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    Goksura – Tribulus terrestris Linn.

    Goksura: The herb with multidimensional use

    Introduction

    Goksura botanically known as Tribulus terrestris is an annual prostrate herb with multidimensional uses and has commonly been used in traditional systems of medicines for ages. The name and synonyms of Goksura are not mentioned in Vedic time but Acharaya Charaka mentioned it as the best drug for Vataja Vyadhi and Mutra Kriccha. In Ayurvedic classical texts, it is the important ingredient of Dashmool Dravya, Kantaka Panchmool, and Laghu Panchmool. Two varieties of Goksura are mentioned i.e Laghu Goksura and Brihat Goksura and as per Shiv Das Sena, a bigger variety i.e Brihat Goksura is the best. Goksura is easily available in the north and south parts of India. Goksura is sweet in taste, cold in potency, strength-giving, and removes bladder turbidity. It is an appetizer, aphrodisiac, tonic, and lithotrophic. It cures urinary disorders, dyspnea, cough, hemorrhoids, difficulty in micturition, cardiac problems, and Vata diseases. In Bulgarian folk medicine, it is indicated for blood purification and treating piles and infertility. Recent research revealed that Goksura consists of various active ingredients like saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, etc due to which it exhibits various activities like an anti-bacterial, anti-cancerous, analgesic, larvicidal, cardiotonic, diuretic, hypolipidemic activities, etc.

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    Basonym of Goksura

    गवां कृते क्षुरं हवं: कण्टेके: पादवेधनात |

    Fruits of Goksura injure the grazing cattle.

    Synonyms of Goksura

    • According to habitat

    वन शृंगाट: – वने जात: शृंगाटकाकार |

    Goksura grows wild.

     

    • According to morphology

    चण द्रुम: – चणपत्रं: क्षुप: |

    Goksura is a herbaceous plant with leaves resembling the leaves of Chana.

    गो कण्टक: – गवां कण्टक: | 

    Fruits of Goksura have spines that prick grazing cattle.

    क्षुरक: – क्षुर इवं तीक्ष्णकण्टक त्वात | 

    The fruit bears sharp spines.

    श्व दंष्ट्रा – शुनो दंष्ट्रेव तीक्ष्ण कण्टेकत्वात |

    The Fruit of Goksura has sharp spines resembling the canines of a dog.

    त्रिकण्टक: – त्रयः कण्टका फलं अस्य |  

    Fruit bears three spines.

    कण्टफल:- कण्टकित फलमस्य |

    The fruit has spines.

     

    • According to properties and actions

    इक्षुगन्धिकं: – इक्षौरिव गन्धो अस्य |

    Goksura has a similar odor to Ikshu (sugarcane).

    पलंकषा- पलं मासं कषति हिनस्ति कंटकी त्वात | 

    The fruit of Goksura injures flesh because of its sharp spines.

    स्वादुकण्टकः – भक्ष्यकण्टकत्वात्‌ |

    Goksura has a sweet taste.

    भक्षकण्ट: – कण्टकित्वे अपि भक्ष्य: |

    Even though fruit has spines, fruit is commonly used as medicine.     

    Regional names of Laghu Goksura (Tribulus terrestris)

    • Small caltrops, Cowhage, Puncture vine(English)
    • Chota- Gokhru, Hathchikar (Hindi)
    • Hathchikar, Gokhru (Bengali)
    • Neggilamullu (Kannada)
    • Nerungil (Malayalam)
    • Gokhru, Sarate (Marathi)
    • Neringil, Nerunje (Tamil)
    • Palleru (Telugu)
    • Betha Gokhru (Gujarati)
    • Kharakhasak (Persian)
    • Hasak (Arabic)

    Regional names of Brihat Goksura (Pedalium murex)

    • Big caltrops (English)
    • Badi- Gokhru (Hindi)
    • Aneneggilu (Kannada)
    • Kattu- nerinjal (Malayalam)
    • Mote- Gokhru (Marathi)

    Scientific classification of Laghu Goksura

    KingdomPlantae
    ClassDicotyledons
    SubclassPolypetalae 
    Series Disciflorae
    OrderGeraniales
    Family Zygophyllaceae 
    GenusTribulus 
    Species terrestris

    Scientific classification of Brihat Goksura

    KingdomPlantae
    CladeTracheophytes
    Clade Angiosperm
    Clade Eudicots
    OrderLamiales 
    Family Pedaliaceae 
    GenusPedalium 
    Species murex

    Botanical Name

    Tribulus terrestris Linn.

    Tribulus means having three sides and terrestris means “of the ground”.

    Tribulus is a Latin word that means caltrop. Caltrop is the spiky iron weapon that is correlated with the spinous nature of the fruit. In the Greek language, Tribulus means water chestnut, the shape of the Goksura fruit resembles the shape of the fruit of a water chestnut.

    Family – Zygophyllaceae (Goksura Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Goksura (Tribulus terrestris Linn.)

    Classification of Goksura as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Shothahara Mahakshaya, Mutra Virechaniya Mahakshaya, Krimi Ghana Mahakshaya, Anuvasnopaga Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Vidarigandhadi Gana, Viravartadi Gana, Laghu Panchmool, Kantaka Panchmool.

    Goksura's description in Brihtrayi as Goksuraka and Goksura

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 4/ 38S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Su. 6/ 168
    C. S. Su. 25/ 39S. S. Chi. 26/ 35A. H. Su. 10/ 25
    C. S. Chi. 2/ 1- 25S. S. Chi. 38/ 105A. H. Chi. 1/ 28, 119
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 266S. S. Ka. 8/ 132A. H. Chi. 2/ 37
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 83, 84S. S. U. 39/ 219A. H. Chi. 3/ 62
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 110, 169S. S. U. 42/ 112A. H. Chi. 5/ 16
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 126S. S. U. 58/ 33A. H. Chi. 24/ 10, 53
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 63, 86A. H. Chi. 11/ 6, 21, 35, 38
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 40A. H. U. 26/ 53
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 159A. H. U. 39/ 56
    C. S. Si. 9/ 13A. H. U. 40/ 55
    C. S. Si. 12/ 36, 55

    Goksura's description in Brihtrayi as Trikantaka

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Chi. 3/ 235S. S. Su. 38/ 66, 73A. H. Chi. 3/ 122
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 37S. S. Chi. 7/ 10, 19A. H. Chi. 4/ 21
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 234S. S. Chi. 15/ 43A. H. Chi. 11/ 19, 22
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 93S. S. U. 24/ 31A. H. Chi. 12/ 17
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 39S. S. U. 40/ 14A. H. U. 24/ 31
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 170A. H. U. 40/ 14

    Goksura's description in Brihtrayi as Palankasasa

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 4/ 48S. S. U. 31/ 4A. H. Chi. 1/ 162
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 93S. S. U. 39/ 257A. H. U. 6/ 35
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 266S. S. U. 55/ 45
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 77S. S. U. 61/ 27
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 52
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 25, 32

    Goksura's description in Brihtrayi as Swadamstra

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 11, 13, 21S. S. Su. 38/ 4, 10A. H. Sa. 2/ 56
    C. S. Su. 4/ 15, 26, 35S. S. Su. 46/ 432A. H. Chi. 3/ 102
    C. S. Su. 23/ 11S. S. Chi. 2/ 48A. H. Chi. 8/ 77
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 146S. S. Chi. 5/ 7A. H. Chi. 11/ 10, 28
    C. S. Chi. 1- 1/ 40, 60S. S. Chi. 7/ 5, 18, 24A. H. Chi. 14/ 19
    C. S. Chi. 2. 2/ 5S. S. Chi. 9/ 7A. H. Ka. 4/ 17
    C. S. Chi. 2. 3/ 7, 13S. S. Sa. 10/ 4, 57, 61A. H. U. 24/ 53
    C. S. Chi. 2. 4/ 27S. S. U. 39/ 168A. H. U. 34/ 33
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 181, 223, 241S. S. U. 40/ 58, 114A. H. U. 38/ 27
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 27S. S. U. 58/ 44, 57A. H. U. 39/ 159
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 105S. S. U. 59/ 17, 19A. H. U. 40/ 34
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 43
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 111, 113
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 173
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 88
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 24, 29, 55
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 49, 54, 59, 61, 62, 73, 168
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 54
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 145, 166
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 75
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 56
    C. S. Si. 3/ 54
    C. S. Si. 8/ 12

    Goksura's description in Brihtrayi as Swadu Kantaka

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, C. S. Ka. 1/ 25
    • Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 42/ 18, S. S. Chi. 22/ 31, 32
    • Vagbhata: A. H. U. 22/ 41

    Historical background of Goksura

    The name and synonyms of Goksura are not found in Vedic literature. The father of medicine Acharaya Charakahas mentioned Goksura as the best drug for Mutrakrechra (dysuria) and Vata Rogas (C. S. Su. 25). It is one of the herbs which is Mutrala (diuretic) as well as Sothahara (anti-inflammatory). The root is used in Dashamula while the fruit is Vrishya. Bapalalji is of the view that both roots and fruits are to be used along with the whole plant in Ashmari (Urolithiasis).

    A controversial study of Goksura

    Quoting great teacher late Amritalal P. Pattani, Vaidya Bapalal stated that Trikantaka should possess three spines/spurs but not six or four as the case with Tribulus or Pedalium. Even considering the term Goksura the fruit is not like the hoof of a cow. Another herb Martynia diandra (Pedaliaceae) may be the true Goksura according to Pattani. Bapalalji thinks that Acanthospermum hispidium Dc is the real Goksura. Sivadasa Sen considered that a bigger variety of Goksura is the best one (while commenting on Nrtyakundaka or Nrtyakundala mentioned by Vagbhata (A. H. Ci. 11/ 30) is considered as another source for Goksura according to Pattani. But Thakur Balvant Singhji described Goksura as Eleusine corocana which is a different plant. In Punjab and Sindh Xanthium strumarium Linn. (Compositae) is used for smallpox. Late Dr. Sakharam Arjun considers it as Goksura.

    Varieties of Goksura

    Raja Nighantu described two varieties of Goksura:

     

    • Laghu Goksura (Tribulus terrestris)
    • Brihad Goksura (Pedalium murex)

    External morphology of Tribulus terrestris

    • Habit- Prostrate herb.
    • Stem- Slender, branched, weak, and creeping.
    • Leaf- Compound, sub- opposite, even-pinnate, stipulate, leaflets in 4 or 5 pairs, pairs unequal, leaflets oblong.
    • Flower- Actinomorphic, bisexual, pentamerous, hypogynous, and bright yellow, sepals are 5 and free. Petals are 5, free and obovate. Androecium contains two whorls of stamens 5 in each which are inserted at the base of a disc. Stamens subtended by glandular scales. The gynoecium is a 2-5 carpellary, axile placentation lobed ovary with a simple style.
    • Fruit- Schizocarp with 5 spinous cocci, each containing one seed, Schizocarp is 5 angled, cocci is woody, each with a pair of unequal spines.
    • Seed- Obliquely pendulous. One or more in each coccus.
    • Flowering and fruiting time of Laghu  Goksura- Rains to Autumn season and onwards.

    External morphology of Pedalium murex

    • Habit- Brihat Goksura is a much-branched herb, 15-38 cm. high; stems and branches are often slightly rough with scaly glands.
    • Leaves: Leaves of Brihat Goksura opposite, pale glaucous-green, somewhat fleshy, 2.5- 5 by 2- 3.8 cm. broadly ovate-oblong, truncate or obtuse, coarsely crenate-serrate or sub lobate, glabrous above, the lower side usually covered with minute scales, base acute, petioles of Brihad Goksura leaves are 6-20 mm. long.
    • Flowers- Flowers axillary, solitary, pedicels 4 mm. long. Calyx small, scarcely 3 mm. long; minutely scaly outside, divided rather more than halfway down; lobes 5, linear-triangular, acute. Corolla 2.5 cm. long, about 2 cm. across the mouth, bright yellow; tube 2 cm; long, slender; lobes broad, rounded. Filaments glandular-hairy at the base.
    • Fruit- Fruit of Brihad Goksura 1.3-2 cm., long, narrowed at the base, pyramidal- ovoid above the spines, bluntly 4-angled, with stout sharp conical horizontal spines from the angles.

    Flowering and fruiting time of Brihad Goksura

    Rains to Autumn season and onwards.

    Distribution of Laghu Goksura

    It is found throughout India, especially in warm regions. Laghu Goksura grows in sandy soil.

    Distribution of Brihad Goksura

    It is found in tropical regions in India i.e., in Konkan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Deccan Peninsula, and other areas in the country.

    The useful part of Goksura

    Root and fruits.

     

    Root- The market sample of Goksura root contains slender, tortuous, gradually tapering roots, 12 to 20 cm long and up to 1 cm in diameter at the thickest part, external surface is yellowish brown, slightly wrinkled longitudinally with prominent root scars, the crown of the root, more often, bears several horizontally spreading proteins of the stem. The transversely cut portion of lie root shows a yellowish surface, surrounded by a loosely adhering bark, followed by a cortical zone of light color and a central woody portion showing distinct concentric rings. On breaking roots become short pieces and powdery. Has a faint agreeable odor and sweetish astringent taste.

     

    Fruit- Fruits are five ribbed or lobed, more or less spherical with flattened apex and dome-shaped base, up to 1 cm in diameter. Each of the lobes of the fruit is studded with four sharp and rigid spines. The surface of the fruit is hard, villous, and greenish yellow. The fruit contains several small seeds in several transversely separated compartments. The fruit has a faint agreeable odor.

    Important phytoconstituent of Goksura

    The total plant contains Diosgenin, Gitogenin, Chlorogenie, Harmane, Famine, Kaemperal, Quercetin, Rutin, Steroidal glycosides (Trillin, diosgenin-D, gracillin, dioscin, protodioscin), Saponin C & G, astragalin.

    Fruits yielded flavonoid components like Kaempferol, Steroid sapogenins, neo tigogenin, and hecogenin.

    Roots afforded campesterol, B-sitosterol, and stigmasterol.

    Recent research on Tribulus terrestris (Laghu Goksura)

    • The present study is aimed at examining the antilithiatic potency of the protein biomolecules of Tribulus terrestris, a plant that is a common constituent of herbal marketed preparations to treat urolithiasis. Find- ings suggest that this purified protein biomolecule from Tribulus terrestris could open a new vista in the medical management of urolithiasis. Aggarwal A, Tandon S, Singla SK, Tandon C. A novel antilithiatic protein from Tribulus terrestris having cytoprotective potency. Protein Peptide Lett. 2012 Aug; 19 (8): 812- 9.
    • To Study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. The findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. Singh S, Nair V, Gupta YK. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn in sexually sluggish male albino rats. J Pharmacol Pharmacology. 2012 Jan; 3 (1): 43- 7.
    • The effect of oral exposure of acetAminophen (500 mg/ kg) in O. mossambicus at 24-h duration was evaluated. The Tribulus terrestris fruit extract (250 mg/ kg) showed remarkable hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity. Kavitha P, Ramesh R, Bhupesh G, Stalin A, Subramanian P. Hepatoprotective activity of Tribulus terrestris extract against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in a freshwater fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2011. Dec; 47 (10): 698- 706.
    • Investigate the possible effects of Tribulus terrestris (TT) on endocrine sensitive organs in intact and castrated male rats as well as in a postmenopausal rat model using ovariectomized females. Tribulus terrestris was not able to stimulate endocrine sensitive tissues such as the prostate, seminal vesicle, uterus, and vagina in Wistar rats, indicating a lack of androgenic and estrogenic activity in vivo. Martino-Andrade AJ, Morais RN, Spercoski KM. Rossi SC, Vechi MF, Golin M, Lombardi NF, Greca CS, Dalsenter PR. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on endocrine sensitive organs in male and female Wistar rats, J Ethnopharmacology. 2010 Jan 8; 1 27 (1) 165- 70. Epub 2009 Sep 23.
    • S. Acetone extracts of leaves and seeds from the Tribulus terrestris (Zygophyllaceae) were tested against mature and immature different mosquito vectors under laboratory conditions. It is confirmed from the LC50 values that the seed acetone extract of T. terrestris is more effective compared to leaf extracts. Singh SP, Raghavendra K, Singh RK, Mohanty SS, Dash AP. Evaluation of Tribulus terrestris Lin (Zygophyllaceae) acetone extract for larvicidal and repellent activity against mosquito vectors. J Community Dis. 200g Dec; 40 (4): 255- 61
    • Anti-cancer activity- One of the three new steroidal saponins from the fruits of T. terrestris exhibited cytotoxic activity against a human malignant melanoma cell line (Behdir & khan, 2000).
    • Nephroprotective activity- Nephroprotective activity was evaluated in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity (80 mg /kg /day S.C.) in male albino rats, NR-AG-I (Containing C. nurvala, T. Terrestris, D. biflorus & Shilajit) and NR- AG-II (C. nurvala, B. diffusa S. officinarum & B. frondosa) were tested given for 12 days. Vera clearance and microscopical examinations of the kidney were performed after the treatment. Gentamicin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by a significant reduction in urea clearance and was prevented by both formulations. A study of renal microscopy showed necrosis, epithelial loss with granular degeneration, and fatty changes in gentamicin-treated rats and was reversed by both formulations. But, NR-I Proved to be a better formulation (due to the presence of T. terrestris)- (Samiulla & Harish, 2001). Simultaneous administration of T. terrestris (200g/ kg/ day p.o) and gentamycin to female rats decreased gentamycin-induced renal damage in both structural & functional terms. (Nagarkatti et al; 1994)
    • Lithotriptic property- Aqueous extract of T. terrestris (5 g/ kg p. o./ day) was tested in 6 male rats in whom hyperoxaluria was induced. 24 hr urinary oxalate excretion reversed to normal, from 1.97 plus minus 0.314 to 0.144 plus minus 0.004 mg/ mg creatinine (p< 0.001) within 21 days of administration of the drug and retained so until 15 days after withdrawal of extract and sodium glycolate (Sangeetha et al; 1993). An ethanolic extract from fruits showed significant dose-dependent protection against urolithiasis induced by glass bead implantation in albino rats (Anand et al; 1994) The following reports are also available on the clinical effects of Goksura in urolithiasis Nair P.S. (BHU), 1966; Usha R. (Trivandrum), 1993 & Upadhyaya K.N. (BHU), 1995. Administration of aqueous extract and a significantly reduced urinary oxalate excretion, and a significant raise, in urinary glyoxylate excretion are also observed as compared to sodium glycolate-fed animals (Sangeet et al; 1994).
    • Hepatoprotective activity- The hepatoprotective activity of T. terrestris is reported against CCl4– induced hepatotoxicity in rats (Lee et al, 1992)
    • Diuretic activity-The decoction of fruits was found to possess a moderate diuretic activity in rats (Gujral et al; 1955).
    • An alkaloid from T. terrestris produced a slight rise in B.P. and an appreciable rise in kidney volume (Chopra, 1956). Watery extract of Goksura possesses similar diuretic activity to urea both in rats and dogs. The diuresis was due to the potassium content of the extract (Karandikar et al; 1960).
    • Aphrodisiac property-A new original preparation Tribestan has been obtained from T. terrestris having a stimulatory effect on sexual functions (Tomova, 1987).

    Recent research on Pedalium murex (Brihat Goksura)

    • Azhagu Madhavan, & Vinotha, P & Uma, V & Mahadevi, M. (2020). ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF Pedalium murex Linn METHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT AGAINST A549 HUMAN LUNG CANCER CELL LINE. International Journal of Advance Research And Innovative Ideas In Education. Volume 5. 33-40. Pedalium murex (Pedaliaceae), commonly called Large Caltrops, is understood for its pharmacological uses in the traditional medicine system. It is reported to possess excellent medicinal properties that help cure reproductive disorders, mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhea also, and leucorrhoea in women. Apart from that, it also contains a remedy for urinary and gastrointestinal tract disorders. Pharmacologically, the plant has been explored for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, sexual enhancer, mitigating, antidermatophytic, cancer prevention agent, antimicrobial and insecticidal exercises. The present review may be a bundle of data collected from the published research articles and highlights the phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of P. murex. The high presence of methanolic extract our information will help develop a new formulation with therapeutic and economical value in the future. A549 cells treated with Pedalium murex leaves methanolic extract for different hours (6, 12, 24, and 36 hours) after the 36 hours the growth of the cells is controlled.
    • Patel, Dk & Kumar, Raj & Prasad, Dr. Satyendra & Hemalatha, Siva. (2011). Pedalium murex Linn (Pedaliaceae) fruits: A comparative antioxidant activity of its different fractions. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine. 1. 395- 400. 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (11) 60087- 7. To examine the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of different solvent fractions of Pedalium murex (P. murex) Linn fruits (Family: Pedaliaceae) as well as the correlation between the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. In the present study, the antioxidant activities of P. murex were evaluated using six in-vitro assays, namely total antioxidant assay, DPPH assay, reducing power, nitric oxide scavenging, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging and deoxyribose scavenging assays, and total phenol contents were also investigated. The ethyl acetate (EA) fraction was found to have high levels of phenolic content (298.72± 2.09 mg GAE/g). The EA fraction exhibits higher total antioxidant capacity, a higher percentage of DPPH radical scavenging activity (135.11± 2.95 µg/ mL), nitric oxide (200.57± 4.51µg/mL), hydrogen peroxide (217.91± 6.12 µg/mL), deoxyribose (250.01± 4.68µg/mL) and higher reducing power. The correlation coefficient (r (2) =0.914) was found to be significant between total phenolic content and total antioxidant activity. In general, the results indicate that the EA fractions are rich in phenolic antioxidants with potent free radical scavenging activity implying their importance to human health.
    • Elumalai, Linn & Eswaraiah, Dr & Naresh, Munna & Sudheer, Vanamala & Naresh, Mandala. (2011). A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF PEDALIUM MUREX. IJRAP. 2. 1743-. The traditional system of medicine consists of a large number of plants with various medicinal and pharmacological importance and hence represents a priceless tank of new bioactive molecules. Pedalium murex is a small herb distributed in tropical Africa, Ceylon, India, and Mexico. It is commonly found in Deccan and some parts of Ceylon and Gujarat and its coastal areas of Southern India. It is commonly called Gokhru (Yaanai Nerinji) a member of the family Pedaliaceae. The plant is sweet, cooling, mucilaginous, diuretic, and inflammatory and used to treat digestive, carminative, tonic, spasmodic affections, amenorrhea, and vitiated conditions of Pita, inflammation, and general debility. This review will be helpful to create interest in Pedalium murex and may be useful in developing new formulations with more therapeutic and economical value.
    • Thamizhmozhil, M. & Mulaicharam, A.R. & S. murugesh, S. murugesh. (2011). Phytochemical and pharmacognostic studies on Pedalium murex Linn. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm. 2. 253- 258. Pedalium Murex Linn (entire plant) (Pedaliaceae), a plant of immense medicinal value was taken for the present study. It is essential to ensure the quality and purity of the popular fragrance plant. The entire plant of Pedalium Murex Linn was subjected to various Pharmacognostical evaluations like Morphological, Microscopical, and Powder analyses. Results have revealed clearly that the entire plant is genuine. The Phytochemical constituents of Leaves of Pedalium Murex Linn have been worked out. The dry powder of the entire plant was successfully extracted with Total Petroleum ether extract, Alcohol Extract, Chloroform extract, and Aqueous Extract. All the extracts were subjected to Preliminary Phytochemical screening. It showed the presence of Carbohydrates, Glycosides, Alkaloids, Steroids, and Flavonoids. As per Materia medica (Kirtikar and Basu), studies are required for the screening of various Pharmacological activities like plant pacifies vitiated Vata, Pitta, urinary retention, kidney stone, seminal weakness, amenorrhea, inflammation, flatulence, and fever.
    • The acaricidal activity of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species at 10 percent concentration was evaluated against red spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch under laboratory conditions by the leaf disc method. Among the plants, the extract of solanum virginianum and Eucalyptus deglupta caused the highest mortality of 93.33 and 85.57 43 percent of T. urticae respectively at 72 hours after treatment (HAT) followed by strychnia nux-vomica (82.23%), Colocasia esculenta (81.10%) and Cympogan schaenanthus (81.10%). Next in the order of efficacy were Curcuma longa, Dodonaea viscosa, Melia azedarach, Piper nigrum, Phyllanthus niruri, Cyprus rotundas, Azadirachta indica, Cynodon dactylon, and Andropogon murigatus which caused statistically similar acaricidal activity ranging from 72.23 to 64.43 percent Moderate acaricidal action was noticed in Cardiospermum halicacabum (56.67%) and Antigonon leptopus (51.10%). The least effective plants were Spathodea campanulata (45.57%), Murraya koenigii (42.23%) > Lantana camara (30.00%), Pedalium murex (30.00%) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (27.77%). Premalatha, K., Nelson, S. J., Vishnupriya, R., Balakrishnan, S., & Krishnan, V. P. (2018). Efficacy of plant extracts against Tetranychus urticae under in-vitro conditions. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems24 (1), 44- 49.
    • Pedalium murex Linn (family: Pedaliaceae) (P. murex) commonly known as Large Caltrops and Gokhru (India) is a shrub found in the Southern part, Deccan region of India and in some parts of Ceylon. Different parts of the plant are used to treat various ailments like cough, cold, and antiseptics. Interestingly, P. murex is reported traditionally to have an excellent cure in patients with reproductive disorders which are mainly impotency in men, nocturnal emissions, gonorrhea as well as leucorrhoea in women. The plant has also benefited from complications like urinary tract disorder as well as gastrointestinal tract disorders. Phytochemically the plant is popular for the presence of a considerable amount of diosgenin and vanillin which are regarded as an important source and useful starting materials for synthesizing steroidal contraceptive drugs and isatin alkaloids. Other phytochemicals reported in the plant include quercetin, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, amino acids (glycine, histidine, tyrosine, threonine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid), and various classes of fatty acids (triacontanoic acid, nonacosane, tritriacontane, tetratriacontanyl, and heptatriacontane-4-one). Pharmacologically, the plant has been investigated for antiulcerogenic, nephroprotective, hypolipidemic, aphrodisiac, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and insecticidal activities. From all these reports it can be concluded that the plant was found to have a better profile as a potential natural source for the treatment of various ranges of either acute or chronic disease. The overall database of our review article was collected from the scientific sources regarding all the information of the research article for P. murex published so far. Patel DK, Laloo D, Kumar R, Hemalatha S. Pedalium murex Linn.: an overview of its phytopharmacological aspects. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011 Sep;4 (9):748-55. doi: 10. 1016/ S1995- 7645 (11) 60186- 7. PMID: 21967701.

    Rasa Panchaka of Goksura Phala (fruit)

    Rasa (Taste)Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Guru (heavy), Snigdha (oily)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Rasa Panchaka of Goksura Mula (root)

    Rasa (Taste)Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Guru (heavy), Snigdha (oily)
    Virya (potency)Ushna (hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Dosha Karma of Goksura

    Tridosa Shamaka, Vata Shamaka because of Madhura Rasa and Usna Virya, Pittahara due to Tikta, Kasaya, Madhura Rasa and Madhura Vipaka. Kapha Shamaka due to its Usna Virya. Phala (Fruit) is Vatapitta Shamaka because of Madhura Rasa & Madhura Vipaka. Pitta Shamaka due to Madhura Vipaka and Sheet Virya.

    Karma (Actions) of different parts used of Goksura

    Sothahara, Hridya, Rakta- Pitta Shamaka, Sandhaniya, Balya, Mutrajanana, Garbha Sthapana, Stanyajanana, Vrsya, Jvaraghna, Dahaprasamana Katupoustika, Benihana, Rasayana, Visaghna, Sitala, Snehana, Vedana Sthapana, Medhya, Srama, Daha, Trishna Prasamana, Kesya, Dipana, Pachan, Bhedana, Arsoghna.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Goksura

    Ashmari, Mutrakrcchra, Mutraghata, Bastisotha, Prameha Roga, Dhatuksaya, Shukra Vikara, Napunsakata, Klaibya, Yonivyapada, Garbhasrava, Garbhapata, Kasa, Shvasa, Hridroga, Raktapitta, Sotha, Agnimandya, Dourbalya, Sangrahani, Arsa, Udara- Kostha Vikara, Vibandha, Nadidourbalya, VedanayuktaVikara, Vatavyadi, Shularoga.

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Gokshura

    Rajaykshma (Consumption): Powder of Goksura fruits and Asvagandha mixed with honey is taken with milk. It alleviates consumption and cough. (Raja Amrittanda. 12/ 3)

     

    Ashmari (Calculus)

     

    • Ghrita is cooked with a decoction of Goksura and eight times milk should be taken. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 74)
    • Roots of Goksura, Kokilaksha, Eranda, and two types of Brihati (Brihati and Kantkari) are pounded together with milk and dissolved in sweet curd for a week. It breaks calculus. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 62)
    • Powder of the seeds of Goksura mixed with honey and taken with sheep milk for a week breaks calculus. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 62)
    • Powder of the seeds of Goksura mixed with Svarnamaksika and taken with buffalo’s milk feels calculus. (Harita Samhita. 3. 31. 13)

     

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage): Milk cooked with Draksha or four Parnis (Salaparni, Prishniparni, Mudgaparni, and Masaparni) or Bala or Madhuka or Goksura and Shatavari checks hemorrhage. (Vrinda Madhava. 9. 18)

     

    Rakta Mutra (Haematuria): Milk cooked with Satavari and Goksura or four Parnis checks hemorrhage, particularly urethral. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 85)

     

    Vatavyadhi

     

    • In Visvachi and Avabahuka (pain in arms), the decoction of Dasamula, Bala, and masa mixed with oil and ghee should be used as snuff in the evening. (Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 31, Vanga Sena, Vatavyadhi. 123, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 87)
    • Newly arisen Kubja (humpedness) should be treated with Dasamüla and other Vata-alleviating drugs. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 35)
    • Dashamoola- Ghrita. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 72)
    • Sciatica is treated with a decoction of Dasamula added with Hingu and Puskaramula (powder) or only with that of Sephali leaves. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 86)
    • In Manyastambha (torticollis) decoction of Dasamula or even Pancamula, rough sudation and snuffing should be used. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 76)

     

    Vatarakta (Gout): Milk cooked with Dasamula decoction alleviates pain immediately. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 124, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 23, Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 11)

     

    Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis)

     

    • In Amavata, one should take Dasamula decoction added with Pippali or Haritaki with Sunthi or Guduci with Sunthi. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 10, Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 44)
    • Castor oil mixed with a decoction of Dasamula or Sunthi should be taken in case of pain in the abdomen, pelvis, and waist. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 5)
    • Moreover, an enema of Dasamula mixed with urine should be given. (Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 7/ 20)

     

    Vidriddhi (Abscess): The swelling or wound should be sprinkled with warm decoction of Dasamula or meat soup mixed with fat. (Vrinda Madhava. 43/ 8)

     

    Loose teeth (Danta Roga): Gargle should be used with Dasamula decoction added with ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 22/ 14)

     

    Netra Roga (Defects of vision): In Timira caused by Vata, ghee cooked with Dasamula decoction and paste of Triphala in four times milk should be used. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 48)

     

    Badhirya (Deafness): Oil 640 ml. should be cooked with Dasamula decoction and should be instilled in ears. It is an excellent remedy for deafness. (Vrinda Madhava. 59/ 26) 

     

    Sutika- Roga (postpartum disease): Decoction of Dasamula alleviates Sutika Roga immediately. (Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 28)

     

    Stanya Janana Roga (Abnormal lactation):  In breast milk affected by Vata, the decoction of Dasamula should be given. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 2/ 9, Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 34)

     

    Mutra Krichha (Dysuria)

     

    • Gruel prepared with Goksura and Kantakari and added with liquid jaggery is useful in dysuria. (Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 2. 22, Ashtanga Sangreha. 13/ 22)
    • Oil cooked with a decoction of Goksura along with jaggery, milk, and Sunthi should be used, as intake, Anuvasana, and Uttara Basti, in dysuria caused by Vata. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 59/ 19)
    • Goksura is beneficial in dysuria. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 40/ 55)
    • One should take the decoction of Goksura seeds mixed with Yavaksara. It alleviates dysuria, gravel, and calculus. (Vrinda Madhava. 32/ 16, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 35/ 33)
    • Decoction of the whole plant of Goksura mixed with honey and sugar should be taken. It alleviates the disorders of dysuria. (Vanga Sena Mutraghata. 30)
    • Milk boiled with Goksura, Eranda, and Satavari or Trinapancamula, or milk added with ghee and ample jaggery is beneficial in dysuria, etc. (Vrinda Madhava. 33/ 9)
    • Decoction of the whole plant of Goksura mixed with sugar and honey alleviates all types of dysuria and Ushana Vata. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 109, Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 36/ 30)
    • Goksura, Varuna, and Sunthi decoction of these mixed with honey should be taken. It is an excellent remedy for gravel, calculus, and dysuria. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 37/ 51)
    • Paste of Goksura taken with coconut water alleviates dysuria. (Vaidya Manorma .7/ 3)
    • To promote hair-growth, Goksura and sesamum flowers are mixed with an equal quantity of honey and ghee. This paste applied to the head promotes the growth of hair. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 3. 11. 22)

     

    Jwara (Fever)

     

    • Pippali should be used with the decoction of Dasamulaa. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39/ 216)
    • This group (Dasamula) alleviates asthma, pacifies Kapha, Pitta, and Vata is digestive of Ama,  and removes all types of fever. (Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 38/ 64)
    • Decoction of Dasamula, warm or cooled, added with the paste of Rasna is useful in fever caused by Vata. (Kashyapa Samhita Purva Khanda. 350)
    • In fever caused by Kapha, the decoction of Dasamula and Vasaka mixed with honey should be given. (Vrinda Madhava. 1/ 109)
    • Decoction of Dasamula added with Pippali should be given in disorders of Kapha and Vata, indigestion, excessive sleep, chest pain, asthma, and cough. (Vrinda Madhava. 1/ 139)
    • Both (Brihat and Laghu Pancamula) combined is Dasamula. It is efficacious in Sannipata fever, cough, asthma, stupor, and chest pain. If mixed with Pippali powder it alleviates Kapha and cardiac pain. (Vrinda Madhava. 1. 169)
    • In Sannipata fever with asthma and cough, the decoction of Dasamula mixed with Pippali and Pushkaramula should be given. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 573)

     

    Atisaar Sambandhit Jwara (Fever associated with diarrhea): In fever, diarrhea, edema and Grahaniroga Sunthi 10 gm mixed with Dasamula decoction should be taken. (Vrinda Madhava. 2/ 20)

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea): In diarrhea with pain and tenesmus non-unctuous enema with the decoction of Dasamula added with honey and milk is an excellent remedy. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 143)

     

    Grahani-roga (IBS): Dasamuladya ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15. 82- 86)

     

    Pandu (Anemia): In anemia caused by Kapha, the decoction of Dasamula mixed with Sunthi should be taken. It is also useful in fever, diarrhea, edema, Grahani, asthma, anorexia, and disorders of the throat and heart. (Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 4)

     

    As Rasayana (Rejuvenator)

     

    • Goksura- Rasayana. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 39. 56-57)
    • One taking powder of Goksura, Amalaka, and Guduci with ghee and honey becomes potent, stable, happy, black-haired, and with a full life- span. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 39. 160)

     

    Vajikarana (As aphrodisiac)

     

    • Goksura, Iksuraka, Satavari, Kapikacchu, Nagabala, and Atibala this powder taken with milk at night acts as a good aphrodisiac. (Vrinda Madhava. 70. 14) 
    • Goksura alone cooked in milk should be taken. It acts as a good aphrodisiac even for the old. (Gada Nigreha. 2. 9. 58)

     

    Amavata (rheumatoid arthritis): Decoction of Sunthi and Goksura used regularly in morning digests Ama, reduces pain and is thus useful in Amavata and lumbago. (Chakra Dutta. 25/ 9)

     

    Shwas and Kasa (Asthma and cough)

     

    • Dwi Panca Mulyadi Ghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18. 158- 60)
    • Dasa Mulyadi Ghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18. 123- 24)
    • Liquid gruel processed with Dasamula alleviates cough, hiccough, and asthma. (Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 2/ 27, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 23)
    • One suffering from hiccough and asthma should take, while thirsty, the decoction of Dasamula or Devadaru or wine. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 105, Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 11)
    • In Hrid Shool (chest pain), Jwara (fever), Shvaas (asthma) and Kasa (cough) caused by Kapha decoction of Dasamula i.e Dashmool Kwatha mixed with Pippali Churna should be given. (Vrinda Madhava. 11/ 11)
    • Dasamula Kwatha added with Puskaramula Churna pacifies Kasa (cough) and Shwasa (asthma) and removes pain in the chest and heart. (Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 18, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 36)
    • To eradicate asthma, decoction of Dasamula should be given. It is effective even in severe cases. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 49)

     

    Rajayakshma (Consumption)

     

    • Fresh ghee extracted from the milk boiled with Dasamula is used after adding Pippali powder and honey. It improves voice, alleviates pain in the head, chest, and shoulder, and removes cough, asthma, and fever. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 97- 98)
    • Ghee cooked with sweet (Jivaniya) Dravyas, Dasamula decoction, milk, and meat soup is an excellent remedy for consumption. (Charaka Samhita Chiktsa Sthana. 8/ 168)

     

    Unmaad (Insanity): One should use the decoction of Dasamula added with ghee or meat- soup or powder of white mustard or old ghee alone. (Vrinda Madhava. 20/ 4)

     

    Apsmaar (Epilepsy): The patient who suffers from palpitation of the heart, pain in the eyes, excessive sweat and coldness in hands, etc. should be treated with Dasamula decoction of Kalyana Ghrta. (Vrinda Madhava. 21/ 8)

     

    Hridya Roga (Heart-disease): Decoction of Dasamula added with rock salt and Yavaksara destroys asthma, cough, heart disease, Gulma, and colic. (Vrinda Madhava. 31. 18, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 102)

     

    Shotha (Oedema): Diet of the patient with edema should consist of cereals of old barley and Sali rice cooked with Dasamula decoction and that too in small quantities and added with little salt and ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana 17/ 17)

     

    Granthi-Visarpa: In case of pain, the part should be sprinkled with hot oil or Dasamula decoction, or urine. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 24)

    Benefits of Goksura

    • The medicinal properties of Brihad Goksura (Pedalium murex Linn.) are almost the same as those of Laghu Goksura (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) The fresh leaves and stems, briskly agitated in cold water, speedily convert it into a thick mucilage, nearly of the consistency of the white of a raw egg., in odorous and tasteless. An infusion of fresh leaves and stems is used as an esteemed remedy for treating gonorrhea and dysuria. 
    • The fruits are considered demulcent and diuretic, antispasmodic, and aphrodisiac. 
    • The juice is used in aphthae as a local application. The decoction is useful in irritation of the urinary organs; it is given as a remedy for spermatorrhoea, incontinence of urine, and impotency.
    • The juice of the fruits is useful as an emmenagogue. It is employed in puerperal diseases, and to promote local discharge. Patra of Gokshura are used in Pleeha Vriddhi.  
    • The decoction of the roots is used as an anti-bilious remedy.
    • The fruits of Laghu Goksura (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) are useful as an alternative, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, anti-arthritic, cooling, tonic, demulcent, expectorant, and contraceptive (the root of white flower-variety). 
    • It is useful for calculous affections, kidney diseases, painful micturition, and urinary discharges. It is a very useful drug in kidney and urinary troubles especially calculus and dysuria and their allied complications.
    • The fruits are antispasmodic, aphrodisiac and emmenagogue. Their decoction is used for the diseases for which the mucilaginous infusion of the leaves is suggested. 
    • The juice of the fruits is given for puerperal diseases, and for promoting lochia discharge. Goksura Beeja Phanta is given daily in Mutra Krricha, Shukraja Vyadhi like spermatorrhoea, impotency.

    Benefits of Gokshura on different systems of bodies

    • External use: Leaves are tied on wounds.
    • Nervous system: Analgesic and Vata Shamak. Therefore, it is used in Nadi Vaha Strotas Vyadhi (neural debility), Shula (painful conditions), and Vataja disorders.
    • Digestive system: Stomachic, astringent, anthelmintic, but laxative in a large dose. Therefore, it is used in low appetite, piles, and helminthiasis.
    • Circulatory system: It is cardiotonic, anti-inflammatory, and helps in hemorrhagic disorders. It is used in heart diseases. Fruit juice is useful in amebiasis and splenomegaly.
    • Respiratory system: Expectorant, therefore used in cough and asthma.
    • Reproductive system: It is an aphrodisiac and helps in conception. useful in preventing Garbha Pata (abortion), Yoni Roga (vaginal disorders), Bandhyatava (impotency), etc.
    • Urinary system: Diuretic, dissolves calculi and amorphous calculi. Therefore, useful in urinary calculi, dysuria, and cystitis. Nava Patra (Fresh leaves) dipped in water make it Picchila (slimy), this water is used for curing various urinary disorders.
    • Satmikaran: Useful in debility.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Goksura

    • Phala Churna (fruit powder): 3- 6 grams
    • Kwath (Decoction): 50- 100 ml

    Classical reference of Goksura

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 44- 45

    Synonyms

    गोक्षुरः क्षुरको अपि स्यात्रिकण्टः स्वादुकण्टकः |

    गोकण्टको गोक्षुरको वन श्रृंगार इत्यपि ||

    पलंकषा श्वदंष्ट्रा च तथा स्यादिक्षुगन्धिका ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 45- 46

    Properties and action

    गोक्षुरः शीतल: स्वादुर्बलकृद्स्तिशोधन; |

    मधुरो दीपनो वृष्यः पुष्टिदश्वाश्मरीहरः |

    प्रमेहश्वासकासार्श कृच्छूहद्वोग वातनुत्‌ ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 103

    Properties and action

    श्वदंष्ट्रो बृहणो वृष्यस्त्रि दोषशमनो अग्नि कृत | 

    शूलहद्रोग कृच्छघ्नः प्रमेहविनिवर्तकः ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 69- 70

    गोक्षुरो मधुरो वृष्यो दीपनो बलपुष्टिकृत्‌ |

    शीतलो वस्तिवातघ्नो दोष तरय निर्बहण: |

    हद्रोग मेह कृच्छाश्मश्वास कास रुजाहर: ||

    Raja Nighantu Shatahavadi Varga, 43

    स्यातामुभौ गोक्षुरको सुशीतलौ बलप्रदौ तौ मधुरौ च बृंहणौ |

    कृच्छाश्मरी मेह विदाहनाशनौ रसायनों तत्र बृहद्गुणोत्तर: ||

    Priya Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga, 45

    गोक्षुरस्य तू मुलम स्याद उष्णं वातकफापहम्‌ |

    तत्फलं शीतल स्वादु ब्लयं वृष्यञ्च मूत्रलम ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu

    गोक्षुरो मूत्र कृच्छघनो वृष्य: स्वादु: समीरजित्‌ |

    शूल हद्रोगशमनो बृहणो मेहनाशन: ||

    Vrinda Madhava, Rakta Pitta Adhikara

    रक्तपित्ते

    ….श्वदंष्ट्रया शतावर्या रक्तपित्साधित॑ पय: |

    Shodhala, Gada Nigreha, 2- 9- 58

    वाजीकरणे

    श्वद्रंष्ट्रा पयसा सिद्धां पिबेदकाकिनी नर: |

    जरया पीतसारो अपि युवेव चरति स्त्रिय: ||

    Raja Amrittanda

    शोथ 

    चूर्ण श्वदंष्ट्रया फलवाजिर्गंधा विनिर्मित माक्षिक सम्प्रयुक्तम्‌ |

    क्षीरेण सार्ध॑ परिपीयमानं शोथं च कासं च निहन्ति पुंसाम्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, 25- 9

    आमवाते

    शुण्ठीगोक्षुरक्लाथ: प्रात: प्रातनिषेवित: |

    सामे वाते कटीशूले पाचन रुकप्रणाशनम्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, Mutra Kriccha Chikitsa, 32- 13

    कफजमूत्रकृच्छे श्वदंष्ट्रया क्वाथ:

    श्वदंष्ट्रया विश्वतोय॑ वा कफ कृच्छ विनाशनम्‌ |

    Chakra Dutta, 32/ 22. 28

    मूत्रकृच्छ चिकित्सायां गोक्षुर प्रयोग:

    त्रिकण्टकादि क्वाथ:

    त्रिकण्टका घृतम्‌

    Chakra Dutta, 33- 9

    मूत्राघाते (मूत्र कृच्छ आमये)

    त्रिकंटद्य साधित॑ क्षीरम 

    Chakra Dutta, Ashmari Chikitsa, 34- 30- 31

    अश्मरी चिकित्सायां गोक्षुर योगा: 

    श्वदंष्ट्रयादि पानकम्‌

    श्वदंष्ट्रयादि कषाय

    Vrinda Madhava, 32- 16, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa, 35- 33, Chakra Dutta

    शकृजे मूत्रकृच्छे

    क्वाथं गोक्षुर बीजस्य यवक्षारयुतं पिबेत्‌ |

    मूत्रकृच्छं शकृज्जञ्च पीत: शीघ्र विनाशयेत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 26- 74

    अश्मर्याम्‌

    घृतम श्वदंष्ट्रया स्वरसेन सिद्धम्‌ |

    क्षीरण चैवा अष्ट गुणेन पेयम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 26- 74

    मूत्रमार्गात्‌ सरुजं प्रवृत्ते मूत्रे

    गोक्षुरकै: श्रृतम वा |

    Sushruta Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 7

    अश्मरीभेदनार्थम 

    त्रिकण्टकस्य बीजानि चूर्ण माक्षिक संयुक्तं |

    अविक्षीरण सप्ताहमश्मरी भेदनं ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 28/ 146, 148

    श्वदंष्ट्रया तैलं 

    श्वदंष्ट्रया स्वरस प्रस्थो द्वौ समौ पयसा सह ||

    षट फलम श्रृंगवेरस्य गुडस्या अष्ट पलं तथा ||

    तैलप्रस्थ॑ विपक्वं तैर्दच्यात सर्वानिलार्त्तिषु |

    जीर्ण तैले च दुग्धेन पेया कल्पः प्रशस्यते ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra, 40/ 50

    मूत्र कृच्छ  

    गोक्षुरर्दितः कृच्छे |

    Bhava Parkasha, Ashmari Roga Adhikara. 3- 64

    अश्मरी रोगे ।

    त्रिकण्टकस्य बीजानां चूर्ण माक्षिकसंयुतम्‌ |

    अविक्षीरेण सप्ताह पेयमश्मरि नाशनम्‌ ||

    Bhava Parkasha, Vajikarana Adhikara. 72- 25- 28

    रतिवर्द्धनार्थ गोक्षुरादि मोदकम्‌

    Bhava Parkasha, Vajikarana Adhikara. 72- 49

    कुत्सितसंभोगजन्य नपुंसकत्वे

    पयति गोक्षुर चूर्ण छागक्षीरणसाधित॑ समधु |

    भुकं क्षपयति षंण्डयं यज्जनित॑ कुप्रयोगेण ||

    Chakra Dutta, Hrid Roga Chikitsa,31/ 27- 30

    हृद्रोगादय: चिकित्सायां

    Chakra Dutta, Ashmari Chikitsa, 34- 34

    अश्मरी प्रतिकारार्थ त्रिकण्टक बीज चूर्णम्‌

    श्वदंष्ट्रा घृतम्‌

    Charka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26/ 62

    अश्मरी 

    मूलं श्वदंष्ट्राकोरुबुकान्‌ क्षीरिण पिष्टम  बृहतीद्वयाज्ज |

    आलोड्य दध्ना मधुरेण पेय विनन्ति समाश्मरि भेदनाय ||

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 7/ 19, Vrinda Madhava, 34- 28

    त्रि कण्टकस्य: बीजानां चूर्ण माक्षिक संयुत्तम |

    अविक्षीरेण सप्ताहश्मरी भेदनं परम्‌ ||

    Harita Samhita, 3- 31- 13

    गोक्षुरकस्य बीजानां धातुमाक्षिक संयुत्म |

    चूर्ण महिषीदुग्धेन पानञ्चश्मरिपातनम्‌ ||

    Raja Amrittanda, 12- 3

    शोषरोगे

    चूर्ण श्वदंष्ट्रा फल वाजिगन्धानिर्मिति माक्षिकसंयुतम्‌ |

    क्षीरिण सार्धं परिपीयमानं शोष॑ च कासं च निहन्तिपुंसाम्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, 25- 9

    आमवाते

    शुण्ठी गोक्षुरक क्वाथ: । प्रात: प्रातर्निषेवित: ।

    सामे वाते कटीशूले पाचन रुकप्रणाशनम्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya, Uttara Tantra, 39- 160

    रसायने 

    गोक्षुरक रसायनम्‌ |

    चूर्णम श्वदंष्ट्रामलका अमृतनाम लिहन्‌ ससर्पिर्मधुभागमिश्रम्‌ |

    वृष:  स्थिर: शान्तविकारदु:ख: समा: शर् जीवतिकृष्णकेश: ||

    Charka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 4- 85

    मूत्रमार्ग रक्त स्त्रावे

    शतावरी गोक्षुरक: शृतं वा पयो वा अप्यथ पर्णिनीभि: |

    रक्त निहन्त्याशु विशेषतस्तु यन्‌ मूत्रमार्गात्‌ सरुजं प्रयाति ||

    Vrinda Madhava, 9- 98

    रक्तपित्ते

    द्राक्षया पर्णिनीभिर्वा बलया मधुकेन वा |

    श्वदंष्ट्राया शतावर्या रक्तजित्‌ साधितं पय: ||

    Charka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 2- 22

    मूत्रकृच्छ

    श्वदंष्ट्रा कण्टकारीभ्यां मूत्रकृच्छे सघाणितम्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 59- 19

    श्वदंष्ट्रा स्वरसे तैल सगुड क्षीरनागरम्‌ |

    पक्‍त्वा तत्‌ पूर्ववद्‌ योज्यं तत्र  अनिल रुजापहम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava, 32- 16, Bhava Parkasha, Chikitsa Sthana, 35- 63

    क्वाथं गोक्षुर बीजस्य यवक्षारयुतं पिबेत्‌ |

    मूत्रकृच्छ शकृज्ज च पीतः शीघ्र निवारयेत्‌ |

    शर्कराश्मरीकृच्छे च शर्कराश्मरिनाशनम्‌ ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita, 3- 11- 22

    केश संवर्धन 

    गोक्षुरस्तिल पुष्पाणि तुल्ये च मधुसर्पिषी |

    शिरः प्रलेपनं तु केश संवर्धन परम्‌ ||

    Vanga Sena, Mutra Ghata, 30, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa, 36- 30

    मूत्रकृच्छे वेदनायाम्‌

    क्वाथं सपत्रमूलस्य गोक्षुरस्य फलस्य च |

    पिबेन्‌ मधुसितायुक्त॑ मूत्रकृच्छ रुजापहम्‌ ||

    Vaidya Manorma, 7- 3

    मूत्रकृच्छे

    स्थलशंगाटकफलैर्वा कल्क: केरीफलाम्बुना |

    कृच्छं मूत्रस्य जयेत्‌ क्लेशमिवेशो नमस्कार: ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita, 2- 2- 109

    समूल गोक्षुर क्वाथ: सितामाक्षिकसंयुतत: |

    नाशयेन्‌ मृत्रकृच्छाणि तथा चोष्णसमीरणम्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 39/ 216

    ज्वर 

    दशमूलीकषायेण मागधीर्वा प्रयोजयेत्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 38/ 64

    गण: श्वासहरो ह्येष कफपित्तानिलापह: |

    आमस्य पाचनश्चैव सर्वज्वरविनाशन: ||

    Kashyap Samhita, Page 350

    द्विपंच्च मूलनिष्क्वाथ: कोष्णो वा यदि वा हिम: |

    रास्नाकल्कसमायुक्तो वातज्वरहितो मत: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 109

    मधुना श्वेष्मसमुत्ये दशमूलीवासकस्य वा क्वाथ: |

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 139

    दशमूलीरस: पेय: कणायुक्त: कफानिले |

    अविपाके अतिनिद्रायां पार्श्व रुकुश्वासकासके ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 169

    उभयं दशमूलं तु संनिपातज्वरापहम्‌ |

    कासे श्वासे च तन्द्रायां पार्श्वशूले च शस्यते ||

    पिप्पलीचूर्णसंयुक्त कण्ठहदग्रहनाशनम्‌ |

    Bhava Prakasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 573

    दशमूलीकषायस्तु पिप्पलीपौष्करान्वित: |

    सन्निपातज्वरे देव: शवासकाससमन्विते ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 2. 20

    ज्वरातिसारे 

    दशमूलीकषायेण विश्वमक्षसमं पिबेत्‌ |

    ज्वरे चैबातिसारे च सशोफे ग्रहणीगदे ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 40/ 143

    अतिसारे 

    द्विपंच्च मूल क्वथीतें शूले प्रवाहमाणस्य समाक्षिकेण |

    क्षीरेण च आस्थापनं अग्रयं उक्तं |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 82- 86

    ग्रहणी रोग 

    दशमूलाद घृतम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 4

    पाण्डु रोग 

    द्विपच्च मूल क्वथितं सविश्वं ज्वरे सविश्व॑ कफात्मके पाण्डुगदे पिबेदू वा |

    ज्वारे अतिसारे शवयथो ग्रहण्यां श्वास अरुचौ कंठ हादाम्ये च ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 158- 160

    श्वासकासयो:

    द्वि पंच्च मूल्यादिघृतम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 123- 24

    दशमूलादिघृतम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 2/ 26, Ashtanga Hirdya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 23

    दशमूली शृता कासहिक्काश्वासरुजापहा |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 105, Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 11

    दशमूलस्य वा क्वाथमथवा देवदारुण: |

    तृषितो मदिरां वापि हिक्काश्वासी पिबेन्नर: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 11/ 11

    पा्श्वशूले ज्वरे श्वासे कासे श्रेष्मसमुदभवे |

    पिप्पलीचूर्णसंयुक्तं दशमूलीजल पिबेत् ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 18, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 36

    दशमूलीकषायश्च पुष्करेणावचूर्णित: |

    कासश्वासप्रशमन: पार्श्वहच्छूलनाशन: ||

    Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 49

    दशमूलरसो देव: श्वासनिर्मुलशान्तये |

    अवश्य मरणीयों यो जीवेद्‌ वर्ष श्तं नर: ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 97- 98

    शोषे

    दशमूल शृतात क्षीरात्‌ सर्पियदुदियान्नवम्‌ |

    सपिप्पलीकं सक्षौद्रं तत्‌ पर स्वरबोधनम्‌ ||

    शिर: पार्श्व शूलघ्नं कासश्वासज्वरापहम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 138

    सिद्ध मधुरकैरद्रव्वैदशमूलकषायकै: |

    क्षीरमांसरसोपेतै घृतम शोषहरं परम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 20/ 4

    उन्मादे

    दशमूलाम्बु सघृतं युक्त मांसरसेन वा |

    ससिद्धार्थकचूर्ण वा केवल वा अनवं घृतम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 21/ 8

    अपस्मारे

    हत्कम्पो अक्षिरुजा यस्य स्वेदो हस्तादिशीतता |

    दशमूलीजल तस्य कल्याणाज्यं च योजयेत्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 31/ 18

    हद्रोगे

    दशमूलकषाये तु लवणक्षारयोजितम |

    श्वास कासं सहद्रोगं गुल्मशूलं च नाशयेत्‌ ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 102

    दशमूलकृतः क्वाथ: सयवक्षारसैन्धव: |

    हद्रोगगुल्मशूलानि कासं श्वासं च नाशयेत्‌ |

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 17

    शोथे

    पुराणयवशाल्यन्न दशमूलाम्बुसाधितम्‌।

    अल्पमल्पं पटुस्नेहं भोजन श्वयथोरहितम ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 24

    ग्रन्थिवीसर्पे

    ग्रन्थिवीसर्पशूले तु तैलेनोष्णेन सेचयेत्‌ |

    दशमूलबविपक्वेन तद्वन्‌ मुतरैजलेन वा ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 31, Vanga Sena Vaat Vyadhi. 123, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 87

    वातव्याधौ

    दशमूलीबलामाष क्वाथं तैलाज्यमिश्रितम्‌ |

    सायं भुक्त्वा पिबेन्नस्य विश्वाच्यामवबाहुके ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 22. 35

    वातष्नैर्दशमूल्या च नवं कुब्जमुपाचरेत्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 22. 72

    दशमूलघृतम्‌ |

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 86

    हिंगुपुष्करचूर्णादयं दशमूलशुतं जयेत्‌ |

    गृधसी केवल: क्वाथ: शेफालीपत्रजस्तथा ||

    Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 76

    दशमूलीकृतं क्वा्थ पज्चमूल्यापि कल्पितम्‌ |

    रूक्ष स्वेद॑ तथा नस्यं मन्यास्तम्भे प्रयोजयेत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 124, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 23, Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 11

    वातेरक्ते

    दशमूल शृतं क्षीरं सच: शूलनिवारणम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 10, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 44

    आमवाते

    आमवाते कणायुक्त॑ दशमूलीजल पिबेत्‌ |

    खादेद्वाप्यमयाविश्वं गुडू्ची नागरेण वा ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 5

    दशमूलीकषायेण पिबेद्‌ वा नागराभ्मसा |

    कुक्षि बस्तिकटीशूले तैलमेरण्डसंभवम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 7/ 20

    बस्तिमस्य विदध्याच्च समूत्रं दाशमूलिकम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 43/ 8

    विद्रधौ

    दशमूलीकषायेण सस्नेहेन रसेन वा |

    शोध ब्रण वा कोष्णेन सशूल॑ परिषेचयेत्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 22/ 14

    दन्तदौर्बल्ये

    ससनेहं दशमूलाम्बु गण्डूष: प्रचलदद्विजे |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 48

    तिमिरे

    वातजे तिमिरे तत्र दशमूलाम्भसा घृतम्‌ |

    क्षीरे चतुर्गुणे श्रष्ठा कल्क पक्वं पिबेत्तत: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 51/ 26

    बाधिर्य 

    दशमूलीकषायेण तैलप्रस्थ॑ विपाचयेत्‌ |

    ऐतत्‌ कर्णे प्रदातव्यं बाधिये परमौषधम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 28

    सूतिकारोगे

    दशमूलीरस: पूत: सद्य: सूतीरुजापह: |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 2/ 9

    वातिके स्तन्यविकारे

    तत्र वातात्मके स्तन्ये दशमूलं त्रयहं पिबेत्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 65. 34

    तत्र वातात्मके स्तन्ये दशमूलीजलं पिबेत्‌ ||

    Specific Formulation of Gokshura

    • Gokshuradi Avaleha for Ashmari and Mutra Kriccha
    • Gokshura Beej Churna for Ashmari
    • Gokshura Kwath for Mutra Ghata
    • Gokshuradi Modaka for Vajikarana
    • Swadmstradya Ghrita for Hridya Roga and Shula
    • Swadamstradi Lepa for Mutrakriccha
    • Gokshuradi Guggulu
    • Dashmularishta
    • Trikantakadya (Sadhita) Kira
    • Trikantakadi Kvatha
    • Svadanstra Taila
    • Gokshuradi Modakam
    • Abhayarista
    • Svadanstradi Panakam
    • Svadanstradi Kashayam
    • Trikantakabija Churnam
    • Bruhat Varunadi Kvatha

    Laghu Panchmool Dravya

    • Shalparni
    • Prishniparni
    • Vaartaaki (Brihati)
    • Kantkari
    • Gokshur

    Properties of Laghu Panchmool

    This group is light in action, palatable, strength-giving, and reduces Pitta and Vata. It is not hot in potency, nourishes, and makes the person firm, useful as absorbent and antipyretic. It cures dyspnea and acts as a lithotrophic.

    Dashmool Dravya

    • Shalparni
    • Prishniparni
    • Vaartaaki (Brihati)
    • Kantkari
    • Gokshur
    • Bilva 
    • Sarvatobhadra (Gambhari)
    • Paatla
    • Ganikarika (Agnimantha)
    • Shyonaka

    Properties of Dashmool

    Both the Pancamool groups i.e Laghu Panchmool and Brihat Panchmool together are known as Dasamula. Dasamula is useful in Tridosa diseases, dyspnoea, cough, and headache. This group subsides drowsiness, edema, fever, distension, pain in the flanks, and distaste.

    Contraindication and side effects of Goksura

    • Goksura, if taken in advised dosage and under medical supervision does not result in any kind of side effect. overdosage of Goksura may result in nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach pain, difficulty in sleeping, constipation, etc. Stomach upset due to Goksura is a result of Guru Guna (heavy virtue) of Goksura. 
    • Due to its hypo- glycemic effect, Goksura might result in low glucose levels. So if you are taking Goksura with another anti-diabetic drug, monitor your sugar regularly.
    • Goksura may induce abortion and might interfere with the functional development of the fetal brain. So, it is better to avoid the use of Goksura during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    Suggestive reading regarding Tribulus terrestris

    • Ukani, M & Nanavati, D & K Mehta, Neha. (1997). A review on the ayurvedic herb Tribulus terrestris. The ancient science of life. 17. 144- 50.
    • Dharamdasani, Lakshya. (2017). TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS: AN AYURVEDIC HERB WITH A PHYTOCHEMICAL BOOSTER. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2625- 2634. 10. 20959/ wjpps 20178- 9958.
    • Akhtari E, Raisi F, Keshavarz M, Hosseini H, Sohrabvand F, Bios S, Kamalinejad M, Ghobadi A. Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Daru. 2014 Apr 28; 22 (1): 40. doi: 10. 1186/ 2008- 2231- 22- 40. PMID: 24773615; PMCID: PMC4045980.
    • Mathur M, Sundaramoorthy S. Ethnopharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris (Linn). in relation to its aphrodisiac properties. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012 Oct 1; 10 (1): 83- 94. doi: 10. 4314/ ajtcam. v10i1.12. PMID: 24082329; PMCID: PMC3746361.
    • Baghel, Dileep & Singh, Saurabh & Mittal, Amit. (2018). GOKHARU (TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS): AN ABBREVIATED REVIEW. 5. 687-701.
    • Asif, Muhammad & Naveed, Akhtar & Shah, Pervaiz & Uzair, Muhmmad & Shaheen, Ghazala & Shamim, Tahira & Ali Shah, Dr. Syed & Ahmad, Khalil. (2011). Tribulus terrestris Linn.: A review article. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 5. 3601- 3605.
    • Zhu W, Du Y, Meng H, Dong Y, Li L. A review of traditional pharmacological uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of Tribulus terrestris. Chem Cent J. 2017 Jul 11; 11 (1): 60. doi: 10. 1186/ s13065- 017- 0289- x. PMID: 29086839; PMCID: PMC5503856.
    • Manhas, E., Singh, A. K. and Kumar, S. (2022) “A Systematic Medico Historical Review of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris L.): A Traditional Indian Medicine”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 34 (13A), pp. 10- 23. doi: 10. 9734/ jpri/ 2022/ v34i13A35570.
    • Chhatre, Saurabh & Nesari, Tanuja & Somani, Gauresh & Kanchan, Divya & Sathaye, Sadhana. (2014). Phytopharmacological overview of Tribulus terrestris. Pharmacognosy reviews. 8. 45- 51. 10. 4103/ 0973- 7847. 125530.
    • Sudheendran, *Ankitha, Shajahan, M., & S, P. (2017). ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ROOT AND FRUIT OF GOKSHURA (TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS LINN.) IN ALBINO RATS. International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research, 5 (7).
    • Murthy AR, Dubey SD, Tripathi K. Anti-hypertensive effect of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn.) – A clinical study. Anc Sci Life. 2000 Jan;19 (3- 4): 139- 45. PMID: 22556936; PMCID: PMC3336438.
    • Dr. Priyanka Meena, Dr. Abhishek Anand, & Dr. Vishal. (2019). A comprehensive overview of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn.). Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences4 (06), 205- 211. 
    • Sharma, Dr. (2012). GOKHRU. International Journal of Scientific Research. 1. 63- 64. 10. 15373/ 22778179/ OCT2012/ 21.
    • Ramteke RS, Thakar AB, Trivedi AH, Patil PD. Clinical efficacy of Gokshura-Punarnava Basti in the management of microalbuminuria in diabetes mellitus. Ayu. 2012 Oct; 33 (4): 537- 41. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974-8520. 110535. PMID: 23723672; PMCID: PMC3665195.
    • Bhalodia SG, Bhuyan C, Gupta SK, Dudhamal TS. Gokshuradi Vati and Dhanyaka-Gokshura Ghrita Matra Basti in the management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Ayu. 2012 Oct; 33 (4): 547- 51. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974-8520. 110532. PMID: 23723674; PMCID: PMC3665207.
    • Kevalia J, Patel B. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach. Ayu. 2011 Oct; 32 (4): 550- 3. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 96132. PMID: 22661853; PMCID: PMC3361934.
    • Rajashekar V, Rao EU, P S. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Jul; 2 (7): 581-5. doi: 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (12) 60101- 4. PMID: 23569975; PMCID: PMC 3609349.
    • Sellandi TM, Thakar AB, Baghel MS. Clinical study of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in Oligozoospermia: A double-blind study. Ayu. 2012 Jul; 33 (3): 356-64. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 108822. PMID: 23723641; PMCID: PMC3665088.
    • Neychev V, Mitev V. Pro-sexual and androgen enhancing effects of Tribulus terrestris L.: Fact or Fiction. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Feb 17; 179: 345- 55. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2015. 12. 055. Epub 2015 Dec 28. PMID: 26727646.
    • Patil, Anita. (2016). Pharmacological aspects of Tribulus terrestris Linn. (Goksura): progress and products. Therapeutic medicinal plant: From lab to the market.
    • Stefanescu R, Farczadi L, Hutanu A, Osz BE, Mărușteri M, Negroiu A, Vari CE. Tribulus terrestris Efficacy and Safety Concerns in Diabetes and Erectile Dysfunction, Assessed in an Experimental Model. Plants (Basel). 2021 Apr 10; 10 (4): 744. doi: 10. 3390/ plants10040744. PMID: 33920217; PMCID: PMC8069229.
    • CHOUDHARY, SHAILJA & Kaurav, Hemlata & CHAUDHARY, GITIKA. (2021). GOKHRU (TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS AND PEDALIUM MUREX): MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF CHOTA GOKHRU AND BADA GOKHRU IN AYURVEDA AND MODERN SCIENCE. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 6- 13. 10. 22159/ ajpcr. 2021. v14i6. 41366.
    • Singh S, Nair V, Gupta YK. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats. J Pharmacology. 2012 Jan; 3 (1): 43- 7. doi: 10. 4103/ 0976- 500X. 92512. PMID: 22368416; PMCID: PMC3284036.
    • Do J, Choi S, Choi J, Hyun JS. Effects and Mechanism of Action of a Tribulus terrestris Extract on Penile Erection. Korean J Urol. 2013 Mar;54(3):183-8. doi: 10. 4111/ kju. 2013. 54. 3. 183. Epub 2013 Mar 15. PMID: 23526694; PMCID: PMC 3604572.
    • Sivapalan, Sri Ranjani Sivapalan. (2016). Biological and pharmacological studies of Tribulus terrestris Linn-A review. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development. 3. 2349- 4182.
    • Dighe, Shantanu & Jadhav, R.S. & Vikhe, D.N. (2020). Biological Potential of Tribulus terrestris. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 10. 262-264. 10. 22270/ jddt. v10i3. 3982.
    • Naseri, Leila & Akbaribazm, Mohsen & Khazaei, Mozafar. (2019). A Review on Therapeutic Effects of Tribulus terrestris. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 4. 1- 22. 10. 29252/ jmp. 4. 72. 1.
    • Sharma, Deepa & Kumar, Ashwani. (2020). TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF HIGH VALUE: TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS: A REVIEW. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Volume 9, 729-735. 10.20959/wjpr202012-18897.
    • Shahid, Muhammad & Riaz, Muhammad & Talpur, M & Pirzada, Tajnees. (2016). Phytopharmacology of Tribulus terrestris. Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents. 30. 785- 788.
    • Qureshi A, Naughton DP, Petroczi A. A systematic review on the herbal extract Tribulus terrestris and the roots of its putative aphrodisiac and performance-enhancing effect. J Diet Suppl. 2014 Mar;11 (1): 64-79. doi: 10. 3109/ 19390211. 2014. 887602. PMID: 24559105.
    • Salgado, Renato & Carvalho, Celso & Andreoli, Carlos & Mathias, Alessio. (2018). The Conundrum of the Efficacy of Tribulus terrestris Extracts as Supplement for Muscle Mass Gain. Journal of Pharmacognosy & Natural Products. 04. 10. 4172/ 2472- 0992. 1000145.
    • Farooq, Sardar & Farook, T.T. & Al-Rawahy, S.H. (2012). Bioactive compounds from Tribulus Terrestris L. (Zygophyllaceae). Natural Products and Their Active Compounds on Disease Prevention. 245- 268.
    • Pokrywka, Andrzej & Obmiński, Zbigniew & Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga & Fijałek, Zbigniew & Turek-Lepa, Ewa & Grucza, Ryszard. (2014). Insights into Supplements with Tribulus Terrestris used by Athletes. Journal of human kinetics. 41. 99- 105. 10. 2478/ hukin- 2014- 0037.

    Suggestive reading regarding Pedalium murex

    • Elumalai, Linn & Eswaraiah, Dr & Naresh, Munna & Sudheer, Vanamala & Naresh, Mandala. (2011). A REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC USES OF PEDALIUM MUREX. IJRAP. 2. 1743.
    • CHOUDHARY, S., H. KAURAV, and G. CHAUDHARY. “GOKHRU (TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS AND PEDALIUM MUREX): MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF CHOTA GOKHRU AND BADA GOKHRU IN AYURVEDA AND MODERN SCIENCE”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 14, no. 6, July 2021, pp. 6- 13, doi:10. 22159/ ajpcr. 2021. v14i6. 41366.
    • Patel, Dinesh & Laloo, Dr. Damiki & Kumar, Rajesh & Hemalatha, Siva. (2011). Pedalium murex Linn.: An overview of its phytopharmacological aspects. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine. 4. 748- 55. 10. 1016/ S1995- 7645 (11) 60186- 7.
    • Sangeetha, G., & Vidhya, R. (2016). In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of different parts of Pedalium murex (L.). inflammation4 (3), 31- 36.
    • Sharma M, Arya D, Bhagour K, Gupta RS. Modulatory effects of methanolic fruit fraction of Pedalium murex on sulphasalazine-induced male reproductive disruption. Andrologia. 2019 Mar; 51 (2): e13190. doi: 10. 1111/and 13190. Epub 2018 Nov 14. PMID: 30430603.
    • Rajashekar V, Rao EU, P S. Biological activities and medicinal properties of Gokhru (Pedalium murex L.). Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2012 Jul; 2 (7): 581-5. doi: 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (12) 60101- 4. PMID: 23569975; PMCID: PMC 3609349.
    • Chitra T, Murugan K, Kumar AN, Madhiyazhagan P, Nataraj T, Indumathi D, Hwang JS. Laboratory and field efficacy of Pedalium murex and predatory copepod, Mesocyclops longisetus on rural malaria vector, Anopheles culicifacies. Asian Pac J Trop Dis. 2013 Apr; 3 (2): 111– 8. doi: 10. 1016/ S2222- 1808 (13) 60054- 7. PMCID: PMC 4027284.
    • Imran, Muhammad, Naresh Kumar, Ferozuddin Nohri, Dileep Kumar, Tayyuba Kousar, Muhammad Tauseef Sultan, Sajjad Ali Ilyas, and Shabnam Shahida. “Phytochemical and pharmacological potentials of Pedalium murex Linn and its traditional medicinal uses.” Journal of Coastal Life Medicine 3, no. 9 (2015): 737-743.
    • Mandavia, D. R., Patel, M. K., Patel, J. C., Anovadiya, A. P., Baxi, S. N., & Tripathi, C. R. (2013). Anti-urolithiasis effect of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi. Urology journal10(3), 946-952.
    • Akhilesh, K., Nandini, S., & Apurva, P. (2016). Brihata Gokshur (Pedalium murex Linn.): A potent drug for the male reproductive system. Int J Res Anal Rev5, 1734- 7.
    • Sharma, V., Thakur, M., & Dixit, V. K. (2012). A comparative study of ethanolic extracts of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits and sildenafil citrate on sexual behaviors and serum testosterone level in male rats during and after treatment. Journal of Ethnopharmacology143 (1), 201- 206.
    • Jayanthy, A., Deepak, M., & Remashree, A. B. (2013). Pharmacognostic characterization and comparison of fruits of Tribulus terrestris L. and Pedalium murex L. Internal Journal of Herbal Medicine1 (4), 29- 34.
    • Patel MK, Mandavia DR, Patel TK, Barvaliya MJ, Tripathi CB. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2013 May 16; 10 (4): 94- 100. doi: 10. 4314/ ajtcam. v10i4.16. PMID: 24146508; PMCID: PMC 3794398.
    • Chaudhary, Gulshan & Kaushik, Nutan. (2017). Phytochemical and pharmacological studies in Pedalium murex L. Phytochemistry Reviews. 16. 10. 1007/ s11101- 017- 9499- z.
    • Kaleeswaran B, Ramadevi S, Murugesan R, Srigopalram S, Suman T, Balasubramanian T. Evaluation of the anti-urolithiasis potential of ethyl acetate extract of Pedalium murex L. on struvite crystal (kidney stone). J Tradit Complement Med. 2018 Mar 2; 9 (1): 24- 37. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jtcme. 2017. 08. 003. PMID: 30671363; PMCID: PMC 6335495.
    • Bharskar, Ganesh. (2020). Review on Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Aspects of Pedalium murex Linn. 2231- 5659. 10. 5958/ 2231-5659. 2020. 00035. 1.
    • Das, Debabrata. (2013). Pedalium Murex L. (Pedaliaceae) – A New Record of Purba Medinipur District to the State of West Bengal. IOSR Journal of Business and Management. 13. 54- 56. 10. 9790/ 487X- 1345456.
    • Kevalia J, Patel B. Identification of fruits of Tribulus terrestris Linn. and Pedalium murex Linn.: A pharmacognostical approach. Ayu. 2011 Oct;32(4):550-3. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 96132. PMID: 22661853; PMCID: PMC 3361934.
    • Swaminathan, Gomathi & Sundaram, Rajagopal & Vijayabaskaran, M. & Kannan, C. & Ramanathan, Sambathkumar. (2017). Pedalium murex Linn leaves against LPS-induced oxidative stress, anxiety, and depression behavioral alterations in rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 10. 1333- 1338. 10. 5958/ 0974- 360X. 2017. 00236. 0.
    • Ramadevi S, Kaleeswaran B, Ilavenil S, Upgade A, Tamilvendan D, Rajakrishnan R, Alfarhan AH, Kim YO, Kim HJ. Effect of traditionally used herb Pedalium murex L. and its active compound pedalitin on urease expression – For the management of kidney stone. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2020 Mar; 27 (3): 833- 839. doi: 10. 1016/ j. sjbs. 2020. 01. 014. Epub 2020 Jan 16. PMID: 32127759; PMCID: PMC 7042614.
    • Azhagu Madhavan, & Vinotha, P & Uma, V & Mahadevi, M. (2020). ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF Pedalium murex Linn METHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT AGAINST A549 HUMAN LUNG CANCER CELL LINE. International Journal of Advance Research and Innovative Ideas In Education. Volume 5. 33- 40.
    • Imran, Muhammad & Kumar, Naresh & Nohri, Ferozuddin & Kumar, Dileep & Kousar, Tayyuba & Sultan, Muhammad & Ali, Sajjad & Shahida, Shabnam. (2015). Phytochemical and pharmacological potentials of Pedalium murex Linn and its traditional medicinal uses. 3. 737- 743. 10. 12980/ Jim. 3. 2015j5- 107.
    • Patel, Dk & Kumar, Raj & Prasad, Dr. Satyendra & Hemalatha, Siva. (2011). Pedalium murex Linn (Pedaliaceae) fruits: A comparative antioxidant activity of its different fractions. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine. 1. 395-400. 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (11) 60087- 7.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Shathavadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Priya Nighantu by P. V. Sharma, Haritkyadi Varga Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Vaidya Manorma, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Vrinda Madhava
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sanskrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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