Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Bala Dwaya – Sida cordifolia Linn & Abutilon indicum Sw.

    Bala Dwaya – Sida cordifolia Linn & Abutilon indicum Sw.

    Bala Dwaya: The two varieties of the Malvaceae family

    Introduction

    For thousands of years, thousands of plants have been used for the treatment of various disorders. Bala is one of them, whose two varieties i.e Bala Dwaya are mentioned by Acharaya Charaka and Shusruta and Bala Traya i.e three varieties of Bala that are mentioned by Acharaya Vaghbhata. Sida cordifolia which is preferred as a source of Bala contains an alkaloid identical to Ephedrine and is a very good bronchodilator. Along with this it stimulates the central nervous system and can enhance weight loss. In Bala Dwaya second variety is Atibala i.e Abutilon indicum which belongs to the Malvaceae family and is an erect velvety shrub that is used for the treatment of various disorders like diarrhea, vaginal infection, mumps, ulcers, piles, etc due to its various properties like antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, etc.

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    Basonym of Bala

    बलति बलयति वा, प्राण शक्तिं बलं शक्ति बल वर्धयतीत्यर्थ:, स्वयमपि दृढ़त्वाच्च।

    The plant improves strength.

    Synonyms of Bala

    • According to habitat

    वाट्यालका – वांटी क्षेत्रमलति भूषयतीति ।

    Herbs grow in fields and waste places.

     

    • According to morphology

    खरयष्टिका- खरा परुषा यष्टिकावत्‌ ।

    The stem of Bala is rough like Yashtika.

    पीतपुष्पी – पीतं पुष्पमस्या: ।

    The flowers are yellow.

    वाट्या – वाट्यते वेष्ट्यते सूत्रैरिति ।

    The stem is having strong fibers.

    शीतपाकी- शीतकाले पच्यते इति ।

    The fruit of Bala ripens in the winter season.

    भद्रौदनी – भद्रमोदन बीजमस्याः ।

    Seeds are resembling cereals.

    ओदनाव्हया- पक्व बीजानामोदनसादृश्यादोदन संज्ञा ।

    Seeds of Bala resemble that of cereals.

     

    • According to properties and action

    बल आढय – प्रभूतबल युक्ता ।

    The plant itself is strong and imparts strength.

    विनया- विशेषेण नयति बलमिति। 

    Bala is promoting strength.

    Synonyms of Atibala

    अतिबला – अतिशयितं बलमस्या: , अथवा बलामति क्रान्ता, बलापेक्षया प्रकृष्रबलवर्धनीत्यर्थ: ।

    It promotes physical strength.

    ऋष्यप्रोक्ता- ऋष्ये: मृगै: स्तुता, वने जायमानत्वात्‌ । ‘ऋष्यगन्धा’ इति क्वचित्‌ पाठ:।

    Atibala grows wildly.

    कंकतिका – कड्तिकाकारदन्तुरफला ।

    Its fruit resembles comb.

    पीतपुष्पिका – पीतानि पुष्पाण्यस्या: ।

    Atibala has yellow flowers.

    पेटारिका – पेटारीसदृशफला । वंगदेशे प्रसिद्ध नाम ।

    Atibala fruits are famous in Vang Desh, and it resembles a basket.

    वर्षपुष्पिका – वर्षाकाले पुष्पितत्वात्‌ ।

    Flowers of Atibala blossom in the rainy season.

    वाटय पुष्पी – वाटय बला, तद्वत्‌ पुष्पम्‌ ।

    Its flower resembles the flowers of Bala.

    वृष्या – वाजीकरणे प्रयुक्ता ।

    Atibala is aphrodisiac.

    वृष्यगन्धिका – वृष्या शुक्रवर्धनी, गन्धिका वेगजननी, वृष्या चासौ. गन्धिका च ।

    It is an effective aphrodisiac drug.

    सहा – सहो बल, तद्वर्धयतीति । 

    It promotes physical strength.

    Synonyms of Maha Bala

    Peeta Pushpa, Sehdevi

    Synonyms of Naga Bala

    Gangeruki, Jhasha, Hrashwagavedhuka

    Regional names of Bala

    • Country mallow (English)
    • Barela (Bengali) 
    • Bariyaar, Barela, Bala, Kharaiti, Baryal, Khirenti (Hindi)
    • Kisangi, Kallangadale (Kannada)
    • Velluram (Malayalam)
    • Chikana (Marathi)
    • Nilatuthi, Paniyar Tuttul (Tamil)
    • Chirubenda, Chittamutti, Mattavapulagam (Telegu)

    Scientific classification of Bala

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassPolypetalae
    Series Thalamiflorae
    OrderMalvales
    Family Malvaceae
    GenusSida 
    Species cordifolia

    Scientific classification of Atibala

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassPolypetalae
    Series Thalamiflorae
    OrderMalvales
    Family Malvaceae
    GenusAbutilon
    Species indicum

    Botanical Name

    Bala

    Sida cordifolia Linn.

    Sida is derived from the Greek word that is the old name of water lily by Theophrastus.

    Cordifolia means heart-shaped leaves.

     

    Atibala

    Abutilon indicum Linn. / Abutilon asiaticum Linn. / Sida guianensis Sch.

    Family – Malvaceae (Karpas Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Bala (Sida cordifolia Linn.)

    Classification of Bala as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Brihaniya Mahakshaya, Balya Mahakshaya, Prajasthapan Mahakshaya, Madhura Sakandha
    • Sushruta: Vata Shanshamana, Madhura Varga, Kakolyadi Gana, Sursaadi Gana

    Classification of Ati Bala as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Madhura Sakandha, Balya
    • Susruta

    Bala Dwaya's description in Brihtrayi

    • Bala’s description in Brihtrayi
    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 11, 19S. S. Su. 15/ 36A. H. Su. 6/ 169
    C. S. Su. 3/ 20, 21S. S. Su. 16/ 20A. H. Su. 10/ 23
    C. S. Su. 4/ 2, 7S. S. Su. 39/ 6A. H. Su. 15/ 5
    C. S. Su. 5/ 60S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Su. 20/ 38
    C. S. Su. 25/ 39S. S. Chi. 2/ 65, 81A. H. Sa. 2/ 5, 846, 47, 56
    C. S. Su. 27/ 105S. S. Chi. 5/ 7, 12, 19A. H. Chi. 1/ 28, 94, 110, 114, 119, 123
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 146S. S. Chi. 15/ 28, 29, 40, 44, 46, 47A. H. Chi. 2/ 18, 32, 37
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 29, 34S. S. Chi. 17/ 19A. H. Chi. 3/ 38, 60, 80, 95, 102, 121, 127, 133, 148, 154, 172
    C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 42, 61S. S. Chi. 18/ 47A. H. Chi. 4/ 22
    C. S. Chi. 1. 2/ 4, 12S. S. Chi. 20/ 34A. H. Chi. 5/ 15, 16, 24, 41, 42. 68, 79
    C. S. Chi. 2. 1/ 26S. S. Chi. 21/ 8A. H. Chi. 6/ 38, 39, 46
    C. S. Chi. 2. 2/ 5S. S. Chi. 25/ 17A. H. Chi. 8/ 109
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 183, 187, 205, 224, 236, 242, 248, 251, 258, 267S. S. Chi. 27/ 9A. H. Chi. 9/ 13, 56
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 47, 78, 84S. S. Chi. 29/ 12A. H. Chi. 11/ 2
    C. S. Chi. 5/ 106, 135S. S. Chi. 34/ 17A. H. Chi. 14/ 13, 55, 75
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 72, 75, 78, 79, 90, 91, 93, 94, 11, 114, 170, 176S. S. Chi. 36/ 11A. H. Chi. 15/ 46
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 20, 37, 44, 56S. S. Chi. 37/ 20A. H. Chi. 16/ 56
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 34S. S. Chi. 38/ 42, 46, 54, 60, 66, 71, 88, 105A. H. Chi. 21/ 62, 73
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 169S. S. Ka. 2/ 46A. H. Chi. 22/ 8, 45, 55, 56
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 200, 235S. S. Ka. 6/ 16A. H. Ka. 4/ 1, 5, 7, 12, 37, 54, 59
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 53, 105, 137S. S. Ka. 8/ 51A. H. U. 2/ 41
    C. S. Chi. 17/ 96, 108S. S. Sa. 10/ 4A. H. U. 3/ 44, 51
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 57, 125, 145, 153, 174S. S. Sa. 13/ 16, 61A. H. U. 5/ 19
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 29, 54, 115S. S. U. 17/ 18A. H. U. 13/ 52
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 78, 81, 90, 124S. S. U. 21/ 13A. H. U. 16/ 23
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 188, 211, 241S. S. U. 23/ 9A. H. U. 18/ 43, 56
    C. S. Chi. 24/ 165S. S. U. 24/ 31A. H. U. 20/ 7
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 61, 75, 82, 87, 88S. S. U. 26/ 11A. H. U. 22/ 68
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 46, 69, 87, 93, 135, 161, 163, 177, 239, 278S. S. U. 39/ 168, 193, 220, 239A. H. U. 24/ 47
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 105, 110, 122, 147, 158, 165 (As Bala Dwaya), 166, 184, 185S. S. U. 40/ 58, 76, 91, 114A. H. U. 25/ 47
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 56, 62, 73, 76, 81, 104, 110, 119S. S. U. 43/ 19A. H. U. 26/ 6
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 50, 60, 106, 280S. S. U. 44/ 26A. H. U. 27/ 38
    C. S. Si. 3/ 12, 35, 46, 64S. S. U. 48/ 28A. H. U. 34/ 37, 42
    C. S. Si. 4/ 3, 8S. S. U. 52/ 29, 42, 47A. H. U. 35/ 22, 25
    C. S. Si. 7/ 12, 27S. S. U. 53/ 14A. H. U. 39/ 33, 60, 104, 155
    C. S. Si. 8/ 38S. S. U. 58/ 44, 57, 62A. H. U. 40/ 13
    C. S. Si. 9/ 13, 92S. S. U. 59/ 17
    C. S. Si. 11/ 31S. S. U. 65/ 9
    C. S. Si. 12/ 27, 29, 30, 31, 34, 35, 55, 56

     

    • Bala’s description in Brihtrayi as Vaatya Pushpi

    Charaka: C. S. Su. 4/ 49, C. S. Sa. 8/ 29, 89

     

    • Bala’s description in Brihtrayi as Vaatyaha

    Vagbhatta: A. H. Chi. 14/ 50

     

    • Atibala’s description in Brihtrayi
    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 4/ 7S. S. Su. 15/ 39A. H. Chi. 3/ 121
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 146S. S. Su. 16/ 20A. H. Chi. 11/ 18
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 34S. S. Su. 39/ 7A. H. Chi. 21/ 76
    C. S. Chi. 1. 2/ 4, 12S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. U. 39/ 60, 104
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 266S. S. Chi. 5/ 7, 12A. H. U. 40/ 14
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 55S. S. Chi. 15/ 43
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 158S. S. Chi. 10/ 34
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 55, 61S. S. Chi. 27/ 19
    C. S. Si. 3/ 27S. S. Chi. 37/ 23
    C. S. Si. 12/ 30, 31, 34S. S. Ka. 8/ 51
    S. S. Sa. 10/ 4
    S. S. U. 17/ 34
    S. S. U. 24/ 31
    S. S. U. 58/ 59

     

    • Atibala description as Rsyaprokta in Brihtrayi

    Charaka: C. S. Vi. 8/ 146, C. S. Chi. 3/ 257, C. S. Chi. 29/ 72

     

    • Bala’s description as Rishyagandha in Brihtrayi

    Rishyagandha has been equated with Vidhara or Bala 

    Charaka: C. S. Su. 4/ 2, C. S. Vi. 8/ 146

     

    • Bala’s description as Odanapaki in Brihtrayi

    Sheeta paki and Odanapaki drugs are allied drugs that are not yet identified. However, they are said to be varieties of Bala or Sairyaka.

    Charaka: C. S. Vi. 8/ 146, C. S. Chi. 3/ 257, C. S. Chi. 29/ 95

     

    • Bala description as Sheetapaki in Brihtrayi

    It has been identified as a variety of Bala fruit or Sairyaka by Dalhana.

    Charaka: C. S. Vi. 8/ 146, C. S. Chi. 3/ 257, C. S. Si. 3/ 51

    Shusruta: S. S. Su. 46/ 190

    Vagbhatta: A. H. U. 15/ 6

     

    • Bala’s description as Bhadrodani in Brihtrayi

    Charaka: C. S. Su. 4/ 2

     

    • Atibala description as Sehdeva in Brihtrayi

    Charaka: C. S. Vi. 8/ 146

    Shusruta: S. S. Su. 16/ 27, S. S. Su. 38/ 4, S. S. Sa. 2/ 32, S. S. Chi. 5/ 12, S. S. U. 30/ 7, S. S. U. 42/ 113

    Historical background of Bala

    In the Vedic literature ‘Bala’ is described as Rasayana, Visaghna, Balya, and Pramehaghna (Pai. Sam. 19/ 39/ 1- 13; Atha. Pa. 5/ 1/ 14). Majumdar thinks that Arundhati or Sahadevi may be Bala in the Vedic literature (Sou. Atha. Sam. 6/ 59/ 1- 3; 8/ 7/ 6). Charaka described Bala under Madhura Skandha. Sushruta also quoted Bala and Atibala among Madhura Dravyas. It is extensively used in Ayurvedic therapeutics both internally and externally. The root of the herb is known as a good tonic and immunomodulator.

    Historical background of Atibala

    Atibala is quoted in the Atharva Parishishta (5/ 1/ 4- 5 & 5/1/1-3) along with Bala and other drugs for rituals. Charaka described it among the Balya group of drugs whereas Chakrapani considered it as Pitabala (yellow variety). Atibala is extensively quoted in the Nighantu Granthas in the context of Bala Chatushtaya (four varieties of Bala). Susruta quoted Atibala among Madhura Dravyas while Charaka did not describe it under Madhura Skandha.

    Controversy regarding Bala

    Sushruta mentioned Bala and Atibala under Madhura Varga while quoting Sahadeva and Visvadeva under Kakolyadi Gana. But Charaka described the above herbs along with other herbs like Sheetapaki, and Odanapaka under the Madhura Skandha. Bhava Prakasha documented Maha Bala as the synonym of Sahadeva. Annapaki, Sheetapaki, Odanapaki, etc, are considered synonyms of Saireyaka also. Charaka identified Odanapaki with Nilajhinti (Saireyaka Variety) while Bopadeva mentioned it as the synonym of Shveta Gunja. Bhadroudani may be a variety of Bala (Nagabala) i.e. Pita Bala according to Thakurji. Vatyayani in C. S. Su. 4/ 2 is considered to be a white variety of Bala (Side spinosa Linn.) while Vatyapuspi in C. S. Su. 4/ 49 & C. S. Sa. 8/ 29 is a yellow variety. There are more than one species of Sida being used as Bala. They are S. acuta Burm, S. rhombifolia Linn, S. spinosa Linn., S. retusa, etc. S. spinosa may be known as Shveta Bala.

    Controversy regarding Atibala

    Another species is Abutilon theophrasti Medik. (A. avicennae Gaertn). is also used by some as Atibala because of their similarity in appearance.

    External morphology of Sida cordifolia

    • Habit- Bala is a wild undershrub.
    • Stem- The stem of Bala is Herbaceous, erect, branched, cylindrical, solid, and green.
    • Leaf- Cauline and Ramal, alternate, stipulate, cordate, serrate, acute, pubescent, unicostate reticulate veined.
    • Inflorescence- solitary, axillary or terminal, and few-flowered cymes.
    • Flower- Bracteate, pedicellate, complete, actinomorphic, bisexual pentamerous, hypogynous, yellow-colored, 5 sepals, gamosepalous, petals are 5, polypetalous, twisted, yellow. stamens are indefinite, Monadelphous, gynoecium multi- capillary, syncarpous, and multilocular due to false sepia.
    • Fruit- Schizocarp, 6-8 mm in diameter.
    • Flowering and fruiting time: Throughout the year in general between September to January in particular.

    External morphology of Abutilon indicum

    • Habit: Erect annual herb, profusely branched perennial shrub, 1-3 m high. Root: The root of Atibala is up to 30 cm long and 0.5- 2 cm thick with many secondary roots.
    • Stems: Stems of Atibala are young, softly tomentose. 
    • Leaves: Leaves of Atibala are simple, alternate, lamina broadly ovate, cordate, 6- 10 x 4- 8 cm, sometimes 3-5 angled, margins toothed, grayish beneath, stipules deflexed, linear, petiole 4-8 cm long. 
    • Inflorescence: Atibala inflorescence is axillary, solitary, 2.5- 5 cm long pedicellate flowers, pedicles jointed at the top, calyx 0.8- 1.2 cm long, divided to the middle, into 5 ovate, apiculate lobes, corolla of 5 petals, 2- 2.5 cm across, yellow – orange-yellow with purplish nerves in the center, stamens many on a staminal tube.
    • Fruit: Fruit of Atibala is truncate schizocarp with 10-25 carpels longer than the calyx, carpels green and densely stellate hairy at first, turning to black and glabrescent at length, rounded on the back, mucronate, dehiscing and separating from the central axis. 
    • Seeds: 2-3 per carpel, 2-3 mm long, ovoid – sub orbicular, dark brown with minute, scattered, stellate masses on the surface.
    • Flowering and fruiting time: Throughout the year. November to March in particular.

    Note: Sida acuta and Sida spinosa is also used under the name of Bala whose details are presented below:

    External morphology of Sida acuta

    • Habit: Erect, annual, biennial herb, under the shrub, 30 cm- 1.5 m high, generally much-branched along the main stem, less hairy. 
    • Leaves: Leaves slimy on chewing, simple, alternate, ovate-lanceolate, inequilateral, lower ones somewhat rhomboid in outline, 1.5- 8.5 x 0.5- 3 cm with toothed margins and acute apex. Petiole 0.5- 1 cm long. Stipules are linear 0.7-1 cm long, leafy with a broad base. 
    • Inflorescence: Inflorescence of S. acuta is an axillary, solitary flower, or a few together. 
    • Flowers: Flowers are 1- 1.5 cm across; calyx 0.6- 0.8 cm long, green with 5 triangular, glabrous lobes and ciliate margins, corolla of 5 yellow – orange-yellow, emarginate petals, pedicel 0.4- 1 cm long, jointed about the middle, stamens many, ovary 6 celled.
    • Fruit: Fruits of 6 carpels, 0.3- 0.4 cm long with 0.1 – 0.15 cm long, almost glabrous awns.
    • Seeds: Seeds are one per carpel, dark brown, 0.2 x 0.15 cm, trigonous and smooth.
    • Flowering & Fruiting time – More or less throughout the year in general. October-January.

    External morphology of Sida spinosa

    • Habit: Erect or sub-erect, annual herb, undershrub 30-60 cm high generally with profuse branching. 
    • Leaves: Leaves are alternate, simple, petiole 1- 2.5 cm long supported by 2 short spines, lamina 1.5- 4x 1- 2 cm, ovate-elliptic-oblong, with serrate margins. Flowers: Flowers are pale yellow, solitary, or in clusters, pedicel 0.5- 1.5 cm long, jointed just below the stellate hairy calyx, corolla 0.6- 0.8 cm across. 
    • Fruit: Fruit is a sub-globose schizocarp of 3- 6 carpels, each about 0.4 cm long with a black-brownish, smooth seed.
    • Flowering & Fruiting time – October-February.

    Distribution of Sida cordifolia:

    It is found in tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. Throughout the hotter parts of India and fairly common in various provinces in the country as a common weed i.e in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, etc.

    Distribution of Abutilon indicum:

    Abutilon indicum is seen throughout the country as a weed along roads, wastelands, about villages, along forest paths, and in hilly places with human habitation, it is also distributed in Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia, and the Philippines. 

    Distribution of Sida acuta:

    Sida acuta is found throughout India, in the plains of coastal and hilly regions up to an altitude of 1000 m or so. The plant is a weed generally found luxuriantly along the roadside, about fallow fields, and the cleared forest areas with human habitation. It is pantropic in its distribution and hence found in both the hemispheres.

    Distribution of Sida spinosa:

    Sida spinosa is generally found as a weed in drier parts of the country, including Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, etc. It is also distributed in other tropical and subtropical regions of the world.

    Varieties of Bala

    There are four kinds of Bala i.e Bala, Atibala, Mahabala, and Nagabala, collectively grouped under Bala Chatushtaya incorporated in texts (Nighantu). Bala has also two varieties, based on flower colors such as white (Shveta) and yellow (Pita). Few other species are also considered plant sources of Bala i.e Sida cordifolia e.g., Sida acuta Burm. f., Sida spinosa Linn., other than Sida cordifolia Linn. In addition, some other groups are mentioned in classical texts (Samhita) viz. Bala Dwaya consists of Bala and Atibala and Balatraya or Balatritaya adding Nagabala to Baladvaya components (Bala, Atibala and Nagabala). Another kind of Bala is also indicated as Bhumibala with source plant Sida veronicaefolia Linn, syn. Sida humilis Cav.

     

    • According to Bhava Prakasha Nighantu and Kaiydeva Nighantu, Dhanwantri Nighantu, there are 4 types:
    1. Bala: Sida cordifolia
    2. Atibala: Abutilon indicum
    3. Nagabala: Sida veronicaefolia/ Grewia hirsuta.
    4. Mahabala: Sida rhombifolia

     

    • According to Sri Priya Vrata Sharma, there are five varieties of Bala:
    1. Bala: Sida cordifolia
    2. Atibala: Abutilon indicum
    3. Nagabala: Grewia hirsuta.
    4. Mahabala: Sida rhombifolia
    5. Raja Bala: Sida veronicaefolia

    The useful part of Bala

    Root

     

    Identification of root: Pieces of cylindrical, gradually tapering roots up to 2 cm in diameter, branching at lower parts only. The outer surface is rough, longitudinally wrinkled or shriveled, and earthy brown. The thicker root pieces bear transversely elongated lenticels. Thinner pieces representing the lower part of the root, bear a lot of root scars and remnants of rootlets. A transversely cut portion of the root that’s closely adhering to bark, which is up to 1 mm thick, a well-marked cambium ring, a woody region characterized by radiating medullary rays in between a concentric ring and a central pith. On breaking becomes short woody pieces, has a characteristic pungent odor, mucilaginous on chewing.

    Important phytoconstituent of Sida cordifolia:

    The seed contains Ephedrine, Fatty oil, Steroids, Phytosterol, Resin, Resin acids, Mucin, and Potassium nitrate.

     

    The root contains Ephedrine, Hypaphorine, Vasiscinone, Vasicine, Vasiscinol, Choline, and Betaine.

    Important phytoconstituent of Abutilon indicum:

    Hescoses, n-alkane mixtures, alkanols, B-sitosterol, vanillic, p-coumaric, caffeic, fumaric, amino acids, alanto- lactone, iso- alanto- lactone, etc.

    Recent research on Bala

    • Ethanol extract (EE), Chloroform (CF), and methanol (MF) fractions obtained from Sida cordifolia are subjected to antinociceptive activity and these demonstrate a pronounced antinociceptive activity on orofacial nociception. Bonjardim LR, Silva AM, Oliveira MG, Guimaraes AG, Antoniolli AR, Santana MF, Serafini MR, Santos RC, Araujo AA, Estevam CS, Santos MR, Lyra A, Carvalho R, Quintans-Junior LJ, Azevedo EG, Botelho MA. Sida cordifolia leaf extract reduces the orofacial nociceptive response in mice. Phyto another Res. 2011 Aug; 25(8):1236-41. Doi: 10. 1002/ ptr. 3550. E Pub 2011 Jun 14.
    • This study aimed at assessing the effects of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia root on quinolinic acid (QUIN) induced neurotoxicity and to compare its effect with the standard drug depreny1 in rat brain. Swathy SS, Panicker S, Nithya RS, Anuja MM, Rejitha S, Indira M Anti- peroxidative and anti-inflammatory effect of Sida cordifolia Linn. on quinolinic acid-induced neurotoxicity. Neuro- chem Res. 2010 Sep; 35(9): 1361-7. E pub 2010 May 25.
    • Ethanol extract of roots of Sida cordifolia was evaluated for antistress, apoptogenic activity using cold restraint stress, and swim endurance in mice. Mice pretreated with extract of Sida cordifolia showed significant improvement in the swim duration and reduced the elevated WBC, blood glucose, and plasma cortisone. Sumanth M, Mustafa SS. Antistress, Adaptogenic Activity of Sida cordifolia Roots in Mice. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2009. May; 71 (3): 323- 4. 
    • The antipyretic and anti-ulcerogenic properties of methanolic extract of Sida cordifolia aerial parts (MESC) were investigated in rats.
    • The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a new alkaloid, 1,2,3,9- tetrahydro pyrrolo (2,1-b) quinazoline- 3- arylamine (compound 1) isolated from Sida cordifolia Linn. were investigated in animal models. The alkaloid also produced a significant increase in the tail-flick latency in the radiant heat tail-flick method. In Carrageenan induced rat paw edema, compound 1 produced 16.93 and 24.43% inhibition of paw edema at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg body weight respectively during the third hour of the study. Sutradha RK, Rahman AM, Ahmad M, Bachar SC, Saha A, Roy TG. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic alkaloid from Sida cordifolia Linn. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2007 Jul; 20 (3): 185- 8.
    • Sida cordifolia extracts of the aerial and root parts showed good analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycaemic activities. Kanth VR, Diwan PV. Analgesic, anti- Inflammatory, and hypoglycemic activities of Sida cordifolia. Phyto Res. 1999 Feb; 13 (1): 75- 7.

    Rasa Panchaka of Bala

    Rasa (Taste)Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Guru (heavy), Snigdha (oily), Picchila (slimy)
    Virya (potency)Sheet (cold potency)
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Dosha Karma of Bala

    Vata- Pitta Hara

    Vata Hara because of Madhura Rasa, Snigdha Guna, and Madhura Vipaka.

    Pitta Hara because of Madhura Rasa, Madhura Vipaka, and Sheeta Virya.

    Karma (Actions) of Bala

    Balya, Grahi, Kantikara, Ojo Vardhaka, Ayu Vardhaka, Stambhana, Brihana, Rasyana, Shothahara, Hridya.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Bala

    • Karshya
    • Vata Vyadhi
    • Dourbalya
    • Rakta Pitta
    • Kshaya
    • Mutra Atisara
    • Mutra Kricha
    • Vata Rakta

    Rasa Panchaka of Atibala

    Rasa (Taste)Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Snigdha (oily)
    Virya (potency)Sheet (cold potency)
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

     

    Karma: Vata- Pitta Hara, Balya, Brihana, Vrishya

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Bala

    • Vata Vyadhi
    • Rakta Pitta
    • Kshaya
    • Prameha

    Aamyik Prayog (Therapeutic uses) of Atibala

    Kashtmutra (Dysuria): Decoction of the root of Atibala alleviates all types of dysuria. (Chakra Dutta. 32/ 33, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 35/ 40)

     

    Rakta Pradara (Meno-metrorrhagia):  The root of Atibala should be powdered and taken after mixing with sugar and honey. It is efficacious in Rakta Pradara. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 68/ 13)

     

    Mudha Garbha (abnormal position of fetus): Like Bala Taila, oil is cooked with Atibala, etc. for applying in the case of Mudha Garbha. (Susruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 15/ 44- 45)

     

    Rasayana (Rejuvenator): It is also used as Rasayana. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 2/ 12, Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 27/ 10)

    Aamyik Prayog (Therapeutic uses) of Bala

    Atisara (Diarrhea):

     

    • In case of dehydration, if digestion is good, the patient should be treated with milk cooked with Bala and Sunthi followed by an intake of jaggery mixed with oil in the morning. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 2/ 111)
    • Wasting due to chest-wound Bala, Ashwagandha, Kasmari, Shatavari, and Punarnava, singly or jointly, should be used regularly with milk. They alleviate the disease. (Vrinda Madhava. 10/ 77)

    Gandmala (Goiter): Intake of oil cooked with Bala and Atibala along with Devadaru is efficacious in goiter. (Susruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 47)

     

    Rakta Arsha (Bleeding piles):  Liquid gruel made of parched paddy and processed with Bala and Prishanparni checks bleeding immediately. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 199)

     

    Vatavyadhi: 

     

    • Bala- Taila. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 28/ 148- 56)
    • Bala- Taila. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 82)
    • In hemiplegia, Bala Taila is used in an unctuous enema. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 19)
    • Bala soup is an excellent remedy for pacifying Vata. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/2)

     

    Avabahuka (Frozen shoulder): One who takes the root of Bala or Paribhadra or decoction of Kapikacchu (seeds) and uses decoction of Masa as snuff attains, in a month, powerful strength in arms. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 32, Vanga Sena Vata Vyadhi.122, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 83)

     

    • Decoction of Bala root added with rock salt is useful in the atrophy of arms and torticollis. (Vang Sena Vata Vyadhi. 118)

     

    Vatarakta (Gout):

     

    • Sahasrapaka or Satapaka balataila. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 119- 120, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 45- 46)
    • Bala Taila should be used in bath, dipping, enema, and diet. (Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 12)
    • Dasapaka Bala Taila. (Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 26- 27)

    Shleepada (Filaria): One who takes two types of Bala (Bala and Atibala) with milk in the morning is freed from filaria even if chronic and severe. (Vanga Sena Shleepada. 30)

     

    Kasta Prasava (Difficult labor)

     

    • Bala- Taila. (Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 29- 39)
    • Oil is pressed out of sesamum seeds soaked with Bala decoction and cooked a hundred times with decoction of the same. It is an excellent remedy. (Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.15/ 40)

    Prasava Shool (Pain during pregnancy):  The pregnant woman should take milk processed with Bala decoction in the morning and evening. (Vaidya Manorma.13/ 23)

     

    Rakta Pradara (Meno-metrorrhagia):  Root of Bala mixed with honey is taken with milk or root of Kusa or rice water. (Vaidya Manorma. 63/ 10)

     

    Rasayana (Rejuvenator):  Balarasayana. (Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 27/ 10)

     

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage):  Cow-milk cooked with Bala or Goksura is useful. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 84)

     

    Visarpa (Erysipelas):  Paste containing Bala, Utpala root, Vira, Agaru, and Chandana and also of lotus stalk and stem should be applied locally. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 21/ 79)

     

    Trishana (Thirst):  In thirst caused by alcoholism water processed with Haridra or Bala or Prishnaparni or Kantakari should be given. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 165)

     

    Vrana (Wound)

     

    • Shalmali bark, Bala root, and tender leaves of Nyogrodha and also the group known as Nyagrodhadi and Badari are used as paste and bath to relieve the burning sensation. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 63- 64)
    • Decoction of Triphala, Khadira, Darvi, Nyagrodhadi group, Bala, Kusha, and Nimba (fruit and leaves) cleanses the wound. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 84)

     

    Swara Bheda (Hoarseness of voice)

     

    • One should take powder of Kakolyadi drugs mixed with honey and ghee or powder of Shatavari or Bala. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 53/ 14)
    • Ghee cooked with Bala, Shalaparni, Vidari, and Madhuka and added with salt should be used as snuff. It is an excellent promoter of voice. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 41)

    Rajyakshma (Consumption): Ghee cooked with Dashamula, milk, or meat-soup along with the paste of Bala should be used or the same cooked with meat-soup of carnivorous animals or ten times milk added with honey. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 14- 15)

     

    Vrishana Vriddhi (Scrotal enlargement): One can control the disease and pain by taking castor oil mixed with milk processed with Bala. (Chakra Dutta. 40/ 12)

     

    Hridshool (Distress in the chest):  Juice (or decoction) of SuryaVarta and Bala, singly or jointly, warm and mixed with Hingu removes the disorder. (Vanga Sena, Urogreha. 5)

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Bala

    • Churna (powder)- 3- 6 grams
    • Kwatha (Decoction)- 50- 100 ml
    • Swarasa (liquid extract)- 10- 20 ml

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Atibala

    • Churna (powder)- 3- 6 grams
    • Kwatha (Decoction)- 50- 100 ml

    Classical reference of Atibala

    Dhanwantri Nighantu

    बल अतिबला प्रोक्ता वाट्यपुष्पी च क्ङ्क्ता। ऋ्ष्यप्रोक्ता ऋष्यगन्धा सैव भूरिबला मता ॥

    वातपित्तापहं ग्राहि बल्यं वृष्यं बलात्रयम्‌ । 

    महाबला वाट्यपुष्पी तथा वाटयायनी स्मृता । सहदेवा देवसहा पीतपुष्पा बृहत्फला ||

    महाबला तु हद्रोगवातार्श: शोफनाशिनी । शुक्रवृद्धिकरी हन्याद विषम च ज्वरं नृणाम्‌।। 

    Kaiydeva Nighantu

    ततो अन्या अतिबला ऋष्यप्रोक्ता कङ्कितिक सहा।। 

    Chakra Dutta. 32/ 23, Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 35/ 40

    मूत्रकृच्छे

    कषायोअतिबला मूलसाधितो अशेषकृच्छजित्‌ । 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 68/ 13

    रक्त प्रदरे 

    बला कंकतिकाख्या या तस्या: मूलं सुचूर्णितम्‌।

    लोहितप्रदेरे खादेच्छकरामधुसंयुतम्‌।। 

    Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 44- 45

    मूढ गर्भे 

    बलाकल्पेनातिबलागुडूच्यादित्यपर्णिषु ।

    सैरेयके वीरतरौ शतावर्या त्रिकण्टके।। 

    तैलानि मधुके कुर्यात्‌ प्रसारिण्यां च बुद्धिमान्‌।। 

    Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 27/ 10, Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 2. 12

    रसायने। 

    Classical reference of Bala

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 142

    Synonyms

    बला वाटयालिका वाट्या सैव वाट्यालका अपि च ।

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 144

    Properties and action

    बला चतुष्ट्यं शीतं मधुरं बलकान्तिकृत्‌ । 

    स्निग्धं ग्राहि समीरास्रपित्तास्र क्षतनाशनम । 

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 145

    बलामूलत्वचश्च चूर्णम पीतम सक्षीरशर्करम्‌ ।

    मूत्रतीसारं हरति दृस्टमेतन्न संशय: ।। 

     Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga, 271

    बला स्निग्धा हिमा स्वादुर्वण्या बल्या त्रिदोषनुत्‌ ।

    रक्तपित्तं क्षयं हन्ति बलौजो वर्थयत्यपि ।।

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1056- 1057

    बला चतुष्ट्यं स्निग्धं मधुरं रसपाकयो: ।

    शीतलं ग्राहि धात्वोजोबलायु: कान्तिवर्धनम्‌ ।।

    हन्ति वातास्रपित्तास्रदोषन्रयक्षतक्षयान्‌ ।

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1058- 1059

    बलाफलं स्वादुपाके कषाय॑ मधुर रसे ।

    हिमं वीर्ये गुरुगुणे स्तम्भनं लेखनम भृशम।। 

    विबन्धाध्मानपवनज्वरपित्तकफास्रजित्‌ ।।

    Raja Nighantu Shathavadi Varga- 95

    बलाअतितिक्ता मधुरा पित्तातीसारनशनी ।

    बलवीर्यप्रदा पुष्टि- कफरोगविशोधनी । ।

    Priya Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, 106

    बला पंचकमुद्दिष्ट स्वादु शीतश्च स्निग्धकं। 

    बालयम वृष्यं बृहणश्च वातपित्तक्षयापहम्‌ । ।

    Raja Nighantu Shathavadi Varga- 94- 102, Kaiydeva Nighantu, Aushadi Varga, 1051- 1059, Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga, 142- 144

    बला- महाबला- अतिबला- नागबला।

    Raja Nighantu Shathavadi varga, 95

    बला

    बला अतितिक्ता मधुरा पित्तातीसारनाशनी ।

    बलवीर्यप्रदा पुष्टि- कफ़रोगविशोधिनी।। 

    Raja Nighantu Shathavadi varga, 100

    महा बला 

    महाबला तु हद्रोगवातार्शशोफनाशनी ।

    शुक्रवृद्धिकरी बल्या विषमज्वरहारिणी।। 

    Raja Nighantu Shathavadi varga, 102

    अतिबला

    तिक्ता कटुश्वातिबला वातघ्नी क्रिमिनाशनी ।

    दाहतृष्णाविषच्छर्दिक्लेदोपशमनी परा।। 

    Raja Nighantu Shathavadi varga, 105

    नागबला

    मधुराम्ला नागबला कषायोष्णा गुरु: स्मृता।

    कण्डूति कुष्ठ वातघ्नी व्रण पित्त विकारजित्‌।। 

    Dhanwantri Nighantu

    बला स्निग्धा हिमा स्वादु वृष्या बल्यां त्रिदोषनुत्‌।

    रक्तपित्त क्षयं हन्ति बलौजोवर्धयत्यपि।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 2/ 111

    अतिसारे (पुरीषक्षये) 

    बलाविश्वामृतं क्षीरं गुड़ तैल अनुयोजितम। 

    दीप्ताग्नि पाययेत प्रात: सुखदं वर्चस: क्षये।।  

    Vrinda Madhava. 10/ 77

    क्षतक्षीणे 

    बला अश्वगन्धा श्रीपर्णी बहुपत्री पुनर्नवा। 

    पयसा नित्यमभ्यस्ता: शमयन्ति क्षत क्षयं।। 

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 47

    गलगण्डे 

    सिद्ध बलाभ्याञ्च सदेवदारु हिताय नित्यं गलगण्डरोगे। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 199

    रक्त अर्श 

    लाजापेया पीत सिद्ध ।

    हन्त्या अश्व सस्रावं तथा बला पृश्नपर्णी अभ्यामं। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 28/ 148- 156

    वातव्याधौ 

    बलातैलम्‌। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 82

    बलातैलम्‌। 

    Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 19

    पक्षाघाते

    बलातैलम अनुवासनार्थे। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 2

    वाट्यालककृतो यूष: परम् वात विनाशन: ।। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 32, Vanga Sena. Vaat Vyadhi. 122, Bhava Prakasha Samita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 83

    अवबाहुके

    मूलं बलायास्त्वथ परिभद्रात्तथात्मगुप्तास्वरसं पिबेद्‌ वा।

    नस्यम तु यो माषरसेन कुर्यान्‌ मासादसो वज्र समानबाहु:।। 

    Vang Sena Vaat Vyadhi. 118

    बैलामूल शृतं तोयं सैन्धवं समन्वितम्‌।

    बाहु शोष गति वायौ मन्यास्तंभे च शस्यते।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 119- 120, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 45- 46

    वात रक्ते

    सहस्त्र प्रपाकं शतपाक बलातैलम्‌।  

    Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 12

    बलातैल वा परिषेकावगाहबस्तिभोजनेषु । 

    Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 26- 27

    बलातैलं दशपाकम्‌। 

    Vanga Sena Shleepada. 30

    श्लीपदे 

    क्षीरेण प्रातरुत्थाय पिबेद्‌ यस्तु बला द्वयं।। 

    सक्षीरं श्लीपदज्जन्तुरसाध्यादपि मुच्यते।। 

    Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 29- 39

    मूढ़गर्भे (शस्त्रकर्मोत्तरम)

    बलातैलम्‌। 

    Shusruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 40

    बलाकषायपीतेभ्यस्तिलेभ्यो वाप्यनेकश: ।

    तैलमुत्याद्य ततु क्वाथ् शतपाकं कृत शुभम्‌।। 

    Vaidya Manorma. 13. 23

    गर्भिणीशूले

    गर्भिणी तु बला क्वाथ्क्वा सिध्म सायं प्रगे अपि वा। 

    Vrinda Madhava. 63/ 10

    रक्तप्रदरे 

    प्रदरं हन्ति बलाया मूल दुग्थेन मधुयुतं पीतम्‌।

    कुश वाट्यालक मूलं तण्डुलसलिलेन रक्ताख्यम्‌।

    Shsuruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 27/ 10

    रसायने

    बलारसायनम्‌। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 84

    रक्तपित्ते

    गव्यं पय: बलाशृतं गोक्षुरकै: श्रृत॑ वा।

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 21/ 79

     विसर्पे

    बलामुत्पलशालूकं वीरामगरु चन्दनम्‌।

    कुर्यादालेपनं वैद्यो मृणालञ्च बिसान्वितम्‌।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 165

    मदात्ययजतृष्णायाम

    तृष्यते सलिलं चास्मै दद्याद्धरीबेरसाधितम्‌।

    बलया पृश्न पर्णी वा कण्टकार्या अथवा श्रृतम्‌।। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 63- 64

    वर्णे 

    निर्वापणे

    शाल्मलीत्वग बलामूल॑ तथा न्यग्रोध पल्ल्वा: ।

    न्यग्रोधा आदिकम उद्दिष्टं बलादिकमथापि वा।। 

    आलेपनं निर्वपणं तद्‌ विद्यातश्च सेचनम्‌। 

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 25/ 84

    शोधने 

    त्रिफला खदिरो दर्वी न्यग्रोधादिरबला कुशः ।

    निम्बकोलकपत्राणि कषाय:  शोधना: मता: ।।

    Shusruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 53/ 14

    स्वरभेदे

    लिहयान मधुरकाणां वा चूर्ण मधुघृताप्लुतम। 

    शतावरीचूर्णयोगं बलाचूर्णमथापि वा।। 

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 41

    बला विदारीगन्धाभ्याम विदार्या मधुकेन च।

    सिद्धम सलवणं सर्पि स नस्यम स्वर्यमतुत्तमम्‌।। 

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 14- 15

    राजयक्ष्मणि

    दशमूलेन पयसा सिद्ध मांसरसेन वा।। 

    बलागर्भ घृत योज्यं  क्रव्यान मांसरसेन वा।। 

    सक्षौद्रं पयसा सिद्ध सर्पिर्द्शगुणेन वा।। 

    Chakra Dutta. 40/ 12

    अन्त्रवृद्धौ

    तैलमेरण्डज पीत्वा बला सिद्धम  पयो अन्वितम्‌।

    आध्मानशूलोपचितामन्त्रवृद्धि जयेन्नर: ।। 

    Vanga Sena. Uro greha. 5

    उरो ग्रह 

    सूर्यावर्तबलोदभवा: ।

    रसा एकैकशः कोष्णा: द्विशो वा रामठारन्विताः।। 

    Specific Formulation of Bala

    • Bala Taila for Vata Vikara, Bhagna.
    • Bala Guduchyadi Taila for Vatarakta, Rakta Pitta
    • Ksheera Bala Taila for Vata Vikara
    • Bala Arishta for Vata Vyadhi, Krisha
    • Masha Baladi Taila for Vata Roga, Manyastambha
    • Baladi Kashaya for Pittaja Kasa
    • Baladya Ghrita for Rajayakshma, Kasa
    • Bla Ashwgandha Lakshadi Taila for Jwara, Unmada, Vatavikara Specific Formulation of Bakuchi

    Contraindication and side effects of Bala

    • Bala is known as Indian-ephedra because it contains 0.8- 1.2% of Ephedrine. The continuous use of products with Ephedrine which is an alkaloid can bear a series of health risks. By not being aware of its presence, or when ignoring its contraindications, prolonged use, especially combined with other stimulants, can be harmful. For these reasons many states of the United states have prohibited the use of ephedrine in the dietary compliments and do not advise in homemade preparations. The overuse of Bala may result in anxiety, insomnia, nervousness, memory loss, stroke, etc. 
    • Bala is safe if taken in food amounts, but it is better to use it under medical supervision during pregnancy and breastfeeding. 
    • Bala also lowers blood pressure so if you are taking any anti-hypertensive medication use it under medical supervision.

    Suggestive reading regarding Atibala

    • S, Rajeshwari. (2016). Medicinal properties of Abutilon indicum. Open Journal of Plant Science. 3. 022-025. 10.17352/ojps.000011.
    • Sikorska M, Matlawska I (2008) Polyphenolic compounds from Abutilon grandiflorum leaves. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica – Drug Research, 65: 467-471. 
    • Abdul Rahuman A, Gopalakrishnan G, Venkatesan P, Geetha K. (2008) Isolation and identification of mosquito larvicidal compound from Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet Parasitology Research 102: 981-988. 
    • Appaji RR, Sharma RD, Katiyar GP, Sai PA. (2009) Clinical study of the Immunoglobulin enhancing effect of “Bala compound” on infants. Anc. Sci. Life 28: 18-22.
    • S., Suryawanshi & Umate, Suvarna. (2020). A Review on Phytochemical Constituents of Abutilon indicum (Link) Sweet – An Important Medicinal Plant in Ayurveda. Plantae Scientia. 3. 15-19. 10.32439/ps. v3i3.15-19.
    • Ali S.,Yasmeen  S.,  Afza  N.,  Malik  A.,  Iqbal  L.,  Lateef  M.,  Riaz  N. (2009).  New antioxidant phenolic glucoside from Abutilon indicum., Asian Nat Prod Res.11 (5): 457-464
    • Nithyatharani R. and Kavitha U.S. (2018). Phytochemical analysis of the seeds of Abutilon indicum, International Journal of  Creative  Research Thoughts. 6(1),447-450
    • Deepraj paul, Karthika paul, Anuradha TS. Evaluation of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Abutilon indicum for its analgesic and sedative property Deepraj Paul et al. Int. Res. J. Pharm., 2013; 4(5): 216-8.
    • Kaladhar DSVGK, Swathi Saranya K, Varahalarao Vadlapudi, Nagendra Sastry Yarla. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Anti-proliferative Activity of Abutilon indicum L. Plant Ethanolic Leaf Extract on Lung Cancer Cell Line A549 for System Network Studies. Cancer Science and Therapy, 2014; 6(6): 188-94
    • Anil Kumar Dhiman, Amit Kumar, Pharmacological Potential of Atibala of Ayurveda: A Review, Pharmacognosy Journal, Volume 2, Issue 11, 2010, Pages 442-447, ISSN 0975-3575.
    • Korska M, Matlawska I (2008) Polyphenolic compounds from Abutilon grandiflorum leaves. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica – Drug Research, 65: 467-471. 

    Suggestive reading regarding Bala

    • Dr. Sukha ram et al. Phyto – Pharmacognostic Analysis of Ayurvedic Medicine Bala (Sida Cordifolia Linn.) IRJAY, June: 2020, Vol- 3, Issue-6.
    • Kumar Sharma, A. (2015). MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF BALA (SIDA CORDIFOLIA LINN. AND ITS SPECIES). International Journal of Ayurveda and Pharma Research, 1(2). 
    • V.    Ravi    Kanth    and    P.    V.    Diwan.    Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Hypoglycemic  Activities of   Sida cordifolia.   Phytother.   Res.   13,  75–77 (1999).
    • Khurana, N., N. Sharma, S. Patil, and A. Gajbhiye. “PHYTO-PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF SIDA CORDIFOLIA: A REVIEW OF FOLKLORE USE AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES”. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 9, no. 8, Oct. 2016, pp. 52-58, doi:10.22159/ ajpcr. 2016. v9s2.13698.
    • Sutradhar RK, Rahman AK, Ahmad MU, Bachar SC. Bioactive flavones of Sida cordifolia. Phytochem Lett 2008;1(4):179-82.
    • Pokale S, Kulkarni K. Evaluation of the antifertility potential of aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia Linn. Plant in Swiss albino mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4(2):128-31.
    • Silva RL, Melo GB, Melo VA, Antoniolli AR, Michellone PR, Zucoloto S, Picinato MA, Franco CF, et al. Effect of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Acta cirurgica brasileira / Sociedade Brasileira para Desenvolvimento Pesquisa em Cirurgia 21 Suppl 1 2006; 37–9.
    • Silva RS et al. Effect of the aqueous extract of Sida cordifolia on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Acta Cir. 2006; 21(1): 77-79. 
    • Sumanth Meera and Mustafa S. S., Antistress and Adaptogenic Activity of Sida cordifolia Roots in Mice, Ind J Pharm Sci. 2009 May-Jun; 71 (3): 323–324.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: BhavaPrakasha Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Shathavadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga
    • P.V. Sharma, Priya Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha Sankrita Sansthan, Varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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