Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Gambhari – Gmelina arborea Linn.

    Gambhari – Gmelina arborea Linn.

    Gambhari: The timber species of India

    Introduction

    Kashmarya or Gambhari is a fast-growing deciduous tree that is botanically known as Gmelina arborea. Gambhari (White teak) is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of Southeast Asia. In Ayurvedic classical texts, Gambhari (Coomb tree, Coomb teak) is mentioned with the name Kashmarya. It is the ingredient of the Brihat Panchmool, Dashmool Dravya (group of ten drugs). Raja Nighantu mentioned Gambhari as an ingredient of Swalpa and Madhura Triphala. Acharaya Charaka, Acharaya Sushruta, and Acharya Vagbhata mentioned Gambhari (Bhadra Parni) as an ingredient of Daha Prashmana, Virechnopaga, Shotha Hara, Brihat Panchmool, Sarivadi Gana, etc. As per classical texts, Gambhari is an appetizer, astringent, and brain tonic and expels out the hardened feces. It cures vertigo and wasting. It alleviates all the three Dosas, thirst, undigested food, colic, hemorrhoids, poisonous effects, and burning sensation, and acts as an antipyretic. Its Formulations like Dashmoolarishta, Dhanwantri Ghrita, Dhriparni Taila, and Indukanta Ghritam are famous. Recent studies revealed that Gambhari consists of various active ingredients like arboreal, verbascoside, iridoids, umbelliferone, phenylpropanoid glycoside, etc., which exhibit various activities like cardiotonic, hepatoprotective, diuretic, laxative, galactagogue, nervine tonic, aphrodisiac, etc. Leaves of Gambhari consist of luteolin which is a flavonoid and exhibits antioxidant properties.  

    Basonym of Gambhari

    गं गति बिभर्तीति |

    Gambhari is one of the fast-growing trees.

    Synonyms of Gambhari

    • According to habitat

    काश्मीरी- काश्मीर प्रदेशेषु जायमानत्वात |

    The plant commonly grows in the Kashmir region.

     

    • According to morphology

    काश्मरी- काशते प्रकाशते इति |

    Gambhari is a magnificent tree.

    भद्रपर्णी- भद्राणि पर्णान्यस्या: |

    The leaves of Gambhari are beautiful.

    श्रीपर्णी – श्रीमन्ति पर्णान्यस्या: |

    Gambahri has beautiful eyes.

    स्थूलत्वचा- स्थूलवल्कला |

    The bark of Gambhari is very thick.

    कृष्णवृत्ता- कृष्ण वृन्तमस्या: |

    Leaf has got blackish petiole.

    पीतरोहिणी- त्वच: पीतत्वात |

    The bark is yellowish.

    महाकुसुमका- महान्ति कुसुमान्यस्या: |

    Gambhari has a very long inflorescence.

    सुफला- शोभनं फलमस्या: |

    Fruit is beautiful and wholesome.

    कटफला- कट्फल स्येव फलम अस्या: |

    The fruit of Gambhari resembles the fruit of Katphala.

     

    • According to properties and action

    वात हत – वात नाशिनी |

    Gambhari alleviated Vata.

    हीरा – हिनोति वर्धते वर्धयति च शरीरम रसायन त्वात | 

    Gambhari has rejuvenating qualities.

    Regional names of Gambhari

    • Coomb teak, Cashniri tree (English)
    • Gambhara (Hindi)
    • Gamara (Bengali)
    • Sivani Mara (Kannada)
    • Kumbula (Malayalam)
    • Shivanasal (Marathi)
    • Umi- Thekku, Gummadi (Tamil)
    • Peggumudu, Padmagomaru (Telugu)
    • Savan (Gujarati)
    • Gambhari (Punjabi)

    Scientific classification of Gambhari

    KingdomPlantae
    ClassDicotyledons
    SubclassGamopetalae
    Series Bicarpellatae
    OrderLamiales
    Family Verbenaceae
    GenusGmelina
    Species arborea

    Botanical Name

    Gmelina arborea Linn.

    Gmelina word is derived from the name of a scientist arborea- tree-like

    Family – Verbenaceae (Nirgundi Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Gambhari (Gmelina arborea Linn.)

    Classification of Gambhari as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Shothahara Mahakshaya, Virechnopaga Mahakshaya.
    • Sushruta: Sarivadi Gana, Brihat Panchmool.

    Gambari's description in Brihtrayi as Kasmari, Kasmarya, Kasmarya Phala

    It may be noted that the name Kasamara prevalent among the tribal people of Bihar is only the distorted form of Kasmarya, and the name Gambhari now widely used by Vaidyas and found even in later literature is only an improved form of the tribal name Kasamara. Here is an example of how hereditary names popular among the tribal people can help in the identification of old text names and the plant species for which they were used by the ancients. It is funny to find that some of the recent writers and commentators have attempted to associate Kamari or Kasmarya with Kasmira and suggested the use of grapes in place of Kasmarya (fruit), not because of their similarity in their medicinal properties but because of the wrong etymological relation.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 10, 13S. S. Su. 38/ 38, 68A. H. Su. 6/ 119, 122, 167
    C. S. Su. 4/ 24, 38, 41S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Su. 10/ 24
    C. S. Su. 13/ 65S. S. Su. 43/ 6A. H. Su. 15/ 11
    C. S. Su. 15/ 6S. S. Su. 44/ 20A. H. Sa. 2/ 56
    C. S. Su. 25/ 39, 49S. S. Su. 45/ 121A. H. Chi. 1/ 55, 68
    C. S. Su. 27/ 132S. S. Su. 46/ 182, 184A. H. Chi. 3/ 26, 102, 122, 162
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 144, 146S. S. Chi. 1/ 112A. H. Chi. 5/ 4
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 41S. S. Chi. 5/ 8, 12A. H. Chi. 7/ 101
    C. S. Chi. 1. 1/ 42, 60S. S. Chi. 11/ 8A. H. Chi. 9/ 85
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 205, 252, 257, 266S. S. Chi. 25/ 32A. H. Chi. 16/ 6
    C. S. Chi. 4/ 38S. S. Chi. 27/ 8A. H. Chi. 21/ 22
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 27S. S. Chi. 34/ 13A. H. Ka. 2/ 8
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 43S. S. Chi. 37/ 27A. H. Chi. 3/ 37
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 31, 65S. S. Chi. 38/ 54A. H. U. 7/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 202S. S. Ka. 6/ 18A. H. U. 24/ 51
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 55S. S. Sa. 10/ 61A. H. U. 34/ 28
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 38, 82, 162S. S. U. 10/ 12
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 81S. S. U. 17/ 15
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 195S. S. U. 18/ 35, 39, 171, 177, 181, 196
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 166, 270S. S. U. 40/ 82
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 94, 120S. S. U. 42/ 71
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 58, 63, 75, 84, 96, 97, 104, 115, 120S. S. U. 45/ 15
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 51, 99S. S. U. 46/ 15
    C. S. Ka. 7/ 19S. S. U. 47/ 34
    C. S. Si. 3/ 51
    C. S. Si. 6/ 82
    C. S. Si. 7/ 12, 27
    C. S. Si. 10/ 18, 37, 40
    C. S. Si. 12/ 30, 36

    Gambhari's description in Brihtrayi as a Triphala (Controversial)

    Triphala is the group name of the three Myrobalans ie. Haritaki, Bibhitaka and Amalaka. Another trio of fruit drugs i.e., Draksa, Kasmarya, and Parusaka is also known as Triphala. Both these trios have been referred to in C. S. Ci. 26. 86 under the term Triphala. Therefore, some authors suggest the use of the above-mentioned trio i.e Draksha, Kashmarya, and Parushka when Triphala is indicated. But this is controversial. Madhura Triphala mentioned by Raja Nighantu i.e Draksha, Kashmarya, Kharjura, and Swalpa Triphla mentioned i.e Kharjura, Kashmarya and Parushaka are different from above mentioned Triphala trio.

     

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 8S. S. Su. 15/ 34A. H. Su. 14/ 22
    C. S. Su. 13/ 65, 78, 92, 95S. S. Su. 27/ 21A. H. Su. 15/ 2, 40
    C. S. Su. 21/ 21S. S. Su. 36/ 20, 27, 29A. H. Su. 16/ 34, 44
    C. S. Su. 23/ 9, 11, 16, 17, 18S. S. Su. 38/ 19, 42, 55A. H. Su. 21/ 18
    C. S. Su. 24/ 55S. S. Su. 42/ 18A. H. Chi. 1/ 49, 64, 66, 68, 69, 89, 94, 99, 101, 154
    C. S. Vi. 7/ 23S. S. Su. 44/ 6, 23, 24, 27, 36, 71, 76, 87A. H. Chi. 2/ 10
    C. S. Sa. 8/ 54S. S. Su. 46/ 432A. H. Chi. 3/ 159, 172
    C. S. Chi. 1. 3/ 14, 40- 46S. S. Chi. 1/ 85A. H. Chi. 5/ 28
    C. S. Chi. 1. 4/ 15S. S. Chi. 2/ 40A. H. Chi. 7/ 104
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 201, 204, 206, 209, 221, 231, 298, 302S. S. Chi. 4/ 27A. H. Chi. 8/ 25
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 21, 25, 27, 39, 40, 45S. S. Chi. 5/ 8, 10, 13, 34, 42A. H. Chi. 9/ 15, 26
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 43, 55, 61, 64, 67, 73, 76, 80, 81, 90, 96, 99, 135, 139, 143, 152S. S. Chi. 7/ 26A. H. Chi. 11/ 37
    C. S. Chi. 8/ 99S. S. Chi. 8/ 43, 48A. H. Chi. 12/ 6, 26
    C. S. Chi. 9/ 41, 60, 75S. S. Chi. 9/ 8, 9, 29, 34, 48, 55A. H. Chi. 13/ 11, 16
    C. S. Chi. 10/ 17, 41, 46S. S. Chi. 10/ 6, 11, 12, 14A. H. Chi. 14/ 21, 24, 55
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 20, 33, 38, 40, 41, 47, 70S. S. Chi. 11/ 7, 8A. H. Chi. 15/ 10, 15, 22, 23, 60, 70, 105
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 114, 118, 124, 132, 134, 148, 157, 162S. S. Chi. 12/ 11A. H. Chi. 16/ 7, 13, 14, 21, 23, 36, 43
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 46, 54, 667, 68, 145S. S. Chi. 14/ 6, 10A. H. Chi. 17/ 26
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 86, 117, 189S. S. Chi. 17/ 22, 43A. H. Chi. 18/ 3, 7, 14, 29
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 52, 59, 62, 64, 69, 72, 77, 79, 86, 93, 96, 98, 101, 105, 118S. S. Chi. 18/ 40, 55A. H. Chi. 19/ 8, 19, 28, 33, 44, 50, 59
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 38, 157, 172, 173, 175S. S. Chi. 19/ 43, 47, 69A. H. Chi. 21/ 50
    C. S. Chi. 20/ 36S. S. Chi. 20/ 57, 58A. H. Chi. 22/ 10, 15, 16
    C. S. Chi. 21/ 59, 65, 87, 90, 97, 129S. S. Chi. 21/ 6A. H. Ka. 1/ 11
    C. S. Chi. 25/ 83, 89, 109, 114S. S. Chi. 22/ 9, 11, 12, 25A. H. Ka. 2/ 17
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 28, 64, 86, 166, 194, 197, 203, 207, 237, 239, 240, 252, 267, 278S. S. Chi. 23/ 15A. H. Ka. 4/ 1, 34
    C. S. Chi. 27/ 37S. S. Chi. 25/ 30, 33A. H. U. 2/ 14, 72
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 128S. S. Chi. 37/ 33A. H. U. 5/ 19, 20, 39, 46
    C. S. Chi. 29/ 84, 85, 152S. S. Chi. 38/ 24, 46, 50, 63, 81A. H. U. 7/ 19, 31
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 51, 56, 82, 97, 120, 148, 251, 270, 276S. S. Ka. 5/ 63, 68A. H. U. 9/ 27
    C. S. Ka. 7/ 12, 35, 36, 39, 52, 59, 61, 63S. S. Ka. 6/ 8A. H. U. 11/ 7, 25, 43
    C. S. Ka. 9/ 11S. S. Ka. 7/ 23, 37A. H. U. 13/ 3, 10, 11, 14, 18, 50, 63, 70, 71, 87, 89
    C. S. Ka. 10/ 11, 12S. S. Sa. 10/ 45A. H. U. 16/ 17, 23, 24, 54, 63
    C. S. Si. 3/ 12, 57, 60S. S. U. 9/ 9A. H. U. 20/ 12
    C. S. Si. 4/ 17S. S. U. 10/ 14A. H. U. 22/ 9, 28, 38, 74, 81, 92, 97, 104
    C. S. Si. 7/ 27S. S. U. 11/ 6, 7A. H. U. 24/ 42, 50
    C. S. Si. 8/ 8S. S. U. 12/ 50A. H. U. 28/ 33, 37, 40
    C. S. Si. 10/ 22, 24S. S. U. 14/ 9A. H. U. 34/ 3, 6, 10, 28, 33, 55, 63
    C. S. Si. 11/ 25S. S. U. 17/ 5, 20, 21, 31, 41, 44, 48, 49A. H. U. 36/ 84
    C. S. Si. 12/ 53S. S. U. 18/ 88, 100A. H. U. 37/ 77
    S. S. U. 19/ 13A. H. U. 38/ 23
    S. S. U. 24/ 29A. H. U. 39/ 42, 46, 104, 137, 152, 153, 165
    S. S. U. 39/ 189, 193, 198, 203, 208, 213, 217, 222, 225, 237, 241, 246, 296, 300A. H. U. 40/ 50, 56
    S. S. U. 40/ 129
    S. S. U. 42/ 49, 70
    S. S. U. 43/ 18
    S. S. U. 44/ 15, 17, 20, 28
    S. S. U. 46/ 24
    S. S. U. 51/ 18
    S. S. U. 52/ 14, 38
    S. S. U. 54/ 30
    S. S. U. 55/ 50
    S. S. U. 57/ 13
    S. S. U. 61/ 34
    S. S. U. 62/ 22, 27

    Historical background of Gambhari

    Kasmarya (Gambhari) is considered Raksoghna in nature as per ancient texts in India. It is important among the trees used in Yajna. It will be interesting to note that the term Gambhari used routinely now for Kasmari was not mentioned in Brihattrayi. However, other synonyms of Kasmari like Sriparni and Sadabhara are often used by Acharyas of Brihattrayi. Gambhari is the term used by the tribal people of Bihar. It is a good example, now vernacular names become popular as classical names. Even the synonym ‘Sadabhadra’ is quoted by Sushruta in one context only (S. S. Ut. 24/ 32). Charaka quoted its fruit is best among Rakta- Sangrahaka and Raktapittahara (C. S. Su. 25). Its fruit is one among the Madhura Triphala (three sweet fruits). Gambhari fruit is considered a substitute for Draksha (grapes). It is Brmhana, Vrishya and Rasayana in nature. The root bark however is included in the Sothahara group and Brihat Panchamula group by Charaka and Sushruta respectively. Kaiyadeva described its flowers as Sangrahi and Vatavardhaka.

    External morphology of Gmelina arborea

    • Habit- Moderate-sized unarmed deciduous tree grows up to 50 ft. in height.
    • Bark- Grayish yellow, corky. Branchlets and young parts of the bark of Gambhari are clothed with fine white pubescence.
    • Leaves- 10 to 20 cm long, 7.5 to 15 cm wide, broadly ovate, acuminate, entire, glabrous above when mature, stellate fulvous tomentose beneath, the base is cordate, or sometimes truncate and shortly cuneate. Petioles of Gmelina arborea are 5- 7.5 cm long, cylindrical, and glandular at the top.
    • Inflorescence- Densely fulvous-hairy panicles reaching 30 cm long.
    • Flowers- Calyx is 5 mm long, broadly campanulate, densely fulvous-hairy, Petals are brownish yellow, densely hairy outside, up to 4 cm long, 5 lobed, 2 lipped upper lip rather more than 1 cm long, deeply divided into 2 oblong, obtuse lobes, lower lip nearly 2.5 cm long, 3-lobed, middle lobe projecting forward, ovate, sub obtuse, with irregularly crenulate margin.
    • Fruit- Drupe, 2 to 2.5 cm long, ovoid, or pyriform, smooth, orange-yellow when ripe.

    Flowering and Fruiting Time

    Summer and onward season

    Distribution of Gambhari

    It is found throughout India.

    The useful part of the Gambhari

    Root bark

    Market sample of root bark contains pieces of the dry, corky root of various sizes, 2 mm to 4 mm in thickness. Outer surface brownish yellow, lenticellate, somewhat warty with shallow longitudinal fissures. The bark more often exfoliates into scurfy flakes. The inner surface is leathery and whitish. On crushing, root bark becomes short pieces. The root bark has a faintly aromatic odor and sweet mucilaginous with a bitter aftertaste.

    Important phytoconstituent of Gambhari

    • Root yielded Gmelinol, B-sitosterol, Sesquiterpene, polyalcohol, yellow viscid oil, resin, the trace of benzoic acid, and ash free from manganese.
    • Leaves have luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, hentriacontane and B-sitosterol.
    • Heartwood afforded n-octacosanol, gmelinol, arboreal, iso- arboreal, gmelanone, B-sitosterol, gmelinol, paulownia, gummadiol, palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, Glucose, Xylose, Mannose, Arabinose, Galactose & rhamnose.

    Recent research on Gambhari

    • The present study investigated the effects of Gmelina arborea hexane leaves extract on markers of oxidative stress and its vasorelaxant effects on isolated rat aorta, 
    • to postulate possible mechanisms involved in the anti-hypertensive properties of the plant. The results indicate that Gmelina arborea hexane extract possesses bioactive compounds with antioxidant and vasorelaxant properties. Wansi SI, Nyadjeu, P, Nguelefack TB, Fodouop SF, Donatien AA, Kamanyi A. In vivo Antioxidant and Vasodilating Activities of Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae) Leaves Hexane Extract. J. Complement Integer Med. 2012 Oct 5: 9 (1). pit:/j/jcim. 2012. 9. Issue 1/ 1553- 3840. 1623/ 1553- 3840.1623. XML. doi: 10.1515/ 1553-3840. 1623.
    • The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. M.E of G. arborea was found safe in acute and repeated dose toxicity studies when tested in mice and rats. Kulkarni YA, Veeranjaneyulu A. Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats. Toxicology Int. 2012 May; 19 (2): 125- 31.
    • Phytochemical screening of stem bark and leaves of Gmelina arborea, the sand effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea stem bark on hepatic and renal insufficiency in rats was assessed in this study. Thus, Gmelina arborea extracts may have an ameliorating effect on hepatic and renal insufficiency caused by paracetamol and cisplatin respectively, and any inherent toxicity may be reduced or eliminated through adequate heat treatment. Anthony OE, Mbuh AF, Emmanuel MP. Phytochemical screening, and assessment of ameliorating effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gmelina arborea on drug-induced hepatic and renal insufficiency. in rats. Pak J. Pharm Science. 2012 Apr; 25 (2): 457- 61.
    • The immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. Were investigated. The drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant. Shukla SH, Saluja AK, Pandya SS. Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. On immunosuppressed albino rats. Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 Nov; 2(6):359-63. 
    • The alcoholic extracts of the stem bark and wood of the stem were found to possess hypoglycemic activity in albino rats. The stem bark extract also showed antiviral activity against the Ranikhet disease virus (Dhar et al., 1968).
    • The Rasayana (anabolic) effect of the fruits was studied in rabbits using electrophoretic analysis of serum fractions, body weight, and physical behavior as parameters. An increase in the percentage of & and y-globulin fractions gain in body weight and alertness in physical behavior was observed after treatment (Gaur & Gupta, 1968).
    • Premnazole showed anti-inflammatory activity comparable to that of phenylbutazone in reducing cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. It probably acts by regulating the activity of ACTH (Phytotherapies 1992, 63, 295).

    Rasa Panchaka of Gambhari Mula (Root)

    Rasa (Taste)Tikta (bitter), Kashaya (astringent), Madhura (sweet)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (Dry)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

    Rasa Panchaka of Gambhari Phala (Fruit)

    Rasa (Taste)Madhura (sweet), Amla (sour)
    Guna (Virtue)Guru (heavy), Snigdha (oily)
    Virya (potency)Sheeta (cold potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Madhura (sweet)

    Dosha Karma of Gambhari

    Tridosha Shamaka, Vata Shamaka because of Madhura Rasa and Ushna Virya, Pittahara due to Tikta, Kasaya, Madhura Rasa and Madhura Vipaka. Kapha Shamaka due to its Usna Virya. Phala (Fruit) is Vatapitta Shamak because of Madhura Rasa & Madhura Vipaka.

    Karma (Actions) of Gambhari

    Sothahara, Hridya, Rakta- Pitta Shamaka, Sandhaniya, Balya, Mutrajanana, Garbha Sthapana, Stanyajanana, Vrsya, Jvaraghna, Dahaprasamana Katupoustika, Benihana, Rasayana, Visaghna, Sitala, Snehana, Vedana Sthapana, Medhya, Srama, Daha, Trishna Prasamana, Kesya, Dipana, Pachan, Bhedana, Arsoghna.

    Karma (Actions) of different parts used by Gambhari

    • Mula: Sothahara, Dipana, Pacana, Bhedana, Sosahara, Arsoghna, Visaghna, Sulahara, Trishna Hara, Amahara, Daha Shamaka, Jwara Hara, Srmahara, Raktapittaahara.
    • Phala: Brihana, Vrishya, Kesya, Rasayana, Trishnahara, Dahasamaka, Hridya, Medhya.
    • Puspa: Sangrahi, Raktapittahara.

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Gambhari

    Daha, Trishna, Jvara, Sirahsula (Daha- Pida), Brahma- Mastiska, Dourbalya, Vata Vikara, Agnimandya, Vivandha, Arsha, Sotha, Hrid Roga, Raktapitta, Urahksata, Ksayaroga, Mutra Krcchra, Puyameha, Basti Sotha, Sukra Dourbalya, Garbharava, Sutika Roga, Garbhasayasotha, Dourbalya.

     

    • Mula: Sotha, Agnimandya, Vivandha, Arsha, Trishna, Daha, Shula, Jwara, Shrm, Raktapitta, Visa Vikara.
    • Phala: Karshya, Dourbalya, Klaivya, Trishna, Daha.
    • Pushpa: Rakta- Pitta

    Aamyik Paryog (Therapeutic uses) of Gambhari

    Jwara (Fever): Pittajvara

     

    • The cold decoction of Kasmarya mixed with sugar pacifies excessive thirst and burning sensation. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39/ 79- 80)
    • Vatajvara- Draksadi Kvatha. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39/ 173)

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea): The soup of Kasmarya fruits added with sugar and a bit soured is beneficial. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 74, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 9- 84)

     

    Arsha (Bleeding piles): In excessive bleeding, Khada (a dietary preparation) prepared of Kasmarya, Amalaka, Karbudara, sour fruits, Grujanaka, Salmali, Dugdhika, Cukrika, leaf-buds of Vata and Kovidara flowers along with the supernatant fatty layer of curd should be given. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 202- 3)

     

    Rakta Pitta (Intrinsic hemorrhage)

     

    • The ripe fruits of Udumbara and Kasmarya, Haritaki, Kharjura, and Draksa each separately taken with honey checks hemorrhage. (Chakra Dutta. 9. 25)
    • Flowers of Kovidara, Kasmarya, and Shalmali are useful as a vegetable in the disorder. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 39)

     

    Pandu (Anaemia): In the tepid decoction of Danti 40 gm, Kasmarya (fruit) or Draksha 160 gm is dipped and then pressed. The juice extracted should be taken in anemia. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 16/ 6)

     

    Trishna (Thirst)

     

    • Kasmaryadi Panaka. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana 30/ 37- 39)
    • The liquid gruel of parched paddy mixed with honey, Ghrita mixed with jaggery and Kasmarya added with sugar should be taken to check thirst. (Vrinda Madhava. 16. 9)

     

    Vatarakta (Gout)

     

    • The paste of Kasmarya, Madhuka and Saktu is useful. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 5/ 12)
    • Oil cooked with Guduchi decoction and milk or Draksha decoction or the decoction of Madhuka and Kasmarya alleviates Vatarakta. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 121)

     

    Sitapitta (urticaria): The ripe fruits of Kasmarya are dried and then cooked with cow- milk and taken with the same keeping on the wholesome diet. It destroys urticaria. (Raja Amrittanda. 8/ 12, Chakradutta. 51. 12)

     

    Rasayana (rejuvenator): Kasmarya Rasayana. (Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 27/ 9, Ashtanga Sangreha, 49/ 402)

     

    Garbh and Baal Shosha (Atrophy of fetus and child): In such conditions, milk cooked with Sarkara, Kasmarya, and Madhuka stimulates growth. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 28/ 95)

     

    Angulivesta (whitlow): Wrapping with seven tender leaves of Kasmarya destroys the disease. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 61/ 77)

     

    Stana Shitthilta (Slackness of the breast): Sesamum oil cooked with decoction and paste of Kasmarya is applied with a cotton swab on the breast. It makes them developed and tight. (Vanga Sena. 368)

     

    Paalitya (Graying of hairs)

     

    • Oil of Bibhitaki, Nimba, and Gambhari was separately taken as snuff checks for the disease. (Sharangdhar Samhita. 3/ 8/ 46)
    • Bibhitaki oil cooked with decoction and paste of root, heartwood, flower, fruit, and leaves of Ksmarya and taken as snuff destroys the disease. (Gada Nigreha.3 .1 .96)
    • Kasmarya Taila. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa. 61/ 4)

     

    Jwara (Fever)

     

    • Pippali should be used with the decoction of Dasamulaa. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 39/ 216)
    • This group (Dasamula) alleviates asthma, pacifies Kapha, Pitta, and Vata is digestive of Ama, and removes all types of fever. (Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 38/ 64)
    • Decoction of Dasamula, warm or cooled, added with the paste of Rasna is useful in fever caused by Vata. (Kashyapa Samhita Purva Khanda. 350)
    • In fever caused by Kapha, the decoction of Dasamula and Vasaka mixed with honey should be given. (Vrinda Madhava. 1/ 109)
    • Decoction of Dasamula added with Pippali should be given in disorders of Kapha and Vata, indigestion, excessive sleep, chest pain, asthma, and cough. (Vrinda Madhava. 1/ 139)
    • Both (Brihat and Laghu Pancamula) combined is Dasamula. It is efficacious in Sannipata fever, cough, asthma, stupor, and chest pain. If mixed with Pippali powder it alleviates Kapha and cardiac pain. (Vrinda Madhava. 1. 169)
    • In Sannipata fever with asthma and cough, the decoction of Dasamula mixed with Pippali and Pushkaramula should be given. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1/ 573)

     

    Atisaar Sambandhit Jwara (Fever associated with diarrhea): In fever, diarrhea, edema and Grahaniroga Sunthi 10 gm mixed with Dasamula decoction should be taken. (Vrinda Madhava. 2/ 20)

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea): In diarrhea with pain and tenesmus non-unctuous enema with the decoction of Dasamula added with honey and milk is an excellent remedy. (Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra. 40/ 143)

     

    Grahani-roga (IBS): Dasamuladya ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15. 82- 86)

     

    Pandu (Anemia): In anemia caused by Kapha, the decoction of Dasamula mixed with Sunthi should be taken. It is also useful in fever, diarrhea, edema, Grahani, asthma, anorexia, and disorders of the throat and heart. (Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 4)

     

    Shavasa and Kasa (Asthma and cough)

     

    • Dwi Panca Mulyadi Ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18. 158- 60)
    • Dasa Mulyadi Ghrita. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 18. 123- 24)
    • Liquid gruel processed with Dasamula alleviates cough, hiccough, and asthma. (Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 2/ 27, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 23)
    • One suffering from hiccough and asthma should take, while thirsty, the decoction of Dasamula or Devadaru or wine. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 105, Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 11)
    • In Hrid Shool (chest pain), Jwara (fever), Shwaas (asthma) and Kasa (cough) caused by Kapha decoction of Dasamula i.e Dashmool Kwatha mixed with Pippali Churna should be given. (Vrinda Madhava. 11/ 11)
    • Dasamula Kwatha added with Pushkaramula Churna pacifies Kasa (cough) and Shwasa (asthma) and removes pain in the chest and heart. (Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 18, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 36)
    • To eradicate asthma, decoction of Dasamula should be given. It is effective even in severe cases. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 49)

     

    Rajyakshma (Consumption)

     

    • Fresh ghee extracted from the milk boiled with Dasamula is used after adding Pippali powder and honey. It improves voice, alleviates pain in the head, chest, and shoulder, and removes cough, asthma, and fever. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 97- 98)
    • Ghee cooked with sweet (Jivaniya) Dravyas, Dasamula decoction, milk, and meat soup is an excellent remedy for consumption. (Charaka Samhita Chiktsa Sthana. 8/ 168)

     

    Unmada (Insanity): One should use the decoction of Dasamula added with ghee or meat- soup or powder of white mustard or old ghee alone. (Vrinda Madhava. 20/ 4)

     

    Apsmaar (Epilepsy): The patient who suffers from palpitation of the heart, pain in the eyes, excessive sweat and coldness in hands, etc. should be treated with Dasamula decoction of Kalyan Ghrita. (Vrinda Madhava. 21/ 8)

     

    Hridya Roga (Heart-disease): Decoction of Dasamula added with rock salt and Yavaksara destroys asthma, cough, heart disease, Gulma, and colic. (Vrinda Madhava. 31. 18, Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 102)

     

    Shotha (Oedema): Diet of the patient with edema should consist of cereals of old barley and Sali rice cooked with Dasamula decoction and that too in small quantities and added with little salt and ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana 17/ 17)

     

    Granthi-Visarpa: In case of pain, the part should be sprinkled with hot oil or Dasamula decoction, or urine. (Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 24)

     

    Vatavyadhi

     

    • In Vishwachi and Avabahuka (pain in arms), the decoction of Dasamula, Bala, and masa mixed with oil and ghee should be used as snuff in the evening. (Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 31, Vanga Sena, Vatavyadhi. 123, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 87)
    • Newly arisen Kubja (humpedness) should be treated with Dasamüla and other Vata-alleviating drugs. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 35)
    • Dashamoola- Ghrita. (Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 72)
    • Sciatica is treated with a decoction of Dasamula added with Hingu and Puskaramula (powder) or only with that of Sephali leaves. (Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 86)
    • In Manyastambha (torticollis) decoction of Dasamula or even Pancamula, rough sudation and snuffing should be used. (Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 76)

     

    Vatarakta (Gout): Milk cooked with Dasamula decoction alleviates pain immediately. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 124, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 23, Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 11)

     

    Amavata (Rheumatoid arthritis)

     

    • In Amavata, one should take Dasamula decoction added with Pippali or Haritaki with Sunthi or Guduci with Sunthi. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 10, Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 44)
    • Castor oil mixed with a decoction of Dasamula or Sunthi should be taken in case of pain in the abdomen, pelvis, and waist. (Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 5)
    • Moreover, an enema of Dasamula mixed with urine should be given. (Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 7/ 20)

     

    Vidriddhi (Abscess): The swelling or wound should be sprinkled with warm decoction of Dasamula or meat soup mixed with fat. (Vrinda Madhava. 43/ 8)

     

    Loose teeth (Danta Roga): Gargle should be used with Dasamula decoction added with ghee. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 22/ 14)

     

    Netra Roga (Defects of vision): In Timira caused by Vata, ghee cooked with Dasamula decoction and paste of Triphala in four times milk should be used. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 48)

     

    Badhirya (Deafness): Oil 640 ml. should be cooked with Dasamula decoction and should be instilled in ears. It is an excellent remedy for deafness. (Vrinda Madhava. 59/ 26) 

     

    Sutika-roga (post-partum disease): Decoction of Dasamula alleviates Sutika Roga immediately. (Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 28)

     

    Stanya Janana Roga (Abnormal lactation):  In breast milk affected by Vata, the decoction of Dasamula should be given. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 2/ 9, Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 34)

    Benefits of Gambhari

    • The juice of tender leaves or infusion of leaves is useful as a demulcent. It is given in gonorrhea, catarrh of the bladder, cough, etc. Naveen Patra Swarasa is also used for cleaning ulcers.
    • The root is acrid, bitter, sweet, tonic, heating, stomachic, laxative, and galactagogue, as a nerve tonic. It is used in insanity and epilepsy. Its decoction or infusion is given in fever, indigestion, anasarca, and gonorrhea and as a galactagogue. 
    • The roots are useful in loss of appetite, thirst, piles, burning sensation, fevers, urinary discharges, and Tridosha disorders. They are useful against worms, and also given in constipation.
    • The flowers are sweet, cooling, bitter, acrid, astringent, and anti-dermatosis; they are useful in leprosy and blood diseases.
    • The fruits are acrid, sour, bitter, sweet, cooling, diuretic, tonic, aphrodisiac, alterative, and astringent to the bowels. They are also useful to promote the growth of hairs, fruits are useful in vitiation of Vata, thirst, anemia, leprosy, ulcers, consumption, strangury, and vaginal discharges.
    • The juice of the leaves is used to remove fetid discharges and worms from ulcers prescribed in combination with the plant and is suggested with other drugs against snakebite. A decoction of the roots and bark is given orally in the treatment of the snake- bite.

    Benefits of Gambhari on different systems of bodies

    • External uses: Because of cooling and soothing actions, the leaves relieve burning and pain. In such cases, leaves are tied to the affected part. Gambhari Patra Kalka (Paste of the leaves) is applied over the forehead in the case of Shira Shool (headache) caused by Jwara (fever).
    • Central Nervous system: Gambhari is used in Bhrama (vertigo), Mansika Vikara (brain debility), and Vata disorders. It is also a brain tonic.
    • Digestive system: Fruit – relieves excessive thirst, root – aperient, improves appetite and digestion, so used in diarrhea, constipation, and hemorrhoids.
    • Circulatory system: The bark of the root is used internally in edema due to any cause, as it is relieving edema. Its ripe fruit is cardiotonic. Its juice is useful in cardiac disorders and the mixture of roots of Gambhari + Gunja leaves + Yashtimadhu + sugar with milk is a good galactagogue.
    • Respiratory system: Pakwa Phala (Ripe fruit) of Gambhari is a nutritive tonic, so useful in Rajyakshma (tuberculosis).
    • Urinary system: Fruits and leaves are diuretics. The juice is given for dysuria, gonorrhea, and cystitis. In such cases, if the juice is given along with cow’s milk and sugar, it increases urination and relieves pain and swelling.
    • Reproductive system: Besides being a galactagogue, the fruit is an aphrodisiac. Fruits are used in semen debility and to prevent miscarriage. Decoction of the root bark is given in postpartum disorders. It relieves uteritis, fever, and other symptoms and promotes breast milk. Taila (oil) that is derived from Gambhari Swarasa is kept for breast development.
    • Temperature: Relieves fever and burning.
    • Satmikaran: The bark is a Tikta in Rasa (bitter tonic) having Rasayana properties (nutritive and rejuvenating properties). It is also an antidote. It is also used externally and internally in scorpion and snake bites.

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Gambhari

    • Mula Kwatha (decoction): 50- 100 ml
    • Mula Churna (powder): 3- 6 gram
    • Phala Rasa (juice): 10- 20 ml

    Classical reference of Gambhari

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 14- 15

    Synonyms

    गम्भारी भद्रपर्णी च श्रीपर्णी मधुपर्णिका

    काश्मीरी काश्मरी हीरा काश्मर्य: पीतरोहिणी ||

    कृष्ण वृन्ता मधुरसा महाकुसुमिका अपि च |

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 15- 18

    Properties and action

    काश्मरी तुवरा तिक्ता वीर्यो उष्ण मधुरा गुरु: |

    दीपनी पाचनी मेध्या भेदिनी भ्रमशोषजित ||

    दोष तृष्णा आमशूलो अर्शो विष दाहज्वरापहा ||

    तत्फल बृहण वृष्यं गुरु केश्यम  रसायनम्‌ |

    वात पित्त तृषा रक्त क्षय मूत्रविबन्धनुत्‌ ||

    स्वादुपाके हिमं स्निग्धं हिम॑ तुवर अम्लम विशुद्धिकृत्‌ |

    हन्याद्दाहतृषा वात रक्तपित्त क्षतक्षयान्‌ ||

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga- 15

    Properties and action

    श्रीपर्णी स्वरसे तिक्ता गुरुष्णा रक्तपित्तजित |

    त्रिदोष श्रम दाहार्ति ज्वर तृष्णाविषा जयेत ||

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 30- 34

    श्रीपर्णी मधुरातिक्ता वीर्य उष्ण तुवरा गुरु: |

    दीपनी पाचनी मेध्या भेदनी भ्रमशोषजित्‌ ||

    तत पुष्पम मधुर शीत तिक्त संग्राहि वातलम्‌ ||

    कषाय मधुर पाके पित्त असृग्दरपहम |

    कफापित्तहरं तस्याः फल स्निग्धं हिमम गुरु |

    स्वादु पाक रसं हृद्यं कषाय अम्लम रसायनम |

    बृहण शुक्रल केश्यम मेध्यं मूत्र विवंधनुत |

    हन्याद् तृषा दाह पित्त रक्त क्षतकषयान |

    Raja Nighantu Prabhadradi Varga, 38

    काश्मरी कटु तिक्ता गुरु उष्णा कफा शोफनुत |

    त्रिदोष विष दाहा ज्वर तृष्णास्त्र दोष जित || 

    काशमर्य फल रक्त संग्राहिक रक्त पित्त प्रदापन नाम |

    प्रजापतेर्विस्त्र स्तस्याग्निस्तेज आदाय दक्षिणा अकर्षत्‌ | सो अत्रोदारमत्‌ |

    यत्‌ कृष्टवा उदरयत्‌-तस्मात्‌ काश्मर्थ: | (श. ७/४/१/३९)

    कृषेर्धातो: श्मेश्च काष्मर्यश्ब्दनिष्पत्तिवर्णविकारेण द्रष्टव्या | (सायण)

    देवा ह एनं वनस्पतिषु रक्षोष्न दद्शु: यत्‌ काश्मार्यम || (श. २/४/१/१६)

    काश्मर्यफलं रक्त सांग्राहिक रक्तपित्त प्रशमनानाम्‌ | (च.सू. २५)

    हृद्यं मूत्रविबन्धघनम पित्तासृग्वातनाशनम्‌ । 

    केश्य रसायन मेध्यं काश्मर्य फलमुच्यते || (सु.सू. ४६)

    काश्मर्यतैलानि मधुरकषायाणि कफपित्तप्रशमनानि | (सु.सू: ४५)

    काश्मर्या काश्मरी हीरा काशमर्यो मधु पर्ण यपि । 

    श्रीपर्णी सर्वतोभद्रा गम्भारी कृष्णवृन्तका ||

    श्रीपर्णी स्वरसे तिक्ता गुरुष्णा रक्तपित्तजित्‌ |

    त्रिदोषश्रमदाहार्तिज्वरतृष्णाविषाजयेत्‌ || (ध.नि)

    काशमर्य काश्मरीहीरा कश्मीरी मधु पर्ण यपि | 

    श्रीपर्णी सर्वतोभद्रा गंभारी कृष्णवृत्तिका |

    कुमुदा भद्र पर्णी च सदाभद्रा च कट्फला || 

    श्वेता स्थूलत्वचा स्निग्धा पवित्रा वातहद दृढ़ा |  

    रोहिणी सफला भद्रा गोपभद्रा विदारिका ||

    महाकुमुदिका गृष्टिमही मधुमती मुद्दी | (शो.नि.)

    श्री पर्णीमारुत श्लेष्म शोफ मेह कृमीन्‌ जयेत्‌ || 

    श्रीपर्णीज॑ फलं शीतं स्वादुपाकरसं गुरु: |

    बृहणाम स्निग्ध विष्टम्भी रक्तपित्तक्रिमीन जयेत्‌ || 

    कफशुक्रकरं हृद्यं दाह क्षत क्षयापहम्‌ |

    शकृत मूत्र विबंधघ्न॑ केश्यं मेध्यं रसायनम्‌ || (शो.नि.)

    श्रीपर्णी सर्वतोभद्रा काश्मीरी काश्मरी मुदा || 

    गम्भारी कट्फला हीरा काश्मर्या मधुपर्णिका |

    कृष्णवृन्ता भद्रपर्णी कुम्भारी सफला मही ||

    श्रीपर्णी मधुरा तिक्ता वीर्य उष्णा तुवरा गुरु: | (कै.नि.)

    Raja Nighantu

    स्यात काशमर्य: काश्मरी कृष्णवृन्ता हीरा भद्रा सर्वतो भद्रिका च |

    श्री पर्णी स्यात्सिन्धुपर्णी सुभद्रा कम्भारी सा कटफला भद्र पर्णी ||

    कुमुदा च गोपभद्रा विदारिणी क्षीरिणी महाभद्रा |

    मधु पर्णी स्वभद्रा कृष्णा श्वेता च रोहीणी गृष्टि: ||

    स्थूलत्वचा मधुमती सुफला मेदिनी महाकुमुदा |

    सुदृढत्वचा च कथिता विज्ञेया विंशतिनप्निम्‌ ||

    काश्मरी कटुका तिक्ता गुरूणा कफशोफनुत: | 

    त्रिदोष विष दाहा ज्वर तृष्णा स्त्र दोष जित ||

    Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 25

    काश्मर्यफलं रक्त सांग्रहिक रक्तपित्त प्रशमनानाम्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 45

    काश्मर्य तैलानि मधुर कषायाणि कफ पित्त प्रशमनानि |

    Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 46

    हृद्यं मूत्र विवन्धघं पिता असृग वातनाशनम |

    केश्यम रसायन मेध्यं काश्मर्य फलमुच्यते ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 39/ 173

    वातज्वरे

    द्राक्षादि क्वाथे |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 10/ 29, 30

    अपस्मारे – काश्मरी घृतम

    कसे क्षीरे क्षुर रसयो: काश्मर्ये अष्टगुणे रसे |

    कार्षिकै्जीवनी यैश्च घृतप्रस्थं विपाचयेत्‌ ||

    वातपित्तोद्धव क्षिप्र अपस्मारं नियच्छति |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 12/ 67

    शोथ काश्मरी पत्र स्वेदम्‌

    जलेश्च वासार्ककरज शिग्रु काश्मर्यपत्रार्जकजैश्च सिद्धै: |

    स्विन्नो मृदुष्णे रवि तप्त तोयै: स्नानश्च गंधेरनुलेपनीय: ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 29/ 85

    वातरक्ते काश्मर्यादि कषायः 

    काश्मर्य त्रिवृतां द्राक्षां त्रिफलां सपरुषकान्‌ |

    शृतं पिबेद्वरिकाय लवणक्षौद्र संयुतम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 30/ 52, 53

    वातज योनिरोगेषु काश्मर्यादिघृतम्‌

    काश्मर्य…. गुडूच्याश्च प्रस्थम क्षसमैर्धृतात्‌ |

    साधितं योनिवातघ्नं गर्भद॑ परमं पिबेत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 202, 203

    रक्तार्श:षु अतिरक्तप्रवृत्तविरोधार्थ काश्मर्यादि योग:

    काश्मर्यामलकानां सकर्बुदारान्‌ फलाम्लश्च |

    दघ्न: सरेण सिद्धान्‌ दद्याद्रक्त प्रवृत्ते अति ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 30/ 100, 101

    योनिरोगेषु (रक्तयोनि, अरजस्का पुत्रघ्नी योनि)

    काश्मर्यादिउत्तरबस्ति प्रयोग:

    काश्मर्य कटुज क्वाथ सिद्धमुत्तर बस्तिना ||

    रक्तयोन्यरजस्कानां पुत्रघ्नया हित्तम घृतम्‌ |

    Bhava Parkasha, Kshudra Roga Adhikara, 61/ 76

    चिप्परोगे

    काश्मर्या: सप्तभ: पत्रै: कोमलै: परिवेष्टित: |

    अंगुली वेष्टक: पुंसां ध्रुवमाशु प्रशाम्यति ||

    Chakra Dutta, Hrid Roga Chikitsa, 31- 5

    हृद रोगे (पित्तजनित) श्री पर्णी मधुक जलम 

    श्रीपर्णी मधुक क्षौद्र सिता गुड जलैभवेत्‌ |

    पित्तोपसृष्टे हदये सेवेत मधुर: श्रृतम्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita, Uttara Tantra, 39/ 179, 180

    पित्तज ज्वर                  

    …. काश्मर्यस्याथवा पुनः |

    …. कषाये: शर्करायुतै: |

    सुशीतै: शमयेतृष्णां प्रवृद्धां दाहमेव च |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 19/ 78, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 9/ 84

    अतिसारे

    काश्मर्यफलयूषो वा किश्चिदाम्ल: सशर्कर: |

    Sushruta Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 27/ 9, Ashtanga Sangreha. 49/ 402

    रसायने

    काश्मर्य- रसायनम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 14/ 202, 203

    रक्त अर्श 

    काश्मर्यामलकानां….कोविदारपुष्पाणाम्‌ |

    … दुग्ध सरेण सिद्धान्‌ तद्याद्‌ रक्ते प्रवृत्ते अति ||

    Raja Amrittanda, 8/ 12, Chakra Dutta, 59- 12

    शीतपित्ते

    कालेन पाक प्रतिपाद्य शुष्क गव्येन- सिद्ध पयसोपयुक्तम्‌ |

    …. काश्मर्यमाशु प्रतिहन्ति शीतपित्त॑ हिंताहारससेन रूढ़िम ||

    Bhel Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana, 30- 37, 39

    तुष्णायाम्‌

    काश्मर्यादिपानकम्‌ ।

    Vrinda Madhava, 16- 9

    लाजोदकं मधुयु्तं, घृत गुडमिश्रितम्‌

    काश्मर्य शर्करायुक्त॑ पिबेतृष्णार्दितों नरः ||

    Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa, 61- 77

    काश्मर्याः समभि: पत्रै कोमलैः परिवेष्टित: |

    अंगुली वेष्टक: पुंसां ध्रुवं आशु प्रशाम्यति ||

    Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa, 61- 4

    पलिते 

    काश्मर्यादि तैलम।

    विभीतक निम्ब गम्भारी…… ।

    एकैकतैलनस्येन पलितं नश्यति ध्रुवं ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 4/ 39

    रक्तपित्ते

    कोविदारस्य पुष्पाणि काश्मर्यस्याथ शाल्मलै: |

    अन्नपान विधी शाकं यच्चान्यद्‌ रक्तपित्तनुत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 4/ 39

    पक्वो उदुंबर काश्मर्यपथ्यारवर्जूर गोस्तना: |

    मधुना, घ्रन्ति संलीढा रक्तपित्त॑ पृथक्‌ पृथक ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana, 16/ 6

    पाण्डुरोगे

    दन्तीपत्ररसे कोष्णे काश्मर्याजलिमप्लुतम्‌ |

    द्राक्षाजलि वा मु्दितं तत्‌ पिबेत्‌ पाण्डु रोगजित्‌ ||

    Sushruta Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 5/ 12

    वात रक्ते 

    काश्मर्य मधुक तर्पण कल्को वा |

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 29/ 121

    गुडूची रस दुग्धाभ्यां तैल॑ द्राक्षारसेन वा |

    सिद्ध मधुक काश्मर्यर सैर्वा वातरक्तनुत्‌ ||

    Gada Nigreha, 3- 1- 96

    पलिते

    काश्मर्य मूल सार प्रसूनफल पत्रत: कषायेण |

    कल्केन माक्षक तैलं पक्वं पलितापहं नस्यम्‌ ||

    Vanga Sena, Stri Roga, 368- 369

    कुचोत्थापने

    श्रीपर्णी रसकल्काभ्यां तैल॑ सिद्ध तिलोद्धवम्‌ |

    तततैल॑ तूलके न्यस्य स्तनयो: परिधारयेत्‌ ||

    पतितात्वुत्थिती स्त्रीणां भवेयातां पयोधरौ |

    गज कुम्भ समाकारवुन्नतौ परिमण्डलौ ||

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana, 28/ 95

    गर्भशोषेबालशोषे च

    गर्भ शुष्के तु वातेन बालानाञ्च पिशुष्यताम्‌ ।

    सिताकाश्मर्यमधुकै: हितमुत्थापने पय: ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 39/ 216

    ज्वर 

    दशमूलीकषायेण मागधीर्वा प्रयोजयेत्‌ |

    Sushruta Samhita Sutra Sthana, 38/ 64

    गण: श्वासहरो ह्येष कफपित्तानिलापह: |

    आमस्य पाचनश्चैव सर्वज्वरविनाशन: ||

    Kashyap Samhita, Page 350

    द्विपंच्च मूलनिष्क्वाथ: कोष्णो वा यदि वा हिम: |

    रास्नाकल्कसमायुक्तो वातज्वरहितो मत: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 109

    मधुना श्वेष्मसमुत्ये दशमूलीवासकस्य वा क्वाथ: |

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 139

    दशमूलीरस: पेय: कणायुक्त: कफानिले |

    अविपाके अतिनिद्रायां पार्श्व रुकुश्वासकासके ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 1. 169

    उभयं दशमूलं तु संनिपातज्वरापहम्‌ |

    कासे श्वासे च तन्द्रायां पार्श्वशूले च शस्यते ||

    पिप्पलीचूर्णसंयुक्त कण्ठहदग्रहनाशनम्‌ |

    Bhava Prakasha Chikitsa Sthana. 1. 573

    दशमूलीकषायस्तु पिप्पलीपौष्करान्वित: |

    सन्निपातज्वरे देव: शवासकाससमन्विते ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 2. 20

    ज्वरातिसारे 

    दशमूलीकषायेण विश्वमक्षसमं पिबेत्‌ |

    ज्वरे चैबातिसारे च सशोफे ग्रहणीगदे ||

    Sushruta Samhita Uttara Tantra, 40/ 143

    अतिसारे 

    द्विपंच्च मूल क्वथीतें शूले प्रवाहमाणस्य समाक्षिकेण |

    क्षीरेण च आस्थापनं अग्रयं उक्तं |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 82- 86

    ग्रहणी रोग 

    दशमूलाद घृतम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 8/ 4

    पाण्डु रोग 

    द्विपच्च मूल क्वथितं सविश्वं ज्वरे सविश्व॑ कफात्मके पाण्डुगदे पिबेदू वा |

    ज्वारे अतिसारे शवयथो ग्रहण्यां श्वास अरुचौ कंठ हादाम्ये च ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 158- 160

    श्वासकासयो:

    द्वि पंच्च मूल्यादिघृतम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 123- 24

    दशमूलादिघृतम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita, Sutra Sthana, 2/ 26, Ashtanga Hirdya Chikitsa Sthana. 4/ 23

    दशमूली शृता कासहिक्काश्वासरुजापहा |

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 105, Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 11

    दशमूलस्य वा क्वाथमथवा देवदारुण: |

    तृषितो मदिरां वापि हिक्काश्वासी पिबेन्नर: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 11/ 11

    पा्श्वशूले ज्वरे श्वासे कासे श्रेष्मसमुदभवे |

    पिप्पलीचूर्णसंयुक्तं दशमूलीजल पिबेत् ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 12/ 18, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 36

    दशमूलीकषायश्च पुष्करेणावचूर्णित: |

    कासश्वासप्रशमन: पार्श्वहच्छूलनाशन: ||

    Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 14/ 49

    दशमूलरसो देव: श्वासनिर्मुलशान्तये |

    अवश्य मरणीयों यो जीवेद्‌ वर्ष श्तं नर: ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 97- 98

    शोषे

    दशमूल शृतात क्षीरात्‌ सर्पियदुदियान्नवम्‌ |

    सपिप्पलीकं सक्षौद्रं तत्‌ पर स्वरबोधनम्‌ ||

    शिर: पार्श्व शूलघ्नं कासश्वासज्वरापहम्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 8/ 138

    सिद्ध मधुरकैरद्रव्वैदशमूलकषायकै: |

    क्षीरमांसरसोपेतै घृतम शोषहरं परम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 20/ 4

    उन्मादे

    दशमूलाम्बु सघृतं युक्त मांसरसेन वा |

    ससिद्धार्थकचूर्ण वा केवल वा अनवं घृतम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 21/ 8

    अपस्मारे

    हत्कम्पो अक्षिरुजा यस्य स्वेदो हस्तादिशीतता |

    दशमूलीजल तस्य कल्याणाज्यं च योजयेत्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 31/ 18

    हद्रोगे

    दशमूलकषाये तु लवणक्षारयोजितम |

    श्वास कासं सहद्रोगं गुल्मशूलं च नाशयेत्‌ ||

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 102

    दशमूलकृतः क्वाथ: सयवक्षारसैन्धव: |

    हद्रोगगुल्मशूलानि कासं श्वासं च नाशयेत्‌ |

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 17/ 17

    शोथे

    पुराणयवशाल्यन्न दशमूलाम्बुसाधितम्‌।

    अल्पमल्पं पटुस्नेहं भोजन श्वयथोरहितम ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 18/ 24

    ग्रन्थिवीसर्पे

    ग्रन्थिवीसर्पशूले तु तैलेनोष्णेन सेचयेत्‌ |

    दशमूलबविपक्वेन तद्वन्‌ मुतरैजलेन वा ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 22/ 31, Vanga Sena Vaat Vyadhi. 123, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 87

    वातव्याधौ

    दशमूलीबलामाष क्वाथं तैलाज्यमिश्रितम्‌ |

    सायं भुक्त्वा पिबेन्नस्य विश्वाच्यामवबाहुके ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 22. 35

    वातष्नैर्दशमूल्या च नवं कुब्जमुपाचरेत्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 22. 72

    दशमूलघृतम्‌ |

    Sharangdhara Samhita. 2. 2. 86

    हिंगुपुष्करचूर्णादयं दशमूलशुतं जयेत्‌ |

    गृधसी केवल: क्वाथ: शेफालीपत्रजस्तथा ||

    Bhava Parkasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 24/ 76

    दशमूलीकृतं क्वा्थ पज्चमूल्यापि कल्पितम्‌ |

    रूक्ष स्वेद॑ तथा नस्यं मन्यास्तम्भे प्रयोजयेत्‌ ||

    Charaka Samhita, Chikitsa Sthana. 29/ 124, Ashtanga Hridya Chikitsa Sthana. 22/ 23, Vrinda Madhava. 23/ 11

    वातेरक्ते

    दशमूल शृतं क्षीरं सच: शूलनिवारणम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 10, Bhava Parkasha Chikitsa Sthana. 26/ 44

    आमवाते

    आमवाते कणायुक्त॑ दशमूलीजल पिबेत्‌ |

    खादेद्वाप्यमयाविश्वं गुडू्ची नागरेण वा ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 25/ 5

    दशमूलीकषायेण पिबेद्‌ वा नागराभ्मसा |

    कुक्षि बस्तिकटीशूले तैलमेरण्डसंभवम्‌ |

    Charaka Samhita Siddhi Sthana. 7/ 20

    बस्तिमस्य विदध्याच्च समूत्रं दाशमूलिकम्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 43/ 8

    विद्रधौ

    दशमूलीकषायेण सस्नेहेन रसेन वा |

    शोध ब्रण वा कोष्णेन सशूल॑ परिषेचयेत्‌ ||

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 22/ 14

    दन्तदौर्बल्ये

    ससनेहं दशमूलाम्बु गण्डूष: प्रचलदद्विजे |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 13/ 48

    तिमिरे

    वातजे तिमिरे तत्र दशमूलाम्भसा घृतम्‌ |

    क्षीरे चतुर्गुणे श्रष्ठा कल्क पक्वं पिबेत्तत: ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 51/ 26

    बाधिर्य 

    दशमूलीकषायेण तैलप्रस्थ॑ विपाचयेत्‌ |

    ऐतत्‌ कर्णे प्रदातव्यं बाधिये परमौषधम्‌ ||

    Vrinda Madhava. 65/ 28

    सूतिकारोगे

    दशमूलीरस: पूत: सद्य: सूतीरुजापह: |

    Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 2/ 9

    वातिके स्तन्यविकारे

    तत्र वातात्मके स्तन्ये दशमूलं त्रयहं पिबेत्‌ |

    Vrinda Madhava. 65. 34

    तत्र वातात्मके स्तन्ये दशमूलीजलं पिबेत्‌ ||

    Specific Formulation of Gambhari

    • Kashmarya Kwatha for Pittaja Jwara
    • Kashmaryadi Sheet Kashaya for Pittaja Trishna
    • Brihat Panchmooladi Kwatha for Rakta Atisara, Jwara Atisara
    • Dashmula Arishta for Vata Vyadhi and Grehni
    • Dashmula Kwath for Amavata
    • Dhanwantri Ghrita
    • Indukanta Ghrita

    Brihat Panchmool Dravya

    • Bilva 
    • Sarvtobhadra (Gambhari)
    • Paatla
    • Ganikarika (Agnimantha)
    • Shyonaka

    Dashmool Dravya

    • Shalparni
    • Prishanparni
    • Vaartaaki (Brihati)
    • Kantkari
    • Gokshur
    • Bilva 
    • Sarvtobhadra (Gambhari)
    • Paatla
    • Ganikarika (Agnimantha)
    • Shyonaka

    Madhura Triphala

    • Draksha
    • Kashmarya (Gambhari)
    • Kharjura

    Swalpa Triphala

    • Kharjura
    • Kashmarya (Gmabhari)
    • Parushaka

    Contraindication and side effects of Gambhari

    Gambhari is safe if taken recommended dosage but if taken in excessive dosage may result in stomach troubles. Avoid the use of Gambhari during pregnancy and lactation.

    Suggestive reading regarding Gambhari

    • Kulkarni YA, Panjabi R, Patel V, Tawade A, Gokhale A. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb in experimentally induced inflammation and nociception. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2013 Jul; 4 (3): 152- 7. doi: 10. 4103/ 0975- 9476. 118697. PMID: 24250144; PMCID: PMC3821189.
    • Sahu R, Divakar G, Divakar K. In vivo rodent micronucleus assay of Gmelina arborea Roxb (Gambhari) extract. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010 Jan;1 (1): 22- 9. PMID: 22247828; PMCID: PMC3255392.
    • Arora, Charu & Tamrakar, Vinita. (2019). Gmelina arborea: A bioprospective plant. Progressive Agriculture. 19. 222. 10. 5958/ 0976- 4615. 2019. 00045. 0.
    • Dixit VK. Controversial ayurvedic herbs. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2011 Apr;2 (2): 78- 80. doi: 10. 4103/ 2231- 4040. 82948. PMID: 22171297; PMCID: PMC3217696.
    • Raveendran, Raghi & Eapen, Jollykutty. (2020). The anti-photoaging potential of fruits of Draksha (Vitis vinifera L.) and Kaashmari (Gmelina arborea Roxb.). Journal of Traditional and Folk Practices. 8. 39- 46. 10. 25173/ jtfp. 2020. 8. 2. 114.
    • Singh, Poonam & Rana, Anchal & Panwar, N.s & Kumar, Ashok. (2021). Gmelina arborea. Indian Forester. 147. 1075- 1082. 10. 36808/ if/ 2021/ v147i11/ 154156.
    • Attanayake AP, Jayatilaka KA, Pathirana C, Mudduwa LK. Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Family: Verbenaceae) Extract Upregulates the β-Cell Regeneration in STZ Induced Diabetic Rats. J Diabetes Res. 2016; 2016: 4513871. doi: 10. 1155/ 2016/ 4513871. Epub 2016 Jan 6. Erratum in: J Diabetes Res. 2018 Nov 5; 2018: 9861243. PMID: 26881248; PMCID: PMC4736759.
    • Warrier, Rekha & Rajasekaran, Kalaiselvi & Priya, S. (2021). Gmelina arborea– An indigenous timber species of India with high medicinal value: A review on its pharmacology, pharmacognosy, and phytochemistry. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 267. 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2020. 113593.
    • Sahu, Rohit & Goli, Divakar & Divakar, Kalyani & Sharma, Paras. (2015). In vitro Cytotoxicity of Gmelina arborea rRxb (Gambhari) on HL-60 Cell Lines. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant. 9. 194- 200. 10. 3923/ rjmp. 2015. 194. 200.
    • Arora, Charu & Tamrakar, Vinita. (2017). Gmelina arborea: chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and applications. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 9. 528. 10. 5138/ 09750185. 2149.
    • Warrier RR, Priya SM, Kalaiselvi R. Gmelina arborea- an indigenous timber species of India with high medicinal value: A review on its pharmacology, pharmacognosy, and phytochemistry. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021 Mar 1; 267: 113593. doi: 10. 1016/ j. jep. 2020. 113593. Epub 2020 Nov 18. PMID: 33217516.
    • Sharma, Neeru & Yadav, Yadevendra & Sharma, Usha & Khem, & Sharma, Chand. (2020). CONCEPT OF HAIR AND HAIR DISEASES IN AYURVEDA.
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    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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