Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Bibhitaki – Vibhitaki – Terminalia bellirica Roxb.

    Bibhitaki – Vibhitaki – Terminalia bellirica Roxb.

    Bibhitaki- The fearless herb for detoxifying and rejuvenating Kapha

    Introduction

    Vibhitaki which is well recognized as the ingredient of Triphala is a highly efficacious Ayurvedic herb. Vibhitaki botanically known as Terminalia bellirica is a plant of the Combretaceae family that wildly grows throughout the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Sri Lanka. Terminalia bellerica is commonly famous for the name Bheda in the population. Recent research revealed that Vibhitaki consists of various active ingredients like gallic acid, ellagic acid, tannins, glucosides, etc due to which it exhibits anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, hepatoprotective, etc activities. In Ayurvedic classical texts, Vibhitaki is classified as an expectorant and considered an integral part of laxative Ayurvedic formulations. It is used for treating various disorders like piles, constipation, general debility, cough, etc.

    Basonym of Vibhitaki

    बिब्बयति रोगा अस्मादिति:, विगतं भितं विगत रोगभयमस्मादिति ।

    Vibhitaki removes fear about disease.

    Synonyms of Vibhitaki

    • According to habitat

    बिन्ध्य जातः – बिंध्य प्रदेशे बाहुल्येन जात: ।

    Vibhitaki grows commonly in the Vindhya region.

     

    • According to morphology

    वासन्तः वसन्ते पुष्पि त्वात्‌ ।

    Vibhitaki blossoms in Vasant Ritu (spring season).

    कर्षफल: – कर्ष प्रमाणं फलमस्य ।

    Fruits of Vibhitaki weigh about 1 Karsha (approximate 10gram).

    तैलफलः- तैल युक्तं फलं बीजमस्य ।

    Kernel of Vibhitaki yields oil.

     

    • According to properties and action

    अक्ष: -अक्षति व्याप्नोति शरीर स्ववीर्येणेति, अथवा अक्षम इन्द्रियम तद्धितत्वादक्ष:।

    Vibhitaki is very useful for sense organs.

    कासघ्न: – कासं हन्तीति ।

    Vibhitaki cures Kasa (cough).

    बहुवीर्य: – प्रभूतशक्तिमान्‌। 

    The fruit of Vibhitaki is very potent.

    विभेदक: – विशेषण भिनति रोगानीति |

    Vibhitaki if used removes the disease from the roots.

    कलिद्रुम: – क्ले वृक्ष: द्यूते, प्रयुक्त त्वात द्यूते कलि वस्तीति प्रसिद्धि:। 

    Regarded as an auspicious plant as it is the abode of Goddess Kali and in ancient times it was used as dice.

    भूत वास: – भूता: वसंत यत्र कलि द्रुम त्वेन भूतानां रक्ष: पिशाचादीनाम वास: । 

    Vibhitaki plant is an abode of Bhuta (Evil spirit).   

    Regional names of Vibhitaki

    • Beleric myrobalan (English)
    • Bahera (Hindi)
    • Tare kai, Shanti Kai (Kannada)
    • Tanni Kai (Malayalam)
    • Baheda (Marathi)
    • Akkam (Tamil)
    • Tanikaya, Tadi Kaya (Telugu)
    • Baheda, Bohera, Baida, Behri (Bengali)
    • Bahera (Manipuri)
    • Baleelaj (Arabic)
    • Baleel (Farsi)
    • Bahada (Oriya)
    • Goting (Konkani)
    • Bauri (Assamese)
    • Barro (Nepali)

    Scientific classification of Vibhitaki

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassPolypetalae
    Series Calyciflorae
    OrderMyrtales
    Family Combretaceae
    GenusTerminalia 
    Species bellirica

    Botanical Name

    Terminalia bellirica Roxb.

    Terminalia is derived from the terminus word means-end leaves are terminal in position. Bellerica is derived from Bely which is an Arabic name.

    Family – Combretaceae (Haritkyadi Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Vibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica Roxb.)

    Classification of Vibhitaki as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Virechnopaga Mahakshaya, Jwara Hara Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Mustadi Gana, Triphala.

    Vibhitaki's description in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 4/ 24, 39S. S. Su. 11/ 11A. H. Su. 5/ 69
    C. S. Su. 13/ 9S. S. Su. 38/ 55, 56A. H. Chi. 3/ 31, 46, 176
    C. S. Su. 15/ 6S. S. Su. 39/ 4
    C. S. Su. 27/ 146S. S. Su. 44/ 70
    C. S. Vi. 7/ 22S. S. Su. 45/ 120
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 144, 151S. S. Su. 46/ 205
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 41S. S. Chi. 9/ 17
    C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 73, 74, 75S. S. Chi. 11/ 7
    C. S. Chi. 1/ 3/ 3, 40S. S. Chi. 17/ 35
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 35S. S. Chi. 23/ 15
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 72S. S. Chi. 28/ 6
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 70S. S. Chi. 31/ 5
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 161S. S. Chi. 38/ 70
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 92S. S. U. 12/ 33
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 55, 124S. S. U. 44/ 24
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 271
    C. S. Ka. 1/ 18
    C. S. Ka. 12/ 15
    C. S. Si. 12/ 27

    Vibhitaki's description in Brihtrayi as an ingredient of Triphala

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 8S. S. Su. 15/ 34A. H. Su. 14/ 22
    C. S. Su. 13/ 65, 78, 92, 95S. S. Su. 27/ 21A. H. Su. 15/ 2, 40
    C. S. Su. 21/ 21S. S. Su. 36/ 20, 27, 29A. H. Su. 16/ 34, 44
    C. S. Su. 23/ 9, 11, 16, 17, 18S. S. Su. 38/ 19, 42, 55A. H. Su. 21/ 18
    C. S. Su. 24/ 55S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Chi. 1/ 49, 64, 66, 68, 69, 89, 94, 99, 101, 154
    C. S. Vi. 7/ 23S. S. Su. 44/ 6, 23, 24, 27, 36, 71, 76, 87A. H. Chi. 2/ 10
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 54S. S. Su. 46/ 432A. H. Chi. 3/ 159, 172
    C. S. Chi. 1. 3/ 14, 40- 46S. S. Chi. 1/ 85A. H. Chi. 5/ 28
    C. S. Chi. 1. 4/ 15S. S. Chi. 2/ 40A. H. Chi. 7/ 104
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 201, 204, 206, 209, 221, 231, 298, 302S. S. Chi. 4/ 27A. H. Chi. 8/ 25
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 21, 25, 27, 39, 40, 45S. S. Chi. 5/ 8, 10, 13, 34, 42A. H. Chi. 9/ 15, 26
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 43, 55, 61, 64, 67, 73, 76, 80, 81, 90, 96, 99, 135, 139, 143, 152S. S. Chi. 7/ 26A. H. Chi. 11/ 37
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 99S. S. Chi. 8/ 43, 48A. H. Chi. 12/ 6, 26
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 41, 60, 75S. S. Chi. 9/ 8, 9, 29, 34, 48, 55A. H. Chi. 13/ 11, 16
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 17, 41, 46S. S. Chi. 10/ 6, 11, 12, 14A. H. Chi. 14/ 21, 24, 55
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 20, 33, 38, 40, 41, 47, 70S. S. Chi. 11/ 7, 8A. H. Chi. 15/ 10, 15, 22, 23, 60, 70, 105
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 114, 118, 124, 132, 134, 148, 157, 162S. S. Chi. 12/ 11A. H. Chi. 16/ 7, 13, 14, 21, 23, 36, 43
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 46, 54, 667, 68, 145S. S. Chi. 14/ 6, 10A. H. Chi. 17/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 86, 117, 189S. S. Chi. 17/ 22, 43A. H. Chi. 18/ 3, 7, 14, 29
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 52, 59, 62, 64, 69, 72, 77, 79, 86, 93, 96, 98, 101, 105, 118S. S. Chi. 18/ 40, 55A. H. Chi. 19/ 8, 19, 28, 33, 44, 50, 59
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 38, 157, 172, 173, 175S. S. Chi. 19/ 43, 47, 69A. H. Chi. 21/ 50
    C. S. Chi. 20/ 36S. S. Chi. 20/ 57, 58A. H. Chi. 22/ 10, 15, 16
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 59, 65, 87, 90, 97, 129S. S. Chi. 21/ 6A. H. Ka. 1/ 11
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 83, 89, 109, 114S. S. Chi. 22/ 9, 11, 12, 25A. H. Ka. 2/ 17
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 28, 64, 86, 166, 194, 197, 203, 207, 237, 239, 240, 252, 267, 278S. S. Chi. 23/ 15A. H. Ka. 4/ 1, 34
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 37S. S. Chi. 25/ 30, 33A. H. U. 2/ 14, 72
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 128S. S. Chi. 37/ 33A. H. U. 5/ 19, 20, 39, 46
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 84, 85, 152S. S. Chi. 38/ 24, 46, 50, 63, 81A. H. U. 7/ 19, 31
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 51, 56, 82, 97, 120, 148, 251, 270, 276S. S. Ka. 5/ 63, 68A. H. U. 9/ 27
    C. S. Ka. 7/ 12, 35, 36, 39, 52, 59, 61, 63S. S. Ka. 6/ 8A. H. U. 11/ 7, 25, 43
    C. S. Ka. 9/ 11S. S. Ka. 7/ 23, 37A. H. U. 13/ 3, 10, 11, 14, 18, 50, 63, 70, 71, 87, 89
    C. S. Ka. 10/ 11, 12S. S. Sa. 10/ 45A. H. U. 16/ 17, 23, 24, 54, 63
    C. S. Si. 3/ 12, 57, 60S. S. U. 9/ 9A. H. U. 20/ 12
    C. S. Si. 4/ 17S. S. U. 10/ 14A. H. U. 22/ 9, 28, 38, 74, 81, 92, 97, 104
    C. S. Si. 7/ 27S. S. U. 11/ 6, 7A. H. U. 24/ 42, 50
    C. S. Si. 8/ 8S. S. U. 12/ 50A. H. U. 28/ 33, 37, 40
    C. S. Si. 10/ 22, 24S. S. U. 14/ 9A. H. U. 34/ 3, 6, 10, 28, 33, 55, 63
    C. S. Si. 11/ 25S. S. U. 17/ 5, 20, 21, 31, 41, 44, 48, 49A. H. U. 36/ 84
    C. S. Si. 12/ 53S. S. U. 18/ 88, 100A. H. U. 37/ 77
    S. S. U. 19/ 13A. H. U. 38/ 23
    S. S. U. 24/ 29A. H. U. 39/ 42, 46, 104, 137, 152, 153, 165
    S. S. U. 39/ 189, 193, 198, 203, 208, 213, 217, 222, 225, 237, 241, 246, 296, 300A. H. U. 40/ 50, 56
    S. S. U. 40/ 129
    S. S. U. 42/ 49, 70
    S. S. U. 43/ 18
    S. S. U. 44/ 15, 17, 20, 28
    S. S. U. 46/ 24
    S. S. U. 51/ 18
    S. S. U. 52/ 14, 38
    S. S. U. 54/ 30
    S. S. U. 55/ 50
    S. S. U. 57/ 13
    S. S. U. 61/ 34
    S. S. U. 62/ 22, 27

    Vibhitaki's description in Brihtrayi as synonym Samvartaka

    • Charaka Samhita: C.S. Chi. 3/ 257

    Vibhitaki's description in Brihtrayi as synonym Mriglindika

    • Charaka Samhita: C.S. Su. 25/ 49
    • Vagbhata: A.H. Su. 6/ 138

    Vibhitaki's description in Brihtrayi as synonym Kali

    • Vagbhata: A.H. Chi. 18/ 25, A.H. U. 28/ 38

    Vibhitaki's description in Brihtrayi as synonym Aakshiki Phala

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 27/ 160

    Vibhitaki's description in Brihtrayi as synonym Aksa, Akshaka

    • Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 27/ 183
    • Shusruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 3/ 67, S. S. Chi. 9/ 44, 47, 50, S. S. Chi. 17/ 24, S. S. Chi. 25/ 28, 34, S. S. U. 18/ 96, S. S. U. 41/ 50, S. S. U. 44/ 32, S. S. U. 54/ 31, S. S. U. 57/ 9, S. S. U. 37/ 45.
    • Vaghbhata: A. H. Su. 5/ 60, A. H. Su. 6/ 158, A. H. Su. 10/ 31, A. H. Su. 12/ 1, 16, A. H. Su. 20/ 6, 12, A. H. Ka. 4/ 37, A. H. U. 11/ 47, A. H. U. 13/ 43, 46, A. H. U. 24/ 35, A. H. U. 37/ 70, A. H. U. 39/ 160, 169.

    Historical background of Vibhitaki

    In Rigveda, we come across the herb “Vibhitaka”. Its branches (dried) are used for Yajna but prohibited for usage as a toothbrush. It is claimed to be Madakara (inebriant). Kesava Paddhati and other ancient texts quoted it for the treatment of hair falling/alopecia (Ke. Pa. 30/ 9, Jai. Gr. 1/ 1). Charaka mentioned it under the Jvara Hara and Kasahara group of drugs. He also indicated it for Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa and Medo Vikaras. Shusruta emphasizes that it is Madakara while Vagbhata describes it as the best herb for Shvasa & Kasa. Vibhitaki is extensively used in ancient medicine and described by all the Nighantu works. Folk considers its seeds poisonous. In recent studies, edible oil is obtained from Vibhitaki seeds justifying the synonym Tailaphala. Vagbhata described a tincture prepared with Vibhitakii which is known as Aksiki Sura. Like Haritaki it is one of the ingredients in Triphala (three myrobalans).

    External morphology of Terminalia bellirica

    • Habit- Vibhitaki is a large deciduous tree that grows up to 60 ft. in height.
    • Bark- The bark of Vibhitaki has many fine vertical cracks and is bluish-gray. The wood is yellowish-gray, hard, no heartwood, annual rings, indistinct pores very scanty, large, frequently subdivided, joined by the irregular way, and concentrated bands of soft loose cellular tissues.
    • Leaves- Leaves of Bibhitaki gathered at the extremities of the branches. Leaves are simple, alternate, coriaceous, 10-20 cm long, 7-15 cm wide, broadly elliptic or elliptic, obovate, rounded or rarely subacute, or shortly acuminate, both surfaces are puberulous when young, the margin is entire, the base is narrowed, main nerves are 6-8 pairs, spreading, prominent, midrib is prominent on both sides, the petiole is 2-10 cm long, without glands at the apex.
    • Inflorescence- Axillary slender spike.
    • Flowers- Greenish yellow, with an offensive odor, flowers in the upper part of spikes are male, which are shortly pedicelled and those in the lower part are hermaphrodite and sessile.
    • Fruit- Epicarp has numerous smooth unicellular pointed trichomes; mesocarp and endocarp are made of parenchymatous cells in which there are numerously elongated as well as rounded stone cells and conducting elements. Crystals of calcium oxalate are abundantly present in pericarp as well as cotyledons cells, endospermic cells are absent. Cotyledons are made of angular parenchyma-containing food material. Drupe globose, suddenly narrowed into a short stalk, fleshy, covered with a close tomentum, the stone is hard and pentagonal and contains a sweet oily kernel.

    Flowering and fruiting time

    Flowering occurs in March-May and fruits in December- February.

    Distribution of Vibhitaki

    It is found throughout the deciduous forests of India, Burma, and Ceylon below elevations of about 3,000 feet, except in the dry regions of Sind and Rajputana, especially in hilly regions in India.

    The useful part of Vibhitaki

    Fruit

     

    The fruit of Vibhitaki is hard, ovoid, or obovoid, more often pentagonal drupe, suddenly narrowed into a short stalk or a Scar of the pedicel, up to 2.5 cm long and 2 cm broad. The surface is Velvety, covered with a close fulvous tomentum, having light amber color. Fruits are dark brown to black in color and globular in shape. The fruit contains a hard stony seed with five longitudinal ridges. The kernel is oily, having three prominent ridges. Fruit does not have any characteristic odor.

    Important phytoconstituent of Vibhitaki

    • Fruit- The fruit of Vibhitaki contains Tannin (20- 30%), gallic acid, ellagic acid, phyllemblin, ethyl gallate, gallocyl glucose, Beta-sitosterol, chebulagic acid, mannitol, glucose, galactose, fructose, rhamnose, bellericanin (Cardiac glycoside).
    • Kernel- Contains Yellow fatty oil possessing fatty acids like palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids.
    • Seeds- Contain-Protein, Oxalic acid, and non-edible oil.
    • Bark- Contains Tannin, Oxalic acids.

    Recent research on Vibhataki

    • The antiulcer activity of 70% methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. (Combretaceae) was evaluated using ethanol-induced, aspirin-induced, cold stress restraint, and pylorus ligated ulcer in rats. Results suggested that the 70% methanolic extract of Terminalia bellirica increased resistance to necrotizing agents, providing a direct protective effect on the gastric mucosa and exhibiting an antiulcer effect. Jawanjal H, Rajput MS, Agrawal P, Dange V. Pharmacological Evaluation of Fruits of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. for Antiulcer Activity. J. Complement Integer Med. 2012 Jun 18: 9 (1). pii. j/ jcim. 2012. 9. issue- 1/ 1553-3840. 1556/ 1553- 3840.1556. XML. doi: 10.  1515/1553- 3840. 1556.
    • The effect of continuous administration of dried 75% methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia bellirica (Combretaceae) suspended in water was studied in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and antioxidant defense mechanisms in rats. Results suggested that T. bellerica fruit extract possessed anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity and these activities may be interrelated. Sabu MC, Kuttan R. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of 47 (4): 270- 5.
    • Terminalia bellirica Roxb. Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 Apr. Fruits of T. bellerica were extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, alcohol, and water, and the efficacy of extracts against Salmonella typhi and Salmonella typhimurium was evaluated. Pretreatment of mice with aqueous extract of T. bellirica conferred protection against experimental Salmonellosis and 100% survival of animals has been reported when challenged with lethal doses of S. typhimurium. Madani A, Jain SK. The anti-Salmonella activity of Terminalia bellerica: in vitro and in vivo studies. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008 Dec. 46 (12): 817- 21.
    • A study was done to evaluate the protective effect of Terminalia bellirica fruit extract and its active principle, gallic acid (3, 4, 5- tri hydroxybenzoic acid) at different doses against carbon tetrachloride intoxication. It is concluded that a 200mg/kg dose of gallic acid was found to be most effective against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver and kidney damage. Jadon A, Bhadauria M, Shukla S. Protective effect of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. And Gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride-induced damage in albino rats. J. Ethnopharmacology. 2007. Jan 19; 109 (2): 214- 8. Epub 2006 Aug 12.
    • Hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis were induced experimentally in rabbits by cholesterol feeding. The effect of an indigenous drug, T. bellirica, was evaluated in these hypercholesterolemic rabbits. T. bellirica reduced the levels of lipids in hypercholesterolemic animals. There was also a significant decrease in liver lipids and heart lipids (P<0.05) in the drug-treated animals, Shaila HP, Udupa AL, and Udupa SL. Preventive actions of Terminalia bellirica in experimentally induced atherosclerosis. Int J. Cordial. 1995 Apr; 49 (2): 101- 6.
    • out of 93 cases of cough and asthma treated with T. bellerica, 22 showed complete relief, 27 were significantly relieved, and 35 cases were moderately relieved. The drug exhibited branch dilatory, antispasmodic, and anti-asthmatic activities (Trivedi et al; 1982).
    • Ethanolic extract of bark showed 60- 66% antifertility activity when administered orally at a 250 mg/ kg dose. (Sharma et al; 1983).
    • The most potent inhibitory activity on avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV)- reverse transcriptase (RT) was shown by T. bellirica water and methanol extract (Kusumoto et al; 1992).
    • The HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitory activity was determined by using the fruit peel methanol extract (Kusumoto et al; 1992, & Valsaraj et al; 1996- 97).
    • T. bellirica showed significant activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In addition, it showed antifungal activity also (Valsaraj et al; 1994).
    • A significant hepatoprotective effect was observed as evident from shortened hexobarbitone “sleep time” and zoxazolamine “paralysis time” when compared with CCl4, alone. Pre- and post-treatment with the fraction from the fruits of T. bellirica (TB,) reduced, in a dose-dependent manner, the elevated levels of serum transaminases and bilirubin in rats, thus demonstrating its effect both as a prophylactic and curative. Its protective effects on microsomal lipid peroxidation and TGs in the liver suggest a restorative effect in the process of CCL4 -induced liver damage. TB5 did not show any signs of toxicity up to an oral dosage of 3.2 g/ kg in mice. (Anand et al; 1994).
    • T. bellerica seed oil may become the olive of the E stand and is abundant in the tropical Indian sub- Continent. The raw fresh flesh of the fruit can be converted into fodder. The seed oil content (about 47% by Wt. of the dry kernel) appears very promising as vegetable oil for edible purposes and can be hydrogenated or used for soap preparation (Nag & De, 1995).

    Rasa Panchaka of Vibhitaki

    Rasa (Taste)Kashaya (astringent)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Karma (Actions) of Vibhitaki

    Kasa Hara, Keshya, Netrya, Swarya, Krimighana, Mukharoga Hara, Bhedana, Chardighana.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Vibhitaki

    • Netra Roga
    • Sotha
    • Visarpa
    • Krimi Roga
    • Kasa
    • Kesha Vikara
    • Swara Bheda
    • Mukha Roga
    • Ashmari
    • Mutra Dosha

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Vibhataki

    Kasa, Swasha (Cough and asthma)

     

    • Only Vibhitaki is sufficient for all types of coughs and asthma. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 173)
    • Vibhitaka powder 10 gm with honey taken after meals alleviates cough and dyspnoea. (Raja Amrittanda. 11. 5, Chakra Dutta. 12/ 18)

     

    Atisaara (Diarrhoea): Burnt fruit of Vibhitaka mixed with salt checks diarrhea even IF severe. (Vanga Sena Atsaara. 173)

     

    Shotha (Oedema)

     

    • In all types of edemas, the paste of Vibhitaki fruit pulp allays burning sensation and pain. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 12/ 71)
    • The paste of Vibhitaki should be taken with rice water. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 3)

     

    Shwitra (Vitiligo): Ash of black snake mixed with Vibhitaka oil is applied locally. It destroys all types of vitiligo. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 18, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 20/ 12)

     

    Netra Vikara (Eye diseases)

     

    • Vibhitaka seed- kernel mixed with honey (and used as collyrium) removes corneal opacity. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 12/ 31, Raja Amritanda. 3/ 15)
    • Sesamum oil, Vibhitaki oil, Bhringraja juice, and decoction of Asana- all are cooked together in an iron vessel. Taken as a snuff, it improves eyesight. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 46)

     

    Granthi- Visarpa (Cyst, erysipelas): Hot paste of the bark of Vibhitaka should be applied locally. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 21/ 124)

     

    Ashmari (Calculus): Seeds of Vibhitaki are pounded and taken with wine. It removes defects in urine and destroys calculus. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 58/ 45)

     

    Hridya Vikara (heart disease): Vibhitaka and Asvagandha pounded together and mixed with jaggery are taken with hot water. It alleviates Vata located in the heart. (Vanga Sena Vatavyadhi. 60)

    Benefits of Vibhitaki

    • Acne (Mukha Dushika): As per Ayurvedic classical texts Vibhitaki has Kashaya (astringents) properties and acts as Rasayana (rejuvenating) and recent research revealed that Terminalia bellirica has antibacterial activity. Due to these properties, it helps to treat acne and acne scars.
    • Constipation (Vrana): Vibhitaki due to its Rechana properties i.e laxative properties helps to relieve constipation. Along with this Vibhitaki with its lubricating effect gives a soothing effect and helps in easy Mala Utsarjana (expulsion of stools).
    • Obesity (Medo Roga): Vibhitaki due to its Ushana Virya i.e hot potency helps in increasing digestive fire (Jathar Agni), thus improving toxins (Ama) and improving metabolism. Along with this with its Rechana properties, Vibhitaki helps to reduce accumulated waste from the body and helps to cure obesity.
    • Hair loss (Khalitya): Vibhitaki with its Kashaya and Ruksha properties helps to remove excessive oil from the scalp due to which the scalp remains dry and prevents the growth of dandruff. Along with this Vibhitaki has Keshya properties i.e Vibhitaki is a hair growth enhancer thus promoting hair growth and improving hair loss.
    • Wound (Vrana): Vibhitaki has Ropana properties (healing properties), along with its anti-bacterial properties it helps to prevent secondary infection and helps in the quick healing of the wound.

    Effect of Vibhitaki on different systems of bodies

    • Nervous system: The pulp is intoxicant and analgesic (the regular synonym of Vibhitaki means Tandra – a state of mind between sleep and unconsciousness. This may be due to the action of Vibhitaki on Maija Dhatu. The pulp is used in Vata disorders and insomnia.
    • Digestive system: Being Ushna, it is Deepan, laxative, and anthelmintic. Half ripe fruit is purgative and ripe fruit is astringent. It is anti-emetic and reduces excessive thirst. Useful in indigestion, flatulence, excessive thirst, emesis, hemorrhoids, and helminthiasis. Half ripe fruit relieves constipation whereas dried fruit is useful in diarrhea and dysentery.
    • Circulatory system: It is used as a blood coagulant due to its astringent property. Useful in internal bleeding. More useful in hemoptysis.
    • Respiratory system: It helps with asthma and cough by reducing the inflammation of the bronchi. Cold, cough, asthma, and hoarseness of voice are relieved by keeping the rind of the fruit in the mouth.
    • Reproductive system: The pulp is an aphrodisiac. By consuming the pulp of one seed every day, impotency is eliminated, and libido is improved.
    • Temperature: Febrifuge.
    • Satmikaran: Rasa, Rakta, Mansa and Medogami, Dhatu Vardhak because of its Madhur Vipaka.
    • Eyes: Dried Vibhitaka is good for the eyes. Vibhitaka + honey is used for local application in eye diseases.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Vibhitaki

    • Churna (powder): 1- 3 grams

    Classical reference of Vibhitaki

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 35

    Synonyms

    विभीतक स्त्रिलिङ्ग स्यादक्ष: कर्षफलस्तु स: |

    कलि द्रुमो भूतवासस्तथा कलियुगालय: |

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritakyadi Varga- 36, 37

    Properties and action

    विभीतकं स्वादु पाकं कषायं कफतित्तनुत्‌ |

    उष्णवीर्य हिमस्पर्श भेदनं कासनाशनम्‌ ||

    रुक्षं नेत्र हितम केश्यं कृमि वैस्वर्य नाशनम्‌ |

    विभीत मज्जा तृष्णा छर्दि कफ वात हरी लघु: ||

    कषायो मदकृच्चाथ धात्रीमज्जा अपि तद गुण | 

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga, 210

    विभीतक कटु: पाके लघु वैस्वर्य जित्सर: ।

    कासाक्षि वक्त्र रोगघन: केशवृद्धिकर: पर: ।।

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 243- 244

    अक्षं कषायं मधुरं पाके पित्तकफा पहम |

    उष्ण वीर्यं हिम स्पर्शं केश्यं वैस्वर्यजन्तुजित्‌ ||

    चक्षुष्य भेदनम रक्ष्म लघु खास विनाशनम |

    अक्ष मज्जा मद कर: कफ मारुत नाशन: | 

    Raja Nighantu Aamradi Varga, 232

    विभीतक: कटु तिक्त: कषायो उष्ण: काफापह: |

    चक्षुष्य: पलितघनश्च विपाके मधुरो लघु: |

    Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, 14

    विभीतकं स्यात्तु रसे कषायकं सहुष्ण वीर्यं कफ पित्त शामकम |

    स्वरं करोत्याशु पिकालि समीतं निहतीम कासम त्वपि केश रञ्जनम |  

    Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 27

    रस आस्रिक मांस मेदोजान दोषों हन्ति बिभीतकम |

    स्वर मेद कफ उत्क्लेष पित्त रोग विनाशनम |

    Shusruta Samhita

    बैभीतको मद कर: कफ मारुत नाशन: |

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Swasa Adhikara, 14- 32

    परस्थं बिभीतकानाम अस्थि विणा साधयेदजा मूत्रे |

    अयमवलेहो लीढो मधुसहित: श्वास कासघन |

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Kustha Roga Adhikara, 54- 150

    श्वित्र कुष्ठ  

    बिभीतकत्वड्मलयूजटानां क्वाथेन पित्तम गुडसंयुतेन |

    Shodhala Nighantu

    पित्त ज्वर दाह शान्त्यर्थं   

    बिभीतकास्थि मज्जाया: दाहे कुर्यात्प्रलेपनम्‌ |

    Chakradutta

    श्वास उर्धव हिककायं च 

    कर्ष कलिफलचूर्ण लीढं चात्यन्तमधुमिश्रिम्‌ |

    अचिराद्धरतिं श्वास प्रबलामुद्ध्वंसिकाशैव ||

    Chakradutta, Kasa Chiktsa, 17

    कास 

    विभीतकं घृता अभ्यकत्म गोशकृत्परिवेष्टितम्‌ |

    स्विन्नमग्नी हरेत्कासं ध्रुंवमास्यविधारितम्‌ ||

    Vang Sena

    हृदगते वायौ

    पिबेदुष्णाम्भसा पिष्टम साश्वगन्ध बिभीतकम्‌ |

    गुड युक्तं प्रयत्नेन हृदयानिलनाशनम्‌ ||

    Vangsena

    अतिसारे

    बिभीतकफलं: दग्धं हन्याल्ललणसंयुतम्‌ |

    महान्तमप्यतीसारं चक्रपाणिरिवासुरान ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 17

    शोथे

    बिभीतकस्य फलं अध्य लेप: सर्वेषु दाहर्तीहर: प्रलेप: |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 11

    ग्रंथि विसर्प 

    बिभीतकस्य वा ग्रंथि कल्केनोष्णेन सेचयेत्‌।

    Shusruta Samhita

    अश्मरी   

    अक्षबीजश्च सुरया कल्की कृत्य पिबेन्नर: |

    मूत्रदोषविशुद्धयर्थ तथैवाश्मरीनाशनम्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya

    नेत्र रोगे शुक्ले 

    मज्जा वा अक्षात्‌ समाक्षिकात्‌ |

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 3

    सर्व श्वास कासेषु  

    सर्वेषु श्वास कासेषु कैवर्तं वा विभीतकम्‌ |

    Chakra Dutta, Hika Shvasa Chikitsa, 12- 18

    हिका श्वास कलिफलचूर्णप्रयोग:

    कर्ष कलिफलचूर्ण लीढश्चत्वन्तमधुमिश्रम्‌ |

    अचिराद्धरति श्वासं प्रबलामुद्ध्वंसिकाज्ञैव ||

    Chakra Dutta, Arochaka Chikitsa, 12- 9

    स्वर भेदे कलि तरु फलादि चूर्णम 

    कलि तरु फल सिन्धुकणाचूर्ण तक्रेण लीढमपहरति |

    स्वरभेदं गोपयसा पित्तम वा आमलकचूर्णज्न ||

    Chakra Dutta, Parinam Shool Chikitsa, 27- 57

    अक्षकाद्या त्रिफला लौह:

    अक्षामलक शिवानां स्वरसैश्च पक्वं सुलोहजं चूर्णम्‌ |

    सगुडं यदयुपभुङ्क्ते मुञ्चति त्रिदोषजं शूलम्‌ ||

    Chakra Dutta, Parinam Shool Chikitsa, 27- 6

    परिणामशूलचिकित्सायाम्‌ अक्षादि चूर्णम 

    अक्षादि धात्र्य अभया कृष्णा चूर्णम मधुयुतं लिहेत ||

    दध्ना आनूनसरेणाद्यात्‌ सत्तीनयवशक्तुकान्‌ |

    अचिरान्मुच्यते शूला नरो अन्न परिवर्तजात्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 4/ 24, 39, etc. Charaka Samhita Vimana Sthana, 7/ 22, etc, Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 1. 1/ 73, 74, etc, Charaka Samhita Sharir Sthana. 8/ 41, Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana 1/ 18, etc.

    चरक संहितायां बिभीतक:

    Shusruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 11/ 11, etc, Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 9/ 17, etc, Shusruta Samhita Uttara Tantra 12/ 38, etc.

    सुश्रुत संहितायां बिभीतक:

    Ashtanga Hridya sutra Sthana 5/ 69, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana 3/ 31, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 46/ 178

    अष्टांग हृदय बिभीतक:

    Specific Formulation of Vibhitaki

    • Vibhitaki Churna for Swasa Roga
    • Triphaladi Ghrita for Netra Roga
    • Triphaladi taila for Shiro Roga and Kesha Vikara
    • Triphala Kashaya for Jwara and Shool
    • Triphala Guggulu for Sotha and Bhagandara
    • Aksiki Sura
    • Lavangadi Vati
    • Aksa Taila
    • Talishadi Churna
    • Kali Taru Phaladi Churna
    • Phalatrika Kwatha
    • Askadya Triphladya Louha

    Contraindication and side effects of Vibhitaki

    Vibhitaki if taken in excessive dosage may result in dry skin and constipation. Vibhitaki is strictly objected to being consumed during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Take Vibhitaki in mentioned dosage under medical supervision.

    Suggestive reading regarding Terminalia bellerica

    • Jony Mallik, Priyanka Das, Bijoy Karon, Sourav Das. A review on phytochemistry and pharmacological activity of Terminalia belerica. International journal of drug formulation and research. 2012; 3(6):1-5.
    • Badrul Alam. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Toxicity studies of the Different Fractions of Fruits of Terminalia belerica Roxb. Global Journal of Pharmacology. 2011; 5(1):07-17.
    • Choudhary GP. Anti-ulcer activity of the ethanolic extract of Terminalia belerica Roxb. Int. J. of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sci, 2012; 1(4):1293-97. 20. 
    • Ansari AV, Siddiqui HH, Singh PS.Antithrombotic and Thrombolytic activity of Terminalia belerica fruit extracts. Res. J of Pharmaceutical Biological and Chemical Sci. 2012; 3(2):471-78. 21. 
    • Sharma SU, Sharma US, Singh A, Sutar N, Singh PJ. Screening of Terminalia bellirica Fruits Extracts for its Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities. Jordan J of Bio Sci. 2010; 3(3):121-4
    • Bimlesh Kumar, Kalyani Divakar, Prashant Tiwari, Manoj Salhan, Diwakar Goli. Evaluation of Anti- Diarrhoeal Effect of Aqueous AndEthanolic Extracts of Fruits Pulp of Terminalia bellerica In Rats. International Journal of Drug Development and Research. 2010; 2(4):769-779. 15. 
    • Yadav S, Singh S, Sharma P, Thapliyal A, Gupta V. Antibiofilm Formation Activity of Terminalia bellerica Plant Extract Against Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus mutants and Streptococcus sobrinus: Implication in Oral Hygiene. Int. J of Pharmaceutical. & Bio Arch. 2012; 3(4):816-21.
    • Jayesh, K., Helen, L. R., Vysakh, A., Binil, E., & Latha, M. S. (2019). Protective Role of Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb Fruits Against CCl4 Induced Oxidative Stress and Liver Injury in Rodent Model. Indian journal of clinical biochemistry: IJCB34(2), 155–163. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12291-017-0732-8.
    • Bag, A., Bhattacharyya, S. K., & Chattopadhyay, R. R. (2013). The development of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) in clinical research. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine3(3), 244–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60059-3.
    • Kumari, Swati & Jeedigunta, Mythili & Joshi, Arun & Agarwal, & Mundkinajeddu, Deepak & G M, Gururaja. (2017). A pharmacognostic, phytochemical, and pharmacological review of Terminalia bellerica. 6. 368-376.
    • Tanaka M, Kishimoto Y, Saita E, Suzuki-Sugihara N, Kamiya T, Taguchi C, et al. Terminalia bellirica Extract Inhibits Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Macrophage Inflammatory Response in Vitro. Antioxidants. 2016; 5(2):20. 41. 
    • Pinmai K, Hiriote W, Soonthornchareonnon N, Jongsakul K, Sireeratawong S, Tor-Udom S. In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of water extracts of Phyllanthusemblica, Terminalia chebula, and Terminalia bellerica. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011; 23;93(12):120. 42. 
    • Das PR, Tabibul Islam Md, SaleHin Bin Mahmud ASM, Kabir MH, Ehasanul Hasan Md, et al. An ethnomedicinal survey conducted among the folk medicinal practitioners of three villages in Kurigram district, Bangladesh. Am.-Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric, 2012; 6(2):85-96

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Aamradi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchiadi Varga
    • P.V. Sharma, Priya Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Shodhala Nighantu
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sankrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

    Search

    Generic selectors
    Exact matches only
    Search in title
    Search in content
    Post Type Selectors

    Herbs A to Z

    Allergies A to Z

    Ayurpediatrics A to Z

    Superfoods A to Z

    Dravya (Herbs) Part A

    Dravya (Herbs) Part B

    Query Form

      Ask Our Ayurvedic Allergist

       

       

      Book on Ayurvedic Aspects of Allergies and Fungal Infections.

      Book on Child Health and Ayurveda.

      Follow Us

      Follow us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Subscribe us on Youtube Contact us on WhatsApp

      Leave a Reply

      Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Our Products

      No items found

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Read More Articles

      Follow Us

      Follow us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter Subscribe us on Youtube Contact us on WhatsApp
      error: Content is protected !!
      Click Here to Consult Online with Our Health Experts
      +