Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Jambu – Syzygium cumini Linn. – Eugenia jambolana Lam.

    Jambu – Syzygium cumini Linn. - Eugenia jambolana Lam.

    Jambu- Underutilized nutraceutical fruit

    Introduction

    Jamun/ Jambu is botanically known as Syzygium cumini of the Myrtaceae family. Its English name is black plum, and it is native to India and found in all tropical regions of India. Jambu is the least known and underutilized fruit crop in India. Fruit of Jamun consists of various kinds of Vitamins, flavonoids, antioxidants, and phenolic compounds which are very beneficial for human health. Recent studies prove that Jambu exhibits various properties like anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, gastroprotective, etc. Its bark leaves, fruit, and seeds are all used in ancient medicine. Fruit/seed is mainly used in managing diabetes while the bark is used for diarrheal disorders. Acharya Charaka described it as the best among the substances which aggravate Vata.

    Basonym of Jambu

    जम्यते अद्यते फलमस्या: |

    Fruit of Jambu (Eugenia jambolana is edible).

    Synonyms of Jambu

    • According to morphology

    महास्कन्ध- महान्‌ स्कन्घो अस्या: । 

    Jambu plant has a very big and substantial trunk.

    नीलन्जनच्छदा- नीलाभाश्छदा: पत्राण्यस्या: ।

    Leaves of Jambu are bluish in color.

    सुरभिपत्रा- सुगन्धिपत्रा ।

    Leaves have an aroma.

    मेघमोदिनी – मेघे मोदते इतिः वर्षाकाले फलोदगमात्‌। 

    The Fruit season of Jambu is Varsha Ritu (Rainy season).

    महाफला- महान्ति बृहदाकागणि फलान्यस्याः। 

    Fruit is relatively big.

    नीलफला- नीलानि फलान्यस्या: ।

    Fruit of Jambu is bluish purple in color.

    महारस- प्रभूतरसयुक्तः । 

    Fruit is juicy.

     

    • According to properties

    फलेन्द्र: – फलानामिन्द्र: राजा । 

    Jambu fruit is regarded as one of the best fruits.

    Regional names of Jambu

    • Black plum, Blackberry (English)
    • Jaman (Hindi)
    • Nerale (Kannada)
    • Naval (Malayalam)
    • Jambul, Jammul (Marathi)
    • Kala Jam (Bengali)
    • Jumulu (Punjabi)
    • Bagharani (Gujarati)
    • Neredu (Telugu)
    • Shambu (Tamil)

    Scientific classification of Jambu

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassPolypetalae
    Series Calyciflorae
    Order Myrtales
    Family Myrtaceae
    GenusEugenia
    Species jambolana

    Botanical Name

    Eugenia jambolana Lam. or Syzygium cumini Linn. 

    Eugenia’s word is after the name of the prince Eugene of Savoy, the Patron of botany.

    Jambolana is derived from Sanskrit word Jambu.

    Family – Myrtaceae (Lavanga Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Jambu (Eugenia jambolana/ Syzygium cumini)

    Classification of Jambu as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Mutra Sangrahniya Mahakashaya, Purish Viranjniya Maha Kashaya, Chardi Ghana Mahakashaya.
    • Sushruta: Nyagrodhadi  Gana.

    Jambu's description in Brihtrayi

    Jambava is the name of the fruit of Jambu. Other species distinguished by such names as Kakajambu, Nadi- Jambu and Kshudra Jamba, etc. have also been mentioned. Eugenia operculata Roxb., known as Topakuda- in the forests of Bihar appears to be a medicinally important plant. It is a common item in the prescriptions of tribal Vaidyas of Singbhumi (Bihar).

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 27S. S. Su. 20/ 7, 12A. H. Su. 6/ 127
    C. S. Su. 4/ 28, 32, 33S. S. Su. 38/ 47A. H. Su. 15/ 41
    C. S. Su. 25/ 39, 49S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Su. 30/ 34
    C. S. Su. 26/ 112S. S. Su. 45/ 187A. H. Sa. 5/ 9
    C. S. Su. 27/ 137S. S. Su. 46/ 163, 166A. H. Chi. 3/ 90
    C. S. Ni. 2/ 2S. S. Chi. 6/ 12A. H. Chi. 6/ 14
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 151S. S. Chi. 11/ 9A. H. Chi. 9/ 27, 66
    C. S. In. 1/ 26S. S. Chi. 18/ 10A. H. Chi. 12/ 12
    C. S. In. 3/ 15S. S. Chi. 19/ 42A. H. U. 2/ 34
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 257S. S. Chi. 25/ 17, 19, 32A. H. U. 3/ 45
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 126, 128S. S. Ka. 1/ 49A. H. U. 9/ 28
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 30S. S. U. 17/ 10A. H. U. 18/ 43, 46
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 11S. S. U. 19/ 13A. H. U. 22/ 12, 82, 88
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 136S. S. U. 21/ 45A. H. U. 25/ 59
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 61, 116, 117S. S. U. 39/ 252A. H. U. 32/ 22
    C. S. Chi. 20/ 30, 38S. S. U. 40/ 73, 76A. H. U.34/ 2, 45, 51, 55, 56
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 85S. S. U. 45/ 23, 34, 36A. H. U. 37/ 53
    C. S. Chi. 22/ 34
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 112
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 270
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 77, 81, 89, 107, 121
    C. S. Si. 8/ 35

    Jambu's description in Brihtrayi as Nadeyi

    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 4/ 32

    Jambu's description in Brihtrayi as Shaleya

    It is supposed to be a variety of Mulaka known as Chanakya Amalaka or Jambu.

     

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 27/ 167, S. S. Chi. 4/ 75

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    Historical background of Jambu

    Jambu is mentioned among the trees used for the rituals (Kou. Su. 8/15). It is repeatedly quoted by Vedic literature. Asian known as ‘Jambu Dvipa’ is probably named because of its abundance in this continent. Jambu is considered to be one of the earliest remedies for diabetes. Jambava is the name of the Jambu fruit. Its bark leaves, fruit, and seeds are all used in ancient medicine. Fruit/seed is mainly used in the management of diabetes while the bark is used for diarrheal disorders. Charaka described it as the best among the substances which aggravate Vata.

    Different varieties of Jambu

    Both Sushruta and Vagbhata (A. H.Su.15/41) have described two varieties of Jambu. Mahendra Bhogik and Sodhala mentioned two varieties viz., Raja Jambu and Kaka Jambu. Kaiyadeva, Bhavamisra, and Raja Narahari have quoted three varieties viz., Raja Jambu (Maha Jambu). Kaka Jambu (Jambu) and Jala Jambu (Ksudra Jambu or Bhumi Jambu). Jala Jambu is otherwise known as Nadi Jambu. The following may be the botanical sources for the three varieties of Jambu.

    • Raja Jambu- Eugenia jambos L. (Syzygium jambos (L.) Alston)
    • Kaka Jambu- Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Syzygium cumini Skeels)
    • Jala Jambu- Eugenia heyneana Wall. E. operculata Roxb

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    External morphology of Jambu (Syzygium cumini Linn.)

    • Habit- Jambu is an evergreen tree.
    • Root- Tap root, branched
    • Stem- The stem of Jambu is erect, branched, thick, solid, woody, cylindrical, and gray.
    • Leaf- Simple, opposite stalked, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 10- 12 cm long and 3- 4 cm wide, entire margin, acute tip, long pointed, petiolate, exstipulate with unicostate reticulate venation, gland-dotted.
    • Inflorescence- Panicle inflorescence
    • Flower- White, small, crowded on inflorescence, sepals are 4 in number, petals are 4- 5, numerous stamens, much longer than sepals, 2 Carpels, syncarpous, inferior ovary, bilocular axile placentation.
    • Fruit- Berry, succulent, globose or oblong, dark purple.
    • Seed- Single, endospermic.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Spring to summer or pre-monsoon season.

    Distribution of Jambu

    It is found throughout India; it is very often planted.

    The useful part of Jambu

    Seeds, Fruits, Bark, and leaves. Dried fruit is ovoid or club-shaped, 2 to 2.5 cm long, and up to 1.3 cm in diameter, having a black or dark brown shriveled skin enclosing the seed. The seed is ovoid, up to 2 cm long, with a brownish papery shell that encloses a dark brown kernel. It has not got any characteristic odor and has an astringent taste.

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    Important phytoconstituent of Jambu

    Stem bark yielded friedelin, Kaempferol, Quercetin, Beta-sitosterol, Beta- D-glucoside, betulin acid, Gallo tannin, ellagic tannin, eugenin, epifriedelanol, Fruits yielded delphinidin- 3- gentiobioside and malvidin- 3 -laminaribioside. Leaves contain glycine, alanine, leucine, and tyrosine. Flowers yielded Myricetin- 3 -L- arabinoside and dihydromyricetin. Seeds contain indoleacetic acid, gallic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, glycolic acid, n-heptacosane, n- nonacosane, n- triacontane, categoric acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, guaiacol, resorcinol dimethyl ether, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid.

    Recent research on Syzygium cumini Linn.

    • The present study was carried out to evaluate the possible in vitro antibacterial potential of extracts of Eugenia jambolana seeds against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. The result justifies the use of E. jambolana folklore medicine to treat various infectious diseases and may contribute to the development of novel antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infection caused by these drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Bag A, Bhattachary ya SK, Pal NK, Chattopadhyay R. In vitro antibacterial potential of Eugenia jambolana seed extracts against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. Microbiol Res. 2012 Jun 20: 167 (6): 352- 7 doi; 10. 1016/ j. micros. 2012. 02. 005. Epub 2012 Mar 22.
    • Crude extracts of leaves and bark of E. jambolana were tested for antiviral activity against highly pathogenic Avian influenza virus (H5N1) by CPE reduction assay in three different layouts to elucidate the virucidal, post-exposure, and pre-exposure antiviral activity of the extracts. The significant virucidal activity of leaves and bark of E. jambolana merits further investigation as it may provide an alternative antiviral agent for managing Aviana influenza infections in poultry farms and potential avian-human transmission, Sood R, Swarup D, Bhatia S, Kulkarni DD, Dey S, Saini M, Dubey SC. Antiviral activity of crude extracts of Eugenia jambolana Lam. against highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) Virus. Indian J Exp Biol. 2012 Mar; 50 (3): 179- 86.
    • To evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic effects of Eugenia jambolana fruit pulp in diet-induced hyperlipidemic rats and to compare them with Simvastatin. In male albino rats, ethanolic extract of Eugenia jambolana fruit pulp was as effective as simvastatin in lowering serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides and increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Bilal R, Zakaria M, Usman A, Aftab S, Zia A. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Eugenia jambolana fruit in diet-induced hyperlipidemia rats. J. Pak Med Assoc. 2011 May; 61 (5): 433- 7.
    • To estimate the hepatoprotective effects of the methanolic seed extract of Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Myrtaceae), in Wistar albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The study suggests preventive action of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver toxicity. The hepatic cell regeneration process was dose-dependent. Sisodia SS, Bhatnagar M. Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Indian J. Pharmacology. 2009. Feb; 41(1): 23- 7. doi: 10. 4103/ 0253- 7613. 48888.
    • Anti-diabetic property- 
    • The fresh powdered seed was found to lower the level of blood sugar in diabetic rabbits (Vaish, 1954).
    • The fruit and seeds were found to be promising hypoglycemic agents (Aiman, 1961).
    • The aqueous extract of seeds of the plant produced a 15- 25% fall in fasting blood sugar four to five hours after giving a single dose orally (Shruti et al., 1963).
    • In non-diabetics, fruit pulp induced a small but statistically significant fall in blood sugar at 3 hr. whereas in diabetic patients a small increase in blood sugar level was observed following fruit pulp ingestion (J. Res. Ay. & Siddha, 1983,4,1).
    • In a clinical trial with 80 NIDDM patients, the seed powder (12g/day in three divided doses) was administered for 3 months. The drug produced good symptomatic relief along with the regulation of blood sugar. It did not show any side effects (Kohli & Singh
    • 1993).
    • The hypoglycaemic activity of E. jambolana leaves is also reported (Arabab et al., 1999). 
    • In recent studies, pancreatic regeneration was significantly noticed with seed powder, and an American company is reported to file a patent on S. cumini (Eenadu Telugu daily, December 2002).
    • The anorexigenic activity of plant extract was approximately equal to that of amphetamine tartrate (Chemistry. Abstract. 1967, 66, 114288t.)
    • Dihydromyricetin (0.16 uM) inhibited (34.4%) mutation in Salmonella Typhimurium as compared to control (Chemistry. Abstract. 1990,112, 42558 z).
    • The seed extract is found to be a potential source of male contraception (Sinha et al., 1986).
    • The stem bark is used in the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery (Maiti et al., 1985 & Siddiqui & Hussain, 1991).
    • The anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities are reported (Maha Patra et al., 1986).

    Rasa Panchaka of Jambu

    Rasa (Taste)Kashaya (astringent), Madhura (sweet), Amla (sour)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Sheet (cold potency), Maha Jambu is Ushna (hot potency)
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Jambu

    Pitta- Kapha Shamaka, Pitta Hara because of its Sheeta Virya, Kashaya Rasa, and Kapha Hara because of Katu Vipaka and Kashaya Rasa.

    Karma (Actions) of Jambu

    Sangrahi, Rocana, Kanthya, Vistambhi, Lekhana, Dahasamaka, Shramahara, Krimighna, Swasahara, Mehahara.

     

    • Mahajambu- Swarya, Shramahara, Atisaraghni, Swasahara, Kasahara.
    • Kakajambu- Dahahara, Sramahara, Atisaraghni, Balya.
    • Bhumijambu- Hrdya, Sangrahi, Balya.
    • Twak (Bark)- Sangrahi

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Jambu

    Prameha, Atisara, Aruci, Sthoulya, Daha, Shrama, Krimi, and Shwasa.

     

    • Mahamabu- Swarabheda, Atisara, Srama, Shwasa and Kasa.
    • Kakajambu- Daha, Srama, Atisara & Dourbalya.
    • Bhumijambu- Atisara, Dourbalya & Hridroga
    • Jambu twak (Bark)- Atisara.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Jambu

    Atisara (Diarrhea): 

     

    Seed-kernel of Jambu and Amra, Bilva, Kapittha, and Sunthi- this formulation should be taken with liquid gruel. It checks for diarrhea. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 127)

     

    Tender Bilva fruit is cooked while being wrapped with the leaves of Jambu, Dadima, Sringataka, Patha, and Kanchanara. It should be kept overnight and then taken with jaggery and Sunthi. It checks all types of diarrhea and alleviates severe Grahani. (Chakra Dutta. 4. 12)

     

    Rakta Atisara (Diarrhea with blood)

     

    Juice extracted from the pounded leaves of Jambu, Amra, and Amalaki should be mixed with goat’s milk and honey and taken in. It checks diarrhea with blood. (Chakra Dutta. 3. 68)

     

    The bark of Shallaki, Badari, Jambu, Priyala, Amra, and Arjuna separately is mixed with ample honey and taken with milk. It checks diarrhea with blood. (Chakra Dutta. 3. 69, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 11)

     

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage):  In such conditions, one should take a cold infusion of Jambu, Amra, and Arjuna or juice of Udumbara fruit. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 45. 23)

     

    Chardi (Vomiting)

     

    One should take the cooled decoction of the tender leaves of Jambu and Amra mixed with honey. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 20/ 30)

     

    Intake of cooled decoction of tender leaves of jamb and Amra, Ushira, leaf-buds and hanging roots of Vata mixed with honey alleviates vomiting, fever, diarrhea, fainting, and severe thirst. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 6. 14- 15)

     

    For vomiting caused by Kapha the following combinations are useful- Powder of Jambu and Badara (seeds) Musta and Karkatasmngi Duralabha with honey. (Vrinda Madhava. 15. 12)

     

    One should take a cooled decoction of tender leaves of Jambu and Amra mixed with honey and powder of parched paddy. It is a tried remedy for vomiting and diarrhea. (Vrinda Madhava. 15/ 24)

     

    Ajeerna (Sluggish digestion): Juice of Jambu fruit or vinegar prepared of Jambu fruits is useful. (Siddha Bhaishjya Mannimala. 4. 267- 71)

     

    Vyanga (Freckles etc.):  Tender leaves of Jambu, Amra, Haridra, Daruharidra, and new jaggery are pounded with curd water and applied on the face. Similarly, the fruit of Tinduka pounded with its juice is used. They remove freckles etc. and make the face lustrous. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 32/ 22)

     

    Vrana Ropana (Wound-healing): Wounds heal up fast by dusting the (powdered) barks of Arjuna, Udumbara, Asvattha, Lodhra, Jambu, and Katphala. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 113)

     

    Kukunaka (Ophthalmia neonatorum): Decoction of Jambu, Amra, Amalaka, and Asmantaka is used for washing and sprinkling eyes. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 19/ 13)

     

    Krimikarna (maggots in the ear): By filling the ears with the juice of the leaves and ripe fruits of jambu, the maggots are expelled from the ears. (Gada Nigreha. 3. 2. 66)

     

    Grahani in children (IBS): Juice of Jambu bark mixed with an equal quantity of goat’s milk is beneficial. (Chakra Dutta. 64. 46)

    Benefits of Jambu

    • It is astringent, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge and stomachic. It is useful in burning sensation, diarrhea of children, dysentery, indigestion, loss of appetite, colic, gargling, washes, leucorrhea, ringworm, and skin diseases.
    • The bark is useful as an astringent, used in the preparation of astringent decoction, gargles, and washes. Fresh juice is given with goat milk for infantile diarrhea and bowel complaints.
    • The juice of the leaves is useful in dysentery. The juice of the fruits is made into vinegar which is useful as a stomachic, carminative, and diuretic. Fruits are useful as astringent in bilious diarrhea, vinegar is useful in Prameha diseases.
    • It is an esteemed drug for diabetes insipidus as well as diabetes mellitus as the seeds are an effective hypoglycemic agent. Being an anti-diabetic herbal drug, the seeds powder is recommended for oral use. Fruits and seeds are antidiabetic and especially seeds are much used in the treatment of diabetes and glycosuria. 
    • As a single drug, the seeds are given in diabetes and the seeds enter various compounds and anti-diabetic herbal formulations.
    • It is one of the important anti-diabetic drugs studied. Seeds powder is useful to reduce blood and urine sugar in diabetes.
    • The bark of the powder is dusted over a lesion of hemorrhage and in the condition of burning sensation, the vinegar of fruits is mixed with sesame oil and it is externally applied. 
    • At the stage of delirium, with burning or heating sensation and other similar symptoms, the vinegar of fruits is applied to the head and forehead (wet cloth piece). 
    • The oil prepared with leaves is local to lesions of syphilis, gonorrhea, and skin affections.  
    • The bark is reduced to ashes and mixed with oil, and it is applied to burns. The bark is acrid and astringent to the bowels, and anthelmintic, it is useful in sore throat, bronchitis, asthma, thirst, biliousness, dysentery, blood impurities, and ulcers.
    • The fruits are acrid and sweet, they are cooling, dry, and astringent to the bowels, they increase Vata, remove bad smell from the mouth, and biliousness. 
    • The seed is sweet, astringent to the bowels, and useful in diabetes and glycosuria. 
    • The sprouts are refrigerant, dry, astringent, and carminative.
    • Patra Rakha (ash of the leaves)  is used for Danta Dadya (strengthening the teeth and the gums.) 
    • The fruits are sour, acrid, and sweet (when ripe); they are a general tonic and tonic to the liver, enrich the blood; they strengthen the teeth and the gums and are useful in bilious diarrhea as astringent and as a gargle for sore throat.
    • An excess intake of the fruits may cause flatulence as fruits become indigestible. The ripe fruits are sweet, tasty, astringent, and eaten popularly.
    • The juice of the ripe fruits is used for enlargement of the spleen and liver disorders; it is given in scanty or suppressed urine. The juice of the leaves and fruits is useful for ear troubles. The plant is useful for the foul smell of the body, vomiting (bilious), and intestinal problems.

    Benefits of Jambu on different systems of bodies

    • External uses: Astringent, refrigerant, and cures skin disorders. The bark powder is sprinkled in bleeding disorders and wounds. Fruit pulp mixed with sesame oil is applied in a burning condition. In Sannipat Jwar (fever caused by all three doshas) associated with burning and delirium, a piece of cloth soaked in the above mixture is kept on the forehead.
    • Digestive system: the fruits of Jambu are Dipniya (appetizer), Pachaka (digestive), and Yakrit Utejjaka (liver stimulant). Beeja Churna (seed powder) improves the impairment of liver function associated with diabetes. It is also an astringent. Leaves are antiemetic while the bark is astringent. Excessive use of fruits causes constipation. Phala Ttha Phala Swarasa (Fruits and fruit juice) of Jmabu are effective in disorders like Aruchi (loss of appetite), Apachana (indigestion), Shool (pain), and Atisara (dysentery). Jambul fruit powder + bark powder + leaf juice is very effective in chronic diarrhea and dysentery. Leaves are given for relieving emesis. In tooth and throat pain, gargling with a decoction of bark helps. Leaf juice + goat’s milk is useful in infantile diarrhea.
    • Circulatory system: Hemostatic. Leaf juice is used in hemorrhagic disorders. Jambu Beeja (Jambul seeds) is used in Rakta Pradara (menorrhagia) and Rakta Atisara (diarrhea with bleeding per rectum.)
    • Urinary system: The fruit and seed powder along with milk when administered helps in glucose metabolism in the liver, due to which blood and urine sugar levels become low causing hypoglycemia. Fruit and seed powder are the best medicines in Ikshu Meha and Udaka Meha. Fruit juice is also useful in Prameha.

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    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Jambu

    • Swarasa (Juice): 10- 20 ml
    • Churna (powder): 3- 6 grams

    Classical reference of Jambu

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Phala Varga- 69

    Synonyms

    राजजम्बू- फलेंद्र कथिता नन्दी राजजम्बुर्महाफला । 

    तथा सुरभि पत्रा च महाजम्बुरपि स्मृता ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Phala Varga- 70

    Synonyms

    क्षुद्र जम्बु- क्षुद्र जम्बु: नादेयी जलजम्बुका ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Phala Varga- 69

    Properties and action

    राजजम्बु फलं स्वादु विष्टम्भी गुरु रोचनम्‌ |

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Aamradi Phala Varga- 70

    Properties and action

    जम्बू:  संग्राहिणी रूक्षा कफपित्तास्रदाहजित्‌ ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Aamradi Phala Varga- 78

    Properties and action

    जाम्बबं वातलं ग्राहि स्वादु अम्लम कफपित्तजित्‌ ||

    हत कण्ठकषणं चान्यत्‌ कषायं क्षुद्रजाम्बवम ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 349- 350

    जाम्बवं मधुरं साम्लं कषाय॑ गुरु शीतलम्‌ |

    संग्राहि रोचन॑ रुच्यम कण्ठ्यम कफपित्तजित्‌ ||

    विष्टम्भि लेखन वातविबन्धा आध्मानकृद्‌ भृशम ||

    महत्तमधुरं स्निग्ध॑ गुरु विष्टम्भि रोचनम्‌ |

    शीता तिक्तरसा दाहशमनी जलजम्बुका ||

    Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 25

    जम्बू- जम्बू कषाय मधुरा श्रमपित्तदाह कण्ठरती शोष शमनी कृमि दोष हन्त्री | 

    श्वासातिसारकफकास विनाशनी च विष्टम्भिनी भवति रोचनपाचनी च ||

    Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 27

    महा जम्बु – महा जम्बुरुषणा समधुरकषाया श्रमहरा ।

    विरस्यस्यास्यस्थं भरिति जडिमान॑ स्वरकरी ||

    विधते विष्टम्भ॑ शमयति च शोष॑ वितनुते |

    श्रम अतिसार अरती श्वसित कफ कास प्रशमनं | 

    Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 29

    काक जम्बु- काक जम्बु: कषाय अम्ल पाके तु मधुरा गुरु:। 

    दाह श्रम अतिसारघ्नी हि वीर्व्यपुष्टिबलप्रदा।।

    Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 31

    भूमिजम्बू- भूमि जम्बु: कषाया च मधुरा शलेष्मपित्तनुत्‌। 

    हृद्या संग्राहिहत्कण्ठ दोषधघ्नी वीर्य्यपुष्टिप्रदा: ।। 

    Priya Nighnatu Haritkyadi Varga, 234

    जम्बत्वकू तु कषाया स्याद रुक्षा संग्राहिणी भृशम्‌। 

    जम्बूफलास्थि ग्रहणाति मूत्र मेहविनाशनम। 

    Nighantu Ratnakara

    जम्बु फल मज्जा गुणा: 

    तन्मज्जा तुवरो ग्राही विशेषां मधुमेहहा।  

    Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 27/ 134

    जाम्बवं कफपित्तघ्नं ग्राहि वातकरं परम्‌। 

    Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 46/ 165

    अत्यर्थ वातलं ग्राहि जाम्ब्वम कफ पित्तजित्‌। 

    Dhanwantri Nighantu

    जाम्बवं वातल॑ ग्राहि स्वाद्वम्ल॑ कफवातजित्‌। 

    हत्कण्ठघर्षणं चान्यत्‌ कषायं क्षुद्रजाम्बवम्‌।। 

    Chakra Dutta, 3/ 69

    अतिसारे

    शोणितस्त्रुतिवारणार्थम्‌

    शल्लकीबदरीजम्बू……त्वच:। 

    पीता: क्षीरेण मध्वा आढ्या पृथक्‌ शोणित नाशना: ।। 

    Chakra Dutta, Bala Roga Adhikara, 64/ 46

    बालग्रहण्याम्‌

    तद्वदजाक्षीरसमो जम्बूत्वगुद्धवो रस: । 

    Bhava Parkasha, Sthoulya Adhikara, 39- 76

    देहदौर्गन्थ्ये

    एषो अङ्ग रागः क्थितो अङ्गानां जम्ब्या: कषायस्तु नराधिपानाम्‌। 

    Shodhala Nighantu,  Karna Roga Adhikara, Gada Nigreha, 3- 2- 66

    कृमि कर्णके

    जम्बूपत्रं फल पक्वं ततद्रंसेनाति पूरितात्‌। 

    पतन्ति कृमय: कर्णात्‌ दुर्विनीता इवाषदि।। 

    Shodhala Nighantu, Pradara Adhikara

    प्रदरे

    काकजम्बूकमूल वा…..। 

    पाण्डुप्रदर शान्त्यर्थं पाययेत्तण्डलाम्बुना। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26- 28

    पित्तज् वमन    

    जम्बु आम्र्यो पल्लवजं कषायं। 

    पिबेत सुशीत मधुसंयुत॑ वा।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 25- 113

    व्रणरोपणार्थम्‌

    ….लोध्रजाम्बवकट्फलै:। 

    त्वचमाश्वेव गृह्नन्ति त्वकचूर्णे चूर्णिता: व्रणा: । 

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 19- 13

    कुकूणके वर्त्मन: प्रक्षालन परिषेकार्थम्‌

    जाम्बवाभ्रधा त्र्यणु दलै: परिधावनार्थम्‌। 

    कार्य कषायमव सेचनेमेव चापि। 

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 45- 23

    रक्तपित्ते

    पिबेच्छीतकषायं वा जम्बवाम्रार्जुनसम्भवम्‌। 

    Bhava Parkasha Madhyama Khanda, 51/ 43- 46

    उपदंश चिकित्सायां जम्ब्बादि तैलम्‌

    Chakra Dutta, 3- 68

    रक्तातिसारे

    जम्ब्वा आम्रमलकीनान्तु पल्लव नथ कुट्टयेत्‌। 

    संगृहय स्वरसं तेषामजाक्षीरिण योजयेत्‌।। 

    तं पिबेत्‌ मधुनां युक्त॑ रक्तातीसारनाशनम्‌।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 20- 30

    छर्दि 

    जम्ब्वाम्रयो: पल्लवजं कषायं पिबेत्‌

    सुशीतं मधुसंयुतं वा। 

    Vrinda Madhava, 15- 24

    जम्बु आम्र पल्लव शृतं क्षोद्र्म दत्वा सुशीतलं तोयम्‌। 

    लाजैरव चुर्न्यंण्य॑ पिबेद् छर्दि अतिसारे परं सिद्धम्‌।।

    Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala, 4- 267- 271

    अग्नि मान्द्य 

    जम्बूरस: जाम्बवशुक्तम। 

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 32/ 22

    व्यङ्ग् 

    जम्ब्वाम्रपल्लवा: मस्तु हरिद्रे द्वे नवोगुड:। 

    लेप: स्वर्ण कृत पिष्टं स्वरसेन च तिन्दुकं।।  

    Specific Formulation of Jambu

    • Jambava Aasava for Madumeha and Daha
    • Jambvadi taila for Updansha
    • Nyagrodhadi Churna for Parmeha
    • Pushyanyga Churna for Asrigdara and Shweta Pradara
    • Jambvadi Kwatha for Chardi    
    • Panch Pallava Yoga     

    Contraindication and side effects of Jambu

    Jambu is Agrya Dravya (best one) as Vatakara. So, it is advised to avoid it during increased Vata. Laryngitis, emphysema, constipation, lung inflammation, delayed digestion, acne, weight loss, and vomiting are the possible side effects of Jambu.

    Suggestive reading regarding Syzygium cumini

    • Singh, Sanjay & Singh, A. & Joshi, H & Bagle, B.G. & Dhandar, D.G. (2007). Jamun – Fruit for Future.
    • Hameed, Fozia & Gupta, Neeraj & Rahman, Rukhsana & Anjum, Nadira & Nayik, Gulzar. (2020). Jamun. 10. 1007/ 978-981-15-7285-2_32.
    • Ramteke, Vikas & Kurrey, Vivek & Kar, Sonali. (2015). Jamun: A traditional fruit and medicine. Popular Kheti. 3. 188- 190.
    • Swami, Shrikant & Thakor, Nayansingh & Patil, Meghatai & Haldankar, Parag. (2012). Jamun (Syzygium cumini (L.)): A Review of Its Food and Medicinal Uses. Food and Nutrition Sciences. 03. 1100- 1117. 10. 4236/ fns. 2012. 38146.
    • Mishra, D.s & Singh, Akath & Kumar, Rajesh & Singh, Sanjay & Singh, A. & G.S.K., Swamy. (2018). Jamun (1).
    • Sahu, Pragyanshree & Behera, Laxmipreeya & Nayak, Sushrita & Samal, Kailash. (2020). Health benefits of Jamun (Syzygium cumini) an Underutilised fruit: A ray in the nanotechnology field. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 9. 74- 80.
    • Todmal, Ashoka & Dagadkhair, Amol & Andhale, Rajkumar & Pakhare, Komal. (2017). Jamun (Syzygium cumini) Skeels: A Traditional Therapeutic Tree and its Processed Food Products.
    • Perera PRD, Ekanayake S, Ranaweera KKDS. Antidiabetic Compounds in Syzygium cumini Decoction and Ready to Serve Herbal Drink. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017; 2017: 1083589. doi: 10. 1155/ 2017/ 1083589. Epub 2017 May 9. PMID: 28572825; PMCID: PMC 5440793.
    • Manu, Abba Aji, Bello Muhammad Musa, Martha Orendu Oche Attah, and Helga Ishaya Bedan. “Ethanolic Extract of Syzygium cumini Causes Toxic Effects on Ethanol-induced Liver and Kidney Damage in Albino Wistar Rats: A Biochemical and Histological Study.” Iranian Journal of Toxicology 16, no. 1 (2022): 63- 72.
    • Sivasubramaniam, K. & Karuppiah, Selvarni. (2011). Viability and vigor of Jamun (Syzygium cumini) seeds. Brazilian Journal of Botany. 35. 397- 400. 101590/ S0100-  84042012000400012.
    • Biswakarma, Saroj, Nazir A. Pala, Gopal Shukla, and Sumit Chakravarty. “Ethnomedicinal plants used to cure stomach disorders in forest fringe communities in the northern part of West Bengal.” (2017).
    • Mahmood, Yasir. “An Investigation of Platelet Anti-aggregation Activity in Indigenous Medicinal Herbs.” J. Chem. Soc. Pak 31, no. 2 (2009).
    • Adnan, Muhammad, Muhammad Sikander Hayyat, Qaisar Mumtaz, Muhammad Ehsan Safdar, Fazal ur Rehman, Haroon Ilahi, and Koko Tampubolon. “Improving the management of Parthenium hysterophorus to enhance okra production through the application of chemicals, adjuvants and plant extract blends in Pakistan.” J Sust Agric 36, no. 1 (2021): 165- 174.
    • Parate, A. M., Nibha D. Bajpai, and Dipalini D. Walke. “Role of Syzygium cumini (Jamun) in cosmetic.” Int. J. Sci. Dev. Res 4 (2019): 193- 201.
    • Kavan, R. P. “Syzygium cumini L.-A potential new host of tropical Tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury (Lepidoptera-Saturniidae).” J. Entomol. Zool. Stud 2, no. 1 (2014): 33- 7.
    • Saiki, P., & Thitipramote, N. (2011). Extraction of natural histological dye from black plum fruit (Syzygium cumini). Journal of the microscopy society of Thailand4(1), 13- 5.
    • do Nascimento-Silva, Nara Rúbia Rodrigues, Rodrigo Pinheiro Bastos, and Flavio Alves da Silva. “Jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels)): A review on its nutrients, bioactive compounds, and health benefits.” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis (2022): 104491.
    • Lim, Shaina Marie, Matthew Alexis Boiser, Justine Jun Marian Bautista, Krisha Vildosola Seno, Vince Lloyd Singidas, Jodee Mae Papellero, and Vitaliano V. Fernandez. “The effect of Syzygium cumini (Lomboy) seed powder as a coagulant in the purification of water contaminated with Escherichia coli.”
    • Rai DR, Chadha S, Kaur MP, Jaiswal P, Patil RT. Biochemical, microbiological, and physiological changes in Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) were kept for long-term storage under modified atmosphere packaging. J Food Sci Technol. 2011 Jun; 48 (3): 357- 65. doi: 10. 1007/ s13197- 011- 0254- y. Epub 2011 Feb 5. PMID: 23572759; PMCID: PMC 3551161.
    • Joshi, Munmun & Paudel, Mahendra & Upreti, Shristi. (2019). The therapeutic influence of Jamun (Syzygium cumini): A review.
    • Kapoor S, Ranote PS. Antioxidant components and Physico-chemical characteristics of Jamun powder supplemented pear juice. J Food Sci Technol. 2016 May; 53 (5): 2307- 16. doi: 10. 1007/ s13197- 016- 2196- x. Epub 2016 May 7. PMID: 27407197; PMCID: PMC 4921081.
    • Aqil F, Jeyabalan J, Munagala R, Singh IP, Gupta RC. Prevention of hormonal breast cancer by dietary Jamun. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016 Jun; 60 (6): 1470-81. doi: 10. 1002/ info. 201600013. Epub 2016 Apr 21. PMID: 27030099; PMCID: PMC 4927075.
    • Gajera HP, Gevariya SN, Patel SV, Golakiya BA. Nutritional profile and molecular fingerprints of indigenous black Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) landraces. J Food Sci Technol. 2018 Feb; 55 (2): 730- 739. doi: 10. 1007/ s13197- 017- 2984- y. Epub 2017 Dec 22. PMID: 29391638; PMCID: PMC 5785399.
    • Maran JP, Sivakumar V, Thirugnanasambandham K, Sridhar R. Extraction of natural anthocyanin and colors from the pulp of Jamun fruit. J Food Sci Technol. 2015 Jun; 52 (6): 3617- 26. doi: 10. 1007/ s13197- 014- 1429- 0. Epub 2014 Jun 5. PMID: 26028744; PMCID: PMC 4444889.
    • Talukder S, Mendiratta SK, Kumar RR, Agrawal RK, Soni A, Luke A, Chand S. Jamun fruit (Syzgium cumini) skin extract-based indicator for monitoring chicken patties quality during storage. J Food Sci Technol. 2020 Feb; 57 (2): 537- 548. doi: 10. 1007/ s13197- 019- 04084- y. Pub 2019 Sep 9. PMID: 32116363; PMCID: PMC 7016058.
    • Gajera HP, Gevariya SN, Hirpara DG, Patel SV, Golakiya BA. Antidiabetic and antioxidant functionality associated with phenolic constituents from fruit parts of indigenous black Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) landraces. J Food Sci Technol. 2017 Sep; 54 (10): 3180- 3191. doi: 10. 1007/ s13197- 017- 2756- 8. Epub 2017 Aug 22. PMID: 28974803; PMCID: PMC5602981.
    • Sehwag S, Das M. Composition and functionality of the whole Jamun based functional confection. J Food Sci Technol. 2016 Jun; 53 (6): 2569- 79. doi: 10. 1007/ s13197-  016-2219-7. Epub 2016 Jun 23. PMID: 27478212; PMCID: PMC4951409.
    • Sanches JR, França LM, Chagas VT, Gaspar RS, Dos Santos KA, Gonçalves LM, Sloboda DM, Holloway AC, Dutra RP, Carneiro EM, Cappelli AP, Paes AM. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats. Front Pharmacol. 2016 Mar 10; 7: 48. doi: 10. 3389/ fphar. 2016. 00048. PMID: 27014062; PMCID: PMC4785152.
    • Qamar M, Akhtar S, Ismail T, Wahid M, Abbas MW, Mubarak MS, Yuan Y, Barnard RT, Zora ZM, Esatbeyoglu T. Phytochemical Profile, Biological Properties, and Food Applications of the Medicinal Plant Syzygium cumini. Foods. 2022 Jan 28; 11 (3): 378. doi: 10. 3390/ foods11030378. PMID: 35159528; PMCID: PMC 8834268.
    • Srimathi, P. & Karivaratharaju, T.V. & Ganeshan, Sasthri & Malarkodi, K. & Natarajan, Karuppannan. (2007). Syzygium cumini.
    • Ribeiro RM, Pinheiro Neto VF, Ribeiro KS, Vieira DA, Abreu IC, Silva Sdo N, Cartágenes Mdo S, Freire SM, Borges AC, Borges MO. Antihypertensive Effect of Syzygium cumini in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2014; 2014: 605452. doi: 10. 1155/ 2014/ 605452. Epub 2014 Dec 28. PMID: 25614751; PMCID: PMC 4295347.
    • Asanaliyar, Meharban & Nadig, Pratibha. (2020). Syzygium cumini (Jamun) therapeutic potential: a comprehensive review on phytochemical constituents and emphasis on its pharmacological actions related to the diabetic intervention. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 9. 363. 10. 18203/ 2319- 2003. Ijbcp 20200192.
    • Aeri, Vidhu & Narayana, D & Singh, Dharya. (2020). Syzygium cumini. 10. 1016/ B978- 0- 12- 818092- 1.00023- 3.
    • Srivastava S, Chandra D. Pharmacological potentials of Syzygium cumini: a review. J Sci Food Agric. 2013 Jul; 93 (9): 2084- 93. doi: 10. 1002/ JSF. 6111. Epub 2013 May 15. PMID: 23460190.
    • Eshwarappa RS, Iyer RS, Subbaramaiah SR, Richard SA, Dhananjaya BL. Antioxidant activity of Syzygium cumini leaf gall extracts. Bioimpacts. 2014; 4 (2): 101- 7. doi: 10. 5681/ bi. 2014. 018. Epub 2014 Jun 20. PMID: 25035854; PMCID: PMC 4097971.
    • Ahmad, Nadeem & Nawab, Mohammad & Kazmi, Munawwar. (2019). Medicinal Potential of Jamun (Syzygium cumini Linn): A Review. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 9. 175- 180. 10. 22270/ jddt. v9i5.3568.
    • Santos CA, Almeida FA, Quecán BXV, Pereira PAP, Gandra KMB, Cunha LR, Pinto UM. Bioactive Properties of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels Pulp and Seed Phenolic Extracts. Front Microbiol. 2020 May 27; 11: 990. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00990. PMID: 32528438; PMCID: PMC 7266875.
    • Koley, Tanmay & Barman, Kalyan & Koley, Tamasi & Asrey, Ram. (2011). Nutraceutical Properties of Jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) and its Processed Products. Indian Food Industry. 30. 34- 37.
    • Khalique, Abdul. (2016). An Overview of Jamun (Eugenia Jambolana Linn): A Traditional Multipotential Drug. Indian Journal of Unani medicine. 9. 71-75.
    • Dagadkhair, Amol & Andhale, Rajkumar & Pakhare, Komal. (2017). Jamun (Syzygium cumini) Skeels: A Traditional Therapeutic Tree and its Processed Food Products. International Journal of Pure & Applied Bioscience. 5. 10. 18782/ 2320- 7051. 4011.
    • Chagas VT, França LM, Malik S, Paes AM. Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: a prominent source of bioactive molecules against cardiometabolic diseases. Front Pharmacol. 2015 Nov 3; 6: 259. doi: 10. 3389/ fphar. 2015. 00259. PMID: 26578965; PMCID: PMC 4630574.
    • Helmstaedter, Axel. (2008). Syzygium cumini (L.) SKEELS (Myrtaceae) against diabetes-125 years of research. Die Pharmazie. 63. 91- 101. 10. 1691/ ph. 2008. 7335.
    • Ayyanar, Muniappan & Pandurangan, Subash babu. (2012). Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels: A review of its phytochemical constituents and traditional uses. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine. 2. 240- 6. 10. 1016/ S2221-1691 (12) 60050- 1.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Aamradi Phala Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Amradi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Aamradi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Priya Nighantu by P. V. Sharma, Haritkyadi Varga Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Vaidya Manorma, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Vrinda Madhava
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sanskrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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