Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Ela Dwaya – Elettaria cardamomom Maton. – Amomum subulatum Roxb.

    Ela Dwaya – Elettaria cardamomom Maton. – Amomum subulatum Roxb.

    Ela: The queen of Spice

    Introduction

    Ela is the common spice of India and is famous among people not only for its aromatic taste but also for its medicinal properties. Ela is divided into two categories by various Nighantus i.e Sukshma Ela or Green type Ela or Lesser cardamom and Brihad Ela or Sthula Ela or black variety Ela or Greater cardamom.  Sukshma Ela or small cardamom is a perennial plant that is obtained from the Zingiberaceae family. Sukshma Ela is the type of dried fruit botanically known as Elettaria cardamom and is a spice queen. As per Ayurvedic classical texts, Sukshma Ela is Sheet in Virya (cold potency) with Katu (pungent) Rasa and Madhura (sweet) Anurasa (Taste that is followed by primary taste) and pacifies all the three doshas. Ela cures Kapha diseases dyspnea, cough, hemorrhoids, and difficulty in micturition. Recent studies revealed that Ela has active constituents like cineol, terpineol, terpinene, limonene, subinone, and terpineol in the forms of formic and acetic acids due to which it exhibits stimulant, cardio-tonic, diuretic, expectorant, anti- carminative, sialagogue activities, etc. Sthula Ela or Badi Elayachi is a tall perennial crop botanically known as Amomum subulatum and belongs to the Zingiberaceae/ Scitaminaceae family. Sthula Ela is mainly cultivated and distributed in marshy areas across hills. As per Ayurvedic classical texts, Brihad Ela is Ushna in Virya (hot potency) with Katu (pungent) Rasa and Vipaka. Brihad Ela cures Kapha diseases, hemorrhages, itching sensation, dyspnoea, and thirst. It subsides regurgitation, poisonous effects, and diseases of the urinary bladder, oral cavity, and upper clavicular areas. It also controls vomiting and coughing. Brihad Ela is sometimes confused with Ethiopian cardamom i.e Aframomum korarima. Recent studies revealed that Brihad Ela exhibits anti-ulcer, antioxidant, anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, cardiac-adaptogenic activities, etc. and it is used to treat various conditions like indigestion, acne, spasm, cardiac arrhythmia, gout, etc.

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    Basonym of Ela

    रालयति प्रेरयति स्फूर्ति जनयतीत्यर्थ: |

    Ela is stimulant.

    Synonyms of Ela

    • According to habitat

    कोरंगी- कोरंग देशे व्यवहता ।

    Ela grows in South India.

    द्राविड़ी- द्रविडदेशे जाता | 

    Ela is cultivated in the South Indian state.

     

    • According to morphology

    त्रिपुटा- त्रय: पुटा अस्य: |

    Fruit is triangular shaped and has three surfaces.

    निष्कुटि: – निष्क्रान्ता कुटे: कोशात्‌ बीजानां कोशावृतत्वात्‌ |

    Seeds are enclosed in a leathery layer that appears like a pouch.

    बहुला- बहूनि बीजान्यस्मिन |

    Fruits have many seeds.

    त्रटि: – त्रुटयत्‌ इति, सूक्ष्म इत्यर्थ: |

    Seeds are very small.

    उपकुन्च्चिका- उपकुन्चति |

    Fruits are contracted.

     

    • According to properties and action

    बहुलगन्धा- बहुलो गन्धो अस्याम्‌ ।

    Ela has a strong and pleasant odor.

    तुत्था- तोदम स्थापयति शमयति |

    Ela alleviated pricking pain.

    Regional names of Sukshma Ela

    • Lesser cardamom, cardamom (English)
    • Choti Elyachi (Hindi)
    • Elakki (Kannada)
    • Ellakaya, Elam (Malayalam)
    • Elachi, Belachi (Marathi)
    • Yelakka (Tamil)
    • Chinna Elakulu (Telegu)
    • Chandanam (Malayalam)
    • Elachi (Gujrati)
    • Chot Elach (Bengali)
    • Kakul (Arabic)
    • Iloyachi Khurd Hilbak (Persian)

    Regional names of Brihad Ela

    • Greater cardamom (English)
    • Badi Elyachi (Hindi)
    • Hil Kalan, Ilayachi Surk (Pers.)
    • Elam (Tamil)
    • Pengayelakulu (Telegu)
    • Elacha (Gujrati)
    • Kabule Kubar (Arabic)
    • Bar Elach, Nepali Elach (Bengali)

    Scientific classification of the Sukshma Ela

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Monocotyledons 
    Series Epigynae
    Family Scita>minaceae/ Zingiberaceae
    GenusElettaria 
    Species cardamom

    Scientific classification of the Brihad Ela

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Monocotyledons 
    Series Epigynae
    OrderZingiberales 
    Family Scitaminaceae/ Zingiberaceae
    GenusAmomum
    Species subulatum

    Botanical Name of Shukshma Ela

    Elettaria cardamomum Maton.

    Elettaria is derived from the word Elacetar which is derived from the Malayalam language and Cardamomum is derived from Kardamon amomum cress which means pungent.

    Family – Zingiberaceae/ Scitaminaceae (Haridra Kula)

    Botanical Name of Brihad Ela

    Amomum subulatum Roxb.

    Pterocarpus – In the Pterocarpus word Ptero means winged shaped, carpus means fruit and Santalinus means Sandalwood.

    Family – Zingiberaceae/ Scitaminaceae (Haridra Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Sukshma Ela (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.)

    Ayurveda reference of Brihad Ela

    Classification of Ela as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Swasha Hara Mahakshaya, Angamard Prashmana Mahakshaya, Vishghana Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Eladi Gana, Pipplyadi Gana.

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi

    There are two kinds of Ela known as Elettaria cardamomum Maton. i.e Choti Elayachi and Amomum subulatum Roxb. or A. aromaticum Roxb. i.e Badi Elayachi.  Synonyms Bahula and Prithvika that are used for Ela are also used for other substances.

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 3, 6S. S. Su. 14/ 36A. H. Su. 15/ 1, 14, 33, 43, 44 (Ela Yugam)
    C. S. Su. 3/ 4, 23, 27S. S. Su. 36/ 13A. H. Sa. 2/ 41, 50
    C. S. Su. 4/ 37, 44S. S. Su. 38/ 21, 23A. H. Chi. 1/ 138 (Ela Dwaya and Prithvika)
    C. S. Su. 5/ 17S. S. Su. 44/ 22A. H. Chi. 3/ 31, 98
    C. S. Su. 23/ 14S. S. Chi. 2/ 68A. H. Chi. 4/ 43
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 143, 149, 158S. S. Chi. 3/ 60A. H. Chi. 5/ 28, 33, 51, 54, 59
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 59, 65S. S. Chi. 4/ 24A. H. Chi. 6/ 21, 51
    C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 62, 67S. S. Chi. 7/ 14A. H. Chi. 7/ 41, 45
    C. S. Chi. 2. 1/ 30S. S. Chi. 8/ 43A. H. Chi. 8/ 149, 154
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 266S. S. Chi. 15/ 19, 31A. H. Chi. 9/ 64
    C. S. Chi. 5/ 69, 157S. S. Chi. 19/ 40A. H. Chi. 10/ 35, 49
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 40, 49S. S. Chi. 32/ 12A. H. Chi. 11/ 12, 14, 25
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 73, 83, 84, 124S. S. Chi. 37/ 11, 37A. H. Chi. 12/ 40
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 136, 144S. S. Chi. 38/ 25, 60A. H. Chi. 13/ 38
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 42S. S. Ka. 2/ 47A. H. Chi. 14/ 10
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 20, 39S. S. Ka. 3/ 17A. H. Chi. 21/ 68, 71, 75
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 35, 63S. S. Ka. 5/ 66, 69A. H. Chi. 22/ 16
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 164S. S. Ka. 6/ 16A. H. Ka. 2/ 13, 62
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 138, 148, 165S. S. Ka. 8/ 104, 106, 117A. H. Ka. 4/ 18
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 121S. S. Sa. 10/ 22A. H. U. 5/ 19
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 77, 122, 144S. S. U. 10/ 4, 8A. H. U. 6/ 28 (Bhadra Ela and Ela)
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 72, 91, 175S. S. U. 12/ 26A. H. U. 9/ 33
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 53, 76, 203S. S. U. 14/ 4, 7A. H. U. 13/ 29, 64
    C. S. Chi. 24/ 175, 179S. S. U. 17/ 23A. H. U. 16/ 2
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 90, 113S. S. U. 18/ 94, 100A. H. U. 20/ 6
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 56, 137, 189, 191, 207, 208, 215S. S. U. 32/ 6A. H. U. 22/ 75, 93
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 149, 151, 157, 160, 163S. S. U. 39/ 226A. H. U. 26/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 106, 132, 151S. S. U. 40/ 39, 40A. H. U. 34/ 4
    C. S. Ka. 1/ 26S. S. U. 41/ 50A. H. U. 35/ 39
    C. S. Ka. 7/ 31, 33, 45, 73S. S. U. 42/ 28A. H. U. 37/ 73, 74
    C. S. Ka. 12/ 32S. S. U. 43/ 12A. H. U. 39/ 17
    C. S. Si. 3/ 55S. S. U. 47/ 30, 32, 38, 42A. H. U. 40/ 20
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 17S. S. U. 52/ 21, 33
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 14S. S. U. 55/ 22
    S. S. U. 57/ 7
    S. S. U. 58/ 32, 48
    S. S. U. 62/ 22, 25, 27

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi as Aindri

    It has been identified differently with Indrayava, Ela, Syonaka Bheda or Sampaka Bheda. In C. S. Ci. 1- 4. 5 It has been mentioned as one of the Divine drugs (Divya Aushadhi) of the Himalayas. It has been claimed to be Goraksa Karkati by Cakradatta. The possibility of the Himalayan Podophyllum hexandra Royle being the Aindri of the ancients may be examined. Indravaruni is generally accepted for Aindri.

     

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 3/ 26, C. S. Su. 4/ 7, 49, C. S. Sa. 8/ 29, 89, 94, C. S. Chi. 1. 3/ 23, C. S. Chi. 1. 4/ 5, C. S. Chi. 26/ 69, C. S. Chi. 29/ 93

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. U. 62/ 30

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi as Kapota Valli

    Kapota Valli is identified as Ela but with doubt.

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Vi. 8/ 146

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi as Kayastha

    Kayastha and Vayastha usually are used together and appear to be useful in insanity (Unmaada), epilepsy (Apsmara), dyspnea (Shvaas), and hiccough (Hikka). Kayastha has been considered to be one or other out of Haritaki, Amalaki, Ela, Tulasi, or Sinduvara.

     

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 9/ 52, 63, C. S. Chi. 10/ 44, 46, C. S. Chi. 17/ 140, C. S. Chi. 26/ 82

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 4/ 51, A. H. Chi. 6/ 28, A. H. U. 2/ 53, A. H. U. 6/ 36

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi as Kshudra Ela

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Ka. 6/ 17

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi in Chatur Jaata

    Chatur Jaat is a group name of 4 drugs i.e Tvaka, Ela, Patra and Naagkesara.

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Ka.8/ 71, S. S. Sa.10/ 22

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 9/ 110, 113, A. H. Chi. 10/ 17, A. H. Chi. 12/ 26, A. H. Chi. 14/ 95, A. H. Chi. 17/ 24, A. H. U. 22/ 92, A. H. U. 39/ 38

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi in Tri Jaata

    Tri jaat is a group name of 3 drugs i.e Tvaka, Ela, Patra. Tri Gandhaka, tri Varnaka, Tri Sugandhaka, Tri Saugandhya, and Tri Varga are the synonyms of Tri Jaata.

     

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 24/ 127

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 44/ 11, 13, 54

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Sa. 1/ 93, A. H. Chi. 3/ 81, 115, 139, A. H. Chi. 5/ 31, A. H. Chi. 8/ 146, A. H. Chi. 16/ 25, A. H. Chi. 17/ 15, A. H. Ka. 2/ 10, 21, A. H. U. 13/ 23

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi in Tri Gandhaka

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 16/ 88

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi in Tri Varga

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 2/ 73, S. S. Chi. 24/ 7, S. S. U. 41/ 45, S. S. 56/ 15

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi in Tri Varnaka

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 44/ 7

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi in Tri Saughandhaya

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 12/ 48

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 44/ 21, S. S. U. 47/ 45, S. S. U. 49/ 33, S. S. U. 52/ 39

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi as Sukshma Ela

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 4/ 16, C. S. Su. 5/ 60, 74, C. S. Sa. 8/ 70, C. S. Chi. 1. 1. 47, C. S. Chi. 2. 2. 24, C. S. Chi. 17/ 124, C. S. Chi. 26/ 169

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 20/ 54, S. S. Ka. 2/ 51, S. S. U. 58/ 41

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Chi. 11/ 10, A. H. U. 22/ 85, A. H. U. 24/ 53

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi as Truti

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 26/ 52, 63, 86

     

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 52/ 24

     

    Vagbhata: A. H. Su. 15/ 4, 40, A. H. Su. 20/ 38, A. H. U. 11/ 36, A. H. U. 28/ 35, 38, 40, A. H. U. 39/ 33

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi as Dravidi

    Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 38/ 53

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi as Bahula

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 8/ 102

    Bhadra Ela – Sthula Ela (Ela Variety) description in Brihatrayi

    Vagbhata: A. H. U. 6/ 26

    Ela's description in Brihtrayi as Mahaila

    Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 28/ 161

    Historical background of Ela

    In Atharva Parisista Ela is utilized for Naksatra Snana. (A. P. 1/ 45/ 8) It is a well-documented aromatic condiment in Indian Medicine and tradition. It is extensively used by Brhattrayi and Nighantu writers. Sushruta and Vagbhata have enumerated a group in its name (Eladi Gana). Vagbhata showed great interest and explained Ela Yagma, Trijataka, and Chaturjataka separately. Both small and large (Amomum subulatum Roxb) are having almost similar properties. Raja Narahari for the first time documented and reported the abortifacient property (Garbhari) of Ela.

    A controversial study of Ela

    Ela Dvaya and Prthvika is described in A. H. Ci. 1/ 138. Therefore, Prithvika in this context need not be Brihat Ela. Either Entada scandens or Gardenia gummifera are to be considered in this context. Bapalalji reported that Peucedanum granade CBC is being used as Shula Ela by Kerala Vaidyas. The author collected a sample of Malaysian cardamom which is round with ridges and smaller than those available in India. The aroma is also slightly different from that of Indian Cardamom.

    External morphology of Elettaria cardamomum

    • Habit: Plant with woody rootstock, branching, perennial plant.
    • Stem: 5- 8 ft high. Clothed below with spongy sheaths.
    • Leaves: Subsessile, 30 to 60cm long and 7.5 cm wide, oblong-lanceolate.
    • Inflorescence: Panicles, 30- 60 cm long. Bracts are linear-oblong, Persistent, 3.8- 5 cm long. The calyx is 1.3 cm long. The lip of the corolla is white, streaked with violet.
    • Fruit: Capsule, subglobose or oblong, about 1.3 cm in diameter, marked with fine vertical ribs.
    • Seeds: Seeds of Suksham Ela are small and black.

    Flowering and Fruiting Time

    From May to July

    External morphology of Amomum subulatum

    • Habit: Leafy stem, 3-4 ft. long.
    • Leaves: Leaves of Brihad Ela are 30 to 60 cm long, 7.5 to 10 cm wide, oblong, lanceolate, green, and glabrous on both surfaces.
    • Inflorescence: Spike, shortly peduncled, 5-7.5 cm long, globose, very dense. Bracts of the Bhadra Ela flower are red-brown, obtuse, outer 2.5 cm, ovate, with a horny cusp, inner shorter. Calyx and corolla tube 2.5 cm long, segments sub-obtuse, shorter than the tube, upper cuspidate. The Lip of Flower of Bhadra Ela is obovate-cuneate, emarginate, yellowish-white, rather longer than the corolla segments (petals segment). The filament is very short.
    • Fruit: Capsule, 2.5 cm in diameter, globose, red-brown, densely echinate.

    Flowering and Fruiting Time

    Rainy season to Autumn season.

    Distribution of Sukshma Ela

    Sukshma Ela is found in Malabar region , on the Western Ghats. It grows in Southern India, wild or cultivated.

    Distribution of Brihad Ela

    Bhadra Ela is found in Eastern Himalayas and also in other hilly regions of India.

    Varieties of Ela

    Bhava Parkasha Nighantum Kaideva Nighantu and Dhanwantri Nighantu have mentioned two varieties of Ela i.e Sukshma Ela and Sthula Ela.

    The useful part of Sukshma Ela

    Fruits and seeds

     

    Fruits are three-sided trilocular capsules, ovoid or oblong with a rounded base and slightly pointed beak, up to 1.5 cm long and 6 mm broad, Surface finely striated longitudinally, pale buff to light green in color. Seeds of many, irregularly angular, transversely rugose, reddish brown, closely packed in each of the three cells. Fruits have a camphoraceous and pungent odor that has an acrid and sweet taste leaving a cold sensation on chewing.

    The useful part of Brihad Ela

    Fruits and seeds

     

    Amomum subulatum (Brihad Ela) fruits are large, coarsely striated, and dark brown, measuring about 2 to 3 cm in length and up to 1.5 cm in width. Fruit is the trilocular capsule, anterior- posteriorly flattened, having several irregular, dentate- undulating its length. Internally the capsule contains several seeds held together by a vicious pulp of dark brown color. The odor is very strong and camphoraceous. Has a pungent and slightly sweet taste

    Important phytoconstituent of Sukshma Ela

    Seeds contain fixed oil 10 percent, volatile oil 5 percent, potassium salt 3 percent, mucilaginous matter 2 percent, yellow coloring matter, and ash 5-10 percent (Containing manganese) . Its Seeds contain essential oil; principal constituents of the oil are cineol, terpineol, terpinene, limonene, subinone, and terpineol in the form of formic and acetic acids.

    Important phytoconstituent of Brihad Ela

    Seeds yield an aromatic oil that contains high content of cineole. Seeds contain essential oil. It consists of limonene, 1, 8- cineole, farnesyl acetate, camphor, etc.

    Recent research on Sukshama Ela (Elettaria cardamomum)

    • The chemopreventive potential of cardamom was evaluated on 7, 12, dimethylbenz a anthracene-initiated, and croton oil-promoted mouse skin papilloma genesis. These findings indicate the potential of cardamom as a chemopreventive agent against two-stage skin cancer. Qibla S, Al-Hazimi A, Al-Mogbel M, Hossain A, Bagchi D. Chemopreventive effects of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L) on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. J Med Food. 2012 Jun: 15 (6): 576- 80. Epub 2C 12 Mar 9.
    • Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton. (Small cardamom) fruit powder was evaluated for its antihypertensive potential and its effect on some of the cardiovascular risk factors in individuals with stage 1 hypertension. The present study demonstrates that small cardamom effectively reduces blood pressure, enhances fibrinolysis, and improves antioxidant status, without significantly altering blood lipids and fibrinogen levels in stage 1 hypertensive individuals. Verma SK, Jain V Katewa SS. Blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing, and antioxidant activities of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2009 Dec, 46 (6.): 503- 6.
    • Petroleum ether soluble (PS) of Elettaria cardamomum was tried for its efficacy in gastroprotective activity. The PS extract at doses > or= 12.5mg/kg proved to be more active than ranitidine at 50mg/kg. Jamal A, Javed K, Aslam M, Jafri. Gastroprotective effect of cardamom, Elettaria cardamomum Maton. fruits in rats. J Ethriopharmam. 2006 Jan 16; 1 03 (2) 149- 53. Epub 2005 Nov 17.
    • The inhibitory activity of cardamom extract was studied on human platelets. The aqueous extract of cardamom may have a component (s), which protect platelets from aggregation and lipid peroxidation, Suneetha VVJ, Krishnakantha TP. Cardamom extract is an inhibitor of human platelet aggregation. Phytochemistry another Res. 2005 May 19 (5): 437- 40.
    • A comparative study of the anti-inflammatory activity of the oil extracted from commercial Elettaria cardamomum seeds, in doses of 175 and 280 microliters/ kg and indomethacin in a dose of 30 mg/kg against acute carrageenan-induced planter edema in male albino rats was performed. In addition, the antispasmodic activity was determined on a rabbit intestine preparation using acetylcholine as an agonist, the results proving that cardamom oil exerts its antispasmodic action through muscarinic receptor blockage. al Zuhair H, el- Sayeh B, Amen HA, al- Shoora H, Pharmacological studies of cardamom oil in animals. Pharmacology Res. 1996 Jul- Aug; 34 (1- 2): 79- 82.

    Recent research on Bhadra Ela (Amomum subulatum)

    • Kumar, Gopal. (2012). ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF AMOMUM SUBULATUM ROXB. FRUITS EXTRACT. IJPSR. Inflammatory diseases including different types of rheumatic diseases are a major and worldwide problem. Now a day’s, the world population moves toward herbal remedies for treatment. Several edible plant parts are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Amomum subulatum Roxb (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as large cardamom, is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. The present study assessed the anti-inflammatory activity of its fruit extracts (methanolic and aqueous) at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. Both the extracts were able to show a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity compared to ibuprofen as a standard. Alam, Aftab & Singh, Vijender. (2020). Composition and pharmacological activity of essential oils from two imported Amomum subulatum fruit samples. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences. 16. 10.1016/j.jtumed.2020.10.007. Objective This work attempted to isolate, identify, and correlate the composition of essential oils (EOs) and pharmacological properties of two imported Amomum subulatum fruit samples. These samples were collected from Indian and Saudi Arabia local supermarkets to ensure consistency in their therapeutic effects. Results: GC–MS retention times of both samples demonstrated 56 bioactive ingredients with different percentages. The principal bioactive compounds in the Indian and Saudi Arabian EO samples were 1,8-cineole (44.24% and 46.22%, respectively), α-terpineol (7.47% and 7.04%, respectively), terpinene-4-ol (5.01% and 4.83%, respectively), geraniol D (4.05% and 3.54%, respectively), and β-pinene (3.38% and 3.98%, respectively). Superior antimicrobial activity against the selected strains was observed for both samples, with a MIC range of 0.5%–1%. Antioxidant assays demonstrated moderate activity in both samples. Moreover, the Indian and Saudi Arabian samples exhibited IC50 values of 53.12% and 55.26 μg/mL, respectively, in albumin denaturation inhibition assays. This indicated an outstanding anti-inflammatory potential comparable to ibuprofen.
    • Makhija, Pooja & Handral, Harish & Mahadevan, Gomathi & Kathuria, Himanshu & Sethi, Gautam & Grobben, Bert. (2021). Black cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) fruit extracts exhibit apoptotic activity against lung cancer cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 287. 114953. 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114953. Ethnopharmacological relevance The dried fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (A. subulatum) are widely used as a spice. It is a part of official ayurvedic formulations and it is used in folklore medicine to treat cancer. A. subulatum has been used in ayurvedic formulations to treat various lung conditions such as cough, lung congestion, and pulmonary tuberculosis. The present traditional knowledge highlights the effectiveness of A. subulatum in treating cancer and its lung-specific efficacy. This study aims to investigate the cytotoxic potential of A. subulatum on the phenomenal and mechanistic level of lung cancer cells and identify the presence of A. subulatum actives. The bioactivity of the extracts was tested using MTT assay, apoptotic assay, cell cycle analysis, superoxide production assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, and western blot analysis. Firstly, five different extracts were prepared using sequential extraction, and screening of cell lines was performed using MTT assay. Results: Lung cancer cells were selected as the most sensitive target, and dichloromethane extract (DE) was the most active extract. Annexin assay confirmed the mode of cell death as apoptosis. Sub-G1 Peak found in cell cycle analysis substantiated this finding. ROS generation and superoxide showed association with apoptotic death. The upregulation and overexpression of cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1(PARP-1) showed the failure of DNA repairing machinery contributing to apoptosis. LC-MS findings show the presence of cytotoxic actives cardamon and alpine. 
    • Antioxidant activity
    • Anti-ulcer activity
    • Antimicrobial activity
    • Singhal, Piyush & Gautam, Girendra Kumar & Kumar, Ravi & Kumar, Gaurav. (2022). A Review on Amomum subulatum and Elettaria Cardamomum with their Pharmacological Activity. Volume-4. 1-6. Cardamom is a very common species in India its mainly two types Amomum subulatum and Elettaria Cardamomum belong to the family Zingiberaceae Amomum subulatum also known as “Badi Elaichi”. It’s traditionally used as a mouth freshener or digestive agent. It is a very common spice in Indian food. Its main chemical constituent is α-terpinyl acetate, 1,8-cineole, α-terpineol, limonene, α-pinene, and β-pinene main chemical is alpha terpinyl acetate in cardamom. Its have many pharmacological activity like antiseptic (pulmonary), antispasmodic (neuromuscular), aphrodisiac, expectorant, anthelmintic, antibacterial (variable), cephalic, cardiotonic, diuretic, emmenagogue, sialagogue and stomachic. It also acts as a stimulant of the nervous system; some research said that it also works as an antidote in some venom. According to recent research, it requires further study on a large scale because some unidentified chemicals are present in their alcoholic extract.
    • Bisht, Vinod & Negi, J.S. & Bhandari, Arvind Kumar & Sundriyal, R.C.. (2011). Amomum subulatum Roxb.: Traditional, Biochemical and Biological activities – An overview. African journal of agricultural research. 6. 5386-5390. 10.5897/AJAR11.745. Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Large Cardamom) is a perennial herbaceous crop, cultivated in swampy places across hills around water streams. It has been a well-known spice since time immemorial; used as a flavoring agent for various dishes indigenous to the Eastern Himalayan region particularly Nepal, Bhutan, and India. The Sikkim State of India is the largest producer of cardamom which is around 50% of the world’s production. Large cardamom contains 8.6% moisture, 5% total ash value, 1.5% ash insoluble in acid, 3.5% water soluble ash value, 4.88% alcohol extract, 4% non-volatile ether extract and 91.4% of total solid. It contains 1.95 to 3.32% of essential oil has a characteristic aroma and possesses medicinal properties. It is reported as an official drug in Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia due to its curative as well as preventive properties for various ailments. The major constituent of large cardamom essential oil is 1, 8- cineole. The monoterpene hydrocarbon content is in the range of 5 to 17% of which limonene, sabinene, and pinenes are significant components. The terpinols comprise approximately 5 to 7% of the oil. Due to the presence of these compounds, it has pharmacognostic properties such as analgesic, antimicrobial, cardiac stimulant, carminative, diuretic, stomachic, etc. This paper recapitulates the traditional, phytochemical, and biological activities of A. subulatum.
    • Patel, Vandana. (2010). PHARMACOGNOSTICAL, PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF AMOMUM SUBULATUM ROXB. Pharma Science Monitor An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 1. 90-102. The present study deals with the pharmacognostic, preliminary phytochemical studies, and pharmacological activity of seeds of Amomum subulatum Roxb. The present paper highlights the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of seeds, physic-chemical evaluation, preliminary phytochemical studies, and analgesic activity of the seeds. These observations would be of immense value in the botanical identification and standardization of the drug in crude form and would help distinguish the drug from its other species. Phytochemical standardization parameters such as moisture content, total ash, water-soluble and acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, and water-soluble extractives were determined. Preliminary identification of phytoconstituents was performed. GC-MS study of the volatile oil obtained from the seeds was carried out and six compounds were separated. The mass fragmentation studies revealed the presence of 1, 8- cineole and caryophyllene in the volatile oil. Methanolic extract and ethyl acetate extract of seeds of the plant were investigated for analgesic activity using the hot plate method and writhing method.
    • Thomas, V. & Mamiyil, Sabu & Gupta, U. (2009). Taxonomic studies on cultivars of Amomum subulatum (Zingiberaceae). Rheedea. 19. Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Large cardamom) is an important medicinal and spice crop of India. The species of A. subulatum from Sikkim, North Bengal, and Nagaland were collected and studied in detail. Based on critical study fi ve new cultivars viz., ‘Dzongu’, ‘Green Golsey’, ‘Sawney’, ‘Seremna’ and ‘Varlangey’ have been recognized. A key to the cultivars, taxonomic descriptions, illustrations, ecology, distributions, etymology, and notes are provided.
    • Joshi, Niraj & Piya, Luni. (2019). Large Cardamom (Amomum Subulatum Roxb.) Production, Marketing, and Trade in the Indian Subcontinent. 9. 1-13. Large cardamom contributes significantly to the household and regional economies in the Eastern Himalayas of the Indian subcontinent, and the national economy as well. This paper aims to assess the dynamics of large cardamom production, marketing, and trade in Bhutan, Nepal, and India. The assessment is based on data compiled through several government statistics and publications. A brief field visit was also conducted in Birtamod, Nepal, in September 2017. Nepal and India are suffering a loss in their cardamom yield due to disease infestation, poor crop management (including aged plantation), and changing climate. India has a fairly organized market for large cardamom facilitated by the Spices Board India, where its price is set through auction. The system of advance payment to the farmers would cause stress for farmers to sell their produce at a lower price. Price volatility remains the major concern in the marketing and trading of large cardamom. Differential provisions in inter-country trade are restricting the market and trade of large cardamom produced in the region. Similarly, the adulteration of large cardamom with “false cardamom” remains the major threat to large cardamom production in the Eastern Himalayas. The product-specific data suggests more than 80 percent of large cardamom exported from India goes to Pakistan, suggesting Pakistan to be the biggest global market for the large cardamom produced in the Indian subcontinent. Production constraints-specifically, diseases; poor agronomic practice and inefficient curing in the traditional way; marketing constraints through price supports and packaging with geographical indications; and trading constraints, such as custom and phytosanitary barriers in inter-country trading, improper identification of the international market, and adulteration issues need to be addressed urgently for the sustainability of large cardamom production in the Eastern Himalayas. This will be critical for improving the welfare of thousands of small households in the region.

    Rasa Panchaka of Sukshma Ela

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (pungent), Madhura (sweet)- Anurasa
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Rasa Panchaka of Sthula Ela

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (pungent)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Dosha Karma of Sukshma Ela

    Pitta- Vata Hara, Pitta Hara due to Sheeta Virya & Vata Hara due to Madhura Vipaka.

    Dosha Karma of Brihad Ela

    Tridosha Shamaka, mainly Vata- Kapha Hara, Vata Hara due to Ushna Virya & Kapha Hara because of Ushna Virya and Katu Vipaka.

    Karma (Actions) of Sukshma Ela

    Daha Prasamana, Mukha Sodhana, Durgandha Nasana, Rocana, Dipana, Pacana, Anulomana, Chardi Nigrahana, Trishna Nigrahana, Hridya, Kapha Nihsaraka, Mutrajanana, Dahasamaka, Balya, Arsoghna.

    Karma (Actions) of Brihad Ela

    Daha Prasamana, Dourgandhya Nasana, Tvag Dosahara, Kandughna, Vrana Ropana, Sulahara, Rocana, Dipana, Pacana, Pitta Saraka, Anulomana Hrdayottejaka, Kapha Nihsaraka, Mutrala, Jvara Ghna, Katu Poustika.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Sukshma Ela

    Daha, Trisna, Vamana, Hrillasa, Aruci, Mukha Vairasya, Agni Mandya,  Udarasula, Adhmana, Arsa, Mutrakrcchra, Dourbalya, Kshaya, Kasa, Svasa, Hrid Dourbalya, Vata- Pitta- Kapha Vikara.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Brihad Ela

    Daha, Shula, Vedana Pradhana Vata Vyadhi, Kasa, Svasa, Mutra Krcchra Charmaroga, Kandu, Jvara, Dourbalya, Visa, Aruci, Mukhavairasya, Hrllasa, Vamana, Trishna, Agnimandya, Adhmana, Yakrd Vikara, Arsha, Mukha Roga, Danta Roga, Sirah Shula.

    Aamyik Prayog (Therapeutic uses) of Sukshma Ela

    Rakta Parvaha Nirodha (To induce the flow of blood): If blood is not coming out (on venesection) the powder of Ela, Karpura, Kustha, Tagara, Patha, etc mixed with ample salt and oil should be rubbed on the opening of the wound. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 14/ 35)

     

    Mutra Nigrehana, Mutra Kriccha (Suppression of urine and dysuria): 

     

    • One should take Ela with Sura (wine) or he should take milk or juice of Amlaka fruits mixed with water. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 55/ 22)
    • One should take only cardamom (Shukshma Ela) with the juice of Amalaki fruits. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 58/ 41)
    • Cardamom should be taken with wine (Sura) or Amalaka juice or mixed with honey along with the juice of Kadali (root or leafstalks) or Kaidarya. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana, 13/ 5, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 10, Vrinda Madhava. 32/ 9, Gada Nigreha. 2. 27. 20)
    • One becomes free from suppression of urine by taking cardamom seeds and Sunthi with pomegranate juice, or also by taking wine mixed with salt. (Vrinda Madhava. 33/ 7)
    • To alleviate disorders of urine and semen one should take milk mixed with Ela and Hingu and add it with ghee. (Vrinda Madhava. 32/ 18)
    • In the suppression of urine, one should take wine mixed with Sauvarchala salt, or Ela with wine followed by an intake of milk added with water. (Vrinda Madhava. 28/ 14)
    • Ela taken with curd-water removes dysuria. (Gada Nigreha. 2/ 27/ 44)
    • Eladi Kashaya. (Gada Nigreha. 2. 27. 37)

     

    Hridya Roga (heart disease): Ela and Pippali Mula taken with ghee alleviate heart disease and Gulma. (Vanga Sena Hridya Roga. 28)

     

    Timira (defects of vision): Powdered la should be dipped in goat’s urine for three days and then used as powder-collyrium. It is useful in Timira, Krimi, and Pilla. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 249)

     

    Chardi (Vomiting):  Eladi Churna. (Chakra Dutta. 15/ 23)

     

    Aamyik Prayog (Therapeutic uses) of Brihad Ela (Harenuka)

     

    Kasa (Cough): Harenuka and Pippali in equal parts should be taken with curd. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 52/ 19)

     

    Netra Vikara (Eye diseases): Harenuka (Brihad Ela) pounded with the juice of the flowers of Amra and Jambu and mixed with honey and ghee should be used as a collyrium in cases of day and night blindness. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra.17/ 10)

     

    Jwara (Fever)

     

    • Harenuka (Brihad Ela) is included in Agaruvadya Taila. It is efficacious in fever with a cold. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 267)
    • Decoction of Pippali, Sariva, Draksa, Satapuspa, and Harenuka mixed with jaggery alleviates fever caused by Vata. (Sushruta Samhita. 39/ 169- 171)

     

    Sarpa Visha (Snake-poison): Trikatu, Ativisha, Kustha, Soot, Harenuka, Tagara, and Katuki mixed with honey counteract snake poison. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 23/ 197)

     

    Unmaada (Insanity): Harenuka (Brihad Ela) is one of the ingredients in Mahakalyana Ghrta. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 62/ 25)

    Benefits of Sukshma Ela

    • It is aromatic, cardiac, carminative, deodorant, digestive, diuretic, expectorant, purgative, stimulant, thirst reliever, and tonic. It is useful in asthma, burning sensation, cold and cough, colic, debility and phthisis, diseases of the urinary bladder and kidney, flatulence, heart weakness, indigestion, scanty urine, and piles.
    • The fruits are mainly used as a refrigerant, carminative, expectorant, and anodyne medicine for various ailments. The fruits and seeds are commonly used as a major and valuable spice in food items and their oil is useful as an aromatic oil utilized for certain purposes.
    • The fruits are put in water to prepare an infusion (or in another form) which is quite useful for countering the condition of thirst in excess, burning sensation, nausea, loss of appetite, flatulence, dyspepsia, and other gastric trouble, it is general tonic antidotal cordial and favorable to the respiratory system and quite effective in urinary troubles.

    Benefits of Brihad Ela

    • The seeds are aromatic and stomachic. They are useful in neuralgia, gonorrhea, and seminal disorders, including sexual debility or impotency, being an aphrodisiac. They are good aphrodisiacs; they are also considered an antidote to snake bite and scorpion-sting.
    • The oil obtained from the seeds is aromatic, stimulant, and stomachic; and it is applied to eyelids for allaying inflammation.
    • The seeds are Sheet Virya, Rechaka, Garbha Pataka, etc. They are useful in cough, bronchitis, asthma, strangury, and diseases of the liver, spleen, throat, and rectum, they are useful in headache, toothache, scabies, earache, and inflammation.
    • The seeds are administered in flatulence, gripping, and colic. They are useful in Vamana.
    • The seeds infusion (cool) is given in excess thirst.
    • The fruits and seeds are highly valuable as aromatic condiments and spices among food items including culinary utility.

    Benefits of Shukshma Ela on different systems of bodies

    • External uses: The oil of cardamom seeds is useful in the treatment of toothache.
    • Digestive system: It is a mouth freshener and deodorant. Seeds and oil are appetizers, digestive, and laxatives. The whole cardamom burnt in charcoal is a good carminative. It is useful in oral disorders, abdominal pain, and piles. Shukshma Ela is considered an Antiemetic but Acharya Vagbhatta includes it in Vamaka Dravya (emetic class).
    • Circulatory system: Useful in general weakness.
    • Respiratory system: Because of its expectorant property, it is used in cough, asthma, and other respiratory disorders. It ameliorates dyspneic attack in pertussis.
    • Urinary system: Seeds are diuretic, and useful in dysuria.
    • Temperature: Useful in burning sensation.
    • Satmikaran: Useful in general weakness and tuberculosis (Sitopaladi Churna).

    Benefits of Bhadra Ela on different systems of bodies

    • External uses: Deodorant, analgesic, cures skin diseases, and has wound healing properties. The decoction is used for gargling in oral and ear disorders. Application of paste relieves headache and pruritic disorders.
    • Nervous system: Useful in painful Vata disorders.
    • Digestive system: Being appetizer, digestive, cholagogue, and carminative, it is used in anorexia, nausea, vomiting, thirst, loss of appetite, colic, liver disorders, and piles.
    • Circulatory system: Cardiotonic, hence used in cardiac debility.
    • Respiratory system: Expectorant, hence useful in cough and asthma.
    • Urinary system: Useful in dysuria, as it is a diuretic.
    • Skin: Used in skin disorders.
    • Temperature: Febrifuge and refrigerant.
    • Satmikaran: Useful in weakness and poisoning.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Ela

    • Churna: 0.5 to 1 gram
    • Shukshm Ela- 5- 10 grains
    • Bhadra Ela- 10- 20 grains

    Classical reference of Ela Dwaya

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 63

    Synonyms
    Shukshma Ela

    सूक्ष्मोपकुञ्चिका तुत्था कोरंगी द्राविडी त्रुटि: |

    Sthula Ela

    राला स्थूला च बहुला प्रथ्वीका त्रिपुटा अपि च |

    भद्रेला बृहदेला च चंद्र बाला च निष्कुटि: ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 63

    Properties and actions
    Shukshm Ela

    राला सूक्ष्मा कफ श्वास कास वर्षो मूत्र कृच्छ हत्‌ | 

    रसे तु कटुका शीता लध्वी वातहरी मता ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpaadi Varga- 45

    सूक्ष्म एला मूत्रकृच्छघनी श्वास कास क्षय हिता |

    सूक्ष्म एला शीतला स्वादुहद्या रोचनादीपनी ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1341

    सूक्ष्म एला मूत्रकृच्छ अर्श: श्वास कास कफापहा |

    रसैस्तु कटुका शीता लघ्वी वातहरी मता ।।

    Priya Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga, 93

    राला तु कटुका शीता सुगन्धि: मुख शोधनी |

    कफपित्त विकारेषु क्षये कृच्छे च शस्यते ||

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Karpuradi Varga- 61- 62

    Properties and actions
    Brihad Ela

    बृहद एला – स्थूलैला कटुका पाके रसे चानल कृल्लधु: |

    रुक्षोष्णा श्लेष्मपित्तास्कण्डूश्वासतृषा अपहा ।

    हल्लासविषबस्त्यास्य शिरोरूग्वमिकासनुत्‌ ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Shatpushpaadi Varga- 47

    राला तिक्ता च लध्वी स्यात्कफवातविषव्रणान्‌ |

    बस्तिकण्ठरुजो हन्ति मुखमस्तक शोधिनी ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1343- 1344

    भद्र एला कटुकापाके रसे पित्ता अग्नि कृल्लघु: |

    रुक्षोष्णा रोचनी कासकफवातास्रश्नासहा |

    हन्ति हल्लासतृट्‌ कण्डू शिरोवस्त्यास्यरुग्वमी: ||

    Priya Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga, 94

    रालया सदृशी किन्तु वीर्य उष्ण चाल्पगन्धयुक |

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga, 87

    एला सामान्य गुण 

    राला द्वयं  शीतल तिक्तम युक्तं सुगन्धि पित्तार्तिकफापहारि |

    करोति हृद रोग मला निर्वस्ति शूलघ्नं अत्र स्थविरा गुणाढ्या |

     Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1342

    एला-क्षुद्रैला-सूक्ष्मेला

    सूक्ष्मेला मूत्रकृच्छा अर्श: श्वासकासकफापहा 

    (रसैस्तु कटुका शीता लघ्वी वातहरी मता।)

    एला सूक्ष्मा कफश्वासकासा अर्श मूत्रकृच्छहत्‌ |

    रसे तु कटुका शीता लघ्वी वातहरी मत ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1343- 1344

    बृहदेला-स्थूलैला-भद्रैला

    भद्रैला कटुका पाके रसे पित्ताग्धि कृल्वघु: ||

    रूक्षोष्णा रोचनी कासकफवातास्रश्वासहा |

    Chakra Dutta, 32- 34

    दुससाध्य मूत्रकृच्छ प्रतिकारार्थ एलादिचूर्णम्‌

    एला अश्मभेदक शिलाजतुपिप्पलीनां चूर्णानि तण्डुलजलैरलुलितानि पीत्वा |

    यद्दागुडेन सहितान्यवलिहय सम्यगासन्न मृत्युरपिजीवति मूत्र कृछि ||

    हन्ति हल्लास तृट्कण्डूशिरोवस्त्यास्यरुग्वमी ||

    स्थूलैला कटुका पाके रसे चानलकृल्लघु: ||

    रूक्षोष्णा श्लेष्मपित्तास्त्र कण्डूश्वासतृषा अपहा |

    हल्लास विषवस्त्यास्यशिरोरुग्वमिकारसनुत्‌ ||

    Raja Nighantu

    एला द्विजम शीतलम युक्तं सुगन्धि पिट आरती कफापहारि |

    करोति हद्रोग मलार्ति बस्ति शूल श्रमघ्नम अत्र स्थवीरा गुणा आद्ध्या |

    Shodhala Nighantu

    सूक्ष्म एला मूत्रकृच्छ अर्श: श्वास कास  क्षय हिता |

    सूक्ष्मैला मागधीमूलं प्रलीढ॑ सर्पिष सह |

    नाशयत्याशु हद्रोगं गुल्मानपि विशेषतः ||

    Gada Nigreha, 2- 27- 37

    मूत्रघाते मूत्रकृच्छे च एलादि कषाय: |

    Gada Nigreha, 2- 27- 44

    एलादध्यम्भसा पीता मूत्रकृच्छहरीमता |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26- 249

    एलादि गुटिका विधि:

    एलापत्र त्वचो अर्धक्ष पिप्पल्यर्धपलं तथा |

    सितामधुकखर्जूर मृद्विकाश्च पलोन्मिता: ||

    संचूर्ण्य मधूना युक्ता गुटिकाः संप्रकल्पयेत्‌ |

    सेवनम्‌ अक्षमात्रां ततथैकां भक्षयेन्नादिने दिने ||

    गुणा: 

    कासम श्वासं ज्वरं हिकां छर्दि  मूर्च्छां मद भ्रमम्‌ |

    रक्तनिष्टीवन तृष्णा पार्श्व शूलमरोचकम |

    शोषप्लीहाढ्यवातांश्च स्वरभेद॑ क्षत॑ क्षयम्‌ |

    गुटिका तर्पणी वृष्या रक्तपित्त॑ च नाशयेत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 26- 249

    नेत्र रोग एला चूर्ण अंजनम

    बस्त मूत्रे त्र्यहं स्थाप्यमेलाचूर्ण सुभावितम्‌ |

    चूर्णाजनं ही तैमिर्य क्रिमि पिल्लमलापहम्‌ ||

    Vanga Sena Hridya Roga, 28

    हद्रोगे 

    सूक्ष्म एला मागधीमूलं प्रलीढं सर्पिषा सह |

    नाशयत्याशु हद्रोगे गुल्मानपि विशेषत: ||

    Bhava Parkasha Chardya Adhikara, 17- 22

    छर्दि एलादि चूर्णम

    Bhava Parkasha Soma Roga Adhikara, 69/ 9

    सोमरोगे

    स एव सरुज: सोम: सत्तरवें मूत्रेण चेन्मुहु: |

    तत्रैलापत्रचूर्णेन पाययेद्वारुणी सुराम ||

    Chakra Dutta, Mutra Kriccha Chikitsa, 32-11

    मूत्रकृच्छे सूक्षमैला चूर्णम

    मूत्रेण सुरया वा अपि कदली स्वरसेन वा |

    कफकृच्छ विनाशाय श्लक्ष्ण॑ पिष्टा त्रुटिम पिबेत्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, Udarda Kotha Sheeta- Pitta Chikitsa, 50- 11

    शीतपित्तविकारे एलादि गण: 

    तैलोदर्चनयोगेन योज्य एलादिको गण: |

    Vrinda Madhava, 32- 18

    मूत्रदोषे शूकदोषे च –

    एला हिंगु युत्त क्षीरं सर्पि मिश्रम पिबेन्नर: |

    मूत्र दोष विशुद्धर्थ शूकदोषहरम च तत्त ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 58- 41

    मूत्रकृच्छे 

    धात्री फलस्सेने् सूक्ष्म एला च पिबेन्नर: |

    Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 14/ 35

    रक्त परवर्तनार्थम

    अथ खल्वप्रवर्तमाने रक्ते एलाशीतशिव कुष्ठ तगर |

    पाठा… चूर्णीकृतैलवणतैल प्रगाढे व्रण मुखमवर्षयेत 

    एवं सम्यक्‌ प्रवर्तते |

    Classical reference of Brihad Ela

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 3- 267

    बृहदेला (हरेणुका) 

    ज्वर 

    अर्गुवाद्य तैले |

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 62- 25

    उन्मादे

    महाकल्याणघृते |

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 52- 19

    कासे

    हरेणुकां मागधिकां च तुल्यां दध्ना पिबेत-कासगदा अभभूत: |

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 17- 10

    नेत्ररोगे (दिन रात्र अंधयो:)

    आम्रजम्बूद्धब॑ पुष्प॑ तद्रसेन हरेणुकम्‌ |

    पिष्ट्वा क्षौद्राज्यसंयुक्त॑ प्रयोज्यमथवा अनंजनम || 

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 62- 25

    सर्पविषे

    व्योष॑ सातिविष॑ कुष्ठ्म गृहधूम हरेणुका |

    तगरं कटुका क्षुद्र्म हन्ति राजीमतां शिवाम्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 55- 22

    मूत्राघाते मूत्रकृच्छे च 

    एलां वा अप्यथ मद्येन क्षीरं वापि पिबेन्रर: |

    धात्रीफलानां स्वरसं सजल॑ वा पिबेत्‌ त्र्यहं || 

    Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Shana, 13- 5, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 11- 10

    पिबेच्चमदयेन सूक्ष्म एला आमलक रसेन वा |

    मधुयुता वा कदलीरसेन कैडर्यकरसेन वा ||

    Vrinda Madhava 28/ 14

    सौवर्चलाढयां मदिरां मूत्रे त्वभिहते पिबेत्‌ |

    एला वा अप्यथ मद्यें क्षीत्वारि पिबेद्‌ बुध: ||

    Vrinda Madhava 33- 7

    दाड़िम अम्बु युतं मुख्यम एला बीजं सनागरम्‌ |

    पीत्वा सुराम सलवणं मुख घातद विमुच्यते ||

    Vrinda Madhava 32/ 9

    मूत्रें सुरा वापि कदली स्वरसेन वा |

    कफ कृच्छविनाशाय श्लक्ष्णम पिष्ट्वा त्रुटि पिबेत्‌ ||

    Specific Formulation of Shukshma Ela

    • Eladi Gutika for Swasa, Kasa, Hikka
    • Eladi Churna for Mutra Kriccha
    • Eladi Kwatha for Ashmari, Mutra Kriccha
    • Ela Yoga for Kaphaja Mutra Kriccha
    • Eladya Ghrita for Rajayakshma, Bhagandra
    • Eladya Arishta for Masurika, Visarpa
    • Eladya Modaka for Madya Vikara, Madatyaya
    • Talishadi Churna
    • Sitopladi Churna
    • Chandanadi Vati
    • Tri Jata content: Tvaka, Ela, Patra
    • Chatur Jata content: Tvaka, Ela, Patra, Nagkesara

    Contraindication and side effects of Ela

    No known adverse side effects have been reported after the use of Ela even in large amounts in some formulations. In Ayurvedic text by Raja Narahari, Ela is first time mentioned as Garbh Pataka i.e abortifacient. So, it is advised to avoid its use during pregnancy or use it under medical supervision.

    Suggestive reading regarding Elettaria cardamomum

    • Lim, T. (2013). Elettaria cardamomum. 10. 1007/ 978- 94- 007- 5653- 3_ 50.
    • Dalal PK, Tripathi A, Gupta SK. Vajikarana: Treatment of sexual dysfunctions based on Indian concepts. Indian J Psychiatry. 2013 Jan; 55 (Suppl 2): S273- 6. doi: 10. 4103/ 0019- 5545. 105550. PMID: 23858267; PMCID: PMC3705695.
    • Ashokkumar, Kaliyaperumal & Murugan, Muthusamy & Dhanya, M.K. (2021). Cardamom [Elettaria Cardamomum (L.) Maton]: Production, Breeding, Management, Phytochemistry, and Health Benefits. 10. 52305/ LHSK2874.
    • Mamgain P, Kandwal A, Mamgain RK. Comparative Evaluation of Triphala and Ela Decoction With 0.2% Chlorhexidine as Mouthwash in the Treatment of Plaque-Induced Gingivitis and Halitosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2017 Jul; 22 (3): 468- 472. doi: 10. 1177/ 2156587216679532. Epub 2016 Dec 8. PMID: 27932522; PMCID: PMC5871163.
    • Vallish BN, Dang D, Dang A. Nature and mechanism of immune-boosting by Ayurvedic medicine: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. World J Methodol. 2022 May 20; 12 (3): 132- 147. doi: 10. 5662/ wjm. v12. i3.132. PMID: 35721243; PMCID: PMC9157632.
    • Rahmatullah M, Ayman U, Akter F, Sarker M, Sifa R, Sarker B, Chyti HN, Jahan FI, Chowdhury MH, Chowdhury SA. Medicinal formulations of a Kanda tribal healer–a tribe on the verge of disappearance in Bangladesh. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2012 Dec 31; 10 (2): 213- 22. doi: 10. 4314/ ajtcam. v10i2. 5. PMID: 24146444; PMCID: PMC3746568.
    • Undge, S. J., & Kotangale, Y. T. (2013). To study the efficacy of Lavang, Ela, Sitopala, Sphatica Churna Pratisaran in danta sharkara. International Journal of Ayurvedic Medicine4 (4). https:// doi. org/ 10. 47552/ ijam. v4i4.375
    • Abera, Sileshi & Gebreyes, Belay & Hirko, Biruk. (2020). NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF CARDAMOM (ELETTARIA CARDAMOM) SEED CULTIVATED IN ETHIOPIA.
    • Rahman MM, Alam MN, Ulla A, Sumi FA, Subhan N, Khan T, Sikder B, Hossain H, Reza HM, Alam MA. Cardamom powder supplementation prevents obesity and improves glucose intolerance, inflammation, and oxidative stress in the liver of high carbohydrate high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2017 Aug 14; 16 (1): 151. doi: 10. 1186/ s12944- 017- 0539- x. PMID: 28806968; PMCID: PMC5557534.
    • Cárdenas Garza GR, Elizondo Luévano JH, Bazaldúa Rodríguez AF, Chávez Montes A, Pérez Hernández RA, Martínez Delgado AJ, López Villarreal SM, Rodríguez Rodríguez J, Sánchez Casas RM, Castillo Velázquez U, Rodríguez Luis OE. Benefits of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton) and Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Extracts for Their Applications as Natural Anti-Inflammatory Adjuvants. Plants (Basel). 2021 Sep 14; 10 (9): 1908. doi: 10. 3390/ plants 10091908. PMID: 34579443; PMCID: PMC8467221.
    • Atara A, Rajgopala M, Pansara KN, Maniyar H, Naria M. An Ayurvedic Management of Nasal Polyposis. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019 Nov; 71 (Suppl 3): 1876- 1884. doi: 10. 1007/ s12070- 018- 1278- 7. Epub 2018 Feb 20. PMID: 31763263; PMCID: PMC6848729.
    • Peeran, Mohammed Faisal & Aravind, Sharon & Sj, Ankegowda & Nadukeri, Sadashiv & K, Umesha & Naik, M & Srinivasa, V. & S J, Ankegowda & L, Hanumantharaya & SHANKARAPPA, K.S. & G S, Anilkumar. (2020). Variability studies in small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) genotypes for growth characters. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 9. 1346- 1349.
    • Korikanthimathm, Vs & Prasath, D. & Rao, Govardhana. (2001). Medicinal properties of Elettaria cardamomum. J Med Aromat Plant Sci. 22/ 23.
    • Korikanthimath, S & Rao, Govardhan & Hiremath, Gurulingayya. (2002). Cultivation of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) in valley bottoms under evergreen forest shade. Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Sciences. 24.
    • Prasath, D. & Venugopal, Ms & Kumar, R. (2009). Evaluation of high-yielding cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) selections in Karnataka for yield and quality. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 79. 207- 209.
    • Sharma R, Martins N, Kuca K, Chaudhary A, Kabra A, Rao MM, Prajapati PK. Chyawanprash: A Traditional Indian Bioactive Health Supplement. Biomolecules. 2019 Apr 26; 9 (5): 161. doi: 10. 3390/ biom 9050161. PMID: 31035513; PMCID: PMC6571565.
    • Dhiman K. Ayurvedic intervention in the management of uterine fibroids: A Case series. Ayu. 2014 Jul- Sep; 35 (3): 303- 8. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 153750. PMID: 26664240; PMCID: PMC4649577.
    • Kumar, R. & Prasath, D. & Aravind, Sharon & Nk, Leela & Venugopal, Ms & S J, Ankegowda & Biju, C. & Muthuswamy, Anandaraj. (2017). Evaluation of elite cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) genotypes for yield, quality, and resistance to Cardamom mosaic virus. Journal of Plantation Crops. 45. 129- 134.
    • Amarprakash, Dwivedi & Pradnya, Chaugule & In, O. (2018). PAIN MANAGEMENT THROUGH AYURVEDA: A.
    • Singhal, Piyush & Gautam, Girendra Kumar & Kumar, Ravi & Kumar, Gaurav. (2022). A Review on Amomum subulatum and Elettaria Cardamomum with their Pharmacological Activity. Volume-4. 1- 6.
    • Nadukeri, Sadashiv & K, Umesha & Naik, MK & Srinivasa, V. & S J, Ankegowda & L, Hanumantharaya & SHANKARAPPA, K. S. (2020). Evaluation of working collections of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) for morphological attributes under the hill zone of Karnataka. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 8. 2215- 2219. 10. 22271/ chemistry. 2020. v8. i6af. 11102.
    • S, Divya & B, Poornima & Jagadeesh, Kanithi. (2019). STHOULYAHARA KARMA OF ELA (ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM MATON.) BEEJA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DYSLIPIDEMIA: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. 10. 60- 64. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4343. 1006125.
    • Shareef, Abdul & H, Chaitra. (2021). PHYSICOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ELA (ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM) AND PIPPALI (PIPER LONGUM). Journal of Biological & Scientific Opinion. 9. 25- 28. 10. 7897/ 2321- 6328. 092143.
    • Kaliyaperumal Ashokkumar, Muthusamy Murugan, M.K. Dhanya, Thomas D. Warkentin,
    • Botany, traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activities of cardamom [Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton] – A critical review, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 246, 2020, 112244, ISSN 0378- 8741, https:// doi. org/ 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2019. 112244.
    • Sarvade, Dattatray & Kamini, Bhingardive & Mohanlal, Jaiswal. (2018). THE QUEEN OF SPICES AND AYURVEDA: A BRIEF REVIEW. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4343. 075207.

    Suggestive reading regarding Amomum subulatum

    • Kumar KM, Asish GR, Sabu M, Balachandran I. Significance of gingers (Zingiberaceae) in Indian System of Medicine – Ayurveda: An overview. Ancient Science Life. 2013 Apr; 32 (4): 253- 61. doi: 10. 4103/ 0257- 7941. 131989. PMID: 24991077; PMCID: PMC4078479.
    • Agnihotri S, Wakode S. Antimicrobial activity of essential oil and various extracts of fruits of greater cardamom. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2010 Sep; 72 (5): 657- 9. doi: 10. 4103/ 0250- 474X. 78542. PMID: 21695005; PMCID: PMC3116318.
    • Makhija P, Handral HK, Mahadevan G, Kathuria H, Sethi G, Grobben B. Black cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) fruit extracts exhibit apoptotic activity against lung cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 2022 Apr 6; 287: 114953. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2021. 114953. Epub 2021 Dec 27. PMID: 34968666.
    • Bisht, Vinod & Negi, J.S. & Bhandari, Arvind Kumar & Sundriyal, R.C. (2011). Amomum subulatum Roxb.: Traditional, Biochemical and Biological activities – An overview. African journal of agricultural research. 6. 5386- 5390. 10. 5897/ AJAR11. 745.
    • Parveen, Uzma & Maaz, Mohd & Mujeeb, Mohd & Jahangir, Umar. (2017). BIOLOGICAL AND THERAPEUTIC USES OF AMOMUM SUBULATUM ROXB: A REVIEW. 5. 167- 176.
    • Jafri, M. A., Javed, K., & Singh, S. (2001). Evaluation of the gastric antiulcerogenic effect of large cardamom (fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb). Journal of Ethnopharmacology75 (2- 3), 89- 94.
    • D., Rakshitha & Balagopalan, Devika & Hussain, Gazala. (2020). A Review on Chaturjataka. 7.
    • Verma, Surendra & Jain, Vartika & Singh, Dharm. (2012). Effect of Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) on blood lipids, fibrinolysis, and total antioxidant status in patients with ischemic heart disease. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2. 739- 743. 10. 1016/ S2222- 1808 (12) 60255- 2.
    • Aneja, K. R., & Joshi, R. (2009). Antimicrobial activity of Amomum subulatum and Elettaria cardamomum against dental caries causing microorganisms. Ethnobotanical Leaflets2009 (7), 3.
    • Verma, S. K., Rajeevan, V., Bordia, A., & Jain, V. (2010). Greater cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.)–A cardio-adaptogen against physical stress. J Herb Med Toxicol4 (2), 55- 58.
    • Kumar, Gopal & Chauhan, Baby & Ali, Mohammed. (2013). Isolation and identification of new phytoconstituents from the fruit extract of Amomum subulatum Roxb. Natural product research. 28. 10. 1080/ 14786419. 2013. 855929.
    • Puttanna, Goutham & K., Purushotham & Nayak, Swarnalatha & Rao, Eesha & Mundugaru, Ravi. (2019). Effect of Amomum subulatum seeds against cypermethrin induced hematological changes in Wistar albino rats. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology. 8. 604. 10. 18203/ 2319-2003. ijbcp20190673.
    • Lohia, Neha & Baranwal, Manoj & Handa, Vikas & Sinha, Vivek. (2018). Amomum subulatum seed extract exhibit antioxidant, cytotoxic, and immune-suppressive effect. Indian journal of biochemistry & biophysics. 54. 135- 139.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Karpuradi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • P.V. Sharma, Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Vaidya Manorma, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Vrinda Madhava
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sankrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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