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    Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

    A Complete Guide to Ulcerative Colitis (UC)

    Introduction

    Recurrent infection of the colonic mucosa is a chronic disease known as Ulcerative colitis that is encountered by clinicians in day-to-day life. Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that usually extends to involve all or part of the colon and also involves the mucosa of the rectum. The incidence of Ulcerative colitis is rising worldwide. Ulcerative colitis most commonly affects adults aged between 30- 40 years (can affect in age) and usually presents with symptoms like tenesmus, bloody diarrhea, crampy abdominal pain, rectal bleeding, etc. As per modern medicine, aminosalicylates are the drug of choice for mild to moderate cases of Ulcerative colitis. Biological and immunosuppressant drugs are used to cure moderate to severe cases of Ulcerative colitis. As per Ayurvedic classical texts Pittaja Atisara, Raktaja Atisara, Shoka Janya Atisara, and Pravahika show symptoms resembling Ulcerative colitis. For the Management of Ulcerative colitis, Piccha Basti is considered the first line of treatment. Atisara Chikitsa is also followed along with symptomatic treatment in Ulcerative colitis according to Ayurveda. In this article, you can better understand Ulcerative colitis from a modern as well as an Ayurveda perspective. Here Ayurvedic treatment along with Yoga procedures and Pathya and Apathya i.e Dietary guidelines are well mentioned so that you can better understand and treat the disease.

    Facts about Ulcerative colitis

    • People always confuse Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease as both are inflammatory bowel diseases, but Ulcerative colitis only affects the lower intestine i.e., confined to the inner lining of the colon but Crohn’s disease can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract.
    • As per the survey, approximately 6 to 9 lakhs people in the United States have Ulcerative colitis.
    • Most people don’t have a family history of Ulcerative colitis but genes play an important role in Ulcerative colitis. Approximate 10- 25% of people with Ulcerative colitis have a parent with the UC.
    • Ulcerative colitis not only affects the colon but also affects other organs. Research revealed that 5 % of people with Ulcerative colitis develop severe inflammation of the liver.
    • If you are suffering from Ulcerative colitis for more than 10 years, your chances of getting colon cancer increase.

    Ayurvedic Reference of Ulcerative colitis as per classical literature

    Cause of Ulcerative colitis

    Modern point of view:

     

    The exact causes of Ulcerative colitis are not known however few factors that might be the cause of UC are as follows:

     

    • Due to Autoimmune response: The leading theory for Ulcerative colitis is that the immune system of the body mistakenly identifies friendly bacteria which help in digestion as harmful bacteria and starts the immune response mistakenly to attack healthy tissues which leads to inflamed colon and rectum.
    • Genetic response: Recent study has revealed that one out of four people suffering from Ulcerative colitis has a family history of UC. Recent research also identifies various genes that are responsible for UC.
    • Environmental factors: Various environmental factors like air pollution, certain medications, smoking, and diet may lead to UC.

     

    Causes of Ulcerative colitis

     

    Ayurvedic point of view

     

    As per Ayurvedic classical texts Pittaja Atisara, Raktaja Atisara, Shoka Janya Atisara (Aagantuja Atisara), Pravahika disease shows a resemblance with Ulcerative colitis. So here we discuss Nidana (cause), Lakshana (symptoms), Samprapti (pathophysiology), Chikitsa (Treatment), etc of Pittaja Atisara, Raktaja Atisara, Shoka Janya Atisara, and Pravahika.

     

    Nidana (Cause)

     

    Pittaja Atisara Nidana

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 6

     

    पित्तलस्य पुनरम्ललवणकटुक क्षारोष्ण तीक्षणातिमात्रनिषेविण: प्रतता अग्नि सूर्य संतापोष्णमारुतोपहतगात्रस्य क्रोधेष्यबिहुलस्य पित्त प्रकोपमापद्यते। 

     

    When a person of pittala constitution takes sour salty, pungent, alkaline, hot and irritating things excessively, is afflicted by constant exposure to fire, scorching sun and hot winds, psychologically stressed with anger and envy.

     

    Raktaja Atisara Nidana

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 69

     

    पित्त अतिसारी यस्त्वेतां क्रियाम मुक्त्वा  निषेवते।  

    पित्तलान्यन्नपानानि तस्य पित्तम महाबलम्‌।। 

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 40/ 116- 117

     

    पित्तातिसारी यो मर्त्य: पित्तलान्यतिषेवते ।

    पित्त प्रदुष्टं तस्याशु रक्तातीसारमावहेत्‌।। 

     

    One who is suffering from Pittaja Atisara and does not follow the treatment of Atisara and indulges in foods & drinks which cause further aggravation of Pitta up to great extent as a result Rakta gets, vitiated and manifests Rakta Atisara.

     

    Shokaja Atisara Nidana

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 40/ 14, 15

     

    तैस्तै भावै: शोचतो अल्पाशनस्य बाष्पावेग: पक्तिमाविध्य जन्तो: ।। 

     

    If a person indulges in so many factors that vitiate all three Doshas and has an improper diet, consumed with the emotion of grief, then the doshas and ama reach the abdomen to affect the digestive fire. This in turn agitates blood and leads to Shokaja Atisara.

     

    The factors that along with grief lead to Shokaja Atisara are all as follows:

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 8

     

    By intake of too cold, unctuous rough, heavy, coarse, and hard things, irregular meals, intake of incompatible and unsuitable things, fasting, delayed meals, consumption of junk food, drinking defective wine and water, over-drinking, avoiding evacuation, irregular application, and mismanagement of remedial measure, excessive exposure to fire, sun, wind, and water, avoiding sleep or oversleep, suppression of urges, seasonal perversions, exertion not in consonance of strength, excessive fear grief and mental agitation, due to excessive emaciation due to diseases like internal worms phthisis, fever, and piles, in a person having deranged Agni.

     

    Pravahika Nidana

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 40/ 138

     

    वायु: प्रवृद्धो निचित॑ बलासं नुय व्यधस्तादहिताशनस्य ।

    प्रवाहमाणस्य मुहुर्मलक्त प्रवाहिकां तां प्रवदन्ति तज्ज्ञा: ।।

     

    One who consumes unwholesome foods & drinks leading to aggravation of Vata and pushes the Kapha downwards again & again as a result Kapha comes out along with stool is known as Pravahika.

     

    The factors that aggravate Vata are as follows:

     

    • Cold food
    • Less quantity food
    • Excessive indulgence in sexual activities
    • Excessive awakening during the night times
    • Excessive thinking
    • Fracture
    • Excessive intake of bitter, pungent, astringent food in rainy and cloudy seasons, etc.

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    Types of Ulcerative colitis

    Modern point of view

     

    The different types of Ulcerative colitis are as follows:

     

    • Ulcerative proctitis: In Ulcerative proctitis, only the rectum is affected. As a result, inflammation is limited to the rectum region only. In this type of colitis, less than 6 inches of the rectum gets affected and this type is not associated with the risk of colon cancer.
    • Proctosigmoiditis: This type of UC involved the lower part of the colon i.e. Sigmoid colon or the lower part of the colon. In this type of UC inflammation starts from the rectum and goes up to the lower part of the colon or sigmoid colon. It is different from Ulcerative proctitis in which inflammation is confined to the rectum part only.
    • Left-sided colitis: This type of Ulcerative colitis affects the rectum and left side of descending colon, the sigmoid colon. On the left side Ulcerative colitis inflammation starts from the rectum and extends into the colon as the splenic flexure.
    • Extensive colitis or Pancolitis: This type of UC affects the whole colon. In this type of colitis, inflammation begins at the rectum and extends beyond the splenic flexure.
    • Fulminant colitis: This type of colitis is like extensive colitis i.e it affects the whole colon but along with this in this type of colitis there is the risk of toxic megacolon and rupture of the colon which is a potentially life-threatening condition. In this colitis, the colon becomes severely distended.

     

    Types of Ulcerative colitis

     

    Ayurvedic point of view

     

    Ulcerative colitis is correlated with various disorders like different types of Atisara and Pravahika. Here we discuss the types of Atisara and types of Pravahika.

     

    Types of Atisara

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 7- 8

     

    एकैकश: सर्वशश्चापि दोषै: शोकेनान्य: षष्ठ आमेन चोक्त: ।

    केचित्‌ प्राहुनैकरूपप्रकारं नैवेत्येव॑ काशिराजस्त्ववोचत्‌।। 

    दोषावस्थास्तस्य नैकप्रकाराः काले काले व्याधितस्योद्धवन्ति।। 

     

    According to Acharya Sushruta Atisara is classified in to six types:

     

    • Vataja Atisara
    • Pittaja Atisara
    • Kaphaja Atisara
    • Sannipataja Atisara 
    • Shokaja Atisara 
    • Amaja Atisara

     

    Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 8/ 19- 20

     

    सोम॑ चेत कुणपं शूलैरुपविशेदरोचकी । 

    स घनातिविषा कुष्ठनतदारवचा: पिबेत।।

    शकृद वात असृक् पित्त॑ कफं वा यो अतिसार्यते। 

    पक्वं तत्र स्ववर्गीयैबस्ति: श्रेष्ठं भिषग्जितम्‌।।

     

    Acharya Charaka has mentioned following types of Atisara:

     

    • Amaja Atisara
    • Purishaja Atisara
    • Vataja Atisara
    • Raktaja Atisara
    • Pittaja Atisara
    • Kaphaja Atisara

     

    Types of Pravahika

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 138

     

    प्रवाहिका वातकृता सशूला पित्तात्‌ सदाहा सकफा कफाच्च ।

    सशोणिता शोणितसम्भवा तु ता: स्नेहरूक्षप्रभवा मतास्तु।।

     

    There are 4 types of Pravahika:

     

    • Vataja Pravahika
    • Pittaja Pravahika
    • Kaphaja Pravahika
    • Rajtaja Pravahika

     

    Pravahika is also mentioned as:

     

    • Swatantra Pravahika
    • Partantra Pravahika

     

    Raktaja Pravahika is mainly correlated with Ulcerative colitis.

     

    Prodromal features (Purva Rupa of Atisara)

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 8- 9

     

    हन्नाभिपायूदर कुक्षि तोदगात्रावसादानिल सन्निरोधा: ।

    विट्ट संग आध्मानमथाविपाको भविष्यतस्तस्य पुरः सराणि।।

     

    Premonitory signs and symptoms of Atisara are as follows:

     

    • Hridya Toda (Pricking type of pain in the heart)
    • Nabhi Toda (Pricking type of pain in the umbilicus)
    • Payu Toda (Pricking type of pain in rectum)
    • Udar Toda (Pricking type of pain in the abdomen)
    • Kukshi Toda (Pricking type of pain in flanks)
    • Avsaad (General malaise)
    • Anil Sannirodha (Non- elimination of flatus)
    • Vitta Sanga (Constipation)
    • Aadhmaan (distension of abdomen)
    • Avipako (indigestion)

     

    Pathophysiology (Samprapati) of Ulcerative colitis

     

    Ayurvedic point of view

     

    Pittaja Atisara Samprapati

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 6

     

    तत् प्रकुपितं द्रवत्वादूष्माणमुपहत्य पुरीषाशयविसृतमौष्णयाद्‌ द्रवत्वात्‌ सरत्वाच्च भित्त्वा पुरीषमतिसाराय प्रकल्पते ।

     

    When a person indulges in sour salty, pungent, alkaline, hot, and irritant things excessively, is afflicted by constant exposure to fire, scorching sun, and hot winds, psychologically stressed with anger and envy the due to above etiological factors Pitta gets aggravated and suppresses the functions of Agni due to liquidity of Pitta and reaches the colon and disintegrates the stool because of heat, liquidity & mobility and causes Pittaja Atisara.

     

    Raktaja Atisara Samprapati

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 69- 70

     

    पित्त अतिसारी यस्त्वेतां क्रियाम मुक्त्वा निषेवते।  

    पित्तलान्यन्नपानानि तस्य पित्तम महाबलम्‌।। 

    कुर्याद रक्तातिसारं तु रक्तं आशु प्रदूषयत्

     

    One who is suffering from Pittaja Atisara and does not follow the treatment of Atisara and indulges in foods & drinks which cause further aggravation of Pitta up to great extent as a result Rakta gets, vitiated and manifests Rakta Atisara.

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 40/ 116- 117

     

    पित्तातिसारी यो मर्त्य: पित्तलान्यतिषेवते ।

    पित्त प्रदुष्टं तस्याशु रक्तातीसारमावहेत्‌।। 

     

    Rakta Atisara may manifest as a complication of Pittatisara and it may also manifest independently without Pittatisara if a person adopts Pitta provocative etiological factors in excess.

     

    Shokaja Atisara Samprapti

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 14

     

    कोष्ठ॑ गत्वा क्षोभयत्यस्य रक्त तच्चाधस्तात्‌ काकणन्तीप्रकाशम्‌ ।।

     

    If a person indulges in so many factors that lead to Shokaja Atisara and has an improper diet, consumed with the emotion of grief, then the doshas and ama reach the abdomen to affect the digestive fire. This in turn agitates blood. Now the person passes stools frequently mixed with blood which is like the color of gunja.

     

    Pravahika Samprapati

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 40/ 138

     

    वायु: प्रवृद्धो निचित॑ बलासं नुय व्यधस्तादहिताशनस्य ।

    प्रवाहमाणस्य मुहुर्मलक्त प्रवाहिकां तां प्रवदन्ति तज्ज्ञा: ।।

     

    If aggravated Vayu, in a person indulged in an unwholesome diet, propels down the accumulated Kapha mixed with little feces frequently with marked tenesmus.

     

    पहले मिथ्या आहारविहार से अग्निमान्दय होता है तथा कफ की वृद्धिहोती है एवं वायु (समान + अपान) का प्रकोप होता है। साम कफ पिच्छिल होने से आँतों की दीवारों में चिपका रहता है प्रकुपित वायु कफ को पुरीष के साथ बाहर निकालता है और इसके लिए प्रवाहण (जोर लगाकर काँखना ) करना पड़ता है; जिससे आँतों में कुंथन  पीड़ा होती है तथा इस प्रवाहिका रोग की उत्पत्ति होती है

     

    Samprapti Ghataka (Component of manifestation of diseases) of Atisara

     

    Dosha Vata Pradhana Trishoja 
    • Vata- Samana , Apana Vayu
    • Pitta- Pachaka Pitta
    • Kapha- Kledaka Kapha
    DushyaDhatu- Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa, Meda

    Sharirika Mala- Mutra, Pureesha

    Dhatu Mala- Kapha, Pitta, Sveda

    AgniJathara Agni, Dhatvagni
    Agni DushtiManda Agni
    Ama Agni Janya
    StrotasAnavaha, Purishvaha, Udaka Vaha Srotas
    StrotodustiVimarg Gamana, Ati Pravritti
    AdhisthanaMahastrotas
    Udbhava SthanaPakvashya Gata, Amashya Gata
    Vyakta SthanaGuda
    Sanchaar SthanaPureesha Vaha Srotas, Ana Vaha Srotas
    SvabhavaChirakari, Ashukari
    PrabhavaWith Updrava- incurable, manifested newly without Updrava (complication) is curable
    Roga MargaAbhyantara
    Roga Bheda6 types

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    Common symptoms of Ulcerative colitis

    Modern point of view

     

    The main symptoms of Ulcerative colitis are

     

    • Bloody diarrhea with mucus
    • Bloody diarrhea without mucous

     

    Other associated symptoms are as follows:

     

    • Rectal bleeding 
    • Abdominal pain
    • Cramping
    • Malaise
    • Weight loss
    • Fever
    • Tenesmus
    • Urgency to defecate
    • In children, growth rate retard

     

    Common symptoms of Ulcerative colitis

     

    Ayurvedic point of view

     

    Common symptoms (Samanya Lakshana) of disease that is correlated with Ulcerative colitis are as follows:

     

    Pittaja Atisara Lakshana

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 6

     

    तस्य रूपाणि हारिद्र॑ हरित॑ नील॑ कृष्ण रक्तपित्तोपहितमतिदुर्गनधमतिसार्यते पुरीष॑ तृष्णादाह स्वेद मूर्च्छा शूल ब्रध्न संतापपाकपरीत इति पित्तातिसार: ।

     

    The main symptoms of Pittaja Atisara are as follows:

     

    • Haridra, Harit, Nila, Krishna Pureesha (Patient passes frequent stool which are either yellow, green, blue or black in color)
    • Rakta- pitta Sahit Durgandhit Atisara Pureesh (Stool is associated with Rakta and Pitta and emits foul smell)
    • Trishna (Excessive thirst)
    • Daha (Burning sensation)
    • Sveda (Excessive sweating)
    • Murcha (Fainting)
    • Shula (Colic pain)
    • Bradhna (Inflammation & suppuration in anus)

     

    Shokaja Atisara Lakshana

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 14- 15

     

    कोष्ठ॑ गत्वा क्षोभयत्यस्य रक्त तच्चाधस्तात्‌ काकणन्तीप्रकाशम्‌ ।।

    वर्चों मिश्रम निः पुरीष॑ सगंधनिर्गन्धं वा सारयति तेन कृछात्‌ ।।

    शोकोत्पन्नो दुकित्स्यो अतिमात्रं रोगों वैद्य: कष्ट एव प्रदिष्ठ: ।।

     

    The main symptoms of Shokaja Atisara are as follows:

     

    • Rakta Varcho Mishram (Stool mixed with blood)
    • Raktm Kakanti Prakasham Varcho Mishram, Nipureesham (passing blood resembles Kakananti either mixed with stool or without stool)
    • Sagandha nirganda Saryate (blood that passes with or without stool is either with bad smell or without smell)
    • Krich saryate (difficulty in passing stool)

     

    Raktaja Atisara Lakshana

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 70

     

    ……कुर्याद रक्तातिसारं तु रक्तं आशु प्रदूषयत्‌।

    तृष्णां शूलं विदाहं च गुदपाकं च दारुणम्‌।।

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 117 

     

    …… पित्त प्रदुष्टं तस्याशु रक्तातीसारमावहेत्।। 

    ज्वर॑ शूलं तृषां दाह गुदपाकञ्च दारुणम्।।

     

    The main symptoms of Raktaja Atisara are as follows:

     

    • Stool mixed with blood along with symptoms like:
    • Trishna (excessive thirst)
    • Shula (colic pain)
    • Vidaha (burning sensation)
    • Guda Paka (inflammation of the ano- rectal region)

     

    Pravahika Lakshana

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 140

     

    प्रवाहिका वातकृता सशूला पित्तात्‌ सदाहा सकफा कफाच्च ।

    सशोणिता शोणितसम्भवा तु ता: स्नेहरूक्षप्रभवा मतास्तु।। 

    तासामतीसारवदादिशेच्च लिङ्ग क्रम चामविपक्वताञ्च।।

     

    Pravahika caused by exacerbated Vata produces pain, caused by Pitta produces a burning sensation, caused by Rapha produces the elimination of stool mixed with Kapha, and caused by Rakta produces stool mixed with Rakta. These kinds of Pravahika are produced by more unctuousness & roughness in Pakvasava.

     

    Raktaja Pravahika Lakshana are co- related with Ulcerative colitis.

     

    Diagnosis of Ulcerative colitis

     

    • Firstly, the patient is examined by a doctor for signs such as tenderness in the tummy, and paleness caused by anemia. Along with these few types of blood tests can be carried out to check the signs of infection and inflammation. A stool test can also be done to rule out other disorders that may be the result of infection due to bacteria, parasites, viruses, etc.
    • If the patient is suspected of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to rule out Ulcerative colitis, Sigmoidoscopy is done. Endoscopy with tissue biopsy is the only way to confirm Ulcerative colitis.
    • If Severe symptoms are present the X-ray can also be done to rule out perforated colon or megacolon.
    • To check how much of the colon is inflamed and if complications in Ulcerative colitis are present that CT- Scan will be done.
    • Computerized tomography (CT) enterography and magnetic resonance (MR) enterography can also be done to rule out inflammation in the intestine.

    Treatment of Ulcerative colitis

    Modern point of view

     

    Treatment of Ulcerative colitis

     

    Treatment of Ulcerative colitis depends upon how often the symptoms of UC flare up and how severe is the condition of the patient.

     

    Two types of treatment are done so patients get:

     

    • Inducing remission (a period without symptoms)
    • Maintain remission

     

    Medicines that can be used to treat UC are as follows:

     

    • Aminoacylates 
    • Cortico- steroids
    • Immunosuppressant 
    • Biologic medicine
    • Tofacitinib

     

    Surgery (removal of colon that can be done either by an ileostomy or by creating ileoanal pouch i.e., J- pouch)

     

    Treatment of Ulcerative colitis

     

    Ayurvedic point of view

     

    Treatment of Ulcerative colitis (Pittaja Atisara Chikitsa)

     

    CharakaSamhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 50

     

    पित्तातिसारं पुन र्निदानोपशया कृतिशभिरामान्वयमुपल यथा बलं लड्डन पाचनाभ्यामुपाचरेत्‌| 

    तृष्यतस्तु मुस्तपर्पटकोशीर सारिवार्चन्दनकिराततिक्तकोदीच्यवारिभिरुपचार: । लङ्घितस्य चाहारकाले बलाति बला सूर्पपर्णी शालपर्णी पृश्निपर्णी बृहतीकण्टकारिकाशतावरीश्व दंष्ट्रा निर्युह संयुक्तेन यथासात्म्य॑ यवागूमण्डादिना तर्पणादिना वा क्रमेणोपचार: । मुदगमसूरहरेणुमकुष्ठकाढकीयूपैर्वा लावक पिंन्जलशश    हरिणैणकालपुच्छकरसैरीषदम्लैरनम्लैवा क्रमशो अग्नि सन्धुक्षयेत्‌ । अनुबंधे त्वस्य दीपनीया  पाचनीय उपशमनीय संग्रहणियां योगान संप्रयोजयेदिति।।  

     

    • If Pittaja ATisara (diarrhea) the patient is associated with ama which can be determined by causative factors, Upasaya (homologation), signs and symptoms, then the patient should be given Langhana (fasting therapy) and Pacana (carminative therapy) appropriate to the strength of the patient.
    • If the patient is thirsty, then such a patient should be given the decoction of musta, parpataka, sariva, candana, kirata-tiktaka, and udicya to drink.
    • After the fasting therapy is administered, during meal time, the patient should be gradually given yavagu (thick gruel), manda (a type of thin gruel), and tarpan (roasted flour of cereals added with water) prepared with the niryuha (decoction prepared according to the procedure suggested for Sadanga- paniya- C. S. Chi. 3/ 145-146) of Bala, atibala, Surpa-parni (mudga-parni and masa-parni), sala-parni, prishan- parni, brihati, kantakari, Satavart, and svadamstra.
    • Agni (power of digestion) should be stimulated gradually with the vegetable soup of mudga, masura, harenu, makustha, and adhaki or with the soup of the meat of lava, kapinjala, Sasa, harina, ena, and kalapuccha. These vegetable soups and meat soups may be slightly sour or may not be sour.
    • If the Pittaja Atisara persists even after the administration of the above-mentioned measures, then the patient should be treated with recipes which are dipaniya (digestive stimulant), pachaniya (carminative), upasamaniya (dosa-alleviator) and sangrahaniya (constipating).

     

    Management of Atisara (diarrhea) associated with pain

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 30- 33

     

    आमे परिणते यस्तु विबद्धमतिसार्यते ।

    सशूलपिच्छमल्पाल्प॑ बहुश: सप्रवाहिकम्‌।। 

    युषेण मूलकानां त॑ बदराणामथापि वा ।

    उपोदिकाया: क्षीरिण्या यवान्या वास्तुकस्य वा।।

    सुवर्चलायाश्वज्चोरवा शाकेनावल्गुजस्य वा। 

    शट्या: कर्कारुकाणां वा जीवन्त्याश्व्र्भटस्य वा।। 

    लोणिकाया:  सपाठाया: शुष्कशाकेन वा पुनः ।

    दधिदाडिम सिद्धेन बहुस्नेहेन भोजयेत।।

     

    After the maturity of ama (product of indigestion), if the patient voids loose motions along with scybalous faces associated with colic pain and mucus very frequently in small quantities, and if there is griping pain, then he should be given food along with the soup of mulaka, badara, upodika, ksirini, yavani, vastuka, suvarcala, cancu (nadica), leaves of avalguja, sati, karkaruka, Tivanti, cirbhata (karkat), lonika, patha or suska-saka (susa or kasamarda according to Cakrapani). These soups should be cooked along with curd (yogurt) and dadima and added with ghee (fat) in huge quantities.

     

    Use of medicated Dugdha (milk)

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 47- 49

     

    विबद्धवातवर्चास्तु बहुशूलप्रवाहिक: ।

    सरक्तपिच्छस्तृष्णार्तः क्षीरसौहित्यमति।। 

    यमकस्वोपरि क्षीर॑ धारोष्ण॑ वा पिबेन्नर: ।

    शृत मेरण्डमूलेन बालबिल्वेन वा पय: ।। 

    एवं क्षीरप्रयोगेण रक्त पिच्छा शाम्यति ।

    शूलं प्रवाहिका चैव विबन्धश्चोपशाम्यति।।    

           

    • If the movement of the flatus and stool is blocked, if the patient suffers from various kinds of pain, if the patient voids blood and mucus, and if the patient is thirsty, then an adequate quantity of milk should be administered. Such a patient should be given yamaka (ghee and oil mixed, and thereafter, lukewarm milk collected directly from the udder (dharaushana) should be given.
    • Milk boiled with the root of eranda or tender fruit of bilva may also be given in the above-mentioned condition.
    • By the intake of the recipes of medicated ghee mentioned above, bleeding and mucus discharge from the anus stops. These recipes also cure colic pain, griping pain, and constipation.

     

    Specific recipes for Pittaja Atisara

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 51- 56

     

    • The fruit and bark of vatsaka should be added with ativisha and honey. It should be taken along with rice water (tandula- udaka)

     

    The following recipes should be taken along with honey and rice water (tandula- udaka).

     

    • Powder of kirata-tiktaka, musta vatsaka and rasanjana.
    • Powder of bilva, daru-haridra, tvak, hribera and duralabha
    • Powder of candana, mrinala, nagara, lodhra and utpala
    • Powder of tila, mocarasa, lodhra, samangã, kamala and utpala
    • Powder of utpala, dhataki (flower), dadima, tvak and mahausadha
    • Katphala, nagara, patha, seed-pulp of jambu and amra, and amralabha.

     

    Once the above-mentioned recipes are digested, the patient should be given to eat a red variety of rice (Rakta Shali) harvested in earlier seasons, along with appropriately cooked meat soup added with constipating drugs.

     

    Administration of milk for Pittaja Atisara

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 57- 60

     

    पित्तातिसारो दीप्ता अग्नि: क्षिप्रं समुपशाम्यति ।

    अजाक्षीरप्रयोगेण बलं वर्णश्च वर्धते।। 

    बहुदोषस्य दीप्ताग्ने: सप्राणस्य न तिष्ठति।

    पैत्तिको यद्यतीसार: पयसा तं विरेचयेत्‌।। 

    पलाशफल निर्युह पयसा सह पाययेत।

    ततो अनुपाययेत्‌ कोष्णं क्षीरमेव यथाबलम्‌।। 

    पलाशवत्‌ प्रयोज्या वा त्रायमाणा विशोधिनी। 

    प्रवाहिते तेन मले प्रशाम्यत्युदरामय:।।

     

    • Goat milk administration to the patient having strong power of digestion cures Pittaja Atisara and promotes strength as well as complexion.
    • Due to excessive aggravation of dosas, the Pittaja Arisara is not cured and if the patient has a strong power of digestion and vitality, then laxative therapy with milk should be given.
    • Decoction of the fruit of phalasa along with milk should be given. Later, depending upon the strength of the patient, lukewarm milk should be given. This will restore bowel movement and control the Atisara.
    • Decoction of trayamana along with milk should be given. Later, depending upon the strength of the patient, lukewarm milk should be given. This will restore bowel movement and control the Atisara.

     

    Anuvasana Basti (Type of Medicated Enema)

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 61- 62

     

    During samsarjana- krama (gradual administration of light to heavy food) after purification therapy if the colic pain persists, then Anuvasana Basti therapy should be administered immediately because the morbid matter is already eliminated. Satapuspadi ghee should be used for anuvasana basti.

     

    Piccha-Basti (Mucilaginous Enema)

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 63- 68

     

    If diarrhea persists even after the administration of Anuvasana Basti and samsarjana krama then piccha-basti should be given. It cures Pittaja Atisara, fever, edema, Gulma, chronic diarrhea, Grahan pradosa, and the acute complications of purgation as well as asthapana (a type of medicated enema containing decoctions, etc.) therapies.

     

    Treatment of Ulcerative colitis (Raktaja Atisara Chikitsa)

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthaan. 19/ 69- 70

     

    पित्तातिसारी यस्त्वेतां क्रियां मुक्त्वा निषेवते ।

    पित्तलान्यन्नपानानि तस्य पित्त महाबलम।। 

    कुर्याद्रक्तातिसारं तु रक्‍तमाशु प्रदूषयत्‌ ।

    तृष्णां शूलं विदाहं च गुदपाकं च दारुणम्‌।। 

     

    If a Pittaja Atisara patient does not follow the therapeutic measures and resorts to such foods and drinks which cause aggravation of pitta, then the exceedingly exacerbated pitta causes Rakta Atisara and instantaneous vitiation of Rakta (blood). This leads to serious complications like morbid thirst, colic pain, burning sensation, and suppuration of the anus. It can also manifest itself directly on account of excessive aggravation of pitta and vitiation of blood.

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthaan. 19/ 71- 76

     

    तत्र च्छागं पय: शस्त॑ शीत समधुशर्करम्‌ । पानार्थ भोजनार्थ च गुदप्रक्षालने तथा ।। 

    ओदनं रक्तशालीनां पयसा तेनः भोजयेत्‌ । रसैः पारावतादीनां घृतभृष्टै: सशर्करै: ।। 

    शयापक्षि मृगाणां च शीतानां धन्वचारिणाम्‌। रसैरनम्लै: सघृतैभोजयेतं सशर्करै: ।। 

    रुधिरं मार्गमाजं वा घृतभृष्टं प्रशस्यते । काश्मर्यफलयूषो वा किंचिदम्ल: सशर्कर: ।। 

    नीलोत्पलं मोचरसं समंगा पदमकेशरम्‌। अजाक्षीरयुतं दद्याज्जीर्ण च पयसौदनम्‌।।

    दुर्बल॑ पाययित्वा वा तस्वैवोपरि भोजयेत्‌ । प्रा्भक्ते नवनीत॑ वा दद्यात्‌ समधुशर्करम्‌।। 

     

    For the cure of Rakta Atisara, following therapy should be administered:

     

    • Goat’s milk is very useful. It should be used, when cooled, with honey and sugar for drink, along with food, and for washing the anal region.
    • Goat’s milk along with the boiled rice of red variety of sali should be given.
    • The boiled rice may also be given along with the soup of the meat of paravata, etc., sizzled with ghee and mixed with sugar. The soup of the meat having a cooling effect like that of rabbits, birds, and deer inhabiting deserts should be sizzled with ghee, and mixed with sugar should be given. It may be ensured that these soups are free from any sour ingredients.
    • The blood of deer or goat sizzled with ghee is also very useful.
    • The soup of the fruits of kasmarya made slightly sour and mixed with sugar should be given.
    • The powder of nilotpala, mocarasa, samanga, and padmakesara should be administered along with the goat’s milk. After the digestion of this potion, the patient should be given rice with milk. If the patient is weak, then food can be given to him even before the above-mentioned potion is digested.
    • Butter along with honey and sugar may be given before meals.
    • After taking ghee collected from the cream of milk along with milk, the patient should take the soup of kapinjala.
    • During this therapy, he should take milk in adequate quantity. It heals in three days.
    • While consuming milk as food (drink), the patient should take the paste of Shatavari mixed with milk. He may also take ghee boiled with the paste of Shatavari.
    • Consumption of ghee is cooked by adding the paste of the fruits of kutaja, along with the scum (upper part) of yavagu and followed by intake of peya (thin gruel).  

     

    Treatment of Anal suppuration

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 87- 93     

     

    गुदो बहुभिरुत्थानैयस्य पित्तेन पच्यते। 

    सेचयेत्तं सुष्टि तेन पटोलमधुकाम्बुना ।। 

    पंञ्च वल्कमधूकानां रसेरिक्षुर सै घ्रिस्ते: । 

    छागैर्गव्यै: पयोभिर्वा शर्कराक्षौद्रसंयुतै: ।। 

     

    Aggravated Pitta suppurates the anus due to frequent avoidance of stool. The anus of such a patient should be sprinkled and applied with the following recipes and these therapies stop bleeding and pacify suppuration and pain. 

     

    • Exceedingly cold decoction of patola and madhuka. Decoction of Pancha- Valkala (barks of nyagrodha, udumbara, asvattha, parish, and plaksa) or sugarcane juice.
    • Milk or ghee of goat or cow mixed with sugar and honey.
    • The paste of drugs mentioned above for washing (sprinkling over) the anus may be mixed with ghee and applied over the suppurated anus.
    • The powder of the above-mentioned drugs may also be used for pratisarana (dusting) over the suppurated anus.
    • The powder of dhataki and lodhra, taken in equal quantities, may be used for dusting over the suppurated anus.
    • If there is excessive bleeding (from the anus, the cold decoction of the above-mentioned drugs should be impregnated with ghee and sprinkled over the anal region, pelvic region, lumbar region, and thighs.
    • Excessive bleeding should be controlled with a cotton pad should be soaked with Candanadya- taila (C.S Ci 3/ 258) or Satadhauta- Ghrita (ghee washed with cold water one hundred times), and the oil or ghee should be sprinkled by squeezing this pad over the anal and pelvic regions.

     

    Treatment of Ulcerative colitis (Shokaja Atisara)

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 12- 13

     

    मारुतों भयशोकाभ्यां शीघ्र॑ हि परिकुप्यति ।

    तयोः क्रिया वातहरी हर्षणाश्वासनानि च।। 

    इत्युक्ताः षडतीसारा: साध्यानां साधनं त्वत: ।

     

    The following therapies help to cure Agantuja/ Mansika/ exogenous Atisara:

     

    • Both fear and grief cause aggravation of Vata instantaneously.
    • Vata-alleviating drugs and therapies should be administered for the treatment of Agantuja/Manasa or exogenous Atisara.
    • The patient suffering from diarrhea caused by fear (bhayaja) should be exhilarated
    • The patient suffering from diarrhea caused by shoka (grief) should be consoled.

     

    Treatment of Ulcerative colitis (Pravahika)

     

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 34

     

    कल्कः स्याद्वालबिल्वानां तिलकल्कश्च तत्सम: ।  

    दध्न: सरोम्लस्नेहा आढ्य: खडो हन्यात्‌ प्रवाहिकाम्‌।।

     

    The following Khada (A sour appetizer) cures Pravahika (griping pain):

     

    It is prepared by adding the paste of tender fruits of bilva, an equal quantity of the paste of tila, cream of sour curd, and a profuse quantity of ghee.  

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 140- 141      

     

    Pravahika (Dysentery) which does not subside by langhna etc. (fasting and other thinning methods) or gets increased by the use of Pacana (digestive medicines), becomes subsided quickly by the use of boiled milk, oil (of sesame), and piccha basti (slimy enema). 

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 141- 143

     

    Salmali vrinta (slimy mass inside Salmali fruit which is moist is enveloped with moist blades of Kusa grass and cooked by Putapaka method; after properly cooked, its juice is extracted, this is mixed with cooked milk, oil ghee, and paste of Yastimadhu stirred well and administered by physicians as enema slowly, in Pravähika and obstruction of urine and faces.

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 143- 144

     

    When the patient of Pravahika has pain predominantly, then a decoction enema prepared with a decoction of drugs of the two Panchamula (Mahat and Laghu) added with honey and milk is said to be the best. So also Anuvasana (Oil enema) prepared with the same drugs.

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 144- 145

     

    Oil boiled with drugs of the Vata mitigating group and Lavands (All salts) is beneficial for use along with foods and drinks. Lodhra, Bida lavana, and tender fruit of Bilva made as paste, added with more of Trikatu should be licked.

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 150- 151

     

    When there is severe pain and dysuria, the physician should administer a decoction enema prepared with Madhuka and Utpala mixed with milk, honey, and ghee, this enema mitigates bleeding, burning sensation, and fever.

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 152- 153

     

    Anuvasana (Oil enema) prepared with drugs of sweet taste given either during the day or night will be beneficial to the person suffering from pain. It mitigates Vata, when Vata gets mitigated Pravahika (Dysentery) also subsides; hence the physician should try to mitigate Vāta first in dysentery.

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 154

     

    Patha, Ajamoda, Kutaja, Utpala, Sunthi, and Magadhika are all equally made into a paste and consumed with warm water which mitigates the diseases or Medhyanda (Testicles of the goat) cooked with ghee or milk also mitigates it.

     

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 155- 156

     

    Sunthi and Ksavaka are cooked in ghee and oil (Mixed) and consumed quickly. Yavagu (Thick gruel) prepared with the juice of Gajasana (Sallaki), Kumbhika, and Dadima, added with oil, Ghee, Curds, and Bilva and consumed or drinking milk fresh from the under of the cow is ideal as the drink.

     

    Complication (Updrava) of Ulcerative colitis

     

    • Perforated colon 
    • Severe dehydration
    • Bone loss
    • Inflammation of eyes, skin, and joints
    • Risk of colon cancer
    • Risk of blood clotting  
    • Primary sclerosing cholangitis        

    Herbs used for Ulcerative colitis and their classical indication and method of use for relieving Ulcerative colitis symptoms

    Herbs that can be used for Ulcerative colitis {Pravahika (Dysentery)} are as follows:

     

    • Ajamoda
    • Bakuchi
    • Bhringraj
    • Kantaki Karanja
    • Dugdhika
    • Lakucha
    • Lodhra
    • Lonika
    • Maricha
    • Upodika
    • Vastuka

     

    Ajmoda:

     

    • Milk mixed with ghee, honey, and the powder of sugar ajamoda, aralu, and madhuka should be taken for diarrhea associated with pain. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 79).
    • The formulation consisting of patha, ajamoda, kutaja, utpala, sunthi, and pippali-all in equal quantities taken with tepid water controls the disease. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 154)

     

    Bakuchi: Bakuchi Leaves of bakuchi cooked with curd and pomegranate and added with ample ghee are used as a vegetable. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 30-33)

     

    Bhringraja: A pill made of bhringaraja with water alleviates dysentery with mucus, blood, and griping. (Vanga Sena. Atisara. 120)

     

    Kantaki Karanja:  One should take the seed- kernel of kuberaksha with sour gruel in the morning. It alleviates dysentery with mucus, blood, and griping. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 6)

     

    Dugdhika: Dugdhika steamed with cooked rice and taken with the same after adding oil checks dysentery with blood. (Vaidya Manorma. 6. 14)

     

    Lakucha: Intake of the juice of lakuca fruit 40 ml mixed with goat milk in the morning checks dysentery with blood and mucus. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 11)

     

    Lonika: Lonika should be cooked with curd and pomegranate and added with profuse ghee. It should be taken as a vegetable. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 33, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 22).

     

    Lodhra: Lodhra with curd is useful in dysentery. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2/ 120)

     

    Maricha:

     

    • Maricadya Churna (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.15. 108- 110)
    • Intake of fine powder of pippali or Marica checks even chronic dysentery. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9. 40)
    • One who takes the power of marica mixed with citraka and sauvarcala with buttermilk becomes free from grahani roga besides Udara, splenomegaly, deficient digestion, gulma, and piles. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 6. 53)

     

    Uppodika: In dysentery associated with pain and tenesmus due to retention of faces the leaves of uppodika cooked with curd and pomegranate seeds with ghee are used as a vegetable. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 31- 33)

     

    Vastuka: Vegetables of vastuka prepared with curd and pomegranate and added with profuse ghee should be taken. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.19. 31- 33)

     

    Herbs that can be used for Karshya (Emaciation)- Symptoms of IBD are as follows:

     

    • Ashwagandha
    • Ikshu 

     

    Ashwagandha: Excessive emaciation in cases of excessive emaciation ashwagandha etc. should be used. (Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 15/ 33)

     

    Ikshu: Sugarcane, Sali rice, black gram, wheat, and the product of Jaggery remove emaciation and promote the development of the body. (Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 21/ 31- 33)

     

    Eranda Draksha: In UC some time constipation is three as a symptom and  Eranda Draksha recommended. 

     

    Herbs that can be used for Vivandha (constipation)- Symptoms of UC are as follows:

     

    Eranda:

     

    • Castor oil mixed with a double quantity of Triphala decoction or milk acts as a quick purgative. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 34/ 20)
    • For purgation, castor oil is the best one. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 13/ 12)

     

    Draksha: A person with a soft bowl is purgated by intake of the juice of grape or Pilu or hot water or fresh wine. (Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 13/ 67)

     

    Herbs that can be used for Atisara (Pittaja, Raktaja, Shokaja) (Diarrhea)- Symptom of Ulcerative colitis

     

    • Atisara
    • Ahiphena
    • Ajamoda
    • Amlika
    • Amra
    • Ankota
    • Aralu
    • Arjuna
    • Ativisa
    • Babbula
    • Badari
    • Bala
    • Bhanga
    • Bibhitaki
    • Bilva
    • Changeri
    • Cavika
    • Citraka
    • Cukrika
    • Dadima
    • Dasamula
    • Dhanyaka
    • Dhataki
    • Duralabha
    • Eranda
    • Gajapippali
    • Hapusa
    • Haritaki
    • Hribera
    • Jambu
    • Jatiphala
    • Jivanti
    • Kancata
    • Kapittha
    • Karpasa
    • Kasmarya
    • Katphala
    • Kesaraja
    • Kutaja
    • Laja
    • Lonika
    • Mallika
    • Masura
    • Mocarasa
    • Mulaka
    • Mustaka
    • Nicula
    • Palasha
    • Laghu Panchmool
    • Patola
    • Pippali
    • Rakta chandana
    • Sallaki
    • Salmali
    • Sami
    • Sati
    • Simsapa
    • Sunthi
    • Syonaka
    • Tila
    • Tinduka
    • TrayamanA
    • Trikatu
    • Udumbara
    • Vacha
    • Vandaka
    • Vata
    • Vetasa
    • Virataru
    • Yuthika 

     

    Ahiphena: Ahiphena mixed with the bark of kupilu and honey checks all types of diarrhea. (Vaidya Manorma. 6. 3)

     

    Ajamoda:

     

    • Milk mixed with ghee, honey, and the powder of sugar, ajamoda, aralu, and madhuka should be taken for diarrhea associated with pain. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 79)
    • The formulation consisting of patha, ajamoda, kutaja, utpala, Sunthi, and pippali-all in equal quantities taken with tepid water controls the disease. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 154)

     

    Amlika: Covering of seeds, Sunthi, rock salt, and yavani are mixed and taken with fresh buttermilk. It checks diarrhea quickly. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 5)

     

    Amra: 

     

    • Seed-kernel of jambu, Amra, bilva, kapittha, and sunthi- these should be taken with liquid gruel in case of diarrhea. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8. 127) 
    • Decoction of bilva and seed- the kernel of Amra mixed with honey and sugar checks vomiting and diarrhea. (Vaidya Manorma. 3. 30)
    • Tender leaves of Amra and kapittha fruit are pounded together and taken with rice water in case of diarrhea. (Vanga Sena. Atisara. 61)
    • The bark of sallaki, badari, jambu, priyala, amra, and arjuna mixed with honey and taken with milk checks hemorrhage (in diarrhea). (Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 41)
    • Decoction of the seed-kernel of amra and bilva is added with honey and sugar. It controls severe vomiting and diarrhea. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 107)
    • A juice of amra bark extracted by putapaka (closed heating) is added with oil and taken. It alleviates diarrhea with blood and mucus. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 7)

     

    Ankota:

     

    • The root bark of ankota taken with buffalo’s buttermilk is an efficacious remedy for diarrhea. Similar is the leaf of Patha. (Vanga Sena. Atisara. 171)
    • The intake of the root bark of ankota 5 gm pounded with rice- water checks severe diarrhea and disorder of grahani. (Chakra Dutta. 3. 54)
    • Ankota – vataka consisting of ankota root (bark) 40 gm and an equal quantity of patha and daruharidrà pounded with rice water and dried in shade is administered with rice water in all types of diarrhea. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2/ 96- 98, Chakra Dutta. 3. 58- 60)

     

    Aralu: 

     

    • Susruta has been prescribed dirghavrnta (aralu) putapaka for diarrhea. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 81- 83, Vaidya Manorma. 3. 49- 51)
    • The bark of aralu smeared with ghee is heated on steam. It is crushed and mixed with honey. It checks for severe diarrhea. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 80)
    • Putapaka of aralu is an appetizer. If mixed with honey and mocarasa, it checks all types of diarrhea. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 29)
    • The bark of aralu pounded and mixed with sunthi should be taken with rice water. It checks mature diarrhea. (Vanga Sena Atisara. 59)

     

    Arjuna: In diarrhea associated with blood, arjuna bark mixed with honey should be taken with milk. It checks hemorrhage. (Vaidya Manorma. 3. 41)

     

    Ativisha: 

     

    • Ativisa Avaleha containing ativisa along with bilva, mocarasa, lodhra, dhataki-puspa, and mango-seed, checks severe diarrhea. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 148)
    • Liquid gruel processed with ativisa, sours, and sunthi is as efficacious as amatisara. (Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 2. 22)

     

    Babbula: 

     

    • Paste of tender leaves of babbula checks diarrhea. (Chakra Dutta. 3/ 53)
    • Babbula Arista. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 10. 66- 68)

     

    Badari:

     

    • The patient should be fed on the soup of radish or badara fruits cooked with curd and pomegranate and have ample ghee. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 31-33)
    • Decoctions of the bark of badari, arjuna, jambu, amra, Sallaki, and vetasa mixed with sugar and honey check diarrhea. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 96)
    • Badara fruits boiled and mixed with jaggery and oil should be taken. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 133, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9. 18)
    • Simply, badari root should be taken with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 96)

     

    Bala: In case of dehydration, if digestion is good, the patient should be treated with milk cooked with Bala and sunthi followed by intake of jaggery mixed with oil in the morning. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 111)

     

    Bhanga: 

     

    • Bhanga and jatiphala in equal parts mixed with indrayava in double quantity are made into a linctus. It checks all types of diarrhea. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 147)
    • Bhanga mixed with the latex of udumbara is made into pills. It checks for diarrhea. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4. 166)
    • Arka distilled from bhanga and yavani promotes digestive fire. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4/ 264)

     

    Bibhitaki: Burnt fruit of bibhitaki mixed with salt checks diarrhea even if severe. (Vanga Sena Atisara. 173)

     

    Bilva: 

     

    • One gets rid of abdominal disorder (diarrhea) after taking pippali with honey or buttermilk with citraka or tender fruits of bilva. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 113)
    • In case of diarrhea with blood, tender fruits of bilva mixed with liquid jaggery, honey and oil should be taken. It checks the disease immediately. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 119)
    • The dietary preparation (khada) is made of tender bilva fruits, an equal quantity of sesamum paste, the supernatant layer of curd, and added sour and ghee checks dysentery. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.19/ 34)
    • Fruit-pulp of bilva and madhuka mixed with sugar and honey and taken with rice-water checks diarrhea caused by pitta and rakta. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 127)
    • Badara fruits are steamed with bilva fruits and when cooled are taken with jaggery and oil to check for diarrhea. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 133)
    • Intake of bilva with jaggery checks diarrhea with blood removes pain due to ama and constipation and alleviates disorders of the bowels. (Vaidya Manorma.3. 40, Vaidya Jeevana. 2/ 15, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2/ 57)
    • Tender fruits of bilva, jaggery, oil, pippali, and sunthi- all these together should be taken in the condition of obstructed Vata, pain, and tenesmus. (Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 66)

     

    Changeri: 

     

    • Changerighrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 42- 43)
    • Khada (a dietary preparation) made of changeri, cukrika, and dugdhika added with a fatty layer of curd, ghee, and pomegranate seeds should be used. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 131)

     

    Chavika: 

     

    • Cavyadi ghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 44)
    • Tender leaves of cavika, Svetamula (Sveta) and ksiri vrksa should be pounded and given with oil. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 2)

     

    Chitraka: After taking pippali with honey, citraka with buttermilk, or only tender fruits of bilva one is freed from diarrhea. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 113)

     

    Chukrika: In case of diarrhea, khada made of cangeri, cukrika, and dugdhika added with a fatty layer of curd, ghee, and pomegranate seeds should be given. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 131)

     

    Dadima: 

     

    • Decoction of the bark of dadima and kutaja mixed with honey checks severe diarrhea with blood immediately. (Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 39, Vaidya Jeevana. 2. 13)
    • Dadimastaka churna. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9. 112- 113)
    • In case of dysentery, the patient should take a diet consisting of vegetables prescribed for constipation, meat soups with profuse fat, and processed with curd and pomegranates, and shali rice cooked with sesamum, black gram, or green gram. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 19)
    • The ripe fruit of dadima should be cooked under close heating. The juice so extracted checks all types of diarrhea. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2.1. 31)
    • Paste of the flower bud of dadima mixed with honey checks diarrhea immediately. (Siddha Bhaishjya Manni Mala. 4. 147)

     

    Dashmula: In diarrhea with pain and tenesmus non-unctuous enema the decoction of dasamula added with honey and milk is an excellent remedy. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 143)

     

    Dhanyaka: 

     

    • Decoction of dhanyaka, Sunthi, balaka, and bilva alleviates ama, pain, and constipation, and is a digestive and appetizer. (Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 21)
    • Ghee processed with four times water and dhanyaka paste should be given for diarrhea caused by pitta and associated with pain. It is also an appetizer and digestive. (Vanga Sena. Atisara. 91)
    • Water processed with dhanyaka and balaka should be given to those suffering from thirst, burning sensation, and diarrhea. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 14)

     

    Dhataki: 

     

    • For the child, modaka (sweet bolus) prepared of dhataki flowers, Sarkara, and parched paddy should be given in diarrhea. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra.1. 40)
    • One suffering from dysentery should take dhataki, badari leaves, kapittha juice, honey, and lodhra- all together with curd. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 120)
    • Liquid gruel processed with dhätaki decoction and Sunthi and added with sour pomegranate seeds is useful in fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. (Vanga Sena. Atisara. 318)

     

    Durlabha: A paste of duralabha root of the size of udumbara fruit should be taken along with the diet of milk processed with the same (duralabha root). (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 74,110)

     

    Eranda:

     

    • Milk cooked with eranda root or tender fruits of bilva is efficacious. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.19/ 48) 
    • The patient should be given only milk cooked with eranda. Moreover, gruels processed with Vata-alleviating and appetizing drugs should be served. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 131)
    • Ghee and oil mixture should be given followed by warm milk or cooked with eranda root or tender fruits of bilva. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 38)

     

    Gajja Pippali: In diarrhea with blood and mucus gajapippali sweetened with honey and sugar should be given. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 4)

     

    Hapusha: It is one of the members of Shalaparnyadi gana which acts as an appetizer and digestive. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.19. 27)

     

    Haritaki:

     

    • In difficult elimination of impurity, haritaki should be given to expel it. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 17, Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 31, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 5)
    • If stool comes out in small quantities and with obstruction and pain, the patient should be purgated with the warm paste of haritaki and pippali. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 33)
    • Powder of haritaki, rock salt, and sunthi should be taken with honey and sugar in case of diarrhea caused by Kapha. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana.11/ 27)
    • Gruel prepared with haritaki, pippali mula, and bilva acts as carminative. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 91/ 14)
    • Haritaki, sunthi, mustaka, and jaggery-these four mixed in equal quantities are made into pills known as ‘catuhsama modaka’. It checks all types of diarrhea. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2/ 88)
    • In boiled goat’s milk powder of haritaki should be put. The curd so formed should be given in case of dysentery. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 13)

     

    Hribera: Water processed with hribera and sunthï should be given to drink. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 22)

     

    Jambu: 

     

    • Seed-kernel of jambu and amra, bilva, kapittha, and sunthi- this formulation should be taken with liquid gruel. It checks for diarrhea. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 127)
    • Tender bilva fruit is cooked while being wrapped with the leaves of jambu, dadima, Sringata, patha, and kancata. It should be kept overnight and then taken with jaggery and sunthi. It checks all types of diarrhea and alleviates severe grahani. (Chakra Dutta. 4. 12)

     

    Jati Phala:

     

    • Jatiphala with Sunthi rubbed in cold water is given to check diarrhea and make stool formed. (Siddha Bhaishjya Mannimala. 4. 141)
    • The paste of jatiphala is applied to the navel. It checks for diarrhea. (Bhaishjya Ratnavali. Atisara. 30)
    • A lavangacatuhsama-This formulation consisting of jatiphala, Lavagna, jiraka, and tankana and mixed with honey and sugar destroys, by intake, all types of diarrhea associated with ama. (Bhaishjya Ratnavalli. Atisara. 30)

     

    Jivanti:

     

    • Vegetables of any of Sati, karkaruka, jivanti, and cirbhata or dried vegetables of lonikä and Patha cooked with curd and pomegranate with ample ghee should be given to eat. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 32- 33)
    • Putapaka (Juice extracted by closed heating) of jivanti, meshasrnga, etc. should be administered. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 84)

     

    Kancata: 

     

    • Leaves of kancata, jambu, dadima, Singtaka, bilva, hribera,m musta, and sunthi- decoction of these (known as kancatadi kvatha) check even severe diarrhea. (Chakra Dutta. 3/ 38)
    • One should take boiled kancata and tender bilva fruit mixed with butter in case of diarrhea with blood and griping and also in grahani disorder. (Vanga Sena Atisara. 116)

     

    Kapittha:

     

    • One becomes free from diarrhea if he takes a fruit pulp of kapittha mixed with trikatu, honey, and sugar or katphala with honey. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 112, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9. 106)
    • Kapittha, salmali, phanji, Vata, karpas, dadima, yuthika, kacchura (duralabha), slesmataka, Sana, and cancu-these processed with curd are useful in diarrhea. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 113).
    • One suffering from dysentery should take dhAtaki, badari leaves, and kapittha mixed with curd. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2. 120)

     

    Karpas: The juice of karpas and plaksa added with honey is useful. (Vaidya Manorma. 3.3 8)

     

    Kashmarya: The soup of käsmarya fruits added with sugar and a bit soured is beneficial. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 74, Ashtanga Hriya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 84)

     

    Katphala: One becomes free from abdominal disorders (diarrhea) after taking kapittha (fruit pulp) mixed with trikatu, honey, and sugar or only katphala with honey. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.19/ 112)

     

    Kesaraja: A pill made of kesaraja with water checks for diarrhea associated with mucus, pain, and blood. (Vanga Sena. Atisara.120)

     

    Kutaja:

     

    • Kutaja is the best drug for diarrhea. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 40/ 49)
    • To check blood coming with stool one should take ghee cooked with indrayava with barley scum followed by intake of liquid gruel. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 79)
    • Ativisa and Kutaja were taken with rice water. It checks diarrhea caused by pitta (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.19/ 51)
    • One who takes indrayava 40 gm decocted in the water keeping on a diet of meat soup overcomes diarrhea caused by pitta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 85, Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 27)
    • The linctus of kutaja mixed with drugs of ambasthadi and pippalyadi groups and honey destroys chronic diarrhea having profuse mucus, blood, and atony. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 89- 90, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 76)
    • Kutaja seeds alone are capable of checking diarrhea. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 17)
    • Linctus of kutaja bark checks matures diarrhea. (Chakradutta. 130, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2/ 94- 95)
    • Linctus prepared from the decoction of kutaja bark and mixed with ativisa alleviates all types of diarrheas. (Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 36)
    • Decoction of kutaja bark and seeds and musta added with sugar and honey checks diarrhea. (Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 29, Vanga Sena. atisara. 173)
    • Kutaja- putapaka. (Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 46- 48, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 2/ 90- 93)
    • Kutaja, ativisha, bilva, balaka, and musta-decoction are useful in even chronic diarrhea having severe pain and blood. (Vrinda Madhava. 3/ 43, Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 66)
    • Decoction of indrayava, dhanyaka, and patola mixed with honey and sugar should be used in all types of diarrhea. Similarly acts that of bilva and amra (seed-kernel). (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 75)
    • Decoction of Syonaka and kutaja bark alleviates all types of diarrhea. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 12)
    • Kutajarista (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 10. 44- 46)
    • Kutaja-ksira. (B. P. Chi. 2. 59-60)

     

    Laja: Laja Pieces of kosakara, a type of sugarcane, fried in ghee and laja powder mixed with sugar and honey should be taken. It checks diarrhea with pain and blood. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 126)

     

    Lonika: Lonika should be cooked with curd and pomegranate and added with profuse ghee. It should be taken as a vegetable. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 19/ 33, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 22).

     

    Mallika: Khada (a dietary preparation) of the tender leaves of kasmarya, madayanti, and yuthika should be made with fat, sour, and salt. It is a good checking remedy. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3/ 129- 30)

     

    Masura: Masura- Ghrita. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 9. 25- 26)

     

    Mochrasa: Tila, mocarasa, lodhra, samanga, Kamala, and utpala-all combined should be mixed with honey and taken with rice water. It is useful in diarrhea caused by pitta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 53- 55)

     

    Mulaka: Soup of mulaka is efficacious in diarrhea. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 31- 33)

     

    Mustaka

     

    • Decoction of musta alone should be mixed with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 72)
    • Musta rhizomes twenty (in number) should be boiled in milk with three times water reduced to milk. Its intake checks mucus and pain. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 47, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9. 39,60, Chakra Dutta.130)
    • The patient should be given to drink water processed with vaca and prativisha or musta and parpata or Haridra and sunthi. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 22)
    • Mustaka is crushed and boiled in equal milk, reduced to one-fourth, when cooled it is mixed with honey and taken. It checks diarrhea with mucus and blood. (Vaidya Manorma. 6/ 9)
    • Crushed mustaka 2 kg. is cooked in 640 ml milk. Add sufficient water till only milk remains. The remaining portions of mustaka are removed and the milk is curdled. Curd so obtained alleviates diarrhea and other abdominal disorders. (Vaidya Manorma. 6. 19)

     

    Nicula (Hijjala): Intake of the juice of hijjala leaf mixed with honey alleviates amatisara (diarrhea with mucus). Similarly acts the decoction of kutaja bark. (Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 35)

     

    Palasha: Decoction of palasha fruit (seeds) mixed with milk should be given followed by intake of warm milk according to strength. By this, impurity is eliminated and thus diarrhea is checked. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 59- 60, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 68)

     

    Laghu pancha mula: 

     

    • In case of aggravation of Vata, liquid gruel should be processed with panchamula. (Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 2. 19)
    • Besides laghu panchamula, it should be cooked with panchakola or patha. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 13)
    • Patola: Decoction of patola, indrayava, and dhanyaka should be taken, cooled, and added with sugar and honey. It checks for vomiting and diarrhea. (Vaidya Moanorma. 3/ 32)

     

    Pippali: 

     

    • By taking pippali with honey, buttermilk with chitraka, and by eating tender fruits of bilva one becomes free from bowel disorders (diarrhea). (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 113, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 107)
    • By using a fine powder of pippali or marica dysentery, even if it is chronic, is destroyed. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 40, Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 67)

     

    Rakt Chandan: Daruharidra, duralabha, bilva, balaka, and rakta chandana check diarrhea caused by pitta. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 63- 65)

     

    Shallaki: 

     

    • Decoction of the barks of badari, arjuna, jambu, amra, Sallaki, and vetasa mixed with sugar and honey checks diarrhea. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 96).
    • Barks of priyala, salmali, plaksa, Sallaki, and tinisa are pressed in milk and added to honey. It checks diarrhea with blood. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 119, Vaidya Manorma. 3/ 4)

     

    Shami: Leaves of aralu, tinduka, dadima, kutaja and shami- these digest ama and as such are useful in amatisara. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 41)

     

    Shati: The diet should contain a soup of Sati. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 20-21)

     

    Simsapa: Decoction made of the crushed tender leaves of Simsapa and kovidara along with barley and mixed with ghee and milk should be given as a slimy enema in the discharge of mucus, tenesmus, and prolapse-rectum. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 95- 96)

     

    Shunthi:

     

    • One should take water processed with Vacha and ativisa, musta and parpata, and hribera and sunthi for improving appetite and digestion. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.19/ 22)
    • In diarrhea caused by Kapha and associated with ama, the paste of sunthi alone should be taken with tepid water. (K. K. 9/ 94)
    • One who defecates frequently with or without a stool or with tenesmus should take Sunthi with Jaggery mixed with curd, oil, ghee, and milk. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa. 9. 17)
    • Powder of Sunthi smeared with ghee is wrapped within eranda leaves and cooked in putapaka (closed heating) on a mild fire. The powder is then taken out and mixed with an equal quantity of sugar. It is taken in the morning and thus pacifies all sorts of pain due to amatisara. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 38- 39)
    • Fried and unfried sunthi mixed and pounded with eranda juice alleviates pain due to amatisara and stimulates digestion and appetite. (Bhava Parasha Chikitsa. 2/ 22)

     

    Shyonaka: The juice of Syonaka obtained by closed heating is useful in diarrhea. (Chakra Dutta. 3. 84- 85)

     

    Tila: 

     

    • The paste of tila and mudga and also the soup of the latter is wholesome. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 115)
    • Paste of black sesamum mixed with 1/5 sugar and taken with goat’s milk checks blood immediately. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 34)

     

    Tinduk: The bark of tinduka is wrapped with käsmari leaves, covered with a paste of earth, and cooked in a mild fire. The juice so extracted is mixed with honey and taken. It destroys all types of diarrhea. (Harita Samhita. 3. 36- 37)

     

    Trayamana: Trayamana, like palasa, should be used in diarrhea to expel the impurity. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 60, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 69)

     

    Trikatu: In the case of griping, the patient should be given a diet with milk boiled with trikatu and salaparni. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 146)

     

    Udumbara: 

     

    • The tender leaves of Vata, udumbara, asvattha, plaksa, lotus, etc. are astringent, checking, and cold and as such useful in diarrhea caused by pitta. 
    • Leaf buds of Vata, udumbara, and asvattha are pounded and then kept in hot water for 24 hours. With this infusion, ghee is cooked and taken after mixing 1/2 sugar and 1/4 honey. It checks hemorrhage be it upwards or downwards. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 99- 100)

     

    Vacha: One suffering from diarrhea should take water boiled with Vacha and prativisha or musta and parpata or Haridra and sunthi. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19. 22, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9/ 8, Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 11/ 5)

     

    Vandana: Vandaka is one of the drugs used for the digestion of Ama. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 41- 45)

     

    Vata: 

     

    • Leaf buds of nyagrodha, udumbara, and asyattha should be crushed and kept in hot water day and night. With this watery extract, ghee should be cooked and mixed with half the sugar and one-fourth honey. It checks blood coming out upwards or downwards. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana.19. 100- 101)
    • Hanging root of nyagrodha pounded with cow’s buttermilk should be taken. It checks acute diarrhea. (Chakra Dutta. 3. 51, Raja Amrittanda. 14. 1)

     

    Vetasa: Khada (a dietary preparation) should be prepared with vetasa leaves added with ghee, sours, and salt. It checks for diarrhea. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8.  129- 130)

     

    Virtaru:  In diarrhea with ama, vandaka, virataru, brhati, kantakari, mudgaparni and masaparni should be given in decoction form. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 41)

     

    Khada (a dietary preparation) should be made of the tender leaves of vetasa etc including yuthika added with ghee, sour, and salt. It acts as an excellent checking remedy. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8. 129- 30)

     

    Yuthika: Kapittha, salmali, phanji, Vata, karpas, dadima, yuthika, duralabha, slesmataka, Sana, and cancu cooked with curd should be taken. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40. 113)

     

    Herbs that can be used for Pandu (Anaemia)- Symptoms of Ulcerative colitis are as follows:

     

    • Amalaki
    • Asana
    • Chitraka
    • Dadima
    • Danti
    • Daruharidra
    • Dasamula
    • Draksa
    • Haridra
    • Haritaki
    • Iksu
    • Kakadani
    • Kasmarya
    • Katuka
    • Madhuka
    • Matulunga
    • Mulaka
    • Punarnava
    • Shala
    • Shali
    • Svarnaksiri (kankusthaprabhava)
    • Triphala
    • Trivit
    • Yava

     

    Amalaki: 

     

    • The juice of amalaka and sugarcane in the form of mantha (churned drink) is beneficial in case of anemia. (Sushuruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44. 8)
    • One should take the powder of Amalaka with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44. 27)

     

    Bijaka (Asana): Bijaka Arista is prescribed in anemia. (Ashtanga Sangreha Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 13)

     

    Chitraka: One suffering from anemia, should take roots of Bala and chitraka 10 gm with warm water or seeds of shigru mixed with equal salt keeping on a milk diet. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 26)

     

    Dadima: Dadimadya ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 45- 46)

     

    Danti: 

     

    • Dantighrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 51)
    • Danti 20 gm, should be boiled in buffalo’s urine sixteen times remaining to 80 ml. It should be given as purgative. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 16)

     

    Darvi (Daru Haridra)

     

    • Darvighrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 54)
    • One suffering from jaundice should take in morning cooled decoction of Triphala, guduci, darvi, or Nimba mixed with honey. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 63)

     

    Dashmula: In anemia caused by Kapha, the decoction of dasamula mixed with sunthi should be taken. It is also useful in fever, diarrhea, edema, grahani, asthma, anorexia, and disorders of the throat and heart. (Vaidya Manorma. 8. 4)

     

    Draksha: 

     

    • Draksa ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 52)
    • For patients of anemia and jaundice, water processed with laghu pancamula or juice of draksa and amalaka is useful in food and drink. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 114, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 32)

     

    Haridra: One should take haridra mixed with Triphala, ghee, and honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 17)

     

    Haritaki:

     

    • Patients of kaphaja pandu should take haritaki impregnated with and suspended in cow’s urine. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 58, 68)
    • Haritaki is the chief ingredient in pathyaghrta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 50)
    • Haritaki pounded with urine or Triphala cooked in cow’s urine should be taken. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 7)
    • After evacuation from both ways, one should take haritaki mixed with profuse honey and ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 10, Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 1)

     

    Ikshu: 

     

    • One suffering from anemia should take a churned drink prepared with the juice of amalaka or sugarcane mixed with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 18)
    • Sakralata is one of the ingredients of dasas varas-ghrta. (SY. P 312)

     

    Kashmarya: In the tepid decoction of danti 40 gm kasmarya (fruit) or draksha 160 gm is dipped and then pressed. The juice extracted should be taken in anemia. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 6)

     

    Katuki:

     

    • Katukadya ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16. 47- 49)
    • Katuka 10 gm. with sugar, juice of dronapushpi applied as collyrium, and snuffing with powder of devadali- each one of them alleviates anemia. (Siddha Bhaishjya Mannimala. 4/ 282)

     

    Madhuka: One should take a decoction of madhuka or powder of the same with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 20, Gada Nigreha. 2. 7. 33)

     

    Matulunga:

     

    • Buds of matulunga should be burnt and then dipped into urine. Intake of this liquid alleviates anemia with edema. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 65)
    • One should take the juice of matulunga mixed with honey, pippali, marica, and sunthi. Thus, pitta comes back to its site. (Charaka Samhita chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 29)

     

    Mulaka: Juice of tender radish 40 ml added with sugar alleviates anemia shortly. (Siddha Bhaishjya Mannimala. 4. 287)

     

    Punarnava:

     

    • Punarnava Mandura. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16. 93- 96)
    • Punarnavastaka. (Vaidya Manorma. 38. 3)

     

    Shala:  Powder of the heartwood of shala etc. or amalaka fruit should be taken with honey. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara tantra. 44. 24)

     

    Shali: One suffering from anemia should use shali rice and barley regularly. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 37)

     

    Svarna Kshiri: One suffering from anemia should take svarnaksiri, trivet, Syama, devadaru, and Sunthi pounded in cow-urine 160 ml or decocted in the same. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 66)

     

    Triphala: 

     

    • The patient should take the decoction of Triphala mixed with cow’s urine for a week. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 65)
    • Navayasa churna. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana 16/ 70- 71)
    • Triphala mixed with lauha bhasma should be taken with cow urine for a long time. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44/ 21)
    • Vasadi (phalatrikadi) kvatha. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 16. 13, Vrindha Madhava. 8. 5)
    • One suffering from jaundice should take the cooled decoction of Triphala, guduci, Daru Haridra, or Nimba mixed with honey in the morning. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16. 63, Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 11, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 1. 9, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 3. 39)

     

    Trivrit: 

     

    • Trivit powder mixed with double sugar in the dose of 20 gm should be taken in the predominance of pitta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16. 57, Vrinda Madhava. 8. 3)
    • Trivrit mixed with sugar, Indravaruni or Sunthi mixed with jaggery are useful in jaundice. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 4/ 30, Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 14)
    • One suffering from jaundice should take trivrit with the decoction of Triphala. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 60)
    • Sugarcane is bifurcated longitudinally, and the inner surface is pasted with trivrit, then it is tied with rope and cooked by closed heating. When cooled it is taken by one suffering from the disorder of pitta (jaundice). (Chakra Dutta. 71/ 5)

     

    Yava: One suffering from anemia should use the formulation mentioned for edema, particularly a diet of sali rice and barley. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 44. 37)

    Books Written by Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S, M.H.A.)

    Few classical formulations with ingredients that can be used in Ulcerative colitis

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 68- 70

     

    Kutaja Leha

     

    Ingredients: Barks of kutaja tree, suvarchala salt, black salt, yavakshara, rock salt, pepper, dhatakti flowers, indrayava, and white cumin seeds.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 6-12 gm. with honey.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 71- 76

     

    Kutajastaka Avaleha

     

    Ingredients: Fresh barks of the plant kutaja, water, dhataki flowers, pulp of unripe bilva fruit, mustaka, ativisa, any one of the herbs mocarasa, patha, samanga, manjistha, and varahakranta.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 12 g to 50 g with cold water.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 77

     

    Punarnavadi Kvatha

     

    Ingredients: Punarnava, indrayava, patha, the pulp of bilva fruit, ativisa, and mustaka.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 30-50 ml. with water

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 78

     

    Vidangadi Kvatha 

     

    Ingredients: Vidanga, ativisa, mustaka, devadaru, patha, and indrayava.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 30-50 ml. along with 2 gm. of fine black pepper powder.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 101- 102

     

    Rasanianadi Churnam 

     

    Ingredients: Rasanjana, ativisa, indrayava, the bark of kutaja, dhataki flowers, and dried ginger.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 3 gm. to 6 gm. with the rice-washing (tandulodaka) and honey.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 103- 106

     

    Narayana Curnam 

     

    Ingredients: Guduchi, seeds of purified vrddhadaraka, indravava, the pulp of the unripe bilva fruit, ativisa, bhringaraja, dried ginger, purified Vijay, and bark of the kutaja.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 2 gm. to 4 gm. with unrefined sugar.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 112

     

    Patoladi Kvatha 

     

    Ingredients: Patola, yava and dhanyaka, sugar, and honey.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 50 ml. with honey and jaggery.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 113

     

    Priyangvadi Churnam

     

    Ingredients: Priyangu, anjana and musta.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 2 gm. to 4 gm. with honey and rice-washing.

     

    Bilvadi Leha

     

    Ingredients: Fruit pulp of unripe bilva, raw sugar, oil of sesame, pepper, and dried ginger.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 3 gm. to 6 gm. with honey.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 130- 131

     

    Jatiphaladi Vati

     

    Ingredients: Jatiphala, date fruits, opium, and juice of betel leaves.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 375 mg. with buttermilk. 

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 132- 135

     

    Purnacandrodaya Rasa 

     

    Ingredients: Purified haratala, bhasmas of lauha and abhraka, purified camphor, purified mercury, purified sulphur, jatikosa, mura, cassia leaves, salt, talisapatradi, nagakesara, dried ginger, marica, pepper, cinnamon bark, pippali mula, and clove.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 125 to 250 mg. with water.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 141- 143

     

    Lokanatha Rasa 

     

    Ingredients: Parada bhasma or Rasasindura, gandhaka, purified Varatika (counch shells), and borax along with honey.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 125 to 250 mg. with honey.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 144- 148

     

    Chintamani Rasa

     

    Ingredients: Purified mercury, purified sulphur, Tamra bhasma, vatsanabha visa, the pulp of the tamarind seeds, juice of jambira lemon, powder of marica, and tamarind pulp.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 125- 250 mg. with water.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 149- 150

     

    Bhuvanesvara Rasa 

     

    Ingredients: Rock salt, Triphala herbs, caraway seeds, the dried pulp of the unripe bilva fruit, and smoke-ashes of the kitchen.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 125- 250 mg. with water.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 151- 156

     

    Jatiphala Rasa 

     

    Ingredients: Purified mercury, purified mica powder, rasa sindura, purified sulphur, jatiphala, indrayava, purified seeds of dhattura, purified tankana, dried ginger, marica, pepper, musta, Harada, the pulp of the seed of the mango fruit, dried pulp of the unripe bilva fruit, seeds of the sala tree, bark of the pomegranate fruit, cumin seeds, and juice of Vijaya leaves.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 125- 250 mg. with water.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 157- 160

     

    Abhayanrsinha Rasa 

     

    Ingredients: Purified hingula, powders of purified vatsanabha visa, dried ginger, marica, pippali, white cumin seeds, purified tankana, purified gandhaka, abhraka bhasma, purified Parada, and lemon juice.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 125- 250 mg with water.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 161- 163

     

    Ananda Bhairava Rasa

     

    Ingredients: Hingula, marica, visa, vyosa, tankana, and Magadhi.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 125 mg with honey.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 164- 165

     

    Karpura Rasa

     

    Ingredients: Purified hingula, purified opium, powders of mustaka, indrayava, jatiphala, camphor, and water.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 125- 250 mg. with water.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 167- 168

     

    Kanadi Lauham 

     

    Ingredients: Pippali, dried ginger, patha, haritaki, vibhitaka, Amalaki, marica, pippali, cavanidasva, mustaka, roots of citraka, the dried inner pulp of the stones of mango, billa roots, white sandalwood, netrabala, lauha bhasma, and water.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 125- 250 mg.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 169- 170

     

    Sadanga Ghritam

     

    Ingredients: Indrayava, the bark of Daru Haridra, pippali, dried ginger, laksa, katuki, ghrita, and water.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 6 gm. to 12 gm. with water.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 171- 173

     

    Babbulyadya Arista

     

    Ingredients: Bark of babbula tree, raw sugar, dhataki flowers, pepper powder, jatiphala, kankola, cinnamon bark, smaller cardamom, cassia leaves, nagakesara, clove, and marica.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 30- 50 ml. after meals along with water in equal quantity.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 174- 177

     

    Kutajadya Arista

     

    Ingredients: Fresh bark of the kutaja, raisin, fruits of plant madhuka, the bark of plant Gambari, dhataki flowers, and raw sugar.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 30- 50 ml. after meals along with water in equal quantity.

     

    Bhaishjya Ratnavalli, 7/ 178- 180

     

    Ahiphena Asava

     

    Ingredients: Flowers of madhuka, purified opium, mustaka, jatiphala, indrayava, and smaller cardamom.

     

    Dose and Anupana: 10 to 20 drops of this drug are to be taken along with water.

    Yoga Therapy for Ulcerative colitis

    Different Yoga modules that can be used as remedial therapy to better manage the symptoms of Ulcerative colitis are as follows:

     

    • Regulation of Manipura Chakra 
    • Dhouti Karma, Nauli Karma, Kapalbhati (Shodhana Karma)
    • Yoga module that particular focus on the abdominal region and helps to relieve Ulcerative colitis
    • Specific Asana for Ulcerative colitis- Bhujangasana, Paschimottanasana.
    • Maha Mudra
    • Kaki Mudra
    • Bhujangini Mudra
    • Vipareeta Karani Mudra
    • Pashinee Mudra
    • Apana Vayu Mudra

     

    For more information regarding Yoga therapy for Ulcerative colitis please visit…. Click Here

    Pathya and Apathya (Do’s and Don’ts) for Ulcerative colitis

    • Paleo diet
    • Include specific carbohydrates in diet/ Carbohydrate exclusion diet
    • Semi-vegetarian diet
    • Gluten-free diet
    • Avoid food rich in linoleic acid
    • The low-FODMAP diet

     

    For more information regarding dos and don’ts, Diet for Ulcerative colitis please visit…. Click Here

    Recent research on ulcerative colitis (Pravahika and Atisara)

    • Ueda Y, Kawakami Y, Kunii D, Okada H, Azuma M, Le DS, Yamamoto S. Elevated concentrations of linoleic acid in erythrocyte membrane phospholipids in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Nutr Res. 2008 Apr; 28 (4): 239- 44. doi: 10. 1016/ j. nutrients. 2008. 02. 005. PMID: 19083414.
    • Bhatt, Santoshkumar & Soni, Ramanuj. (2020). AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT OF PRAVAHIKA CASE STUDY.       
    • B. Pooja & Bhatted, Santoshkumar. (2015). Ayurvedic management of Pravahika? A case reports. AYU (An International Quarterly Journal of Research in Ayurveda). 36. 410. 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 190701.
    • Bhatt, Santoshkumar. (2020). Success Story -Ayurvedic Management of Pravahika (Ulcerative Colitis).
    • Khanal, Hari & Krishniya, Kiran & Joshi, Ram. (2020). AYURVEDIC PERSPECTIVE OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS AND ITS MANAGEMENT -A REVIEW. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 9. 461- 478. 10. 20959/ wjpr20209- 18383.
    • Patel, Manish. (2017). EVIDENCE-BASED AYURVEDIC TREATMENT PROTOCOL FOR THE PATIENTS OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
    • Mishra, Meenu & Shwetal, Shivhare & Deepak, Choudhary. (2021). Ayurvedic Approach for Management of Ulcerative Colitis: A Case Study.
    • Dabas, Ravi & K, Dixit & Kar, Anukul. (2021). Critical Review of Raktatisara vis-a-vis Ulcerative Colitis. International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 12. 999- 1002. 10. 26452/ ijrps. v12i2. 4616.
    • Changath, Sreelakshmy & Soni, Manik. (2021). Ayurvedic Management of Ulcerative Colitis-A Case Study. International Research Journal of Ayurveda & Yoga. 04. 50-56. 10. 47223/ IRJAY. 2021. 4805.
    • Kariyawasam, Peshala & Singh, L & Sahu, M. (2019). AYURVEDA APPROACH FOR MANAGEMENT OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS: A REVIEW. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. 10. 21- 26. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4343. 10016.
    • Mane, Dr. (2017). EVALUATION OF DIET AND LIFESTYLE IN THE ETIOPATHOGENESIS OF PRAVAHIKA (AMOEBIASIS). World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 1514- 1520. 10. 20959/ wjpr 20178- 9021.
    • Segal, Jonathan & LeBlanc, Jean-Frédéric & Hart, Ailsa. (2021). Ulcerative colitis: An update. Clinical Medicine. 21. 135- 139. 10. 7861/ clinic. 2021-0080.
    • Meher, Draupadi & Swain, Dipak & Sahu, Aswinee. (2020). A CLINICAL STUDY ON PRAVAHIKA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO AMOEBIC DYSENTERY AND ITS MANAGEMENT BY INDIGENOUS DRUGS. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy. 11. 56- 60. 10. 7897/ 2277- 4343. 110230.
    • Maiti, Arpan & BC, Spoorthi & Ghosh, Shashwati. (2020). Management of Ulcerative Colitis: Present and Future Treatments. 10. 22271/ed. book. 801.
    • Kobayashi, Taku & Siegmund, Britta & Berre, Catherine & Wei, Shu-Chen & Ferrante, Marc & Shen, Bo & Bernstein, Charles & Danese, Silvio & Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent & Hibi, Toshifumi. (2020). Ulcerative colitis. Nature reviews. Disease primers. 6. 74. 10. 1038/ s41572- 020- 0205- x.
    • Tripathi K, Feuerstein JD. New developments in ulcerative colitis: latest evidence on management, treatment, and maintenance. Drugs Context. 2019 Apr 29; 8: 212572. doi: 10. 7573/ dic. 212572. PMID: 31065290; PMCID: PMC 6490072.
    • Triantafyllidi A, Xanthos T, Papalois A, Triantafillidis JK. Herbal and plant therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Ann Gastroenterol. 2015 Apr- Jun; 28 (2): 210- 220. PMID: 25830661; PMCID: PMC 4367210.
    • Dr. Sumedh Wasnik, Anita Ghodke, & Vaibhav Sulakhe. (2016). Curative Ayurvedic approach to Ulcerative colitis – A Case Report. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences1 (02), 108- 111.
    • Kayal M, Shah S. Ulcerative Colitis: Current and Emerging Treatment Strategies. J Clin Med. 2019 Dec 30; 9 (1): 94. doi: 10. 3390/ jcm 9010094. PMID: 31905945; PMCID: PMC 7019865.
    • Johari S, Gandhi T. A Randomized Single Blind Parallel Group Study Comparing Monoherbal Formulation Containing Holarrhena Antidysenterica Extract with Mesalamine in Chronic Ulcerative Colitis Patients. Anc Sci Life. 2016 Jul- Sep; 36 (1): 19- 27. doi: 10. 4103/ 0257-7941. 195409. PMID: 28182023; PMCID: PMC 5255966.
    • Meier J, Sturm A. Current treatment of ulcerative colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2011 Jul 21; 17 (27): 3204- 12. doi: 10. 3748/ wjg. v17. i27. 3204. PMID: 21912469; PMCID: PMC 3158396.
    • Varsakiya, Jitendra & Goyal, Mandip & Kathad, Divyarani & Kumari, Ritu. (2021). Efficacy of Ayurveda modalities in the management of Raktaja pravahika (ulcerative colitis): A case report. Journal of Ayurveda Case Reports. 4. 115. 10. 4103/ jacr. jacr34_21.
    • Porter RJ, Kalla R, Ho GT. Ulcerative colitis: Recent advances in the understanding of disease pathogenesis. F1000Res. 2020 Apr 24; 9: F1000 Faculty Rev- 294. doi: 10. 12688/ f1000research. 20805. 1. PMID: 32399194; PMCID: PMC 7194476.
    • Ke F, Yadav PK, Ju LZ. Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2012 Jan- Feb; 18 (1): 3- 10. doi: 10. 4103/ 1319-3767. 91726. PMID: 22249085; PMCID: PMC 3271691.
    • Gupta M, Mishra V, Gulati M, Kapoor B, Kaur A, Gupta R, Tambuwala MM. Natural compounds as safe therapeutic options for ulcerative colitis. Inflammopharmacology. 2022 Apr; 30 (2): 397- 434. doi: 10. 1007/ s10787-022- 00931- 1. Epub 2022 Feb 25. PMID: 35212849; PMCID: PMC 8948151.
    • Rayudu V, Raju AB. Effect of Triphala on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats. Ayu. 2014 Jul- Sep; 35 (3): 333- 8. doi: 10. 4103/ 0974-8520. 153787. PMID: 25972724; PMCID: PMC 4427837.
    • Wasnik, Dr & Ghodke, Anita & Sulakhe, Vaibhav. (2016). Curative Ayurvedic approach to Ulcerative colitis – A Case Report. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences (JAIMS). 1. 10. 21760/ jaims. v1i2. 3675.
    • Kalapi P, Manish P, Namrata S, Christian K, Gupta S. P02.87. Ayurvedic management of Ulcerative Colitis: a non-randomized, observational clinical study. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012 Jun 12; 12 (Suppl 1): P143. doi: 10. 1186/ 1472- 6882- 12- S1- P143. PMCID: PMC 3373764.
    • Hullur, Mohammad & S., Prashanth & R., Anjaikannan. (2017). A Clinical Study on Pravahika through Vasti and Kutaja Parpati. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrated Medical Sciences (JAIMS). 2. 10. 21760/ jaims. v2i06. 10921.
    • Patel, Manish & Patel, Kalapi & Gupta, Shivenarian. (2010). Effects of Ayurvedic treatment on forty-three patients of ulcerative colitis. Ayu. 31. 478-81. 10. 4103/ 0974- 8520. 82046.
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    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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