Home Dravya (Herbs) Part A Ativisha – Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.

    Ativisha – Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.

    Ativisha: The Shishu Bhaishjya (Best remedy for children’s ailments)

    Introduction

    The aconite genus has perennial herbs that occur in the mountain part of the northern hemisphere and consists of 250 species of angiosperm plants. Aconitum heterophyllum is one of them which is locally known as Atees and widely distributed in sub-alpine and alpine regions of the Himalayas. Aconitum heterophyllum proved to be a milestone drug in various children’s diseases therefore famous in Ayurvedic physicians as Shishu Bhaishjya. Recent research revealed that Ativisha exhibits various activities like anti-bacterial, antipyretic, anti-microbial, immune-modulatory, etc. Due to these multitasking qualities, it is a drug of great interest in children’s diseases. As Ativisha is considered an endangered species, therefore Mustaka (Cyperus rotundus) is used as its Pratinidhi Dravya (Substitute).

    Basonym of Ativisha

    विषम अति क्रान्ता |

    Ativisha overpowers Visha.

    Synonyms of Ativisha

    • According to Habitat

    काश्मीरा: – कश्मीरे भवा |

    The plant grows in Kashmir.       

    माद्री – मद्र देशे भवा। 

    Plants grow in Madra Desha.

     

    • According to Habitat

    शुक्ल कंदाशुक्ल वर्ण: कन्दो अस्य। 

    Root tubers are white.

    श्रृंगीशृङ्गाकार कन्द त्वात। 

    Root tubers are horn-shaped.

     

    • According to properties and action

    पित्त वल्ल्भा – पित्त रोगे फल प्रदा।

    Ativisha is efficacious in Pittaja Roga. 

    घुण वल्लभाआशु घूणै: संसृज्यते। 

    Root tubers are quickly infested.

    अतिसारघ्नीअतिसारं नाशयति। 

    Ativisha is very useful in Atisara.

    शिशु भैषजयंबाल रोगेषु लाभ प्रदा  

    Ativisha is very beneficial in pediatric disorders.

    विषाविवेष्टि व्याप्नोति शरीरं अथवा विषम हन्ति। 

    It spreads throughout the body or is useful as an antidote.

    शोफापहाशोफ नाशिनी। 

    It cures Shopha.

    Some other synonyms of Ativisha are as follows:

    Sugandha, Vishda, Visharupa, Chandri, etc.

    Regional names of Ativisha

    • Indian Atees (English)
    • Ataich (Bengali) 
    • Ativish (Gujarati)
    • Atees (Hindi)
    • Atibaje (Kannada)
    • Astividayam (Malayalam)
    • Ativisa (Marathi)
    • Batis (Punjabi)
    • Atividyam (Tamil)
    • Atibasa (Telugu)
    • Bajjturaki (Persian) 

    Scientific classification of Ativisha

    KingdomPlantae
    Class Dicotyledons 
    SubclassPolypetalae
    Series Thalamiflorae
    OrderRanales
    Family Ranunculaceae 
    GenusAconitum 
    Species heterophyllum

    Botanical Name

    Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.

    Aconitum- Aconite

    Heterophyllum- with dissimilar leaves

    Family – Ranunculaceae (Vatsanabha Kula)

    Ayurveda reference for Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall.)

    Classification of Ativisha as per Charaka and Sushruta

    • Charaka: Lekhaniya Maha Kashaya, Arshoghana Maha Kshaya, Tikta Sakandha
    • Sushruta: Pipplyadi Gana, Vachadi Gana, Mustadi Gana

    Ativisha's description in Brihtrayi

    Charaka Shusruta Vagbhata 

    (Ashtang Hridya)

    C. S. Su. 2/ 21S. S. Su. 11/ 13A. H. Su. 10/ 30
    C. S. Su. 4/ 3, 12S. S. Su. 38/ 22, 26, 54A. H. Su. 14/ 25
    C. S. Su. 23/ 18S. S. Su. 39/ 6A. H. Su. 15/ 35
    C. S. Su. 25/ 39S. S. Su. 44/ 36A. H. Su. 30/ 21
    C. S. Vi. 8/ 150, 158S. S. Chi. 4/ 4A. H. Sa. 2/ 8, 41, 42
    C. S. Chi. 3/ 204, 219S. S. Chi. 9/ 8A. H. Chi. 1/ 65, 90
    C. S. Chi. 6/ 37, 41S. S. Chi. 10/ 15A. H. Chi. 3/ 74, 133
    C. S. Chi. 7/ 67, 131S. S. Chi. 14/ 10A. H. Chi. 6/ 57
    C. S. Chi. 11/ 15S. S. Chi. 15/ 21A. H. Chi. 8/ 131
    C. S. Chi. 12/ 42S. S. Chi. 17/ 44A. H. Chi. 9/ 58, 59
    C. S. Chi. 13/ 157S. S. Chi. 18/ 48A. H. Chi. 10/ 3, 8, 11, 35, 39
    C. S. Chi. 14/ 187, 230, 236S. S. Chi. 19/ 34A. H. Chi. 12/ 25
    C. S. Chi. 15/ 97, 98, 100, 104, 129, 138, 165, 173, 186S. S. Chi. 22/ 53, 54, 74A. H. Chi. 17/ 2
    C. S. Chi. 16/ 60, 121S. S. Chi. 23/ 12A. H. Chi. 19/ 10, 19, 33
    C. S. Chi. 18/ 114S. S. Chi. 37/ 15, 23, 27, 33, 39A. H. Chi. 21/ 60
    C. S. Chi. 19/ 58, 112, 115S. S. Ka. 1/ 64, 83A. H. Ka. 4/ 64
    C. S. Chi. 23/ 196S. S. Ka. 3/ 17A. H. U. 2/ 19, 37, 57, 58
    C. S. Chi. 26/ 20, 96, 100, 199S. S. Ka. 6/ 3, 18A. H. U. 22/ 49, 50, 69
    C. S. Chi. 28/ 149, 166S. S. Ka. 7/ 39A. H. U. 34/ 46
    C. S. Chi. 30/ 90S. S. U. 24/ 35A. H. U. 36/ 66, 67
    C. S. Si. 4/ 13S. S. U. 39/ 188, 190, 219, 240, 245A. H. U. 37/ 38
    C. S. Si. 8/ 18S. S. U. 40/ 35, 37, 44, 48, 62, 67, 93
    S. S. U. 42/ 72, 128
    S. S. U. 55/ 48, 49
    S. S. U. 56/ 14
    S. S. U. 57/ 11

    Ativisha's description in Brihtrayi as Visha Dwaya

    • Shusruta Samhita- S. S. U. 39/ 237
    • Vagbhata- A. H. Chi. 21/ 60, A. H. U. 5/ 19, A.H. U. 39/ 79

    Ativisha's description in Brihtrayi as Madri

    • Vagbhata- A. H. Chi. 6/ 52, A. H. Chi. 8/ 149, A. H. Chi. 9/ 7, A. H. Chi. 10/ 53, A. H. Chi. 12/ 18, A. H. Chi. 15/ 71, A. H. Chi. 17/ 26, A. H. U. 2/ 24, A. H. U. 20/ 15

    Ativisha's description in Brihtrayi as Prativisha

    Atees are also called Patees in Punjab which is equivalent to Prativisha.

     

    • Charaka Samhita- C. S. Chi. 7/ 144, C. S. Chi. 19/ 25
    • Sushruta Samhita- S. S. U. 40/ 44 
    • Vagbhata- A. H. Chi. 9/ 8, 106, A. H. U. 18/ 25, A. H. U. 35/ 47, A. H. U. 37/ 28

    Historical background of Ativisha

    The herb Visha is delineated in Shatapada Brahmana (Tai. Bra. 3/ 7/ 13/ 14). Sayana considered this plant as Vyaapina. Acharya P.V. Sharmaji compared it to a variety of Banaparni (Sarapunkha). However, Sayana’s version of the synonym of Visha i.e., Vishataki indicates that Visha and Ativisha are the same. Charaka denoted this plant only with the name Ativisha. He also mentioned Prativisha twice in his text (C. S. Chi. 7/ 144 & 19/ 22). He described it under Lekhaniya, Arshoghna Vargas, Tikta Skandha, Shirovirechana Dravyas, and many more references are traceable from his text. Sushruta also quoted it as Ativisha only and the Prativisha term is used in the context of Atisara (S. S. U. 40/ 45). There must be two varieties i.e Ativisha and Prativisha. It is clear from the fact that Vagbhata mentioned Visha dvaya (two varieties of Visha) (A. H. U. 39/ 79). Indukara in this context described Visha and Ativisha as Visha dvaya. However, Arunadatta considered Visha as Kakoli. Vagbhata for the first time quoted the terms Ghuneshta (A. H. Ci. 19/ 40), Ghunapriya (A. H. Su. 15/ 33 & A. H. Chi. 9/ 57, A. H. Chi. 16/ 11), and Ghunavallabha (A. H. Ci. 8/ 103, 151) to denote Ativisha. Sargadhara and Bhavamisra described Ativisa in their texts while almost all the Nighantus mentioned it. This herb is famous for its utility in Bala Rogas (pediatric conditions). It is one of the ingredients among Trikarshika and Chaturbhadra according to Shodhala.

    Varieties of Ativisha

    Vagbhata mentioned two varieties (Visha dvaya A. S. Su.12. and A. H. Ut. 39/ 79); Sodhala described three varieties (Shodhala Nighantu Guna Sangraha. 12) and Madanadi Nighantu quoted four varieties.

    • Vagbhata- Ativisha & Visha
    • Shodhala- Shukla (Sweta), Krishna & Aruna varieties.
    • MadananNighantu – Rakta (red tubers), Shweta (white tubers), Krishna (black tubers) & Pita (yellow tubers) varieties.

    Several authors identified Visha dvaya as A. heterophyllum and A. palmatum (Guruprasad Sharma & P. V. Sharma). A. palmatum root is black-colored and hard in texture. Regarding three or four varieties of Ativisha further work is necessary.  It may be one of the adulterants, A. kashmiricum is the third variety as described in the Nighantus, while Delphinium denudatum (Nirvisha) may be the fourth variety.   

     

    Botanically three varieties of Ativisha are observed:

    • Aconitum heterophyllum
    • Aconitum palmatum
    • Aconitum kashmiricum  

    External morphology of Aconitum heterophyllum

    • Habit- Herbaceous perennial plant grows 1 to 1.5 meters.
    • Root- Both taproot and adventitious roots are present. Adventitious roots are swollen to form tubers.
    • Stem- Aerial as well as the underground, the aerial stem is erect, hairy & branched.
    • Leaves- Cauline and Ramal, simple, petiolate, leaf base sheathing.
    • Inflorescence- Raceme with an end flower.
    • Flowers- Bisexual, polysepalous, polypetalous, with numerous stamens, bi to Penta- carpellary syncarpous, superior ovary.
    • Fruit- Etaerio of follicles.
    • Flowering and fruiting time: Rainy – autumn season and onwards: July- September.

    External morphology of Aconitum palmatum

    • Roots- Roots of Aconitum palmatum are biennial, paired, tuberous, conical or cylindric 4- 10 cm long, 0.75- 3 cm thick. 
    • Stem- Erect.
    • Leaves- Leaves of Aconitum palmatum are scattered, up to 10, the lowest usually withered at the time of flowering, glabrous, or the uppermost finely pubescent on the nerves below, petiole slender 4-10 cm long, blade orbicular- cordate to reniform, 3-lobed. 
    • Inflorescence- The inflorescence of Bakuchi is  very loose, raceme, i. e 10-20 cm long. Sepals are bluish or variegated white and blue, uppermost helmet-shaped. Carpels 5, sub contagious in the flower. Follicles are sub contagious or somewhat diverging in the upper part, oblong, obliquely truncated, 2.5- 3 cm long, and 5- 6 mm broad. 
    • Seeds- Seeds of Aconitum palmatum are blackish, obovoid, about 3 mm long, and round in cross-section.

    Distribution of Ativisha

    Ativisha is commonly found in the alpine and subalpine zone of the Himalayas (from Indus to Kumaon) from 6,000 to 12,000 ft. elevation (2,000-4,000 meters).

    The useful part of Ativisha

    Tuberous roots

     

    Obconical or ovoid tuberous roots, sometimes occurring as a pair of mother and daughter tubers. The daughter tuber is bigger being 2 to 6 cm long and up to 1 cm broad in the middle. It ends in a thin tap-like extremity that is sometimes divided. The surface is smooth, slightly curved, and has a yellowish-grey color. The mother tuber is small, shriveled up to 1cm long and 0.5 cm thick, and has a dark grey color. The roots are often crowned with scaly leaf buds.

    Important phytoconstituent of Aconitum heterophyllum

    Atidine is reported from roots (Pelletier S.W, 1956), atisine (Con. J. chem. 1962, 40, 896 & chem. common. 1887, 1360),  hetisine (J. org. chem. 1962, 27, 2782 & chem. Abstr. 1993, 119, 160603C), heteratisine (Tetrahedron Lett. 1964, 669 & Tetrahedron 1973, 29, 3297), Diterpene alkaloids viz., heterophylline, heterophylline & heterophyllidine (Pelletier S.W & Aneja R.,1967): four diterpenes viz., heterophyllisine, hetidine, atidine and hetisinone (Phytochem. 1968, 7, 625; Tetrahedron Lett. 1967, 57, 557 & can 1 chem. 1968, 46, 2635), Atisenol, a new entatisene diterpenoid lactone from roots (Pelletier S W. et al 1982), F-dishydroatisine, hetidine, hetisinone, heteratisine, hetisine, benzylleteratisine (W.I. vol. 1 p. 61, 1985), B-sitosterol, carotene, and beta – isoatisine from rhizomes (CRUH).

    Important phytoconstituent of Aconitum palmatum

    Another non-toxic alkaloid has been isolated from A. palmatum which also occurs in India (Bull. Imp. Inst., Lona. le. cit). It is the oldest aconite drug in use in India, The central indigenous Drug committee in 1901 established its utility as a good bitter tonic, but decided it to be worthless as an antiperiodic (W. I. vol. P. 61, 1985). It is chiefly used in the form of pure white bitter powder. It is frequently adulterated with the insipid and inert tubers of Asparagus sarmentose.

    Recent research on Ativisha

    • Two new diterpenoid alkaloids, heterophyllinine-A (1) and heterophyllinine-B (2), along with two known alkaloids dihydroatisine (3) and lycoctonine (4) were isolated from the roots of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Nisar M, Ahmad M, Wadood N, Lodhi MA, Shaheen F, Choudhary MI. New diterpenoid alkaloids from Aconitum heterophyllum Wall: Selective butyrylcholinestrase inhibitors. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009 Feb; 24 (1): 47- 51.
    • Two new aconitine-type norditerpenoid alkaloids 6- dehydroacetylsepaconitine (1) and 13- hydroxy- appaconitine (2) along with three known norditerpenoid alkaloids lycoctonine, delphatine and lappaconitine were isolated from the roots of the Aconitum heterophylum Wall. These compounds exhibited significant antibacterial activity. Ahmad M, Ahmad W, Ahmad M, Zeeshan M, Obaidullah, Shaheen F. Norditerpenoid alkaloids from the roots of Aconitum heterophylum Wall with antibacterial activity. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2008 Dec; 23 (6): 1018- 22.
    • The immunobiological activity was investigated of certain medicinal plants widely used in the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine for the treatment of chronic infections and immunological disorders. The effect of an ethanolic extract of each drug was studied on delayed-type hypersensitivity, humoral responses to sheep red blood cells, skin allograft rejection, and phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system in mice. Aconitum heterophyllum appeared to stimulate phagocytic function while inhibiting the humoral component of the immune system. Atal CK, Sharma ML, Kaul A, Khajuria A. Immunomodulating agents of plant origin. ; Preliminary screening. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1986 Nov; 18 (2): 133- 41.
    • In the absence of a desired first choice medicinal herb, classical Ayurveda recommends the use of a functionally similar substitute. Post 16th century Ayurvedic texts and lexicons give specific examples of possible substitutes. Here we report a preliminary study of one such Ayurvedic substitution pair: Musta (Cyprus rotundus L., Cyperaceae), a common weed, for the rare Himalayan species, Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. Ex Royle; Ranunculaceae). Observations indicate that Ayurveda may attach more importance to the pharmacological properties of raw drugs than to their botanical classification. Venkatasubramanian P, Kumar SK, Nair VS. Cyperus rotundus, a substitute for Aconitum heterophyllum: Studies on the Ayurvedic concept of Abhava Pratinidhi Dravya (Drug substitution). J Ayurveda into. Med. 2010 Jan; 1 (1): 33- 9.
    • Anti-inflammatory
    • Anti-bacterial
    • Immune- modulatory
    • Antihyperlipidemic
    • Carminative

    Rasa Panchaka of Ativisha

    Rasa (Taste)Katu (pungent), Tikat (bitter)
    Guna (Virtue)Laghu (light), Ruksha (dry)
    Virya (potency)Ushana (hot potency) 
    Vipaka (post-digestion)Katu (pungent)

     

    Prabhava – Visha Hara

    Dosha Karma of Ativisha

    Kapha- Pitta Hara

    Kapha Hara because of Ushna Virya and Katu Vipaka.

    Pitta Hara because of Tikata Rasa.

    Karma (Actions) of Ativisha

    Kasahara, Jwarahara, Deepana, Pachana, Vishaghana, Chardighana, Krimighana

    Prayogarha Vyadhi (Therapeutic indication) of Ativisha

    • Agnimandya
    • Atisara
    • Jwara
    • Ajeerna
    • Kasa
    • Krimi
    • Chardi
    • Visha Roga
    • Bala Roga

    Aamyik Prayog (Therapeutic uses) of Ativisha

    Vishakta (Poisoning):

     

    • Ghee cooked with Ativisha along with the milk of cow, etc. is beneficial as intake or snuff in case of poisoning. Similar is, in effect, cooked with Shweta and Madayantika. (Shusruta Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 1/ 64)
    • The paste of Ativisha taken with honey is efficacious in rat- poisoning. (Shusruta Samhita Kalpa Sthana. 7/ 39)

     

    Bala Roga (Children’s disease): 

     

    • In case of cough, fever, and vomiting Ativisha is given singly with honey or combined with Karkatsharngi and Pippali. (Ashtanga Hridya Uttara Tantra. 2/ 57, Vrinda Madhava. 66/ 10). 
    • Chaturbhadr Avaleha (Bhava Prakasha Chikitsa Sthana. 71. 151), in addition, contains Mustaka.

     

    Atisara (Diarrhea):

     

    • Ativisha Avaleha containing Ativisa along with Bilva, Mocharasa, Lodhra, Dhataki- Puspa, and mango-seed, checks for severe diarrhea. (Bhava Prakasha Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 2/ 148)
    • Liquid gruel processed with Ativisha and Sunthi is efficacious is Ama Atisaara. (Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana. 2/ 22)

     

    Grahani- Roga (IBS):

     

    • In Grahani- Roga, the decoction of Ativisha, Shunthi, and Mustaka is given to digest Ama. (Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 15/ 98)
    • Ankota 3 parts and Ativisha 1 part mixed are taken with water. It checks all abdominal disorders. (Vanga Sena Grahani. 167)

    Matra (Therapeutic administration and dosage) of Ativisha

    • Mool Churna (root powder)- 1- 3 grams per day in a divided dosage
    • Solid extract as tonic 65- 195 mg in terms of 2% alkaloid.
    • Solid extract as anthelmintic 49- 65 mg in terms of 2% alkaloid.
    • Solid extract as anti- periodic 260- 390 mg in terms of 2% alkaloid.    

    Toxicity, antidote, and purification

    Toxicity

     

    Ativisha belongs to the genus of poisonous species and shows the effect of poisoning when used without proper care. Extreme overdoses show mild to moderate poisonings like constipation, dry mouth, and bradycardia but are not fatal. 5-6 gm in a single dose without purification may produce these toxicological effects.

     

    Antidote- Goghrata (Cow’s ghee) or Godugdha (Cow’s milk) orally.

     

    Sodhana (Purification)

     

    Ativiga tuberous roots to be cut into small pieces and kept in Gomaya Kwatha (Liquid cow dung) for 3 hours and then dried in Sunlight.

    Classical reference of Ativisha

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 213

    Synonyms

    विषात्वतिविषा विश्वा श्रृंगी प्रतिविषा अरुणा ।

    शुक्लाकन्दा चोपविषा भड्गुरा घुणवल्लभा ।। 

    Bhava Prakasha Nighantu Haritkyadi Varga- 214

    Properties and action

    विषा सोष्णा कटुस्तिक्ता पाचनी दीपनी हरेत ।

    कफ पित्त अतिसाराम विषकासवमि कृमीन। 

    Dhanwantri Nighantu Guduchyadi Varga, 11

    कटु उष्णा अतिविषा तिक्ता कफपित्तज्वरापहा ।

    आमातीसारकासघ्नी विषश्च छर्दि विनाशिनी ।।

    Kaiydeva Nighantu Aushadi Varga, 1120- 1121

    विषासोष्णा लघुस्तिक्ता दीपनी पाचनी जयेत ।

    कफा पित्तातिसाराम विषकासवमि कृमीन्‌ ।

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga- 135

    कटु उष्णा अतिविषा तिक्ता कफपित्तज्वरापहा ।

    आमातीसारकासघ्नी विषश्च छर्दि विनाशिनी ।।

    Priya Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, 176

    अतिविषा  कटुस्तिक्ता स्रोष्णा दीपनपाचनी ।

    कासातीसार सन्तापश्च छर्दिषु बालभेषजम्‌। 

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga- 136

    Varieties

    त्रिविधा अतिविषा ज्ञेया शुक्ला कृष्णा तथा अरुणा ।

    रसवीर्य विपाकेषु निर्विशेष गुणा च सा।। 

    Raja Nighantu Pipplyadi Varga- 137

    Purification

    दोलायां गोमय क्वाथे पचेदतिविषां त्तत: ।

    सूर्यर्यतापे भवेच्छुष्का योजयेत्‌ तां भिषग्वर: ।।

    Kaideva Nighantu, Aushadhi Varga, 1120- 1121

    विषा सोष्णा लघुस्तिक्ता दीपनी पाचनी जयेत्‌।। 

    कफपित्तातिसारामविषकासवमिकृमीन्‌ ।। 

    Vanga Sena

    सर्व कुक्षि आमय 

    अङ्कोटस्य त्रयो भागा: भागश्च एको अरुणा भवः ।

    तण्डुलोदकसम्पीतः सर्वकुक्ष्यामयापह: ।।

    Vanga Sena

    शिशो: कासज्वर छर्दिषु  

    कासज्वर छर्दिषुभिरर्दितानां समाक्षीकान्व अतिविषाम तथेक्म।     

    Bhava Prakasha Bala Roga Adhikara, 71- 151

    बालानाम ज्वरातिसारे चातुर्भद्वावलेहम। 

    Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana 2

    आम अतिसार 

    दद्यात्सातिविषां पेयां सामि सा अम्लाम सनागरं। 

    Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana 25

    दीपन          

    अतिविषा दीपनीयपाचनी संग्रही सर्वदोषहराणाम्‌। 

    Shusruta Samhita Kalpa Sthana 7/ 39

    मूषकविषे

    प्रात: सातिविषं  कल्क लिहयान्माक्षिकसंयुतम्‌ ।

    Shusruta Samhita Kalpa Sthana 1/ 64

    कुञ्जरादीनां विषजुष्टानां हिते

    तत्र दुग्धे: गवादीनां सर्पि: सातिविषे: श्रृतम्‌।

    Ashtanga Hridya UttaraTantra. 2/ 58

    बालरोगे

    एका वातिविषा कासज्वर च छर्दि रूप द्रुतम। 

    Shodhala

    विषात्र्यं त्रिदोषघ्नम पाचन ग्राहि तिक्तकम्‌।

    बालानां सर्वदा पथ्यं वमिशोधविमर्दनम।। 

    Nighantu Sangraha

    शोफापहा अतिसारघ्नी शुक्लकन्दा च सा स्मृत्ता।

    Dhanwantri Nighantu

    घुणप्रियातिसारघनि बालानां रोगनाशिनी।

    Charaka Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 14- 187

    अर्शे रक्तावरोधकार्थम्‌

    सातिविष कुटजत्वक्‌ फल च सरसा अंजनम मधुयुत्तानि।

    रक्तापहानि दद्यात्‌ पिपासवे तण्डुलजलेन।। 

    Charakaa Samhita Chikitsa Sthana. 19/ 51

    पित्तज अतिसार 

    सक्षौद्रा अतिविषं पिष्ट्वा फल त्वचं। 

    पिबेत्‌ पित्तातिसारघ्नम तण्डलोदकसंयुत्तम। 

    Charaka Samhita Sutra Sthana, 2- 211, Vimana, 8/ 150, Chikitsa. 3/ 214

    Shusruta Samhita Sutra Sthana. 11/ 13, Chikitsa. 4/ 4, Kalpa. 1/ 64

    संहितायामतिविषा |

    Specific Formulation of Ativisha

    • Ativishadi Churna for Kasa , Jwara
    • Mahatiktaka Ghrita for Pittaja Kustha
    • Pushyanaga Churna for Arsha and Atisaara
    • Vasishta Haritaki for Kasa
    • Rodhra Asava for Prameha
    • Madhukadi Ghrita for Arsha and Atisaara
    • Bal Chaturbhadradi Churna for Bala Roga
    • Kutajghan Vati
    • Chandraprabha Vati
    • Khadir Gutika

    Contraindication and side effects of Ativisha

    It is better to avoid the use of Ativisha during pregnancy and lactation. In children’s diseases Ativisha should be used but under medical supervision.

     

    Its overdosage may result in dryness of the mouth and various other symptoms related to Vata dysfunction.

    Suggestive reading regarding Ativisha

    • Ukani MD, Mehta NK, Nanavati DD. Aconitum heterophyllum (ativisha) in Ayurveda. Anc Sci Life. 1996;16(2):166-171.
    • Nagarajan, M., Kuruvilla, G. R., Kumar, K. S., & Venkatasubramanian, P. (2015). Pharmacology of Ativisha, Musta and their substitutes. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine6(2), 121–133. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-9476.146551
    • Verma S, Ojha S, Rashi M. Anti-inflammatory activity of Aconitum heterophyllum on cotton pellet- induced granuloma in rats. J Med Plants Res, 2010; 4(15): 1566-9. 
    • S. John Adams, Gina R. Kuruvilla, K.V. Krishnamurthy, M. Nagarajan, Padma Venkatasubramanian, Pharmacognostic and phytochemical studies on Ayurvedic drugs Ativisha and Musta, Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, Volume 23, Issue 3, 2013, Pages 398-409, ISSN 0102-695X, https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2013005000040.
    • Kour, G.D., Chaubey, S., Singh, D.C., & Tiwari, R.C. (2016). A LITERARY REVIEW ON ATIVISHA (ACONITUM HETEROPHYLLUM WALL EX . ROYLE ): AN IMPORTANT AYURVEDIC DRUG WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO BRIHADTRAYEE AND NIGHANTUS. International journal of research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy, 7, 20-27.
    • Paramanick, Debashish & PARVEEN, NUSHRAT. (2017). A REVIEW ARTICLE ON THE AYURVEDIC/ HERBAL PLANT “ARUNA” (ACONITUM HETEROPHYLLUM). IJAR. Int. J. Adv. Res. 5(2. 319-325. 10.21474/IJAR01/3150.
    • Balaramnavar, V. M., Kaur, M. and Ahuja, A. (2021) “Aconitum heterophyllum-An Overview”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, 33(46A), pp. 242-247. DOI: 10.9734/jp/2021/v33i46A32862.
    • R. Rajakrishnan, A.H. Alfarhan, A.M. Al-Ansari, R. Lekshmi, R. Sreelakshmi, P.B. Benil, Y.-O. Kim, J.-C. Tack, S.W. Na, H.-J. Kim,
    • Therapeutic efficacy of the root tubers of Aconitum heterophyllum and its substitute Cyperus rotundus in the amelioration of pylorus ligation induced ulcerogenic and oxidative damage in rats, Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, Volume 27, Issue 4, 2020, Pages 1124-1129, ISSN 1319-562X, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.025.

    References

    • Agnivesha, Charaka, Dridhabala. In: Charaka Samhita, ed. Vaidya Jadavaji Trikamji Aacharya., editor. Varanasi: Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan; 2009. 
    • Sushruta. In: Sushruta Samhita, Sutra Sthana, ed. Vaidya Jadavji Trikamji Acharya., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005. 
    • Vagbhata. In: Ashtanga Hrudaya, 9th ed. Anna Moreshwar Kunte, Krishnashastri Navarre, Harishastri, editors. Varanasi: Choukhambha Orientalia; 2005.
    • Bhavamishra. In: Bhava Prakasha Nighantu, Haritkyadi Varga 11th ed. part 2. Brahma Shankara Mishra., editor. Varanasi: Choukhambha Bharati Academy; 2009. 
    • Bhavprakasha, commentary by Bulusu Sitaram, forwarded by K.C.Chunekar
    • Sharma PV, Kaideva Nighantu. Aushadhi Varga. Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi; 2006:
    • Tripathi I., Raja Nighantu, Pipplyadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi; 2010
    • Dhanwantri Nighantu, Guduchyadi Varga
    • P.V. Sharma, Priya Nighantu, Shatpushpadi Varga, Chaukhamba Krishnadas Academy; Varanasi.
    • Dr. Gyanendra Pandey, Dravyaguna Vigyana, reprint 2012, Chawkhamba Krishnadas Academy
    • K. Niteshwar Dravyaguna Vigyan, reprint 2017.
    • Dr. J.L.N. Sastry and Dr. B.S. Sastry, Dravyaguna Vigyana, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi.
    • Chakrapanidatta, Chakradatta with the vaidaya Prabha hindi commentary by indra deva tripathi, chaukambha sankrita sansthan, varanasi 2nd Edition, 1994.

    Article Written By: Dr. Sahil Gupta (B.A.M.S., M.H.A.)

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