. 23. 010. Erratum in: J Pharmacopuncture. 2020 Sep 30; 23 (3): 179. PMID: 32685234; PMCID: PMC 7338708.
  • Kanter, Mehmet, Omer Coskun, and Mustafa Budancamanak. “Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica diocia L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats.” World journal of gastroenterology: WJG 11, no. 42 (2005): 6684.
  • Ahmad, Faruque & Ahmad, Fakhruddin & Ashraf, Syed Amir & Saad, Hisham & Wahab, Shadma & Khan, Idrees & Ali, Maksood & Mohan, Syam & Hakeem, Khalid & Athar, Tanwir. (2020). An updated knowledge of Black seed (Nigella sativa Linn): Review of phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties. Journal of Herbal Medicine.
  • Almatrafi, Alya. (2016). Medicinal Uses of Nigella Sativa (Black Seeds). International Journal of Alternative Medicine. 21. 1129- 1131.
  • Parikh, Padma. (2010). Nigella sativa Linn. – A comprehensive review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources. 1. 409- 429.
  • Ahmad, Aftab & Husain, Asif & Mujeeb, Mohd & Khan, Shah & Najmi, Abul & Siddiqui, Nasir & Damanhouri, Zoheir & Anwar, Firoz & Kishore, Kamal. (2013). A review on the therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: A miracle herb. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine. 3. 337- 52. 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (13) 60075- 1.
  • Sawarkar, Sudhir & Deshmukh, V & Verma, Hirday. (2016). Nigella sativa seed, a novel beauty care ingredient: A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 7. 3185- 3196. 10. 13040/ IJPSR. 0975- 8232. 7 (8). 3185-96.
  • Assi, Mohammed & Hezmee, Mohd & Mohd Noor, Mohd Hezmee & Bachek, Farhana & Hafandi, Ahmad & Haron, Abd Wahid & MY, Sabri & Yusoff, Mohd & Ali, Mohammed. (2016). The Various Effects of Nigella Sativa on Multiple Body Systems in Humans and Animals. Pertanika Journal of Scholarly Research Review. 2. 1- 19.
  • Al-Qurain, AbdulazizA. (2015). Nigella Sativa. Saudi Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 3. 1. 10. 4103/ 1658- 631X. 149647.
  • Gali-Muhtasib, Hala & El-Najjar, Nahed & Schneider-stock, Regine. (2005). The medicinal potential of black seed (Nigella sativa) and its components. Advances in Phytomedicine. 2. 133- 153. 10. 1016/ S1572- 557X (05) 02008- 8.
  • Yimer, Ebrahim Mohammed & Beshir, Kald & Karim, Aman & Rehman, Najeeb Ur & Anwar, Farooq. (2019). Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin): A Promising Natural Remedy for Wide Range of Illnesses. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2019. 1- 16. 10.1155/ 2019/ 1528635.
  • Kizil, Süleyman, Saliha Kirici, Özlem Çakmak, and Khalid Mahmood Khawar. “Effects of sowing periods and P application rates on yield and oil composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.).” Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment 6, no. 2 (2008): 242.
  • Huobi, Nibal Mohammed, Raya R. Al-Dafaai, and Baydaa Hussain. “Effect of Black Seed (Nigella Sativa) Extract on Release of Some Minerals from Human Enamel: An in Vitro Study.” Indian Journal of Public Health 11, no. 02 (2020): 1561.
  • Ahmad MF, Ahmad FA, Ashraf SA, Saad HH, Wahab S, Khan MI, Ali M, Mohan S, Hakeem KR, Athar MT. An updated knowledge of Black seed (Nigella sativa Linn.): Review of phytochemical constituents and pharmacological properties. J Herb Med. 2021 Feb; 25: 100404. doi: 10.1016/ j. harmed. 2020. 100404. Epub 2020 Sep 19. PMID: 32983848; PMCID: PMC7501064.
  • Moharam, M., Ali El-Far, and E. Kamal. “Antioxidant and antinematodal effects of Nigella sativa and Zingiber officinalae supplementations in ewes.” International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 26 (2014): 222- 227.
  • Sathyavelu, Arunachalam, Sundaramoorthy Sangeetha, Rastogi Archit, and Sathyavelu Mythili. “In vitro anti-diabetic activity of aqueous extract of the medicinal plant’s Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata, and Gymnema sylvestre.” International journal of drug development and research 5, no. 2 (2013): 0- 0.
  • Mansour, Mahmoud Ahmed, O. T. Ginawi, T. El-Hadiyah, A. S. El-Khatib, O. A. Al-Shabanah, and H. A. Al-Sawaf. “Effects of volatile oil constituents of Nigella sativa on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice: evidence for antioxidant effects of thymoquinone.” Research communications in molecular pathology and pharmacology 110, no. 3- 4 (2001): 239- 252.
  • ALTINTERM, Baar. “The effects of Nigella sativa oil on the immune system of rainbow trout with different application methods.” Journal of FisheriesSciences. com 7, no. 3 (2013): 0- 0.
  • Saidin, Khalimatun S., Mohamad R. Jais, Elysha N. Ismail, and Reezal Ishak. “The effect of nigella sativa and eucheuma cottonii in collagen-induced arthritis mice.” (2020).
  • Beheshti F, Khazaei M, Hosseini M. Neuropharmacological effects of Nigella sativa. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2016 Jan-Feb; 6 (1): 104- 16. PMID: 27247928; PMCID: PMC4884225.
  • Khader M, Eckl PM. Thymoquinone: an emerging natural drug with a wide range of medical applications. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014 Dec; 17 (12): 950- 7. PMID: 25859298; PMCID: PMC 4387230.
  • Forouzanfar F, Bazzaz BS, Hosseinzadeh H. Black cumin (Nigella sativa) and its constituent (thymoquinone): a review on antimicrobial effects. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2014 Dec; 17 (12): 929- 38. PMID: 25859296; PMCID: PMC 4387228.
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Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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