Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum)
Madanaphala (Randia dumetorum) - The Best and Safe Drug of Vamana (Emetic Procedure) in Panchkarma
Madanphala is a deciduous thorny shrub botanically known as Randia dumetorum Lamk. belongs to Rubiaceae. Madanphala is found all over India, especially in the sub-Himalayas up to 4000 feet in elevation. Madanphala means the fruit that induces vomiting i.e emesis and its botanical name is derived from two the word Randia which is taken from the memory of the botanist Chelseaalsea, London i.e Issac Rand and dumetorum means thorny bushes. In Ayurvedic classical texts two main lines of treatment are mentioned one is Nidana Parivarajna (Shamana Chikitsa) and one is Shodhana Chikitsa (eliminative therapy). Shodhana Chikitsa comes under Panchkarma and Vamana is one of the main procedures (Pardhana Karma) of Panchkarma and the most important drug or drug of the choice for this procedure is Madanphala. Acharya Charaka in Kalpa Sthana mentioned Madanphala in the first chapter which shows its importance. In the whole chapter, Madanphala has mentioned its collection, its use, and its formulations are mentioned. Acharya Charaka mentioned 133 formulations of Madanphala in the first Chapter of Kalpa Sthana. The Vamana Karma done by Madan Phala is due to Parbhava. Recent research shows that it contains various chemical ingredients like scopoletin, randioside A, glycosides, saponins, randianin, etc due to which it exhibits various pharmacological properties like anti-bacterial, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, analgesic activity, etc. Madanphala possesses the therapeutic potential of curing various diseases like Kustha, Pratishaya, Shotha, Jwara, Gulma, Adho- Rakta Pitta, etc.
Basonym of Madanphala
मदयति रोमहर्ष ग्लानिश्च जनयतीति
Madana produces horripulation and discomfort.
Synonyms of Madanphala
According to Habitat
मरुबकः – शुष्कप्रदेशे प्रायो जातत्वात् |
Madana commonly grows in dry regions.
According to Morphology
करहाट: – करं हाटयति व्यथयति, कण्टकित्वात् |
When touched without notice it injures the hand because of its thorns.
विष पुष्पक: – विषाक्तं पुष्पम अस्य |
Flowers are toxic in nature.
पिण्डीतक: पिण्डाकारं फल बीजाञ्च अस्य |
Fruits and seeds of Madana are round.
गोल फल: – गोलाकार फल त्वात |
Fruits are round in shape.
धारा फल: – धारा फलं अस्य |
Fruits have streaks on its surface.
फल: – प्रशस्त फल त्वात फलस्यै व् औषधो प्रयोग: |
Fruits are best used as medicine.
According to properties and action
गाल: – गालयति स्राव्याति कफ इति |
Madana has a property to eliminate Kapha.
वामन: – वामयतिति वमने प्रयुक्तवात |
Madana is best Vamaka Dravya.
विष नाशन – विषं नाशयतिति |
Madana Phala alleviates poison fron the body.
बस्ती शोधन: – बस्तिमंत: स्थापयति बस्ति कर्मणि प्रयुक्तवात |
Madana is a very useful drug for Basti Karma.
राठ: – रठयते स्तुयते इति |
Everybody praises the fruit of Madana as the best and safe Vamaka Dravya.
Regional Names of Madanphala
- Emetic nut (English)
- Main Phala (Hindi)
- Maggarekayi (Kannada)
- Manga- Kai (Malayalam)
- Gela Phal (Marathi)
- Maian Phala (Bengali)
- Marubakalam (Tamil)
- Ganga, Mayari (Telegu)
- Mindhal (Gujrati)
- Loto (Santhal)
- Jijul Kai (Arabic)
- Mohan, Ghotva Phala (Uttrakhanda)
- Madanfal (Kashmiri)
- Mainfal, Jauz- Ul- Kai (Urdu)
- Palova (Oriya)
- Rara, Mindhal (Punjabi)
- Maen, Behmona (Assam)
Scientific Classification of Madanphal
Botanical Name of Madanphala
Randia dumetorum Lamk.
Randia- In memory of the botanist from London, Issac Rand, and dumetorum means thorny bushes, of hedges.
Rubiaceae (Manjistha Kula)
Ayurveda Reference for Madanphala (Randia dumetorum Lamk.)
Classification of Madanphala - As Per Charaka and Sushruta
Charaka: Asthapanopaga Mahakshaya, Anuvasno paga Mahakshaya
Sushruta: Aargvadhadi Gana, Mushkakadi Gana
Madanphala's Description in Brihtrayi as Madana
|C. S. Su. 1/ 80, 83||S. S. Su. 38/ 5, 19||A. H. Su. 15/ 1, 3|
|C. S. Su. 2/ 6, 11||S. S. Su. 39/ 2||A. H. Su. 21/ 14|
|C. S. Su. 3/ 2||S. S. Su. 43/ 2||A. H. Sa. 1/ 88|
|C. S. Su. 4/ 25, 26||S. S. Chi. 14/ 11||A. H. Chi. 1/ 119, 120, 123|
|C. S. Su. 15/ 8, 9||S. S. Chi. 17/ 37||A. H. Chi. 3/ 26|
|C. S. Su. 23/ 9||S. S. Chi. 18/ 13||A. H. Chi. 8/ 89|
|C. S. Su. 25/ 39||S. S. Chi. 19/ 65||A. H. Chi. 19/ 59|
|C. S. Vi. 7/ 17, 18||S. S. Chi. 22/ 31, 32||A. H. Chi. 21/ 78|
|C. S. Vi. 143, 158||S. S. Chi. 31/ 5||A. H. Ka. 1/ 1|
|C. S. Sa. 8/ 70||S. S. Chi. 34/ 10||A. H. Ka. 4/ 18, 38, 59, 62|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 228, 242, 243, 245, 246, 248, 253||S. S. Chi. 37/ 8, 11, 23, 40, 46||A. H. U. 3/ 55|
|C. S. Chi. 4/ 59, 60||S. S. Chi. 38/ 26, 43, 47, 60, 67, 71, 106||A. H. U. 9/ 30|
|C. S. Chi. 7/ 43, 46, 91||S. S. Ka. 1/ 41||A. H. U. 18/ 50|
|C. S. Chi. 14/ 55, 132||S. S. Ka. 7/ 15, 34||A. H. U. 20/ 8|
|C. S. Chi. 15/ 180||S. S. Sa. 10/ 4||A. H. U. 22/ 41|
|C. S. Chi. 18/ 83||S. S. U. 55/ 49, 51||A. H. U. 25/ 45, 58|
|C. S. Chi. 21/ 50, 51||S. S. U. 65/ 23||A. H. U. 28/ 35|
|C. S. Chi. 22/ 49||A. H. U. 32/ 25|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 56||A. H. U. 37/ 75|
|C. S. Chi. 26/ 153, 156||A. H. U. 38/ 22|
|C. S. Chi. 27/ 33|
|C. S. Chi. 28/ 153|
|C. S. Ka. 1|
|C. S. Ka. 7/ 72|
|C. S. Si. 3/ 37, 55, 65|
|C. S. Si. 4/ 8, 12, 16|
|C. S. Si. 9/ 13|
|C. S. Si. 11/ 12, 22|
|C. S. Si. 12/ 27, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40, 41, 53|
Madanphala's Description in Brihtrayi as Karahataka
Although Karahata has been accepted as a synonym for Madana, another plant (Gardenia turgida Roxb. ) belonging to the same family, more or less of similar appearance (except the fruit) and popularly known as Kharahara or Thanaila in U. P. is likely to have more or less similar medicinal properties. The preparation of root bark has also been reported as very useful in pneumonic conditions by the tribal people of Raigarh (M. P.). It has been used externally for Thanaili (breast abscess) and hence its name. The Karaghata in A. H. U. 37. 84 may be Karahata or the Karaghata Visa mentioned by Susruta and may have this plant as its source. Dalhana has described it as a synonym of Madanaphala and prickly fruit known as Bhadrakha by which he may be referring to Jimuta. The fact that Karahata has been used as a synonym for Madana is clear after comparison of the more or less identical Yoga in C. S. Ci. 26. 14 and S. S. U. 55/ 51, 52.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 26/ 14
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Chi. 18/ 45, C. S. Ka. 6/ 3
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. U. 22/ 67, A. H. U. 37/ 84
Madanphala's Description in Brihtrayi as Krishan Pindita
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 26/ 269
Madanphala's Description in Brihtrayi as a Gala
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 1. 6, A. H. Chi. 20/ 20
Madanphala's Description in Brihtrayi as Pindi
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 14/ 11
Madanphala's Description in Brihtrayi as Ratha
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Su. 26/ 13
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 8/ 137, A. H. Ka. 1/ 18, A. H. U. 2/ 17, A. H. U. 37/ 82
Madanphala's Description in Brihtrayi as Savasana
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Ka. 1/ 30
Madanphala's Description in Brihtrayi as Pinditaka
The Krishna or Varaha Bhavita variety of Pinditaka is not yet identified. It is likely to be Randia uliginosa, Pidara.
Charaka Samhita: C. S. Chi. 20/ 33, C. S. Chi. 26/ 269, C. S. Ka. 1/ 30, C. S. Si. 3/ 60, C. S. Si. 10/ 29
Sushruta Samhita: S. S. Su. 37/ 7, S. S. Chi. 17/ 40, S. S. Chi. 25/ 28, 32, S. S. Su. 31/ 5, S. S. Sa. 10/ 11
Ashtanga Hridya: A. H. Chi. 6/ 17, A. H. U. 5/ 18
Madanphala's Description in Brihtrayi as Phalahvaya
|C. S. Su. 30/ 60||S. S. Chi. 37/ 122||A. H. Su. 8/ 15|
|C. S. Vi. 8/ 143||S. S. Chi. 38/ 52||A. H. Su. 15/ 17|
|C. S. Sa. 8/ 70||S. S. Ka. 7/ 36||A. H. Chi. 1/ 36, 121, 122|
|C. S. Chi. 3/ 249, 257||S. S. U. 19/ 12||A. H. Chi. 2/ 12|
|C. S. Chi. 4/ 51||S. S. U. 43/ 18||A. H. Chi. 3/ 26|
|C. S. Chi. 7/ 47, 112||A. H. Chi. 5/ 2, 37|
|C. S. Chi. 8/ 118||A. H. Chi. 8/ 136|
|C. S. Chi. 14/ 91, 95, 99, 104, 203||A. H. Chi. 18/ 2|
|C. S. Chi. 15/ 74||A. H. Chi. 20/ 22|
|C. S. Chi. 23/ 240||A. H. Ka. 1/ 2, 14, 15, 16, 40, 42, 43, 46|
|C. S. Chi. 26/ 14||A. H. Ka. 3/ 10|
|C. S. Chi. 30/ 252||A. H. Ka. 4/ 1, 2, 8, 18, 32, 34, 35, 46, 50, 67|
|C. S. Ka. 1||A. H. Chi. 5/ 36, 49|
|C. S. Si.5/ 9|
|C. S. Si. 7/ 68|
|C. S. Si. 12/ 35|
|C. S. Si. 3/ 12, 13, 44, 57, 64|
|C. S. Si. 4/ 19|
|C. S. Si. 5/ 13|
|C. S. Si. 6/ 42|
|C. S. Si. 7/ 22|
|C. S. Si. 8/ 8|
|C. S. Si. 10/ 24, 25|
|C. S. Si. 11/ 9, 33|
|C. S. Si. 12/ 39, 43|
Historical Background of Madanphala
In the Vedic literature, the thorns of Madana are mentioned and in the case of vegetable poisons, Madanaphala is given to induce vomiting (K. P. 28/ 3) Charaka quoted it as the best among the emetic drugs and about 133 yogas were described with it in the kalpa sthana. He also emphasized its role as an antidote to many poisons. It is important to note that Madanaphala is enumerated under Vamana dravyas but not under the Vamonopaga group. However, it is found in the Asthapanopaga and Anuvasanopaga groups. In the context of Vamana dravyas Madana is picked up as an ‘analog’ while in Asthapana & Anuvasanopaga dravyas it is considered as a ‘prodrug’. Susruta mentioned that vomiting may be induced even by giving the flowers of Madana along with honey and rock salt (S. S. Su. 43). Chunekarji quoted Pindara of Bhavamisra as Randia uliginosa Dc.
Controversial Studies of Madanphala
पिण्डीतक चरकसंहिता के दुढ़बलकृत अंश में उपलब्ध है। यह मदनफल के पर्यायरूप में पठित है । इसका प्रयोग वमनायथ, कृष्णीकरणार्थ, निरूहवस्ति तथा सांग्राहिक योग में हुआ है। महानील तैल (च. चि. २६/ २७२) में कृष्णी पिण्डीतचित्रको से कृष्ण पिण्डीतक तथा चित्रक का प्रयोग है । सुश्रुत ने सानिपातिक शोफहर लेप, गर्भ संग में योनिधूपन, नाडी व्रणहर तैल, केशकृष्णीकरण, पिण्डीतंकस्नेह ( कृष्णीकरणे ) में पिण्डीतक का उल्लेख किया है । वाग्भट ने रक्षोघ्न धूप एवं वामनार्थ इसका प्रयोग किया है । चक्रपाणि ने पिण्डीतक का अर्थ मदन किया है. (च. चि. २०/ ३४, सि. १०/ ३०) । डल्हण ने भी इसका अर्थ मदन किया है (सु. सु. ३७/ ७, चि. २५/ ३२, ३१/ ५) और पुष्प भेद से पिण्डीतक तीन प्रकार का बतलाया है– कृष्ण पुष्प, श्वेतपुष्प और पीतपुष्प (सु. चि. १७/ ४०) । अरुणदत्त ने इस पर कोई टिप्पणी नहीं की । कुछ लोगों ने पिण्डीतक को पिण्डार मान कर Randia uliginosa का सुझाव दिया है । मेरी दृष्टि में, पिण्डीतक को मदन के पर्याय में ही रखना चाहिए, प्रथक् द्रव्य मानने की आवश्यकता नहीं है । पिण्डार पिण्डीतक से भिन्न हसि, इसका उल्लेख बृहत् संहिता ( ५४/ ५० ) में हुआ है । पिण्डार …. है जिसे लोकभाषा में पिडार या पेण्ड्रा कहते हैं । मदनफल में पुष्प का वर्ण अवस्थानुसार बदलता रहता है । मेरे विचार से इन्हीं पुष्पवर्णों को देख कर पुष्प वर्ण को देख कर त्रिविध पिण्डीतक या मदन कहा गया है । “मदन” शब्द भी विचारणीय है । इसमें मद उत्पन्न करने का संकेत है । सम्प्रति जो मदनफल लिया जाता है वह वामक तो है किन्तु मादक नहीं है । उसी कुल का एक अन्य वृक्ष Meyna laxifiora है जो मदनफल से बिलकुल मिलता–जुलता है तथा मैनफल के नाम से प्रसिद्ध भी है । इसके फल मादक होते हैं | प्राचीन मदनफल यही होगा, बाद में इसके स्थान पर Randia dumetorum प्रचलित हुआ |
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External Morphology of Randia dumetorum Retz.
- Habit: Madanphala is an armed shrub for small trees, large deciduous shrubs, or small trees with grey bark, and spines axillary, often long and stout. Wood light brown or white, compact, hard, weight 55- 60 Lbs. per c. ft.
- Leaves: Leaves of Madanphala are mostly fascicled on branchlets, obovate or oblanceolate, subcoriaceous, or pubescent, stipules ovate, 1-2 in. long.
- Flowers: Flowers of Madanphala are solitary or 2- 3 fascicled creamy white fragrant. The Calyx of the flower of Madanphala is campanulate. Corolla covered with adpressed silky hairs. Flowers at the ends of short lateral branchlets, shortly pedunculate. Calyx strigose, tube 0.2-0.3 in. long; lobes ovate, foliaceous, as long as the tube. Corolla-lobes spreading, oval or oblong, .5-.75 in; covered with adpressed white hairs, tube up to the tips of the calyx-lobes.
- Fruit: The fruit of Madaphala is a soft fleshy berry, 1-1.5 in. long, globose or ovoid, yellow, glabrous or pubescent; pericarp thick, leathery.
- Seeds: Seeds of Madanphala are compressed and embedded in a gelatinous pulp.
Flowering and Fruiting Time of Randia dumetorum
Plant flowers during summer or May- June and it bears fruit during the period of autumn to winter or October to January.
Distribution of Randia Dumetorum
It occurs almost throughout India up to 4,000 ft. altitude. Extremely common in valleys and lower areas in Uttar Pradesh’s hilly region, terai. It is found in warm regions in the country, Central India, Madhya Pradesh, and other provinces.
The Useful Part of Madanphala
Fruits and Seeds
Fruits are globular or ovate, 2 to 4 cm in diameter, crowned with the rim of the calyx, which appears like a disc. The surface is minutely or roughly wrinkled and longitudinally ribbed, reddish brown. The two-called it is two-celled and contains numerous oblong, translucent, and shining seeds attached to a yellowish-grey gelatinous pulp. It has got a characteristic disagreeable odor.
Varieties of Madanphala
According to the Kaideva Nighantu
The second variety is of two types i.e.
- Sukshma Pinditaka
- Maha Pinditaka
According to Raja Nighnatu
Important Phytoconstituent of Madanphala
Madanphala contains saponin, valeric acid, resin, wax, and some coloring matters. Besides saponin, the fruit contains a new triterpene and acid resin. and a trace of pale essential oil. The presence of pectin, mucilage, and tartaric acid is reported.
Recent Research on Madanphala (Randia dumetorum)
- Randia dumetorum fruits in different forms have been ethnopharmacologically reported to possess antiasthmatic properties. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate two different extracts of RD i.e., ethyl acetate (RD-EA) and methanol (RD-ME) for bronchial relaxant, anti-inflammatory, mast cell stabilizing and antioxidant effects along with safety, margin, according to OECD guidelines for toxicity. RD extracts also exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH, reducing power, and metal chelation method, along with safe margin for oral administration as observed in acute toxicity evaluation. Ghante MH, Bhusari KP, Duragkar NJ, Jain NS, Warokar AS. Bronchorelaxant, mast cell stabilizing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity of Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Lamk. extracts. Acta Pol Pharm. 2012 May-Jun; 69 (3):465-74.
- The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of methanolic fruit extract of Randia dumetorum (L.) on alcohol-induced liver damage in rats. Histology of the liver section of the animals treated with R. dumetorum improved the hepatotoxicity caused by alcohol. Hence the study concluded that R. numerous has potential hepatoprotective activity. Noorani AA, Kale MK. Pretreatment of Albino Rats with Methanolic Fruit Extract of Randia Dumetorum (L.) Protects against Alcohol-induced liver Damage. Korean J. Physiol Pharmacol. 2012 Apr; 16 (2): 125- 30. Doi: 10. 4196/ kjpp. 2012. 16. 2.125. Epub 2012 Apr 24.
- Two new triterpene-saponins, 3- 0- [O- beta- D- glucopyranosyl-(1- 4)- O- beta-D- glucopyranosyl- (1.3)- (beta- D- glucuronopyranosyl) oleanolic acid (1), 3- O-IO- beta- D- glucopyranosyl- (1.6)- O- beta- D- glucopyranosyl- (1.3)- (beta- D- glucuronopyranosyl) oleanolic acid (2) together with five known saponins (3- 7) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the fruits of Randia dumetorum (Retz) Lam. (Rubiaceae): Dubois MA, Benze S, Wagner H. New biologically active triterpene-saponins from Randia dumetorum. Planta Med. 1990 Oct; 56 (5): 451- 5.
- Thrigulla, Saketh Ram & Y.R, Sanjaya & N, Thamizh & Parekar, Sushant & N, Venugopalan & PK, Sudarsanan. (2014). TOXICOLOGICAL STUDY OF RANDIA DUMETORUM LINN SEEDS IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH. 4. 20-28. Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Lam seeds were evaluated for safety in experimental animals. In the acute toxicity study, the test drug was administered at a dose of 5000 mg /kg body weight in Wistar rats and the animals were observed for mortality and signs of toxicity. In a sub-acute toxicity study, the test drug was administered at doses of 200 to 2000 mg /kg body weight to Wistar rats for 14 days. The test drug did not show any signs of toxicity or mortality upon a single exposure to the test drug. Though SGOT and SGPT showed a transient increase, the values were normalized at the end of 14 days. During the sub-acute toxicity study, 25% and 50% mortality were observed in AD (Average Dose) and HD (High Dose) groups respectively. A significant decrease was observed in body weight gain and percent feed intake in AD and HD groups as compared to the control group. The hematological study revealed a significant decrease in hemoglobin levels and the relative decrease in packed cell volume and total red cell count. Biochemical studies revealed an increase in the levels of SGOT, and SGPT and a decrease in creatinine levels as compared to the control group. Histopathological examination revealed no major morphological changes in the vital organs. It could be concluded from the study that the death observed during the study might be due to progressive gastric dilatation and the same must be the reason for elevated levels of liver enzyme.
- Extracts of Randia dumetorum Lamk (SD) could inhibit pregnancy in 50- 60% of rats. Prakash AO, Saxena V, Shukla S, Tewari RK, Mathur S, Gupta A, Sharma S, Mathur R. Anti-implantation activity of some indigenous plants in rats. Acta Eur Fertil. 1985 Nov- Dec; 16 (6): 441- 8.
- In anesthetized dogs a drug consisting of R. dumetorum (coded as RDG- I) in doses of 2, 4, and 8 mg/ kg produced hypotension and respiratory depression. It produced positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on perfused frog heart preparation. In isolated rabbit hearts, it increased pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis in mice significantly (CCRAS Annual Report, 1979- 80).
- Crude saponin fraction showed hemolytic, molluscicidal, and immunostimulating activities (Planta Med. 1990. 56, 451).
- Satpute, Kranti & Jadhav, M. & Karodi, Revan & Katare, Y. & Patil, M. & Rub, Rukhsana & Bafna, Anand. (2009). Immunomodulatory activity of fruits of Randia dumetorum Lamk. J Pharmocogn Phytother. 1. Randia dumetorum Lamk., a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India, has been reported to possess antiviral, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, an attempt was made to screen the immunomodulatory activity of methanol extract and its petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol fraction of fruits of R. dumetorum. The effects of R. dumetorum on cell-mediated and humoral components of the immune system in mice were observed. Administration of chloroform fraction at a dose of 100 mg/kg produced statistically significant results as evidenced by an increase in humoral antibody (HA) titer (p < 0.05), and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response (p < 0.001). This fraction also enhanced the total WBC level in the cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression model (p < 0.001) at a dose of 100 mg/kg. Petroleum ether fraction and methanol fraction affected only cell-mediated immunity. The present study, therefore, reveals that the drug holds promise as an immunomodulatory agent.
- Mishra, P.R. & Panda, P.K. & Chowdary, K.A. & Panigrahi, Subodha. (2011). Evaluation of the acute hypolipidemic activity of different plant extracts in triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats. Pharmacologyonline. 3. 925-934. The lipid-lowering activity of Randia dumetorum fruit extract & Paederia foetida aerial part extract has been studied in Triton WR-1339-induced hyperlipidemia in male albino rats. The dried and ground parts of the fruit of Randia dumetorum and the aerial part of Paederia foetida were subjected to extraction with methanol using a soxhlet apparatus for 72 Hrs. The obtained methanolic extracts were suspended in distilled water and administered orally to Swiss albino rats through an oral feeding tube for 2 days. Before that male albino rats were randomly divided into five groups. Groups I and II serve as vehicle control (demineralized water) and triton control (Triton WR- 1339 – 200 mg/ kg; i.p.), respectively. Group III was treated with atorvastatin (7.2 mg/kg). Groups IV and V were treated with test substances Paederia foetida and Randia dumetorum extract, at the dose of 400 mg/kg/day respectively as a single dose for two days. The Blood samples of each animal were collected at 0, 18, 24,40and 48 Hr post-treatment and the results were analyzed. All the data were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s t-test to observe any significant difference. The statistical significance of results was tested at two confidence levels viz. p< 0.05 and p< 0.01. The mean body weight of animals in each group was calculated daily till the end of the experiment. In this experiment Paederia extract resulted in a lowering of serum total cholesterol from 157.47± 17.75mg/ dl (18th Hr) to 133.15± 16.52mg/ dl (24th Hr), Randia extract lowers it from 121.38±21.14mg/dl (18 th Hr) to133.44± 19.64mg/ dl (24 th Hr) and atorvastatin reduces it from 125.80± 15.46 mg/ dl (18 th Hr) to 112.80± 18.27mg/ dl (24th Hr). In the case of serum triglycerides, atorvastatin treatment resulted in lowering from 661.72± 153.31 mg/ dl (18th Hr) to 337.34± 105.01 mg/ dl (24th Hr), Paederia extracts non-significantly lowers it from 865.47± 134.87 mg/ dl (18th Hr) to 457.03± 96.84 mg/ dl (24th Hr), and in case of randia extract, there was a non-significant decrease from 557.13± 197.66 mg/ dl to 345.99± 118.45 mg/ dl. The results of the present study demonstrated lipid-lowering activity in the fruit extract of Randia dumetorum.
- Begum, Ferdousi & Islam, Kazi Mohammed Didarul & Paul, Rathindra & Mehedi, Masfique & Rani, Shyamole. (2004). In vitro propagation of emetic nut Randia dumetorum (Lamb.). Indian Journal of experimental biology. 41. 1479-81. An efficient protocol for in vitro shoot multiplication of Randia dumetorum (Emetic nut) has been developed. The seeds of R. dumetorum were germinated in vitro in MS medium for 5 weeks. Subsequent propagation using a shoot tip as an explant was carried out in MS medium along with different concentrations and combinations of BAP (0.5- 2.0) and NAA (0.0- 2.0). Maximum shoot multiplication was obtained (12.7 shoots per shoot tip) in MS medium containing 1 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA. Micropropagated shoots were rooted in 1/ 2 MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/l IBA. This is the first report of in vitro plant propagation of R. dumetorum. In vitro-grown plantlets showed a survival rate of 70% after 2 months of transplantation to a natural environment.
- Hamerski, Lidilhone & Furlan, Maysa & Cavalheiro, Alberto & Eberlin, Marcos & Tomazela, Daniela & Bolzani, Vanderlan. (2003). Iridoid glucosides from Randia spinosa (Rubiaceae). Phytochemistry. 63. 397- 400. 10. 1016/ S0031- 9422 (03) 00109- 2. An iridoid glucoside: randinoside, along with five known iridoids: galioside, deacetylasperulosidic acid methyl ester, scandoside methyl ester, geniposide, and gardenoside, were isolated from the stems of Randia spinosa. The structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR techniques.
- Bhattacharjee, Indranil & Chatterjee, Soroj & Ghosh, Anupam & Chandra, Goutam & Sc, D & Professor, (2011). Antibacterial activities of some plant extracts used in Indian traditional folk medicine. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 1. 165-169. 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (11) 60148- 2. Objective- To evaluate the antibacterial activity of the leaf extracts of Cestrum diurnum, Ocimum sanctum, Carcica papaya, Solanum villosum, Vitex negundo, and Clerodendron inermis against two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940 and Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441) and two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli MTCC 739 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2453). Methods- The sensitivity of two gram-positive and two gram-negative pathogenic multi-drug resistant bacteria to extracts of leaves of six medicinal plants used as a popular medicine in India was studied in vitro by the disk diffusion method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Results- All the bacterial strains were found to be sensitive to aqueous, n-hexane, and ethanol extracts. But the organic extracts were comparatively more effective than aqueous extracts.
- Jangwan, J.S. & Aquino, Rita & Mencherini, Teresa & Singh, R. (2012). Chemical investigation and in vitro cytotoxic activity of Randia dumetorum lamk. Bark. International Journal of Chemical Sciences. 10. 1374- 1382. β-Sitosterol, lupeol, and daucosterol have been isolated from ethanolic extract of Randia dumetorum bark. β-Sitosterol, Lupeol, and Daucosterol have been isolated for the first time from the Randia dumetorum. β Sitosterol and Daucosterol were identified by complete interpretation of 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra using 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, DQF- COSY) experiments and Lupeol by direct comparison with authentic samples. The ethanolic extract is subjected to cytotoxic activity against A549 cell (adeno- carcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells), BE (2) C (Neuroblastoma Cell Line), Hela, MDA- MB- 231 (breast cancer cell line), SK MEL- 2 (Human Skin Melanoma Cell) and U87MG cell (Human Neuronale Gliblostoma astrocytoma Cell Line) which showed most effective cytotoxic activity at 400 μg/mL concentration on MDA- MB- 231 (Breast Cancer Cell Line). Kumar, Dinesh & Mudgade, Satish & Bhat, Zulfiqar & Bhujbal, Santosh & Rub, Rukhsana. (2011). Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects of the fruits of Randia dumetorum Lamk. OPEM. 11. 161– 167. 10. 1007/ s13596- 011-0025- 3. Abstract Randia dumetorum Lamk. commonly known as Madana in Sanskrit and widely distributed throughout India. In Ayurveda, Randia dumetorum Lamk. is used in the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, bronchitis, cold, cough, pain, inflammation, etc. The aim of this study: was to assess the anti-allergic effects of the fruit of Randia dumetorum Lamk. Allergy and anaphylaxis are the most responsible factor for diseases like asthma, rhinitis, bronchitis, cold, cough, pain, inflammation, etc. Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the lungs and the hallmarks of the disease are the increased inflammatory cell infiltration into the airways and poor respiratory function although there is a possibility that Randia dumetorum Lamk. may have an inhibitory effect on lung inflammation and allergic mediators. The effects of Randia dumetorum Lamk. on allergy and asthma have not been fully investigated. In the present study, we investigated the antiallergic and anti-inflammatory activity of Randia dumetorum Lamk. extract and its fraction on milk-induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia in mice, passive paw anaphylaxis, and mast cell degranulation in rat models. Randia dumetorum Lamk. the extract was obtained from dried and powdered fruits of Randia dumetorum Lamk. using 95% methanol and its fractions were obtained by using the increasing polarity of solvents like Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Milk was used to induce leucocytosis and eosinophilia in the mice model, egg albumin was used as a sensitizer in passive paw anaphylaxis in a rat model and clonidine was used to degranulate the mast cells in a rat model. We examined the effects of Randia dumetorum Lamk. extract and its fraction on milk-induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia in mice, passive paw anaphylaxis, and mast cell degranulation in rats. The extract and its fractions significantly inhibited leukocytosis and eosinophilia in the blood of mice. The extract and its fractions also significantly inhibited the passive paw edema and mast cell degranulation in rats. Methanol extract showed dose-dependent significant activity (p< 0.01). Amongst the fractions, the chloroform fraction showed the most significant activity followed by ethyl acetate and residual methanol fraction with intermediate activity, and finally the petroleum ether fraction with the least or negligible activity (p< 0.05, p< 0.01). These results suggest the possibility of extract and its fraction can exert suppressive effects on allergy, inflammation, and asthma and may provide evidence that Randia dumetorum Lamk. is a useful agent for the treatment of allergic airway disease. Hence it would be a good path for the isolation of most bioactive principles for the management of allergic airway disease.
- Juárez-Trujillo, Naida & Tapia-Hernández, Fredy & Alvarado-Olivarez, Mayvi & Beristain-Guevara, César & Pascual-Pineda, Luz & Fernández, Maribel. (2022). Antibacterial activity and acute toxicity study of standardized aqueous extract of Randia monantha Benth fruit. Biotecnia. 24. 38- 45. 10. 18633/biotechnical. v24i1. 1516. The fruit of Randia monantha is traditionally and empirically used in the preparation of a beverage as anti-venom and for the treatment of various diseases, but to date there is little scientific evidence regarding its anti-microbiological properties and toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the administration of the aqueous extract of the Randia monantha pulp on acute toxicity in male Wistar rats and evaluate antimicrobial activity at different concentrations against pathogenic bacteria. The results of acute oral toxicity revealed no deaths in doses up to 5000 mg/kg body weight. The experimental animals showed no significant changes in the weight and behavior parameters evaluated concerning the control treatment. Rats did not show significant changes in the hematological parameters, but doses of 5000 mg/kg body weight rats exhibited the appearance of yellow spots on the kidney. The aqueous extract did not show antimicrobial activity against test pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of the Randia monantha fruit can be used with some degree of safety by oral administration but should not be taken in high doses.
- Shanthamani, M. & Ulagi, R. (2019). Isolation of Steroid Compounds from Randia malabarica (Triveng) and their Biological Activity. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 31. 135- 138. 10. 14233/ aj chem. 2019. 21609. Two steroidal compounds i.e., 1- octacosanol (1) and β- sitosterol (2) were isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Randia malabarica (Triveng). The antitumor activity of compounds 1 and 2 was observed against A549 and HeLa using an MTT assay. The isolated compounds exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on the two cancer cell lines with a significant effect of inhibition. Molecular docking studies have been performed for both compounds and showed good inhibitory activity, thereby opening their applications to various clinical trials.
- S., Manekar & Charde, Manoj. (2018). EVALUATION OF ANTI-ASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BERLERIA PRIONITIS LINN. AERIAL PARTS. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research. 10. 30. 10. 22159/ ijcpr. 2018v10i6. 30971. Objective: The present study aims to evaluate the aerial parts of a plant of Barleria prionitis Linn., for its anti-asthmatic activity with the separation of active moieties. Methods: Adult Wistar albino rats were used for the anti-inflammatory study. Histamine-induced bronchospasm was conducted on isolated goat trachea. Results: The dried and powdered aerial parts of Berleria prionitis were extracted with continuous soxhlet extraction with Petroleum ether (40- 60 ° C), Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Acetone, Methanol, and Hydroalcoholic solvents. A preliminary phytochemical screening of all extracts was done. Preliminary animal studies by In vitro isolated goat trachea chain preparation of all extracts were done to find out the potent extract. In this study, the methanolic extract of aerial parts of Berleria prionitis was found to be potent compared to another extract. The results of the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model indicated the dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. As compared to the standard drug (Indomethacin), methanolic extract showed similar activity which was found to be statistically significant (P< 0.0001). The extent of DPPH radical scavenging was determined by calculating the IC 50 value of methanolic extract Berleria prionitis (133. 5) compared with the Ascorbic acid (114.7) taken as standard. In the present study, the histamine-induced dose-dependent contraction of the goat tracheal chain was significantly inhibited (p< 0.001) by methanolic extract of aerial parts of Berleria prionitis (200 μg/ml). Thus the present study revealed that the methanolic extract of Berleria prionitis (MEBP) has significant antihistaminic (H1 receptor antagonist) activity. Conclusion: Because tribal have well experienced the anti-asthmatic effects of the roots of Barleria prionitis Linn. The results of our study, for the first time, show that the methanolic extract of aerial parts of Berleria prionitis Linn. possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and Bronchodilator properties and therefore can be used for anti-asthmatic treatment.
- Nazari, Anelise & Dias, Suziane & Costa, Willian & Bersani-Amado, Ciomar & Vidotti, Gentil & Souza, Maria & Sarragiotto, Maria. (2008). Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Randia Hebecarpa. and Major Constituents. Pharmaceutical Biology. 44. 7- 9. 10. 1080/ 13880200500496504. The methanol extract of Randia hebecarpa. Benth. (Rubiaceae) leaves were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan- and dextran-induced rat paw edema models. Antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and the fractions resulting from its partition were also measured using the 1, 1- diphenyl- 1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and the linoleic acid peroxidation method. The methanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and hydro-methanol fraction exhibited percent inhibition of lipid peroxidation comparable to that of commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Fractionation of the ethyl acetate and hydro-methanol fractions through chromatographic methods yielded kaempferol- 3, 7- O.- α.- L- dirhamnoside, kaempferol- 3- O- β- D- galactoside, quercetin- 3- O- β- D- galactoside, myricetin- 3- O- α- L- rhamnoside, kaempferol- 3- O- α.- L- rhamnosyl- (1 → 6)- β.- D- galactosyl- 7- O- α- L- rhamnoside, quinovic acid- 3- O- β- D-quinovopyranosil- 28- O- β- D- glucopyranoside, cinchonic acid 3- O.- β.- D- quinovopyranosil- 28- O- β- D-glucopyranoside, and the sugar D-mannitol.
- Raghavan, Hemang & Panara, Kalpesh & Thakar, Anup & Harisha, Channappa. (2014). PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF EMETIC FORMULATION OF MADANPHALA & VACHA. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 3. 187- 193. In Ayurveda, Vamana therapy is a medicated emesis therapy said to be the principal treatment for various diseases originating from Kapha-dosha aggravation. Vamana is the first choice of treatment for some alimentary canal and skin disorders. The herbal formulation prepared by the powder of Madanaphala (dried fruit pulp of Randia dumetorum) and Vacha (dried rhizome of Acorus calamus) has been used as the best emetic drug formulation. Adulteration of both drugs is increasing day by day due to the unavailability of a sufficient quantity of original genuine material. Keeping this in view, powder microscopic study and physicochemical and phytochemical screening of the power of this emetic formulation has been carried out to develop its quality standards. Parameters were studied according to pharmacopoeial guidelines. A pharmacogenetic study of Vamanayoga revealed the presence of lignified stone cells, lignified fiber, compact small parenchymatous cells, oleoresin cells with yellowish content, calcium oxalate crystals, and abundant aleurone grains. Physicochemical analysis showed loss on drying 7.97 % w/ w, total ash content 6.64% w/ w, Acid insoluble ash 0.52% w/ w, water-soluble extractive 16.31% w/ w, alcohol soluble extractive 29.86% w/ w, and pH (5% aqua solution v/ w) 7.6. Phytoconstituents such as carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponin, amino acids, and tannin were detected.
- Santos Cervantes, Maria & Ibarra-Zazueta, María & Paredes-Lopez, Octavio & Delgado-Vargas, Francisco. (2007). Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Activities of Randia echinocarpa Fruit. Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands). 62. 71-7. 10. 1007/ s11130- 007- 0044- x. We report for the first time the antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of fractions from Randia echinocarpa fruit, which is a Rubiaceae plant native to Sinaloa, Mexico. This fruit has been traditionally used in the prevention or treatment of cancer, among other diseases. The pulp of the fruit was sequentially extracted with solvents of different polarity (i.e. hexane, chloroform, methanol, and water). A high extraction yield was obtained with methanol (72.17% d.w.). The aqueous extract showed the highest content of phenolics (2.27 mg/g as ferulic acid equivalents) and the highest antioxidant activity based on the beta-carotene bleaching method (486.15). The commercial antioxidant BHT was used as a control (835.05). Antimutagenic activity of the aqueous extract (0- 500 microg/ tube) was evaluated using the Salmonella micro-suspension assay (YG1024 strain) and 1-NP as the mutagen (50 and 100 ng/ tube). The aqueous extract was neither toxic nor mutagenic and the percentage of inhibition on 1-NP mutagenicity was 32 and 53% at doses of 50 and 100 ng/tube, respectively. The results of the double incubation assay suggest that the extract inhibited the mutagenicity of 1-NP by a combination of des mutagenic and bio-anti-mutagenic effects.
- S., Manekar & Charde, Manoj. (2018). EVALUATION OF ANTI-ASTHMATIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BERLERIA PRIONITIS LINN. AERIAL PARTS. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research. 10. 30. 10. 22159/ ICCPR. 2018v10i6. 30971. Bai, G. & Gandhimathi, S. (2014). Antidiabetic activity of Randia dumetorum against streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes in rats. International Journal of Pharmacological Research. 4. 10. 7 439/jp. v4i3.103. The present investigates the antidiabetic activity of Randia dumetorum against streptozotocin (stz) induced diabetes in rats. The rats treated with Streptozotocin showed a significant increase in glucose levels and altered levels of lipid profile, hemoglobin, and insulin were observed. The mechanism underlying STZ hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus involves over-production (excessive hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis) and decreased utilization of glucose by the tissues. Fifteen days of administration of ethanolic extract of leaf of the Randia dumetorum (500 mg/ kg by wt.) and standard as glibenclamide (0.25 mg/ kg ) to diabetic rats resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose level, restored hemoglobin, and lipid profile as compared to diabetic rats. The present study suggests that the Randia dumetorum leaves extracts had synergetic hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects revealed by decreased glucose, lipid levels, and hemoglobin therefore attribute to the therapeutic value of the Randia dumetorum extracts of leaves to combat the diabetic condition in rats. The effect of Randia dumetorum leaves was better than glibenclamide. The potential activity of Randia dumetorum leaves may be due to the presence of phytochemicals.
- K, Kasim & Hassan, Syed & Gulnaz, A. R. (2013). ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF BARK EXTRACTS OF “RANDIA ULIGINOSA” O N ORAL PATHOGENS: RESEARCH STUDY. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2. 4260- 4263. 10. 14260/ je.mds / 829. ABSTRACT: India has rich plant diversity. The people in India are using these plants for medicinal purposes. This practice is common in other developing countries also. The drugs obtained from Different plants are used in various traditional as well as modern Practices. The present investigation is aimed at investigating the in vitro Successive solvent extract viz., petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and water extracts of stem bark of Randia uliginosa. was evaluated for antibacterial activity, against four important bacterial strains S. aureus Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus faecalis by agar-well diffusion method. All the solvent extracts showed significant activity against all the tested bacteria, The antibacterial activity is more significant in solvent extracts compared to aqueous extract indicating that the active principle responsible for the antibacterial activity is more soluble in organic solvents Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the extracts with the antibiotics Gentamicin revealed that methanol extracts of Randia uliginosa were significantly higher than that of the antibiotics tested. The results suggest that Randia uliginosa can be used as a medicament for oral infection.
- Cruz-Silva, Sthefany & Matias, Rosemary & Bono, José Antonio & Santos, Karen & Ludwig, Juliane. (2016). Antifungal potential of extracts and fractions of Randia nitida leaves on soybean pathogens and their phytochemistry. Revista Caatinga. 29. 594- 602. 10. 1590/ 1983-21252016v29n309rc. This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of methanol extract and fractions of leaves of Randia nitida (Kunth) DC on Colletotrichum truncatum (Schw.) Andrus & Moore, Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary and perform chemical and antioxidant activity tests. The crude methanol extract (EBM) and fractions (hexane = FHX, dichloromethane = FDM, and ethyl acetate = FAE) underwent classical phytochemical analysis and determination of total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity. Samples were individually incorporated into PDA culture mediums (potato-dextrose-agar) at concentrations of 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 μg mL⁻¹ of extract or fraction. Mycelial growth was evaluated when the control reached the edge of the plate. Phytochemical results indicated that flavonoids, steroids, and triterpenoids are the major chemical constituents in both EBM and fractions. Total phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant activity were higher for FAE and EBM, followed by FDM and FHX; however, the latter showed higher content of steroids and triterpenoids compared to the other fractions. For C. truncatum, R. solani, and S. sclerotiorum, the most efficient fractions were respectively FAE, FDM, and FHX, all of them in the highest concentration (160 μg mL⁻¹). The highest inhibition rate was observed against S. sclerotiorum, reaching 93.75 %. We concluded that all fractions have antifungal activity on the plant pathogens, being FHX the most active against S. sclerotiorum, which might have been due to the presence of steroids and triterpenes.
- Ghante, Mahavir & Bhusari, Kishore & Duragkar, N.J. & Jain, Nishant & Warokar, Amol. (2012). Bronchorelaxant, mast cell stabilizing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity of Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Lamk. extracts. Acta poloniae pharmaceutica. 69. 465-74. Randia dumetorum (RD) fruits in different forms have been ethnopharmacologically reported to possess anti- asthmatic properties. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate two different extracts of RD i.e., ethyl acetate (RD-EA) and methanol (RD-ME) for bronchial-relaxant, anti-inflammatory, mast cell stabilizing, and antioxidant effects along with safety margin, according to OECD guidelines for toxicity. RD- ME and RD- EA (1 mg/ mL) exhibited 68.75 and 57.39 % inhibition of contraction against acetylcholine, while against histamine-induced contraction, inhibition observed was 100 and 78.13 %, respectively. Moreover, extracts attenuated the experimentally induced inflammation at 200 mg/kg with a % inhibition of 41.62 by RD-ME and 30.36 by RD-EA in the carrageenan model, while in the egg albumin model, RD-ME and RD-EA exhibited a % inhibition of 48.31 and 33.75, respectively. In addition, RD- ME and RD- EA at 100 microg/mL demonstrated a significant decrease in histamine release of 08.31 and 16.71 in C- 48/ 80 induced mast cell degradation. RD extracts also exhibited antioxidant activity in DPPH, reducing power, and metal chelation method, along with safe margin for oral administration as observed in acute toxicity evaluation.
Dravyasiddhi (Madanphala Siddhi)
Before using madanphala for emesis it should be first purified as follows – on pushya, Ashwini, or mriga sheersha nakshatras in spring or summer, yellowish-white fruits are collected. These fruits are wrapped in oil cakes, grass, etc. The paste of cow dung is applied over it. This whole thing is kept under the heap of grains like yava, horse gram, moong, and black gram for ripping. After 8 days, when they become soft and sweetly fragrant, they are removed and dried in the shade. When dried, the inside pulp is removed and mixed with ghee, curds, honey, and a paste of sesame seeds and dried. These are then stored and used as per the need.
Administration to Produce Emesis
Madaphala, the preparation of which is described above, and pippali powder, should be used for emesis. The patient should be given seven days of both internal and external oleation therapy as per the need. A minimum of three days should be given. A day before an emesis patient should be given anorexic drugs like meat soup, milk, curds, urad, sesame seed powder, khichri, etc. On the second day in the morning, a diet of either milk with ghee or rice and ghee is given. The proper dose of madanphala-pippali powder soaked in any one of the decoctions of yashtimadhu, kanchanar, bitter bimbi, arka, and apamarga should be given. It should be mixed very well, crushed, and filtered. Then a small amount of saindhav, honey, and warm water is added to the above mixture and given to the patient to drink. It should be given frequently in less quantity and wait for the emesis. Emesis should be continued till bile is seen in the vomitus. If emesis doesn’t occur properly, the mixture of long pepper, amla, mustard, vacha, and saindhav in warm water should be given. Madaphala is the best emetic drug, but it is given with different anupan for different purposes. For vata disorders, it is given along with alcohol (Zovirax), juice of sour fruits, sharbat, curds, etc. For pitta disorders, with black dates, amla, honey, yashtimadhu, falsa, milk, and sugarcane juice, and for kapha disorders, with honey or cow’s urine. There are very few drugs that alleviate dosha and mala without any adverse effect on body tissues. Madaphala tops the list of the drugs that are most useful in carrying out the described action of detoxification by emesis or medicated enema.
Rasa Panchaka of Madanphala
|Rasa (Taste)||Madhura (sweet), Tikta (bitter), Katu (pungent), Kashaya (astringent)|
|Guna (Virtue)||Ruksha (dry), Laghu (light)|
|Virya (potency)||Ushan (hot potency)|
|Vipaka (post-digestion)||Katu (pungent)|
Dosha Karma of Madanphala
Kapha Vata Shamaka (Raj Nighnatu), Pitta Nisaraka.
Vata Shamaka due to Ushana Virya and Kapha Shamaka because of its Ushana Virya, Katu Vipaka, and Tikta Rasa.
Madanphala is Pitta Saraka as it expels Pitta Dosha.
Karma (Actions) of Madanphala
Madana: Vamaka, Lekhana, Vidradhihara, Vrana Hara, Kustha Ghana, Jwara Hara, Sopha Hara.
Varaha: Chardana, Pakvashya Shodhaka, Amashya Shodhaka.
Madanphala is Vamaka (Shresth Vamankari), Vata Anulomna, Krimighana, Grahi, Rakta Shodhaka, Shotha Hara, Kapha Nisaraka, Lekhana, Medohara, Vrana Ropana, Artava Janana, Sveda Janana, Kusthaghana, Visha Ghana, Nadi samaka, Vedana Sthapana.
Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic Indication) of Madanphala
Kapha Pradhaan Vikara, Jwara, Gulma, Pratishaya, Vivandha, Krimi, Rakta Vikara, Shotha, Kasht Aartava, Kasht Prasava, Kustha, Medo roga, Visa, Vata Vyadhi, Pravahika, Ama Vata, Shotha Vedana Yukt Vikara, Vidridhi, Vrana, Udara Roga, Anaha, Gulma, Sula Udavarta, Garbha Sanga, Apasmara, Pratishaya, Kasa, Swasa, Prasav Shula, Parinam Shula.
Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic Uses) of Madanphala
Vamana (For Emesis): Madana is regarded as the best emetic drug because it is free from complications. It is particularly useful in cases of fever, gulma, and coryza caused by kapha. (Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1. 13- 14, Ashtanga Hridya Kalpa Sthana. 1. 1)
Fever (Jwara): Madana mixed with pippali, indrayava or madhuka should be given without water for inducing emesis in fever. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 3- 228)
Parshava Shula (Pain in Flanks): Madana pounded with sour gruel is applied as a paste on the navel. It removes pain. Similarly, the paste of jivanti root is mixed with oil. (Vanga Sena Shula. 11)
Apsmara (Epilepsy): Intake of the powder of Madana and pinditaka seeds in a dose of 10 gm. pounded with water alleviates epilepsy. (Vanga Sena Apasmara. 39)
Kasta Prasava (Difficult labor): The Vagina should be fumigated with the slough of a black snake or Madana. (Sushruta Samhita Sharira Sthana. 10/ 11)
Benefits of Madanphala
- The extracts exhibit insecticidal and insect-repellent properties. They could possibly be used as synergists in insecticidal preparations. The fruit is used as a color intensifier (in calico printing) and they are said to produce a yellow pulp. The ethanolic extract of the pulp showed a stimulant activity on the isolated guinea pig uterus. The fruits are eaten after roasting or cooking.
- The fruits are reported to be mixed with stored grain to preserve it from the attack of insects and in this way, its insecticidal effect is also utilized. The unripe fruits are also used as soap in various areas. The activity of the drug is attributed to the presence of saponins, which occur to the extent of 2- 3 percent in fresh fruits (C. 10% in dried whole fruit). The saponins are concentrated mostly in the pulp. A mixture of two saponins viz. Randia or neutral saponin and Randia acid or acid saponin have been isolated from the pulp; the two saponins occur in the fruits at all stages of ripening.
- The drug Madanaphala is chiefly an emetic agent. The fruit (madanaphala) is credited with a number of medicinal properties. The pulp of the fruit and dried powdered pulp are valuable emetics and are also used as a substitute for the ipecacuanha. In smaller doses, it is nauseant, expectorant, and diaphoretic. It is considered to have anthelmintic and abortifacient properties.
- Fruit is useful as a nerve calmative and antispasmodic. The drug (madanaphala) is useful in various diseases. It is esteemed as a domestic remedy for ailments to which children are subject to teething. The unripe pounded fruit as well as the root are used as a fish poison. The poisonous properties are said to decrease or disappear as the fruits ripen.
Benefits of Madanphala on Different Systems of Bodies
External Uses: The rind of an emetic nut alleviates swelling and pain and cleans ulcers. The oil is used for massage in Vata disorders. The paste is applied over painful and swollen joints in rheumatoid arthritis and abscess. A decoction is used for washing wounds. In abdominal pain, an emetic nut rubbed in vinegar is applied over the umbilicus.
Nervous System: Rind of fruit alleviates vata. Generally, the decoction is used.
Digestive System: Madanaphala has been used so extensively for inducing emesis in shodhan chikitsa that its name has become synonymous with emesis. It is extremely suitable for emesis as it does not cause any complications. Fruit rind and seeds are used for emesis. Fruit is emetic and also purgative, cholagogue, and anthelmintic. The rind is astringent. To induce emesis, the powder of whole fruit (approximately 3- 4 masa) is soaked in 1/2 chhatak water overnight. This liquid is filtered through cloth and is given to the patient after adding honey and saindhav. Emesis starts in an hour if given on an empty stomach. For instant emesis, a dose of the seeds should be increased. It causes emesis in 15- 20 min. If this fails to induce vomiting then warm water is given and the patient is encouraged to vomit. Repeated use of water with saindhav purifies the stomach (amashaya) by eliminating kapha and pitta. This method is used in kapha dominant fever and amashayasth (developed in the stomach) kapha disorders and also in constipation, gulma, and helminthiasis. The emetic nut is used for emesis. This type of emesis is useful in vomiting induced by kapha and pitta, acid-peptic disease. In dysentery, the decoction of fruit rind is used to eliminate Kapha and Ama.
Circulatory System: Since it purifies the blood and alleviates swelling, it is used in many blood disorders and edema induced by kapha and pitta. Fruit ground in a paste is applied over the abscess.
Respiratory System: Being an expectorant, it removes the obstruction of kapha and cures a common cold, asthma, and cough.
Reproductive System: Being an emmenagogue, it is useful in dysmenorrhea and painful labor.
Skin: Fruit is diaphoretic and cures dermatoses. It can be used internally and externally in dermatoses.
Temperature: Since it is a diaphoretic and dosha-purifier, it is used for instant relief of fever which occurs after meals and that which is induced by kapha.
Satmikaran: Madanphala is a curative and antidote. It is used in obesity because it has a curating effect on fats.
Matra (Therapeutic Administration and Dosage) of Madanphala
- Churna (Powder): 1- 3 gm, 3- 5 grams
- Kwatha (Decoction): 50- 100 ml
Classical Reference of Madanphala
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 160
मदन छर्दन: पिण्डो. नटः पिण्डीतकस्तथा |
करहाठो मरूबक: शल्यको विषपुष्पक: ||
Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 161
मदनो मधुरस्तिक्तो वीर्य उष्ण लेखनो लघु: |
वान्तिकृद्दि विद्रधिहर: प्रतिश्याय व्रणान्तक: ||
रूक्ष: कुष्ठ कफानाह शोथ गुल्मव्रणापह: ||
Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchiadi Varga- 166
Properties and action
मदन: कटुस्तिक्तस्तथा चोष्णो व्रणापह: |
श्लेष्म ज्वर प्रतिश्याय गुल्मेषु विद्रधीषु च ||
शोफ दोषापहो वस्ती वमने चेह शस्यते ||
Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 901- 902
मदनो मधुरस्तिक्तो वीर्योष्णो लेखनो लघु: |
रूक्षो लघु: प्रतिश्याय ज्वरविद्रधि कुष्ठहा |
गुल्म शोष कफानाह व्रण हद वमन अग्राणी ||
Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadhi Varga- 904
पिण्डीत: शीतल: स्वादु: कषाय: कफ पित्तहा |
Shodhala Nighantu Shalmali Varga- 68
मदन – मदन: कटु तिक्त उष्ण: कफ वात व्रणपहा ||
शोफ दोषपहाश्चैव वमन च प्रशस्यते ||
Shodhala Nighantu Shalmali Varga- 70
वराह (मदन भेद )
अन्यो च मदनौ श्रेष्ठी कटु तिक्तरसान्वितौ |
छर्दनो कफ हद्रोग पक्व आमाशय शोधनौ ||
Priya Nighantu Haritkyadi varga, 63
तत फलं श्रेष्ठमाख्यात वमनेषु महर्षिभिः ||
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 13
वमन द्रव्याणां मदनफलानि श्रेष्ठतमन्याचक्षते, अनपायित्वात् ।।
Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 11
मदन सर्वगदाविरोधितु |
कफपित्तहदाशुकारि चाप्यनपायं पवनानुलोमि च |
फलनाम विशेषतस्त्वातो लभते अन्येषु फलेषु सत्स्वपि ||
Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 25
मदनफलं वमनास्थापनानुवासनोपयोगिनाम् |
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1
फलपिप्पलीक्षीरं तेन वा क्षीरयवागूमधो भागे रक्तपित्ते |
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1. 1. 14
वमनद्रव्याणां मदनफलानि श्रेष्ठनि आचक्षते अनपायित्वात् ।
तानि वसन्त ग्रीष्मयो: अन्तरे पुष्पाश्च युगभ्यां मृगशिरसा वागृह्लीयातरयंत्रि मुहूर्त |
यानि पक्वानि प्रहरितानि पाण्डूनि अकृमीनि अकृशानि अहस्वानि
अजग्धानि तानि प्रगृह्म कुशपुटे बद्धागोमयेनालिप्य |
यव तुष माष शालि कुलत्थ मुद्गपर्णी नामन्यतमे निदध्यात् अष्टरात्रम |
अतः उर्ध्व मूदु भूतानि तानि मध्विष्टगन्धानि उद्धृत्यशोषयेत् |
सुशुष्कानां फलानां पिप्पलीरुद्धरेत् |
सुप्रभष्ट वालुकम् वचस्कम् आकण्ठं पूरयित्वा स्ववच्छन्न॑
स्वनुगुप्तं शिक्ये अवसज्य स्थापयेत् ||
Chakra Dutta. 26/ 22
शूले नाभौ मदन लेप:
नाभौलेपाज्नयेच्छूल॑ मदन: काज़िकान्वित: |
Bhava Parkasha, Shuladikara, 30- 35
नाभि लेपा शूलं मदनं कांजीकान्वितं ||
Bhava Parkasha, Shuladikara, 30- 58
परिणामशूले चिकित्सा सूत्रान्तर्गत वमन
पीत्वा तु क्षीरमाकण्ठं मदन क्वाथ संयुतम् ।
कान्तारकस्य पौण्डरस्य कोशकारस्य वा रसम् ||
Chakra Dutta, Udavarta Chikitsa, 28- 13
उदावर्त फलवर्त्ति ( गुदगतप्रयोगार्थम्)
Chakra Dutta Niruha Adhikara, 72- 28
निरूहे मदन योग:
लवणं कार्षिकं दद्यात् फलमेकन्तु मादनम् |
वाते गुड: सिता पित्ते कफे सिद्धार्थ कादय: ||
Vanga Sena, Shula, 11
नाभिलेपाज्जयेच्छूल॑ मदन: काञ्जिकावितं |
Sushruta Samhita, Sharira Sthana, 10- 11
गर्भ संगे तु योनि धूपयेत् कृष्णसर्प निर्मोकेण पिण्डीतकेन वां |
Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 3- 228
मदन पिप्पलीभिर्वा कलिंग मधुकेन वा |
युक्तमुष्णाम्बुना पेय॑ वमनं ज्वरशान्तये ||
Vanga Sena Apasmara, 39
मदनस्य च बीजानि चूर्णयित्वा तथैव च |
पिण्डीतकस्य चाल्पस्य कर्षिक पेषयेजले ||
ततो अस्य पानमात्रिण नश्यते अपस्मृतिर्गद: ||
मदनञ्च तथा सिक्थ सामुद्रलवण तथा |
सप्ताहात् स्फुटितौ पादौ जायेते कमलोपमौ ||
१. मदनफलपिप्पली, २. मोम, ३. सामुद्रलवण तथा ४. भैंस का मक्खन- प्रत्येक द्रव्य १-१ भाग लें। मदनफल पिप्पलीचूर्ण और सामुद्रलवण को कूटकर महीन चूर्ण कर लें। इसके बाद स्टेनलेस स्टील के एक छोटे पात्र में मक्खन और मोम को मिलाकर एक साथ गरम करें। मोम को पूर्णतया पिघलाने के बाद स्टीलपात्र को चूल्हे से नीचे उतार लें तथा मदनफल पिप्पलीचूर्ण को मिलाकर हिलाते रहें। ठण्डा होने के बाद काचपात्र में संग्रहीत करें। इस लेप को फटे पाँव पर लगाने से पैर एक सप्ताह में कमलपुष्प जैसा चिकना हो जाता है।
सम्यड्वारितम अभरकं कटफलं कुष्ठाश्वगन्धा अमृता |
मेथी मोचरसो विदारिमुषली गोक्षुर कंञ्चक्षुर: |
रम्भाकन्दशतावरी त्वजमुदा मांसी तिला धान्यकं
हैमी नागबला कचूरमदनं जातीफलं सैन्धवम् ||
भार्गी कर्कट श्रृंगकं त्रिकटुकं जीरद्वयं चित्रक
शाल्मल्यड्गघृ फलत्रिक कपिभवं बीज॑ सम चूर्णये-
च्चूर्णाशाविजयासिताद्गणिता मध्वाज्ययोः पिण्डितम् ||
कर्षाशा गुटिकार अर्ध कर्षमथवा सेव्या सदा कामिभिः
सेव्य क्षीरसित॑ सुवीर्यकरणं स्तम्भे अप्ययं कामिनाम् ।
वामावश्यकरः सुखातिसुखदो ब्रिह्वांगनाद्रावणः
क्षीणे पुष्टिकर: क्षतक्षयहरो हन्याच्च सर्वामयान् ||
दुर्णाम ग्रहणी प्रमेहनिवह श्लेष्मातिरेकप्रणुत् ।
नित्यानन्दकरो विशेषकवितावाचां विलासोद्धव॑
धत्ते सर्वगुण महास्थिरमतिर्बालो नितान्तोत्सवः ||
अभ्यासेन निहन्ति मृत्युपलितं कामेश्वरो वत्सरात्
सर्वेषां हितकारिणा निगदितः श्रीनित्यनाथेन सः ।
बृद्धानां मदनोदयोदयकरः प्रौढाड्ना संगमे
सिंहो अय॑ समदृष्टिप्रत्ययकरो भूपैः सदा सेव्यताम् ||
अभरक भस्म, २. कायफल, ३. कूठ,. ४. .अश्वगन्धा, ५. गुड्ची, ६. मेथी, ७: मोचरस, ८. विदारीकन्द, ९. मुसलीकन्द, १०. गोखरु, ११. तालमखाना, १२. केले का मूल, १३. शतावरी, १४. अजमोदा, १५. जटामांसी, १६. कालातिल, १७. धनियाँ, १८. दुग्धिकामूल, १९. नागबलामूल, २०. कचूर, २१. मदनफल, २२. जायफल, २३. सैन्धवनमक, २४. भाज़ीं, २५. काकड़ासिंगी, २६. शुण्ठी, २७. मरिच, २८. पिप्पली, २९. सफेद जीरा, ३०. स्याहंजीरा, ३१. चित्रकमूल, ३२. दालचीनी, ३३. छोटी इलायची, ३४. तेजपत्ता, ३५. नागकेशर, ३६. पुनर्नवामूल, ३७. गजपीपर, ३८. द्राक्षा, ३९. कचूर, ४०. सुगन्धबाला, ४ १. सेमरमुशली, ४२. हरीतकी, ४३. बहेड़ा, ४४. आमला, ४५. केवाँचबीज, ४६. शुद्ध भाँग २२५, ४७. चीनी १३५० ग्राम, ४८. मधु ग्राम तथा तथा ४९. घृत ३०० ग्राम- अभ्रकभस्म से भाँग तक के सभी ४५ द्रव्यों को १०- १० ग्राम लें। सर्वप्रथम सभी द्रव्यों का चूर्ण करें। तत्पश्चात् चीनी, शहद, घी आदि को एक साथ मिलायें। अच्छी तरह से मिल जाने पर ५- ५ या १०- १० ग्राम का मोदक बनाकर काचपात्र में रख दें। इस कामेश्वर मोदक की १- १ मोदक प्रतिदिन प्रात:काल सेवन करें तथा अनुपान- स्वरूप चीनी मिश्रित दुग्ध का पान करें। यह मोदक कामी पुरुषों की कामशक्ति एवं वीर्य की वृद्धि करता है तथा स्तम्भन शक्ति की वृद्धि करने वाला होने से स्त्रियों को वश में करता है। इस मोदक को सेवन करने वाला व्यक्ति अनेक स्त्रियों के साथ सम्भोग कर द्रवित करता है। यह क्षीणावस्था में धातुओं की वृद्धि करके शरीर को पुष्ठ करता है, क्षत अर्थात् उर:क्षतादि, क्षय (धातुक्षय) एवं सभी रोगों का नाश करता है। अनुपान-भेद से यह मोदक कास, श्वास, भयंकर अतिसार, अर्श, ग्रहणी, बीसों प्रमेह एवं कफ की वृद्धि को नष्ट करता है तथा कामारिन को दीप्त करता है। हमेशा इन्द्रियों को स्वच्छ आनन्द देने वाला है। इसके सेवन से एक विशेष प्रकार की श्रज्ञारिक कविता पढ़ने की बुद्धि उत्पन्न होती है एवं बालक स्थिर बुद्धि तथा अत्यन्त उत्साही होता है। एक साल तक लगातार सेवन करने से यह कामेधर मोदक अकालमृत्यु एवं पतित रोग का विनाश करता है। सभी प्राणियों के हित की इच्छा करने वाले श्रीनित्यनाथ नामक आचार्य ने इसको सबसे पहले बताया था। यह मोदक वृद्धों को प्रौढ़ा स्त्रियों के साथ सम्भोग करने की शक्ति प्रदान करता हैं। यह औषधियों में श्रेष्ठ है इसलिए राजाओं के लिए सदा सेवन करने लायक है।
Administration of Madanphala for Emesis
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 13
Of all the emetic drugs, Madana fruits are regarded as the best ones because they are free from complications. These should be collected during the period of transition between spring and summer in the Pusya, Aswini, or Mrigasiras constellation and Maitra Muhurta. Those which are ripe, undamaged, non-green, of pale color, free organisms, under-composed, uneaten by animals, and not too small (immature) should be taken. Having been washed, wrapped within Kusa grass, and pasted with fresh cow dung, they should be stored for eight days in the heap of one of the following-barley husks, black gram, Sali rice, horse gram, and green gram. Thereafter when they are softened and develop a good honey-like aroma they should be taken out and dried (in the sun). When they are well-dried, their pepper-like seeds should be mixed gently with ghee, curd, honey, and sesame paste and again dried. Finally, they should be filled up in a new earthen pitcher, well-cleaned and dustless, up to the neck, and placed well on a swing of rope well-covered and well-protected.
The Procedure of Vamana by Madanphala
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 14
The patient, the subject of emesis, having been administered with unction and sudation for two or three days, should be fed with meat soups of domestic, marshy, and aquatic animals, milk, curd, black gram, sesamum, vegetables, etc. in the night before emesis, to excite kapha. The next day when the previous food is digested, in the forenoon, after performing offering, oblations, auspicious and expiatory rites, he should take a dose of ghee along with gruel (on an empty stomach) that may not be very smooth or greasy. The physician should take one closed fist-sized dosage of seeds of Madanaphala, pound them, and impregnate them with a decoction of Yastimadhu or one of these-Kovidara, Karbudara, Nipa, Vidula, Bimbi, Sanapuspi and Prayakpuspi-for the whole (previous) night. In the morning, this mix should be pressed and filtered, added with honey and rock salt, and heated slightly. The cup filled with the drug should be enchanted with the following hymn: – “Brahma, Daksa, Asvina, Rudra, Indra, Earth, Moon, Sun, Air, Fire, Sages, medicinal plants, and the multitude of creatures may protect you. This drug may prove for you as Rasayana for the sages, nectar for the gods, and ambrosia for the best among serpents.” After enchanting thus, the physician should administer the drug to the patient facing northward or eastward particularly suffering from kaphaja fever, gulma, and coryza time and again until bile begins to come out. Thus, he vomits well. If the urges are deficient, they should be moved by administering a paste of Pippali, Amalaka, Sarsapa, Vacha, and salt dissolved in hot water frequently till bile is seen. This is the entire method of administration of emetic drugs.
In all emetic formulations, honey and rock salt should be added for liquefying kapha (mucus). There is no adverse reaction of honey to heat when added to an emetic formulation as it returns without digestion and helps in the elimination of impurities.
Various Pharmaceutical Preparation of Madanphala
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 16
फल पिप्पलीनां द्वौ द्वौ भागौ कोविदारादिकषायेण त्रिःसप्तकृत्वः स्रावयेत्, तेन रसेन तृतीयं भागं पिष्ट्वा मात्रां हरीतकीभि र्बिभीतकैरामलैर्वा तुल्यां वर्तयेत्, तासामेकां द्वे वा पूर्वोक्तानां कषायाणा मन्यतमस्याञ्जलिमात्रेण विमृद्य बलवच्छ्लेष्मप्रसेकग्रन्थिज्वरोदरारुचिषु पाययेदिति समानं पूर्वेण||
Two parts of the seeds of Madanphala should be washed with the decoction of Kovidara etc. twenty-one times. With this liquid, the third part of the same (seeds) should be pounded and made into doses equal to (the fruits) of Haritaki, Bibhitaka, or amalaka. Of them one or two doses after having been impregnated with one of the above decoctions in the quantity of 160 ml. should be administered in cases of severe salivation, glands, fever, Udara, and anorexia. Other things as above.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 17
फलपिप्पलीक्षीरं, तेन वा क्षीरयवागूमधोभागे रक्तपित्ते हृद्दाहे च; तज्जस्य वा दध्न उत्तरकं कफच्छर्दितमकप्रसेकेषु, तस्य वा पयसः शीतस्य सन्तानिकाञ्जलिं पित्ते प्रकुपिते उरःकण्ठहृदये च तनुकफोपदिग्धे, इति समानं पूर्वेण ||
Milk boiled with Madanaphala seeds and gruel prepared with this milk is given in cases of downward internal hemorrhage and burning sensation in the cardiac region. The supernatant fatty layer of curd prepared from the above milk is useful in kaphaja vomiting, bronchial asthma, and salivation. The supernatant fatty layer of the above milk when cold is given in the dose of 160 gm. in vitiation of pitta in the chest, throat, and cardiac region along with a coating of thin kapha. Other things as above.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 18
Butter formed from the milk boiled with Madanaphala seeds and processed with the paste and the decoction of Madanaphala etc. should be administered in proper dose to the patients whose agni is subdued by kapha and body is being dried up. Other things are as above.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 19
फलपिप्पलीनां फलादिकषायेण त्रिःसप्तकृत्वः सुपरिभावितेन पुष्परजःप्रकाशेन चूर्णेन सरसि सञ्जातं बृहत्सरोरुहं सायाह्नेऽवचूर्णयेत्, तद्रात्रिव्युषितं प्रभाते पुनरव चूर्णितमुद्धृत्य हरिद्राकृसरक्षीरयवागूनामन्यतमं सैन्धवगुडफाणितयुक्तमाकण्ठं पीतवन्तमाघ्रापयेत् सुकुमारमुत्क्लिष्टपित्तकफमौषधद्वेषिणमिति समानं पूर्वेण||
Pollen-like powder of Madanaphala seeds made after impregnating it twenty-one times with decoction of Madanaphala etc. should be cast on a big lotus flower in the evening. In the next morning the flower should be plucked and then powdered with the drug. It should be given for inhalation to the patient who is delicate and averse to drugs and has excited pitta and kapha after he has taken a meal of Haridrakrsara or Ksira-Yavagu (gruel prepared with milk) added with rock salt, jaggery, and treacle till satiation. Other things are as above.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 20
फलपिप्पलीनां भल्लातक विधिपरिस्रुतं स्वरसं पक्त्वा फाणिती भूतमातन्तुली भावाल्लेहयेत्; आतपशुष्कं वा चूर्णीकृतं जीमूतकादिकषायेण पित्ते कफस्थानगते पाययेदिति समानं पूर्वेण||
The extract of Madanaphala seeds prepared per the Bhallataka method should be heated till it becomes thready and treacle-like. The powder of the seeds dried in the sun should be given with decoction of Jimuta etc. in (condition of) pitta located in the seat of kapha. Other things as above.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 21
फलपिप्पलीचूर्णानि पूर्ववत् फलादीनां षण्णामन्यतमकषायस्रुतानि वर्तिक्रियाः फलादिकषायोपसर्जनाः पेया इति समानं पूर्वेण||
The powder of the Madanaphala can be made into Vartti (caplets) by impregnating it with a decoction of one of the six Phaladi (Madana etc.) drugs and taken with the above decoction. Other things are as above.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 22
फलपिप्पलीनामारग्वध -वृक्षक- स्वादुकण्टक- पाठा- पाटला- शार्ङ्गेष्टा- मूर्वा- सप्तपर्ण- नक्तमाल-पिचुमर्द- पटोल- सुषवी- गुडूची- सोमवल्क- द्वीपिकानां पिप्पली- पिप्पलीमूल- हस्तिपिप्पली-चित्रक- शृङ्गवेराणां चान्यतमकषायेण सिद्धो लेह इति समानं पूर्वेण||
Linctus is prepared of Madanaphala seeds with the decoction of one of the following drugs – Aragvadha, Kutaja, Vikankata, Patha, Patala, Sarngesta, Murva, Saptaparana, Naktamala, Nimba, Patola, Susavi, Guduci, Somavalka, Dvipika, Pippali, Pippalimula, Gajapippali, Chitraka and Sunthi. This is an effective preparation. Other things are as above.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 23
फलपिप्पलीष्वेला- हरेणुका- शतपुष्पा- कुस्तुम्बुरु- तगर- कुष्ठ- त्वक्- चोरक- मरुबकागुरु-गुग्गुल्वेलवालुक- श्रीवेष्टक- परिपेलव- मांसी- शैलेयक- स्थौणेयक- सरल- पारावत पद्यशोकरोहिणीनां विंशतेरन्यतमस्य कषायेण साधितोत्कारिका उत्कारिकाकल्पेन, मोदका वा मोदककल्पेन, यथादोषरोगभक्ति प्रयोज्या इति समानं पूर्वेण||
Preparations of Utkarika (a semisolid preparation) or Modaka (balls) may be made of Madanaphala seeds with one of the following twenty drugs – Ela, Harenuka, Satapuspa, Kustumburu, Tagara, Kustha, Twak, Coraka, Marubaka, Aguru, Guggulu, Elavaluka, Srivestaka, Paripelava, Mamsi, Salicyaka, Sthauneyaka, Sarala, Paravatapdi and Asokarohini. These should be used according to dosha, disease, and inclination. Other things are as above.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 24
फल पिप्पली स्वरस कषाय परिभावितानि तिल शालि तण्डुल पिष्टानि तत्कषायोपसर्जनानि शष्कुलीकल्पेन वा शष्कुल्यः, पूपकल्पेन वा पूपाः इति समानं पूर्वेण||
Saskuli or Pupa (dietary preparations) may be made of sesamum and Sali rice flour impregnated with decoction of Madanaphala seeds and be taken with the same decoction. Other things are as above.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 25
एतेनैव च कल्पेन सुमुख- सुरस- कुठेरक- काण्डीर- कालमालक- पर्णासक- क्षवक- फणिज्झक- गृञ्जन- कासमर्द- भृङ्गराजानां पोटेक्षुवालिका- कालङ्कतक- दण्डैरकाणां चान्यतमस्य कषायेण कारयेत् ||
The above preparation may also be made with the decoction of any one of the following drugs – Sumukha, Surasa, Kutheraka Kandira, Kalamalaka, Parnasaka, Ksavaka, Phanijjhaka, Ganjana, Kasamarda, Bhrngaraja, Pota, Iksuvalika, Kalankataka and Dandairaka.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 26
तथा बदरषाडव- राग- लेह- मोदकोत्कारिका- तर्पण- पानक- मांसरस- यूष- मद्यानां मदन फलान्यन्यतमेनोपसृज्य यथादोष रोग भक्ति दद्यात्; तैः साधु वमतीति ||
Besides, Madanaphala should be administered combining it with preparations such as Badarasadava, Raga, Leha, Modaka, Utkarika, Tarpana, Panaka, meat soup, vegetable soup and wine according to dosha, disease and inclination. Thus the patient vomits well.
Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 27
मदनः करहाटश्च राठः पिण्डीतकः फलम्|
श्वसनश्चेति पर्यायैरुच्यते तस्य कल्पना||
Pharmaceutical preparations of Madana are also known by the synonyms Karahata, Ratha, Pinditaka, Phala and Svasana
Specific Formulation of Madanphala
- Madanadi lepa for Shula, Shleepada
- Shri Kaameshwar Modaka for Grehani
- Aargvadha Ghrita
- Irimedadi taila
- Bala Taila
- Ashwgandhadi taila
- Charaka Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 28- 30
पञ्च, फाणितचूर्णे द्वौ घ्रेये, वर्तिक्रियासु षट्||
शष्कुलीपूपयोश्चोक्ता योगाः षोडश षोडश||
दशान्ये षाडवाद्येषु त्रयस्त्रिंशदिदं शतम्|
योगानां विधिवद्दिष्टं फलकल्पे महर्षिणा||
Nine formulations in decoctions, eight in Matra (like Haritaki fruit, etc.) five in milk and ghee, two in Phanita and Churna, one in inhalation, six in caplets, twenty each in Leha, Modaka, and Utkarika, sixteen each in Saskuli and Pupa and ten others in Sadava, etc. Thus, a total of 133 formulations are described by the great sage in the chapter on the pharmaceuticals of Madanaphala.
|Yoga of Madanphala||Indications|
|Ksheera and Ghrita Yoga||05|
Contraindication and Side Effects of Madanphala
Among the emetic drugs, Madanphala is considered the best drug because it does not exhibit any adverse effects. Madanphala but if taken in excess quantity or without the doctor’s consultation may result in excessive vomiting and medical care may be needed. So it is better to always use Madanphala under the consultation of an Ayurvedic doctor. Along with this Madanphala also results in indigestion and anorexia if taken in excessive quantities. Avoid the use of Madanphala during pregnancy and lactation.
Suggestive Reading Regarding Randia dumetorum
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- Ghante, Mahavir & Bhusari, Kishore & Duragkar, N.J. & Jain, Nishant & Warokar, Amol. (2012). Bronchorelaxant, mast cell stabilizing, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity of Randia dumetorum (Retz.) Lamk. extracts. Acta poloniae pharmaceutica. 69. 465- 74.
- Satpute, Kranti & Jadhav, M. & Karodi, Revan & Katare, Y. & Patil, M. & Rub, Rukhsana & Bafna, Anand. (2009). Immunomodulatory activity of fruits of Randia dumetorum Lamk. J Pharmocogn Phytother.
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- Hamerski, Lidilhone & Furlan, Maysa & Cavalheiro, Alberto & Eberlin, Marcos & Tomazela, Daniela & Bolzani, Vanderlan. (2003). Iridoid glucosides from Randia spinosa (Rubiaceae). Phytochemistry. 63. 397- 400. 10. 1016/ S0031-9422(03)00109- 2.
- Bhattacharjee, Indranil & Chatterjee, Soroj & Ghosh, Anupam & Chandra, Goutam & Sc, D & Professor, (2011). Antibacterial activities of some plant extracts used in Indian traditional folk medicine. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 1. 165- 169. 10. 1016/ S2221- 1691 (11) 60148- 2.
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- Shanthamani, M. & Ulagi, R.. (2019). Isolation of Steroid Compounds from Randia malabarica (Triveng) and their Biological Activity. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 31. 135- 138. 10. 14233/ aj. chem. 2019. 21609.
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- Al Ragib, Abdullah & Hossain, Md. Tanvir & Hossain, Javed & Jakaria, Md. (2017). Antioxidant potential and cytotoxicity of Randia dumetorum Lam. leaf extract. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy. 9. 10. 5897/ JPP2016. 0435.
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Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)